Glass, pottery and related materials - 277 entries found
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These 17 chapters in a major new survey of OSH examine health and safety issues in various manufacturing industries: achieving safer products; robot system safety design; small companies; welding (ergonomics and occupational hygiene); conventional lathes, cutters and upright drilling machines; surface treatment and metal finishing; industrial photographic film developing; woodworking; automotive industry; road vehicle repair; the electronics and electromechanical workplace; mining industry; metallurgical industry; glass industry; printing; shipbuilding and ship repairing.
In: The Workplace (by Brune D. et al., eds), Scandinavian Science Publisher as, Bakkehaugveien 16, 0873 Oslo, Norway, 1997, Vol.2, p.435-648. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Watkins D.K., Chiazze L., Fryar C.
Historical cohort mortality study of a continuous filament fiberglass manufacturing plant - II. Women and minorities
An historical mortality study was carried out on a cohort of 1074 white women, 130 black women, and 494 black men employed at a continuous filament fibreglass manufacturing plant for a minimum of one year between 1951 and 1991. Compared with national mortality, there were no significant excesses or deficits in mortality by cause, including cancer causes, among white women, with the exception of an increase in motor-vehicle accidents. Similarly, no significant excesses were found among black men; standardized mortality ratios for heart diseases and for all cancers combined were below one.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 1997, Vol.39, No.6, p.548-555. 8 ref.
Chiazze L., Watkins D.K., Fryar C.
Historical cohort mortality study of a continuous filament fiberglass manufacturing plant
In a mortality study of current and former workers at a continuous filament fibreglass manufacturing plant, standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for white men were near or below unity for all causes of death and for all cancer mortality compared with national and local standards. The slight elevation in the SMR for lung cancer among these men was not significant. A case-control study based on 45 lung cancer cases showed that the lung cancer odds ratio among white men exposed to respirable glass fibres was below unity, as were those for exposure to asbestos, respirable silica, and other substances investigated. None of these exposures suggests an increase in lung cancer risk for this population.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 1997, Vol.39, No.5, p.432-441. 15 ref.
Tüchsen F., Jensen M.V., Villadsen E., Lynge E.
Incidence of lung cancer among cobalt-exposed women
Topics: cancer; cobalt; dyes; epidemiologic study; lung cancer; morbidity; mortality; pottery industry; spray coating; women.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1996, Vol.22, No.6, p.444-450. Illus. 25 ref.
Meijers J.M.M, Swaen G.M.H., Slangen J.J.M.
Mortality and lung cancer in ceramic workers in the Netherlands: Preliminary results
A retrospective cohort study in 1794 male ceramic workers in the Netherlands was carried out to analyze the lung cancer risk in relation to crystalline silica exposure and silicosis. They had all been employed for two years or longer in ceramic industries between 1972 and 1982. During a health survey, 124 cases of simple pneumoconiosis were diagnosed. After 14 years of follow-up, 161 deaths had occurred. No increased overall and cause-specific mortality was found in the total group of ceramic workers and a statistically significant cumulative dose-response relation for silica exposure and lung cancer did not emerge. An excess lung cancer mortality appeared among workers with simple pneumoconiosis. The authors conclude that the disease process resulting in silicosis in the ceramic industry carries an increased risk of lung cancer, which is supportive of a nongenotoxic pathway.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 1996, Vol.30, No.1, p.26-30. 27 ref.
Kreiss K., Mroz M.M., Newman L.S., Martyny J., Zhen B.
Machining risk of beryllium disease and sensitization with median exposures below 2µg/m3
The prevalence of beryllium sensitization in relation to work process and beryllium exposure measurements was examined in a beryllia ceramics plant that had operated since 1980. 97.8% of the workforce was interviewed, beryllium sensitization was ascertained with the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation blood test and historical industrial hygiene measurements were reviewed. Of eight beryllium-sensitized employees, six had granulomatous disease on transbronchial lung biopsy. Machinists had a sensitization rate of 14.3% compared to a rate of 1.2% among other employees. Daily weighted average (DWA) estimates of exposure for machining processes also exceeded estimates for other work processes in that time period, with a median DWA of 0.9µg/m3. Machining process DWAs accounted for the majority of DWAs exceeding the 2.0µg/m3 OSHA standard, with 8.1% of machining DWAs above the standard. It is concluded that lowering machining process-related exposures may be important in the lowering of risk of developing beryllium disease.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 1996, Vol.30, No.1, p.16-25. 11 ref.
Milton D.K., Walters M.D., Hammond K., Evans J.S.
Worker exposure to endotoxin, phenolic compounds and formaldehyde in a fiberglass insulation manufacturing plant
Worker exposures in a fibreglass wool insulation manufacturing plant were investigated using area and personal sampling. Both production and maintenance workers were exposed to endotoxin, phenolic compounds and formaldehyde. The greatest potential for exposure was restricted to specific areas of the plant. There was considerable within-area variation, and variability in personal exposures was high. Personal endotoxin exposures were frequently in excess of suggested thresholds for acute respiratory effects. The finding of highly variable exposure within individuals engaged in a continuous and routine manufacturing process has important implications for industrial hygiene practices and for occupational epidemiology.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1996, Vol.57, No.10, p.889-896. 35 ref.
