Electronics industry - 262 entries found
Your search criteria are
Savin B.M., Nikonova K.V., Lobanova E.A., Sadčikova M.N., Lebed' E.K.
New facts in the standardisation of radiofrequency microwave energies
Novoe v normirovanii ėlektromagnitnyh izlučenij mikrovolnovogo diapazona [in Russian]
In 10 electronic and radio plants, the state of health of 1015 workers was determined and ambient levels of radiofrequency (300MHz-300GHz) radiation were measured. In laboratory experiments, 1160 animals of various species were exposed to different power densities for different periods. These studies confirmed the effectiveness of the existing MAC (1W/cm2) and showed a relation of biological effects to the intensity and duration of microwave irradiation. The maximum allowable value for the density of radiation energy flux is determined on the basis of the permissible level of energy load on the body (W) and the length of exposure (T): W=200µW-h/cm2 for all kinds of radiation except that from rotating and scanning antennas, for which W=2000µW-h/cm2.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Mar. 1983, No.3, p.1-4. 7 ref.
Potential occupational health hazards in the microelectronics industry
The materials used in the semiconductor manufacturing process - solvents, acids, arsenic, dopant gases such as arsine, phosphine and diborane - are documented on the basis of information obtained from 42 companies, including many of the major companies, in California. The types and quantities used in recent years are given, and the properties of a number of poisonous gases are summarised. The question of cylinder storage is discussed. Further studies on the health and safety of microelectronics workers are necessary for this new and little known industry.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1 Feb. 1983, Vol.9, No.1, p.42-46. 10 ref.
Taguchi T., Suzuki S.
Health effects of ferrite and the raw materials dust
42 workers manufacturing ferrite cores for television tubes and 33 controls were studied. 19 of them were exposed to a mean concentration of 9mg/m3 of a mixture of ferric, zinc, magnesium oxides and manganese carbonate, and 16 of them to 3mg/m3 spinelled (cubically crystallised) ferrite dust. X-rays showed small round opacities in 4 of 33 subjects exposed for ≥5 years. Exposed workers had significantly higher rates of coughing, respiratory disease, and hospital visits than controls.
Industrial Health, 1983, Vol.21, No.1, p.1-9. 23 ref.
Stevenson C.J., Morgan P.R.
Investigation and prevention of chromate dermatitis in colour television manufacture
The manufacturing process, which involves handling of "phosphors" (potentially fluorescent materials, not related to phosphorus, nor active as skin irritants) incorporated in polyvinyl alcohol, and ammonium dichromate, is described. 20 cases of occupational dermatitis occurred, the major cause of which was sensitivity to ammonium dichromate. Steps taken to minimise exposure by improved technology are described. No new cases have been reported since the changes were put into effect in 1976.
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1983, Vol.33, No.1, p.19-20. 3 ref.
Contact allergy to colophony in soldering flux
3 case reports are briefly described. Aspects discussed: the soldering process, colophony (rosin) production, and its use in the electronics industry. In spite of increasing automation, much soldering work is still done by hand.
Contact Dermatitis, May 1983, Vol.9, No.3, p.205-207. 9 ref.
Integrated safety systems: an example
Sécurité intégrée: un exemple [in French]
Description of safety measures in an electronics factory producing integrated circuits, memories and microprocessors. Potential hazards were considered from the beginning in the design of the plant, which permitted integration of safety, health and emergency systems with production operations. Product flow is monitored. The atmosphere is monitored with fixed and portable equipment. An automatic fire detection system is present. There is a central monitoring station for the distribution systems for electricity and fluids, for the air conditioning and for an acid-treatment plant. Workers are under individual medical supervision. Waste disposal is included in the safety system, as are the training and information of personnel by safety officers.
Promosafe, Mar. 1983, Vol.10, No.66, p.11-14. Illus.