Health and Safety Commission, Ceramics Industry Advisory Committee
Picking up the pieces - Prevention of musculoskeletal disorders in the ceramics industry
This guide outlines the nature and causes of musculoskeletal disorders and provides advice on how to identify and control hazards in three problem areas in the ceramics industry: posture and seating, work-related upper limb disorders, and manual handling. Includes check lists for assessing musculoskeletal problems.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1996. vi, 26p. Illus. 15 ref. Price: GBP 8.50.
Lear J.T., Heagerty A.H.M., Tan B.B., Smith A.G., English J.S.C.
Transient re-emergence of oil of turpentine allergy in the pottery industry
Allergy to oil of turpentine has diminished largely due to the use of cheaper substitutes in many occupations. This study reports 24 cases of hand dermatitis in pottery workers involved in ceramic decoration, namely paintresses, liners, gilders, enamellers and a fine china painter, seen in a 6-month period following a change from Portuguese to Indonesian turpentine, of whom 14 were sensitive to Indonesian turpentine, eight to α-pinene, four to delta-3-carene and two to turpentine peroxides. Turpentine allergy continues to be a problem in the pottery industry and is more common than allergy to the heavy metals of the colours used in ceramic decoration. Reversion to Portuguese turpentine seems to have alleviated the problem.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 1996, Vol.35, No.3, p.169-172. 16 ref.
Health and Safety Commission, Ceramics Industry Advisory Committee
Health surveillance - A ceramics industry booklet
This booklet outlines the legal requirements for health surveillance in the ceramics industry and provides guidance on action to be taken. Includes a listing of potential hazards (harmful substances, noise, repetitive work) along with information on how and where the exposure may occur, possible health effects, and minimum health surveillance requirements.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1996. 19p. 22 ref.
Narukiyo Y., Tsukashima H., Nagoya T.
Case study on dust control measures in mould-making for sanitary ware
Eisei tōki kōjō no zōkei kōtei ni okeru funjin taisaku jirei [in Japanese]
To reduce dust levels in the fabrication of gypsum moulds for sanitary ware, enclosure and exhaust ventilation were applied at several points in the process. Vacuum cleaning was introduced for the removal of foreign matter from moulds and mould cases, in place of the compressed air jets used previously. A numerically controlled grinder was introduced to automate the shaving of moulds. To facilitate cleanup, the floor of the shop was coated with a special resin, cloth mops were replaced by sponge mops and a suction system was added to the rubber squeegees used to collect water. As a result of these improvements, personal exposure to dust was reduced to less than half of the occupational exposure limit at all workplaces tested. (Dust control measures in casting and inspection are described in CIS 96-1786 and 96-1410, respectively.)
Journal of Working Environment, 1 Mar. 1996, Vol.17, No.2, p.2-8. Illus. 24 ref.
Whillock M.J., Pearson A.J., Walker S.G.
Health and Safety Executive
Measurements of the visible and infrared emissions from industrial sources at eight industrial sites in the UK
Measurements were made of optical radiation emissions from sources found in glass manufacture, steel refining and rolling, steel pressing, and alloy refining. There was no evidence to suggest that workers employed at the sites visited were exposed to levels of optical radiation that were likely to cause retinal injury. However, many of the sources produced exposure levels that exceeded the recommended limits set to protect against the induction of cataracts. Use of effective eye protection would eliminate or reduce the potential risk to workers.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1996. iii, 31p. 7 ref. Price: GBP 10.00.
Working conditions and health in jewelleries, watchmaking, electroplating and workshops
Condiciones de trabajo y salud en joyerías, relojerías, platerías y talleres [in Spanish]
Topics: chemical products; cladding; Colombia; electricity; jewellery manufacture; lighting; mechanical hazards; mental workload; physical hazards; physical workload; small enterprises; training manuals; training material; ventilation; watchmaking industry.
Fundación para el Desarrollo del Comercio, Fundecomercio, Santafé de Bogotá, Colombia, 1st ed., 1995. 24p.
Statistics of occupational diseases: Disc diseases in the lumbar spine
Statistik zur Berufskrankheit: Bandscheibenbedingte Erkrankungen der Lendenwirbelsäule [in German]
A statistical survey of disc diseases during 1993 and 1994 in the glass and ceramics industry in Germany. The number of such diseases decreased during 1994.
Keramik und Glas, Oct. 1995, No.4. p.12-13. Illus.
Maizlish N.A., Parra G., Feo O.