(Institut national de recherche et de sécurité)
Boranes [in French]
Uses, physical and chemical properties of diborane, pentaborane and decaborane, storage, method of detection and determination in air, fire hazards, pathology and toxicology (effects on the lung, central nervous system and mucous membranes; acute and chronic toxicity in animals and man; American (ACGIH) TLVs: 0.1, 0.01 and 0.3mg/m3, respectively). French regulations on occupational health and safety and neighbourhood protection are mentioned, as are French and international transport regulations. Technical and medical recommendations are offered.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd quarter 1983, No.112, p.445-448. 15 ref.
Is it necessary to subject clean-room personnel to special medical surveillance? A survey conducted on 32 persons in the electronics industry
Faut-il soumettre le personnel travaillant en salle blanche à une surveillance médicale spéciale ? Enquête réalisée dans le secteur électronique sur 32 personnes [in French]
After a description of clean rooms (laboratories with air conditioning, constant temperature, low humidity and a high degree of air purification), this M.D. thesis reviews the technical aspects of air conditioning and definitions of thermal comfort before presenting the results of a survey of 32 persons working in clean rooms in the electronics industry. Pathological states due to air conditioning were found: allergies, dryness of mucous membranes, headaches and circulatory disorders. The literature on air-conditioner disease is reviewed.
Université de Paris VII, Faculté de médecine Xavier-Bichat, Paris, France, 1983. 73p. 75 ref.
Morel C., Reynier M., Falcy M., Protois J.C.
French National Research and Safety Institute (Institut national de recherche et de sécurité)
Hydrogène phosphoré [in French]
Synonyms, uses, industrial operations likely to set free phosphine, physical and chemical properties, methods of detection and determination in air, fire hazards (highly flammable gas), pathology and toxicology (experimental toxicity in rats, toxicity for humans: massive inhalation of the gas may provoke neurological and respiratory problems; symptoms caused by inhalation of lower concentrations; American TLV (ACIGH): 0.3ppm). Information on French regulations concerning health and safety at work and on French and international regulations concerning transport. Technical and medical recommendations.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st quarter 1983, No.110, p.137-140. 16 ref.
Nečaeva E.N., Berliner E.G., Dubejkovskaja L.S., Kuz'minskaja G.N., Frolova A.D., Černyh L.V.
Toxicological and hygienic characteristics of barium-based ceramics used in the radio industry
Toksikologo-gigieničeskaja harakteristika radiokeramičeskih materialov na osnove barija [in Russian]
Industrial hygiene surveys showed that workplace air in factories manufacturing barium-based ceramics for the electonics industry was contaminated with dust containing barium at levels above the MAC. Toxicological experiments showed that the biological activity of the ceramics was equivalent to the activity of mechanical mixtures of their components, and was determined by their barium content. The effect of the barium was not affected by the presence of other metals. An MAC of 0.5mg/m3 (as barium) is recommended for barium titanate, barium titanate-zirconate, barium tetratitanate, barium-calcium titanate and barium-aluminium titanate. The safety of working conditions would be improved by mechanisation of operations which are now performed manually during the servicing of crushing and grinding equipment.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Sep. 1982, No.9, p.10-14. 7 ref.
Fedoseeva N.M., Frolova A.D., Dubejkovskaja L.S., Berliner E.G., Minkina N.A.
Toxicological and hygienic evaluation of glass-ceramic cement
Toksikologo-gigieničeskaja ocenka steklokristalličeskogo cementa [in Russian]
Glass-ceramic cements are mixtures containing red lead which are used widely in the manufacture of television sets. LD50, LD16 and LD84 values were lower for cement dust and for a dust mixture representing the components of the cement than they were for pure red lead, which suggests that other components have toxic effects which are additive with those of red lead. However, the effect of cement dust administration on the internal organs of rats and mice was indistinguishable from that of lead; no marked fibrogenic action was observed. Thus, glass-ceramic cement dust can be treated as an inorganic lead compound for regulatory purposes. A MAC of 0.01mg/m3 and an average 8-hour exposure limit of 0.007mg/m3 (as lead) are recommended.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Aug. 1982, No.8, p.51-53. 2 ref.
Raymond L., Hahn K., Solook J.
Prevention of inhalation lung injury in microcomputer technology
Aspects discussed are: exhaust hoods; silicon wafer production; use of dopants; respiratory protection; hazardous substances used liable to cause lung damage; hand soldering; industrial hygiene measurements. Recommendations for protection of workers are: workers' education; health/safety committee reporting to a top manager; walk-through inspections; industrial hygiene, toxicology and fire safety consultation; periodic checks on respiratory protection and eye irrigation equipment and alarms, evacuation and other procedures; medical monitoring; prohibition of smoking where toxic agents are handled, and its discouragement elsewhere.
Medical Bulletin, Winter 1982, Vol.42, No.2-3, p.91-105. Illus. 13 ref.
Nethercott J.R., Albers J., Guirguis S., Ching G., Hofstader S., From L.
Erythema multiforme exudativum linked to the manufacture of printed circuit boards
Report of 4 cases of erythema multiforme major (Stevens-Johnson syndrome) in men working in a factory producing printed circuit boards and having exposure to palladium chloride, copper sulfate, formaldehyde, expoxy-fibreglass, lead, trichloroethylene and ammoniumm persulfate. Signs and symptoms developed after 6-12 weeks of exposure. There was liver involvement in 3 cases. The manufacturing processes, clinical findings and investigational procedures are described. On the basis of positive epicutaneous tests in 2 of the 4 workers, formaldehyde is presumed to be the cause of the reactions.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 1982, Vol.8, No.5, p.314-322. Illus. 28 ref.
Two cases of berylliosis
A propos de deux cas de bérylliose [in French]
This medical thesis covers: general information on beryllium; physical and chemical properties; extraction techniques, industrial uses, review of beryllium epidemiology, presentation of 2 cases of pulmonary berylliosis (one due to the inhalation of airborne beryllium dust and the other following work in a shop manufacturing and machining copper-beryllium alloy tubes). Review of the literature on this occupational disease: experimental lesions; immunological mechanisms; research on the carcinogenic action of beryllium; clinical features of acute and chronic poisoning; treatment; prevention; compensation in France.
Université de Paris VI, Faculté de médecine Broussais-Hôtel-Dieu, Paris, France, 1982. 65p. 87 ref.
Cresci A., Pannelli F., La Rosa F., Riccioni R., Corvatta G.
Environmental hazards in a factory making electronic musical instruments
Fattori di nocività ambientale in uno stabilimento per la produzione di strumenti musicali elettronici [in Italian]
Aspects of occupational hygiene covered: respirable dust; gases and vapours of organic solvents; welding fumes; noise levels; microclimate; lighting. 284 workers answered a questionnaire relating to these subjects and to other complaints about working conditions. Their answers were compared with results of environmental tests. Though none of the measured values exceeded TLV's, more than 50% of the workers complained about respirable dust, vibration, fatigue, repetitive and monotonous work, sleepiness, boredom and overwork.
Rivista di medicina del lavoro ed igiene industriale, Jan.-Mar. 1981, Vol.5, p.21-39. Illus. 24 ref.
Skorobogatova A.M., Tarasova G.M., Čumakov G.F.
Assessment of cardiovascular function in workers exposed to various air-ionisation conditions
Ocenka funkcional'nogo sostojanija serdečno-sosudistoj sistemy u rabotajuščih v uslovijah različnogo režima aėroionizacii [in Russian]
Pulse rate, blood pressure, and 7 other indicators of cardiovascular system performance were determined in 60 women who fabricated microelectronic circuits in clean rooms. 30 of the women were tested before and after a shift in a clean room with a normal air supply; the other 30 were tested before and after a shift in a room with air ions added to the air supply. The subjects working under normal conditions showed poor cardiovascular response to stress in comparison with the subjects exposed to air ions. Thus, the air-purification systems of clean rooms deprive the air of a physiologically optimal concentration of air ions; these can be replaced by appropriate devices. Optimal levels are: 500-6000 positive ions/cm3 and 5000-6000 negative ions/cm3, with the ratio of positive to negative ions being 0.9-1.2.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Nov. 1981, No.11, p.18-21. 13 ref.