Neurobehavioural evaluation of Venezuelan workers exposed to inorganic lead
To assess neurobehavioural effects of low exposure to lead, 43 workers from a lead smelter and 45 workers from a glass factory were evaluated with the World Health Organization neurobehavioural core test battery (NCTB) in a cross-sectional study. Historical blood lead concentrations were used to classify exposure based on current, peak and time-weighted average. Although the exposed workers performed less well than the non-exposed in 10 of 14 response variables, only profile of mood states tension-anxiety, hostility and depression mood scales showed a significantly poorer dose-response relation with blood lead concentration in multiple linear regression models that included age, education and alcohol intake as covariates. The frequency of symptoms of anger, depression, fatigue and joint pain were also significantly increased in the exposed group. This study is consistent with the larger body of neurobehavioural research of low occupational exposure to lead.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 1995, Vol.52, p.408-414. Illus. 27 ref.
Narukiyo Y., Tsukashima H., Nagoya T.
Case study on dust control measures in the casting of sanitary ware
Eisei tōki kōjō no seikei kōtei ni okeru funjin taisaku jirei [in Japanese]
Five dust control measures were undertaken in the casting of sanitary ware with gypsum molds. Vacuum cleaning was introduced for the removal of foreign matter from moulds and castings, in place of the compressed air jets used previously. Mould-release agents came to be applied with brushes, not spray guns. To prevent release of slip during draining of the moulds, the drainage system was completely enclosed. To prevent resuspension of deposited dust, flanged joints and other hard-to-clean places were covered. The capacity of the wet scrubbing system was increased to permit 100% fresh air intake for ventilation, instead of the former recirculating air conditioning system. As a result of these improvements, personal exposure to dust was reduced to less than half of the occupational exposure limit at all workplaces tested, and workers were no longer obliged to wear respirators. (Dust control measures in inspection and mould-making are described in CIS 96-1410 and 96-1787, respectively.)
Journal of Working Environment, 1 July 1995, Vol.16, No.4, p.2-11. Illus. 23 ref.
Fitzgerald D.A., Heagerty A.H.M., English J.S.C.
Cold urticaria as an occupational dermatosis
A 45-year-old female pottery worker presented with a six-month history of intermittent swelling and itching of the hands. This generally occurred during the course of her work as a lithographer, which consisted of manually immersing transfers in a cold solution and applying them to pieces of finished pottery. She had no history of skin disease. Examination was initially unremarkable, but application of an ice cube wrapped in a polyethylene bag to the forearm for two minutes resulted in a pronounced urticaria weal, which persisted for approximately 30min and was accompanied by intense pruritus. Cold urticaria should be considered as a skin disease of potentially occupational origin.
Contact Dermatitis, Apr. 1995, Vol.32, No.4, p.238. 7 ref.
Other common industries
Anden almen industri [in Danish]
A systematic summary of publications and documentation regarding working environment factors and the state of workers' health in the Danish stone, ceramics and glass industry. Some other sectors (such as the instrumentation industry), which do not naturally belong to other groups of industries, are also included in this sector. There are about 42,000 employees in this group, of whom half work in the stone, ceramics and glass industry. The main working environment problems are noise, strain injuries, respiratory diseases and accidents. Other problems are exposure to chemicals and vibration. The incidence of reported occupational diseases and accidents is high. Since this group of industries is heterogeneous, working environments and their problems vary greatly. However, concrete and cement factories, glassworks and the paper industry seem to have the highest exposures to harmful factors.
Arbejdstilsynet, At-Salg, Landskronagade 33, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, 1995. 72p. Price: DKK 100.00 + tax.
Narukiyo Y., Tsukashima H., Nagoya T.
Case study of preventive measures against dust in the greenbody inspection process in sanitary ware plants
Eisei tōki kōjō no namakiji kensa kōtei ni okeru funjin taisaku jirei [in Japanese]
"Greenware" refers to ceramics that have been dried but not glazed or fired. As work is organized in the enterprise described here, the inspection process involves not only the identification of flaws but their correction. Dust generation was reduced by introducing a wet process to remove irregularities and by using vacuum cleaning rather than a compressed air jet to remove dust from the articles. Dust collection was improved by reducing the openings of the booths in which operations were conducted, thus increasing air velocity. Exposure of workers to dust was further reduced by installing equipment at the entrances and exits of the workplace to remove dust from clothing and shoes. Dust exposure was reduced to less than half of the occupational exposure limit, and the wearing of respirators was no longer necessary.
Journal of Science of Labour - Rōdō Kagaku, 10 Sep. 1995, Vol.71, No.9, p.370-382. Illus. 20 ref.
Murata K., Araki S., Yokoyama K., Nomiyama K., Nomiyama H., Tao Y.X., Liu S.J.
Autonomic and central nervous system effects of lead in female glass workers in China
Autonomic and central nervous system functions were measured in 36 female lead-exposed workers and in a nonexposed control group. Measurements included electrocardiographic R-R interval variability (CVRR) and visual and brainstem auditory evoked potentials (VEP and BAEP). All parameters of autonomic nervous system function except heart rate were significantly depressed in the exposed workers compared with the nonexposed group. The exposed group also had more complaints of subjective symptoms. No significant differences in either VEP or BAEP latencies were found between the two groups. It is suggested that autonomic nervous function is more susceptible to lead than are visual and auditory nervous functions; lead affects sympathetic activity more strongly than parasympathetic activity.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1995, Vol.28, No.2, p.233-244. Illus. 47 ref.
Peltier A., Guillemin C., Elcabache J.M., Fabries J.F., Gorner P., Verelle B.
Study of the solubility of lead contained in lead silicates - Aerosols in the cold working shops in crystal glass manufactures
Solubilité du plomb contenu dans les silicates plombifères - Aérosols rencontrés dans les ateliers à froid des cristalleries [in French]
A survey was conducted in the cold working shops of crystal glass manufacturing plants in France. The following measurements were taken: dust sampling (personal or static); inspirable and alveolar fraction sampling; total dust in the workshops; sampling with Marple 298 cascade impactors; mass sampling; biological indicators. The results of these biological and atmospheric measurements merit further study in order to determine whether late signs of lead poisoning are likely to appear in the long term in crystal glass cutters, the lead being released in the body because of the metabolic disturbances that accompany ageing.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 1st Quarter 1995, No.158, Note No.1981-158-95, p.35-45. Illus. 15 ref.
Health and Safety Commission
Control of substances hazardous to health in the production of pottery - Approved Code of Practice
This Approved Code of Practice gives practical guidance with respect to the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 1994 (COSHH) (CIS 95-19) and the Control of Lead at Work Regulations 1980 (CIS 81-134). Contents include: risk assessment; risks associated with silica, lead and other substances; prevention of contamination and disposal of waste; respiratory protective equipment; cleaning of workrooms, fixtures, plant and equipment; removal of scraps and spillages; construction of buildings, floors, benches and equipment; welfare facilities; use and maintenance of control measures; monitoring exposure; health surveillance; information of personnel. Formerly published as COP41 (CIS 91-159).
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1995. iv, 32p. 27 ref. Price: GBP 5.00.
Peltier A., Elcabache J.M., Guillemin C., Aguillon J.P., Le Quang X.
Pollution in jewellery manufacturing workshops
Pollution dans les ateliers de fabrication de bijoux [in French]
This survey, which was carried out in twelve workshops making precious and fancy jewellery, revealed that the same hazards are present in both industrial-scale and artisanal workshops. There appeared to be no cases of average risk levels: the concentrations measured were either extremely low in comparison with exposure limit values, or well in excess of such values on rare occasions. The metals that gave most cause for concern were cadmium, lead and beryllium. The use of asbestos seems to be disappearing from this activity. On the other hand, polishing or coating materials containing high concentrations of crystalline silica of which the user has not been informed are in constant use. Safety data sheets and proper labelling are essential in these workshops, especially for products containing crystalline silica. Such a requirement could be introduced in the context of future regulations to prevent silicosis.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 1994, No.157, Note No.1971-157-94, p.411-422. Illus. 33 ref.
Mall G., Reinhardt A., Rohmert W., Schwarz J.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Scheme for the ergonomic improvement of workplaces of goldsmiths and jewellery manufacturers
Konzeption zur Verbesserung der Ergonomie bei Goldschmiede- und Schmuckarbeitsplätzen [in German]
Jewellery manufacturing workplaces in Germany were ergonomically evaluated by experts and through questionnaire surveys of the employees. An inventory of requirements for the ergonomic design of workplaces was developed. It included improvements in the design of the working surfaces, arm support, seat and artificial lighting as well as of the work organization and sitting posture. A physiotherapeutic training programme was initiated to improve work posture. The economic advantages of health improvement and the close relationship between total quality management and health improvement were used to promote acceptance of ergonomically designed workplaces in the industry.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1994. vi, 117p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Aptel M., Didry G., Duwelz M., Pale S.
Physical workload of glass-workers. Value of physiological measurements
Charge physique de travail de verriers. Intérêt de la métrologie physiologique [in French]
A high incidence of back pain was observed among the glass-workers by the industrial physician of an artistic glass factory. It was also reported by the employees themselves, who rated their job as very difficult. Plant management requested the Physiology and Ergonomics Laboratory of INRS to undertake a study in order to suggest changes in work organization and workplaces. The results of this study illustrate how measurements of physiological parameters that complement ergonomic data may result in their modification. The results also confirmed the findings of the physician and the complaints of the workers.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 1994, No.57, p.11-15. Illus. 7 ref.
Cransac M.C., Filloux J.C., Matez T., Serizay B.
Chemical hazards in the ceramics industry
Le risque chimique dans la céramique [in French]
This report provides a list the chemicals used and occupational diseases encountered in the ceramics industry in Limoges in 1992. It also presents a table listing the various clinical syndromes observed by causal chemical, as well as the corresponding activities in the ceramics industry where these exposures are encountered.
Centre Interservices de Santé et de Médecine du travail en Entreprise (CISME), 31 rue de Médéric, 75832 Paris Cédex 17, France, 1993. 126p. Illus.