Nikonova K.V., Hramova N.D., Sokolova I.P., Lebed' E.K., Syčeva N.A., Marčenko B.S.
Occupational hygiene assessment of the conditions prevailing at work with ultra-high-frequency electromagnetic radiation sources
K gigieničeskoj ocenke uslovij truda pri rabotah s istočnikami ėlektromagnitnyh izlučenij sverhvysokočastotnogo diapazona [in Russian]
Power density measurements were carried out in 22 plants where workers manufacturing electronic equipment were exposed to this type of radiation. At 96% of the workplaces studied the power density did not exceed 5µW/cm2. It is known, however, that work involving the use of certain ultra-high-frequency equipment (magnetrons, klystrons) with anode voltages > 10-12kV may expose to much higher power densities. Moreover, the workplace air may be polluted by exhaust gases, ozone, nitrogen oxides and solvent vapours. There is a need for a better metrological approach to assess more correctly the radiation exposure of electronic workers.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Mar. 1981, No.3, p.1-5. 11 ref.
Hawkinson T.E., Barber D.E.
The industrial hygiene significance of small air ions
An ion mobility discriminator and analyser was used to survey small air ion levels at an electronic assembly production facility in response to symptoms of unknown origin which were common both to psychogenic and ion imbalance illnesses. The positive to negative charge ratio was 1.35 in outside air, 1.21 in office areas and 1.06 in problem production areas. The ion concentration was increased by 10-40% above outside levels in areas where electrostatic precipitators or ion sources were present. Reductions in ion levels were found in areas with relative humidity ≤5%. Ion concentrations were also lower in a laminar flow room, which had high-efficiency particulate filters, and the charge ratio changed to 0.55. No clear-cut association between ion concentration or charge ratio and illness was found.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1981, Vol.42, No.10, p.759-762. Illus. 16 ref.
Proceedings of the US-Finnish joint symposium on occupational safety and health and the third annual NIOSH scientific symposium
23 (of a total of 47) of the papers presented at this joint US-Finnish symposium (Cincinnati, Ohio, USA, Oct. 1980) are reproduced in 5 sections entitled: general aspects of occupational health; neurotoxicology; reproductive effects; safety; epidemiology.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1981, Vol.7, No.4, p.166. 438 ref.
Inspection lighting in the electronics industry
The lighting for visual inspection of machine-soldered printed circuits is very difficult, as small details of each soldered connection must be made visible without disturbing reflections. After some basic considerations on the lighting scheme for this task, a new luminaire is presented. It has an asymmetrical light distribution so that it can be placed to the side of the worker in such a position as to avoid producing specular reflection in the work piece and yet throws enough light onto it.
International Lighting Review, 1981, Vol.32, No.2, p.46-47. Illus. 3 ref.
Rycroft R.J.G., Smith W.D.L.
Low humidity occupational dermatoses.
Two situations are reported. The first involved 8 men installing a telephone exchange in a new building, the second 4 women at a large electrical and electronics company. Working conditions and clinical findings are described. In both cases of the eczema was low relative humidity of the working environment. Differential diagnosis is discussed.
Contact Dermatitis, Dec. 1980, Vol.6, No.7, p.488-492. 6 ref.
Data for establishing a TLV for concentrations of gallium arsenide in workplace air
Materialy po obosnovaniju PDK arsenida gallija v vozduhe rabočej zony [in Russian]
Report on animal experiments with gallium arsenide (GaAs) dust. The acute effect thresholds were 152.5mg/m3 (inhalation), and 7,000mg/m3 (intragastric administration). No irritant effect on skin was observed. Retention coefficient: 5.2. A 4-month exposure to 12mg/m3 induced significant changes in rectal temnperature and physiological thresholds, and an increase in body weight. Erythrocyte count increased after 2-month exposure, but decreased progressively after 3 months. Recommended TLV for GaAs dust: 2mg/m3.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Mar. 1980, No.3, p.45.