Risks of occupational diseases in the Portuguese kaolin-based ceramics industry: Evaluation and prevention
Riscos de doenças profissionais nas cerâmicas portuguesas de barro branco (Avaliação e prevenção) [in Portuguese]
This book is based on a detailed study of occupational diseases in the Portuguese ceramics industry. Part 1 of the study covers: short survey of the ceramics industry in Portugal; statistical analysis applied to the measurement of chemical pollutants in the air; exposure limits in occupational hygiene (chemical substances, noise, heat, illumination); evaluation of the disease hazard (silicosis; diseases due to gases, dusts, metal fumes and heat; deafness; study of illumination); results of the study. Part 2 of the book covers: legislative aspects of the prevention of occupational diseases (in particular, relevant provisions of Directive 89/391/EEC (CIS 89-1401)). Part 3 deals with prevention matters: general measures (at the design stage, ergonomic considerations, the working environment in the kaolin-based ceramics industry, cleanliness and maintenance, personal and collective preventive equipment); prevention in work areas and at work stations (measures applicable to all areas, weighing the raw material, transport and sieving of raw materials, load preparation, milling, filling of bags, presses, ceramics preparation areas).
Caixa Nacional de Seguros de Doenças Profissionais, Lisboa, Portugal, 1993. 127p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Intaranont K., Vanwonterghem K.
Study of the exposure limits in constraining climatic conditions for strenuous tasks: An ergonomic approach
Final report of a 1990-93 research project sponsored by Directorate General XII-G of the Commission of the European Communities and implemented by Chulalongkorn University, Thailand, and CERGO International, Belgium. Anthropometric and work capacity data were collected in an air-conditioned laboratory, after which physiological and environmental measurements were made under real working conditions in five industries (steel, ceramics, agriculture, glass and building construction). Thai workers, both men and women, showed higher heart rates at a given level of oxygen consumption than published values for Europeans. As this is a criterion used to relate wet-bulb globe thermometer (WBGT) readings to the risk of fatigue and heat stress, a set of curves relating WBGT to workload for various work-rest schedules was developed to fit the Thai situation. The field observations revealed ergonomic problems other than those related to temperature (e.g., repetitive work in ceramics packing).
Chulalongkorn University, Laboratory for Ergonomics Research, Department of Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Bangkok 10330, Thailand, Jan. 1994. ix, 183p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Chiazze L., Watkins D.K., Fryar C., Kozono J.
A case-control study of malignant and non-malignant respiratory disease among employees of a fibreglass manufacturing facility - II. Exposure assessment
Follow-up of a study, the results of which were published in the British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Vol. 49, No.5, May 1992, pp.326-331.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1993, Vol.50, No.8, p.717-725. 6 ref. ###
Shtayin Ch., Gilad Y., Laurig V., Shefer A., Langer R., Meser E.
Characterization, identification and diagnosis of the factors responsible for the development of Neuritis Ulnaris among diamond polishers
Ifyun ziuy veivchun hagormim lehitpatchut noyritus ulnaris bemelatshei yahalomim [in Hebrew]
A cohort of 246 polishers was studied. On an average workday, 41% of the polishers had to interrupt their work because of pain in the hands, for periods from 30min. to one week. There was no significant difference between the left and the right hand. The ergonomics of polishing were analyzed; wrist movements were involved in 50% of the polishing cycle. Recommendations are made for the optimum design of work stations.
Israel Institute of Technology, Faculty of Industrial and Management Engineering, Haifa, Israel, IIT Research Report HEIS-1-93, 1993. 28 + 46p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
De Rosa E., Cellini M., Sessa G., Saletti C., Rausa G., Marcuzzo G., Bartolucci G.B.
Biological monitoring of workers exposed to styrene and acetone
In 2 fibrous glass plants the levels of styrene and acetone were measured in the breathing zone of 22 workers on Monday and Thursday. A good correlation existed between the time-weighted average styrene concentrations and the sum of the urinary metabolites. Excretion of mandelic acid also correlated with the styrene exposure levels. No evidence of any interference by acetone with the urinary levels of mandelic acid was found. At constant styrene exposure levels, excretion of both metabolites increased from Monday to Thursday.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1993, Vol.65, Suppl.1, p.S107-S110. Illus. 16 ref.
Hewer H.W., Odoj G.
Harmful substances used in painting china
Gefahrstoff-Situation beim Porzellan-Malen [in German]
Dichloromethane, turpentine, toluene and xylene are the solvents used in applying gold paint to china. The German exposure limits (MAK) for these substances are 360, 560, 380 and 440mg/m3 respectively. The biological threshold limits for dichloromethane, toluene and xylene are 2, 1.7 and 2mg/L (blood). Dichloromethane is a carcinogen. Toluene is a teratogen, xylene and turpentine are allergens. In compliance tests no concentrations in excess of the limits mentioned were found. Protective measures are outlined to keep exposure low.
Keramik und Glas, Sep. 1993, No.3, p.121-126. Illus.
Cenni A., Sciarra G., Sartorelli P., Pappalardo F.
Environmental and biological monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in coke plants and other workplaces
Pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene were used as indicators of the presence of PAHs in a number of workplaces. A coke plant, a pyrite mine, a railway tunnel under construction, and several earthenware factories were investigated. Workers on the site underwent urine tests for PAH metabolites. The coke plant had the highest concentrations of the PAH indicators in the environment and in the workers' urine. Summary in Italian.