Hemminki K., Niemi M.L., Koskinen K., Vainio H.
Spontaneous abortions among women employed in the metal industry in Finland.
From union files and hospital discharge records, spontaneous abortions were analysed among Finnish metal workers between 1973 and 1976 (35.000 women). Among these, 195 spontaneous abortions were recorded. The ratio was significantly higher than the corresponding ratio for all Finnish women. A particularly high-risk industry appeared to be the production of radios, television sets, and their components. Exposure to solder fumes (from colophony flux) was suggested to explain the increased risk.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 1980, Vol.47, No.1, p.53-60. Illus. 16 ref.
Kumar S., Scaife W.G.S.
A precision task, posture, and strain.
Study of seated women operatives using a stereoscopic microscope for the threading of core memory arrays for digital computers. Simultaneous photographs were taken from the back, side, and from above the subject for postural analysis. Electromyography was employed to monitor the activity of the erector spinae of the neck and back. The relative positions of seat, work surface, and microscope placed very narrow constraints on the posture of operatives. A significant but variable level of prolonged muscle activity was required to maintain the working posture they assumed. It is suggested that a combination of these factors could account for the incidence of low back pain and pain in the neck and shoulders reported by many operatives. An adjustable working setup is proposed for such a task which, by reducing the postural stresses, may decrease the incidence of cervical and lumar pain syndrome.
Journal of Safety Research, Spring 1979, Vol.11, No.1, p.28-36. Illus. 19 ref.
Safety in electronic equipment production
Ohrana truda v radio- i ėlektronnoj promyšlennosti [in Russian]
Contents: Soviet safety and health legislation; work and workplace design; accident prevention; in-plant safety organisation; electrical safety, protection against electromagnetic fields and static electricity; safety measures for materials handling and transport; workplace hygiene; noise, vibration and ultrasound protection; workplace lighting; fire prevention, fire fighting measures and organisation; safety in manufacture of electronic components, treatment and coating of metal surfaces, assembly and testing of manufactured products.
Izdatel'stvo "Ėnergija", šljuzovaja nab. 10, 113114 Moskva M-114, USSR, 1979. 208p. Illus. 35 ref. Price: Rbl.0.50.
Spiridonova V.S., Šabalina L.P.
Experimental study of lithium niobate and tantalate toxicity
Ėksperimental'noe issledovanie toksičnosti niobata i tantalata litija [in Russian]
In rat and mice, the compounds had low toxicity and were only mildly fibrogenic. They were not absorbed by the skin. A TLV of approx. 10mg/m3 is recommended.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, June 1979, No.6, p.49-50. 3 ref.
Ishihara N., Ikeda M.
Effects of solvents and solutes on the percutaneous absorption of m-dinitrobenzene.
Following a case of intoxication in electronic components production, a survey of the exposed workers and skin application experiments with guinea pigs were carried out using m-dinitrobenzene dissolved in a mixture of ethylene and diethylene glycol and ammonium sebacate. With a concentration of ethylene glycol over 77,5%, the solution produced methaemoglobinaemia in guinea pigs. Replacement of ammonium sebacate with diammonium salt of adipic acid or malonic acid also made the formulation capable of methaemoglobin formation. All of the formulations did not provoke skin irritation in guinea pigs. The most plausible explanation of the effects observed is water impregnation of the stratum corneum by ethylene glycol which is more hygroscopic.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Sep. 1979, Vol.44, No.2, p.91-98. 19 ref.
Karpov B.D., Kovšilo V.E.
Occupational health manual
Spravočnik po gigiene truda [in Russian]
Compendium of contributions from several authors: (Part 1) organisation of worker health protection in the USSR and tasks of hygienist practitioners; microclimate; electromagnetic fields; ionising radiation and radioactive substances; vibration and noise; ultrasound and infrasound; lasers; dust; carcinogens; ventilation; lighting; workplace design and layout; personal protective equipment; (Part 2) occupational hygiene in mining and quarrying, iron and steel industry, non-ferrous metals industry, machinery industry, petroleum industry, manufacture of construction materials, building industry, sea and inland waterway transport, electronics, plastics, rubber, synthetic fibres, and textile industry, agriculture and livestock rearing.