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 1993, Vol.84, No.5, p.379-386. 21 ref.
Dosemeci M., Chen J.Q., Hearl F., Chen R.G., McCawley M., Wu Z., McLaughlin J.K., Peng K.L., Chen A.L., Rexing S.H., Blot W.J.
Estimating historical exposure to silica among mine and pottery workers in the People's Republic of China
A retrospective exposure assessment method was developed for use in a study of lung cancer among mine and pottery workers exposed to silica in 20 mines (10 tungsten, 6 iron/copper, 4 tin) and nine pottery factories. Historical exposure data and work histories were collected for 1,668 study subjects. The average total dust concentration was estimated to be 9mg/m3 with a range from 28mg/m3 in earlier years to 3mg/m3 in recent years. Several exposure indices (cumulative dust, average dust, cumulative respirable and thoracic silica dust, exposure-weighted duration and highest/longest exposure) were calculated for each subject.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 1993, Vol.24, No.1, p.55-66. 20 ref.
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)
IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans - Beryllium, cadmium, mercury and exposures in the glass manufacturing industry
This monograph represents the views and expert opinions of an IARC Working Group which met in Lyon, France, 9-16 February 1993. IARC final classifications: beryllium and beryllium compounds and cadmium and cadmium compounds are carcinogenic to humans (Group 1); methylmercury compounds are possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B); metallic mercury and inorganic mercury compounds are not classifiable as to their carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3). In the glass manufacturing industry, the manufacture of art glass, glass containers and pressed ware entails exposures that are probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2A) while occupational exposures in flat-glass and special glass manufacture are not classifiable as to their carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3).
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. 444p. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: CHF 75.00.
Cooper T.C., Gressel M.G., Froehlich P.A., Caplan P.E., Mickelsen R.L., Valiante D., Bost P.
Successful reduction of silica exposures at a sanitary ware pottery
Silica exposures were measured at a sanitary ware pottery. Some of the samples exceeded both NIOSH recommendations and OSHA's permissible exposure level for crystalline silica. Three years later, a follow-up survey found statistically significant reductions in respirable crystalline silica exposures in two of four plant departments, and statistically significant reductions in area concentrations in all four plant departments. These reductions were accomplished through a combination of automating and enclosing the batching system in the slip house and by replacing the mould parting compound with a nonsilica material, altering the method of dry sweeping, cleaning of castings while damp, improving exhaust ventilation at the spray booths, and improved housekeeping.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1993, Vol.54, No.10, p.600-606. Illus. 13 ref.
Jacob T.R., Hadley J.G., Bender J.R., Eastes W.
Airborne glass fiber concentrations during manufacturing operations involving glass wool insulation
Airborne fibre concentrations were measured in a number of different operations involving Owens-Corning Fiberglas insulation products. The operations sampled included those that manufacture or assemble metal building insulation, prefabricated houses, pipe insulation, kitchen ranges, air-handling ducts, and water heaters. Some operations in which pipe insulation and ceiling boards were removed and discarded were also measured. Samples collection and fibre-counting procedures followed National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Method 7400 procedures (phase contrast light microscopy), with some modifications to allow identification of the fibre type. For the removal of pipe insulation and ceiling boards, the mean fibre concentration was 0.29 fibres/cm3. Mean fibre concentrations in manufacturing were 0.02-0.2 fibres/cm3; half or less of the fibres were glass.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1993, Vol.54, No.6, p.320-326. Illus. 20 ref.
Huang J., Shibata E., Takeuchi Y., Okutani H.
Comprehensive health evaluation of workers in the ceramics industry
A cross-sectional study on ceramics workers in the Seto area of Japan was conducted to determine whether there are differences in the morbidity pattern and overall health among workers employed by different sized companies in the ceramics industry. The study population consisted of 3,324 male ceramics workers (age range 40-69) who participated in the Seto occupational health screening programme in 1990. The prevalences of pulmonary diseases (silicosis and tuberculosis) and findings of some non-pulmonary diseases were compared in terms of company size. Both prevalence and multivariate analysis showed that the employees working for smaller companies had worse health overall. High morbidity of silicosis and pulmonary tuberculosis in smaller companies contributed most to this finding.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1993, Vol.50, No.2, p.112-116. 18 ref.
Štětkářová I., Urban P., Procházka B., Lukáš E.
Somatosensory evoked potentials in workers exposed to toluene and styrene
Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) were used to evaluate possible subclinical impairment of the nervous system in 36 rotogravure printers with severe exposure to toluene, 20 workers with severe exposure to styrene in a glass laminate manufacturing plant, and a comparison group of healthy subjects. Exposure was estimated by measurements of toluene and styrene in breathing zone air, hippuric acid in urine in the group exposed to toluene, and urinary mandelic acid in the group exposed to styrene. Peripheral conduction velocities in the arm and leg, and central conduction time after tibial nerve stimulation were decreased in both exposed groups. Prolonged latencies of peripheral and cortical SEPs were found in workers exposed to styrene. Some abnormalities in SEP's at peripheral or spinal and cortical levels were found in both groups. A trend toward increased frequency of abnormal SEPs with duration of exposure of toluene and styrene and alcohol abuse was found. Abnormalities in SEPs in the exposed groups are most probably of multifactorial origin. Central SEP abnormalities in both exposed groups could indicate early signs of subclinical dysfunction at spinal and cortical levels and could be due to toluene or styrene exposure, probably potentiated by alcohol consumption in the group exposed to toluene.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 1993, Vol.50, No.6, p.520-527. Illus. 47 ref.
Tarvainen K., Jolanki R., Forsman-Grönholm L., Estlander T., Pfäffli P., Juntunen J., Kanerva L.
Exposure, skin protection and occupational skin diseases in the glass-fibre-reinforced plastics industry
A total of 100 workers, 86 from the glass-fibre-reinforced plastics (GRP) industry, 11 from polystyrene production and 3 from polyester resin coating manufacture, were examined for occupational skin hazards. The workers had been exposed to many chemicals. Those working in the GRP industry had also been exposed to glass fibre and to dust produced by finishing work, 94% used protective gloves. 22 workers, all employed in the GRP industry, had contracted occupational skin disorders, 6 had allergic and 12 irritant contact dermatitis, 4 workers had an accidental injury caused by a peroxide catalyst, fire, hot air and constant mechanical friction. Allergic dermatoses were due to natural rubber (latex) (4 cases) in protective gloves, phenol-formaldehyde resin (1 case) and cobalt naphthenate (1 case). Irritant hand dermatoses (5 cases) were caused by the combined hazardous effect of unsaturated polyester or vinyl ester resins, organic solvents, glass fibre and dust. Other cases of irritant dermatoses (7 cases) were due to the dust, promoted by mechanical friction of clothes. Skin disorders in the GRP industry were common (26%) but the symptoms were mild.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 1993, Vol.29, No.3, p.119-127. Illus. 45 ref.
Occupational hazards in the manufacturing of ceramic products - Report on the current situation
Riesgos profesionales en fabricación de productos cerámicos - Informe de situación [in Spanish]
A survey was conducted of occupational hazards among the approx. 40,000 workers (1989 data) in the Spanish ceramics manufacturing industry. This report covers: characteristics of the sector (number and distribution of workers, technology, accident statistics); definition and aims of the study (risk maps); methods used (analysis of the manufacturing process, description of the study sample, evaluation, data collection and analysis); results (general data; fire prevention; electrical safety; compressed air; materials movement; risks connected with work processes); conclusions and proposals for prevention. In annex: health risks due to the work environment; questionnaires used in the study.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1992. 227p. Illus.
Health and Safety Commission, Ceramics Industry Advisory Committee
COSHH - A guide to assessment
Contents of this guide devoted to COSHH (CIS 89-1092) as it is applied in the ceramics industry: employer's responsibilities under the COSHH Regulations; persons competent to make an assessment; identification of hazardous substances and their adverse health effects; occupational exposure limits; product information; making an assessment; deciding on measures to prevent exposure or control the risk; record keeping; information of personnel.
HSE Information Centre, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, 1992. 15p. Illus. 9 ref.
French Society of Occupational Medicine and Hygiene - Meetings of 14 Jan., 11 Feb., 10 Mar. and 14 Apr. 1992
Société de médecine et d'hygiène du travail - Séances du 14 janvier, 11 février, 10 mars et 14 avril 1992 [in French]
Topics of papers presented at the meetings of the French Society of Occupational Medicine and Hygiene (France, 14 Jan., 11 Feb., 10 Mar., 14 Apr. 1992): ligament hyperlaxity and work aptitude; respiratory diseases among jewellers; the industrial physician and the employment of handicapped workers in France (preliminary results of a survey); rhinitis and asthma due to latex are compensable occupational diseases in France; assistance provided to the industrial physician in France to promote the employment of handicapped workers; two cases of occupational asthma due to Chloramine T; an accident due to carelessness and caused by the crushing of a worker between two trucks in a garage; alertness in relation to work among interns on call; risk assessment of a new activity: the removal of graffiti; feasibility study of an olfactometry test in occupational medicine.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1992, Vol.53, No.7, p.645-664.
Health and Safety Commission, Ceramics Industry Advisory Committee
Lead - A guide to assessment
This booklet explains the dangers of lead and using a series of questions and answers outlines how to make an assessment of the lead hazard in pottery workshops. Topics include: lead in glazes and colours; health hazards; employer's responsibilities; exposure evaluation; air sampling; blood tests; information of personnel. Methods to prevent or control exposure are also outlined.
HSE Information Centre, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, Oct. 1992. 12p. Illus. 13 ref.
Ceramics Industry Advisory Committee
Silica and lead: Control of exposure in the pottery industry
Contents of this guidance note: legislation and exposure limits for silica and lead; requirements for hazard assessment under the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 1988 (CIS 89-1092); recommended designs for local exhaust ventilation systems; design guidelines for local exhaust ventilation for processes for which specific designs have not been developed; significant factors in controlling exposure; examination and maintenance of control measures. Appendices include summaries of the main sources of silica dust and lead.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1992. vi, 32p. Illus. 30 ref. Price: GBP 6.00.
Prescott E., Netterstrøm B., Faber J., Hegedüs L., Suadicani P., Christensen J.M.
Effect of occupational exposure to cobalt blue dyes on the thyroid volume and function of female plate painters
The effect of industrial cobalt exposure on thyroid volume and function was determined for 61 female plate painters exposed to cobalt blue dyes in two Danish porcelain factories and 48 unexposed referents. Thyroid volume was determined by ultrasonography. The cobalt blue dyes were used in one of two forms, cobalt aluminate (insoluble) and cobalt-zinc silicate (semisoluble). Only the subjects exposed to semisoluble cobalt had a significantly increased urinary cobalt content (1.17µg.mmol-1 versus 0.13µg.mmol-1, p<0.0001). These subjects also had increased levels of serum thyroxine (T4) and free thyroxine (FT4I) (p=0.0001 and 0.0029, respectively) unaltered serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and marginally reduced 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3), whereas thyroid volume tended to be lower (p=0.14). The group exposed to insoluble cobalt did not differ significantly in any thyroid-related parameters. No correlation between urinary cobalt and FT4I or thyroid volume was found. The study demonstrates an effect of cobalt on thyroid hormone metabolism.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 1992, Vol.18, No.2, p.101-104. 17 ref.
Ceramics Industry Advisory Committee
Cleaning workrooms - A ceramics industry booklet
Training booklet on good techniques for the cleaning of workrooms in the ceramics industry, primarily to avoid exposure to silicogenic dust and to lead.
HSE Information Centre, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, 1992. 11p. Illus. 5 ref. Free.
Nemery B., Casier P., Roosels D., Lahaye D., Demedts M.
Survey of cobalt exposure and respiratory health in diamond polishers
A total of 194 workers from 10 diamond polishing workshops and 59 control workers from three other workshops in the diamond industry were studied. Cobalt exposure was assessed by air sampling, both area and personal, and by measuring urinary cobalt concentration. The highest exposure category was still below the present threshold limit value for cobalt (50µg/m3). Spirometry showed that indices of ventilatory function (forced vital capacity (FVC) and one second forced expiratory volume (FEV)) were significantly lower in the group with the highest exposure to cobalt. Results suggest that, during diamond polishing, exposure to cobalt at levels below the current threshold limit value is associated, on a group basis, with measurable effects on lung function parameters. The relationship between these cross-sectional epidemiological findings and the occurrence of overt lung disease in diamond polishers remains to be established.
American Review of Respiratory Disease, Mar. 1992, Vol.145, No.3, p.610-616. Illus. 27 ref.
Chen J., McLaughlin J.K., Zhang J.Y., Stone B.J., Luo J., Chen R.A., Dosemeci M., Rexing S.H., Wu Z., Hearl F.J., McCawley M.A., Blot W.J.
Mortality among dust-exposed Chinese mine and pottery workers
A cohort study of 68,000 persons employed from 1972-74 in Chinese metal mines and pottery factories was conducted to evaluate cancer mortality and other diseases among workers exposed to silica and other dusts. A follow-up of subjects through 1989 revealed 6,192 deaths, a number close to that expected based on Chinese national mortality rates. There was, however, a nearly six-fold increase in deaths from pulmonary heart disease and a 48% excess of mortality from nonmalignant respiratory diseases, primarily because of a more than 30-fold excess of pneumoconiosis. Pulmonary heart disease and non-cancerous respiratory disease rates rose in proportion to dust exposure. Cancer mortality overall was not increased among the miners or pottery workers. There was no increased risk of lung cancer, except among tin miners, and trends in risk of lung cancer with increasing level of dust exposure were not significant. Risks of lung cancer were 22% higher among workers with than without silicosis.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Mar. 1992, Vol.34, No.3, p.311-316. 20 ref.
Health and Safety Commission - Ceramics Industry Advisory Committee
Part 1 of this booklet presents a brief guide to the requirements for controlling noise at work under the Noise at Work Regulations (CIS 90-21) and outlines hazards of exposure to high noise levels; duties of employers to assess noise exposure, reduce noise levels, and provide information and hearing protectors to employees; duties of workers and machine makers. Part 2 presents specific information relating to the ceramics industry and suggests possible solutions for noise reduction and hearing protection for various processes.
Health and Safety Executive, Library and Information Services, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, 1992. 15p. Illus. 8 ref.
Health and Safety Commission - Ceramics Industry Advisory Committee
This booklet advises on the effects that the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 1988 (COSHH) have had on the role of the "works inspector" in the pottery industry. Using a series of questions and answers, the role of the "appointed person" is outlined along with the qualities needed to fill such a post. The kind of questions an appointed person will need to ask in order to carry out his/her job are listed and advice is given on training.
Health and Safety Executive, Library and Information Services, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, 1992. 23p. 5 ref.
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