Izdatel'stvo "Medicina", ul. Nekrasova 10, 191104 Leningrad, USSR, 1979. 446p. 156 ref. Price: Rbl.2.50.
Burge P.S., Perks W.H., O'Brien I.M., Burge A., Hawkins R., Brown D., Green M.
Occupational asthma in an electronics factory: A case control study to evaluate aetiological factors.
(See also CIS 79-795 and 79-796). 58 workers with occupational asthma were studied. The period of sensitisation ranged from 1-23 years. They were compared with 48 controls without asthma. The asthmatic workers had significantly lower forced expiratory volume (FEV1) values and more than twice as much sickness absence as controls. The FEV1 fell by more than 10% over a work shift in 33% of the asthmatic cases and in 5% of controls. Both the exposed workers and controls had significantly elevated total IgM levels.
Thorax, June 1979, Vol.34, No.3, p.300-307. Illus. 6 ref.
Five case reports are given in which workers at an electronics factory using a cyanocrylate glue displayed irritant dermatitis as a result of vaporisation of the monomer under conditions of low relative humidity. The composition of the glue is given. When the humidity of the working environment was raised above 55% no further outbreaks occurred.
Contact Dermatitis, May 1979, Vol.5, No.3, p.165-167. 1 ref.
Perks W.H., Burge P.S., Rehahn M., Green M.
Work-related respiratory disease in employees leaving an electronics factory.
Examination of the records of employees leaving an electronics factory over 3 1/2 years showed that a significantly larger proportion left the shop floor (where soldering using flux containing colophony took place) because of ill health than those in unexposed areas. The difference was largely due to work-related respiratory disorders in the solderers. There was also increased sickness certification due to respiratory illness in exposed workers. The authors conclude that occupational respiratory disease is an important cause of morbidity and loss of employment in the factory surveyed and that the fact that solder flux asthma was for long unrecognised at this factory suggests that other factories producing electronics equipment may be similarly affected.
Thorax, Feb. 1979, Vol.34, No.1, p.19-22. Illus. 6 ref.
Burge P.S., Perks W., O'Brien I.M., Hawkins R., Green M.
Occupational asthma in an electronics factory.
Workers in a modern electronic factory were surveyed by questionnaire and lung function tests. Of those exposed to solder flux fumes 22% had work-related breathlessness or wheeze or both, and a lower FEV1 and FVC than unexposed workers. Work-related rhinitis was also present in 22% of exposed workers. The most likely cause of these disorders is sensitivity to colophony fumes released from solder flux during soldering, although levels of solder flux fume (mean 0.036mg/m3) were below the threshold limit value (0.1mg/m3) during the survey.
Thorax, Feb. 1979, Vol.34, No.1, p.13-18. Illus. 7 ref.
Microscope work - II. An ergonomic study of microscope work in the electronics industry
Mikroskoparbete - II. En ergonomisk studie av mikroskoparbete på en elektronisk industri [in Swedish]
Report on a study carried out following complaints made by microscope workers regarding their work posture and the layout, design and lighting of their workplace. Of the total workers interviewed, 45% complained of physical disorders, principally affecting the shoulders, nape of the neck and back. These complaints were due in most cases to undue strain placed on various groups of muscles caused by shortcomings in ergonomic aspects of microscope and workplace design. Light measurement taken at the workposts showed, in many cases, considerable differences in luminance between the microscope field of vision and the workpost surroundings, and poor contrast and reflections in the field of vision. The author makes suggestions for improved workplace design and layout, and better lighting.
Undersökningsrapport 1978:40, Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Fack, 100 26 Stockholm, Sweden, 1978. 25p. Illus. 15 ref. Price: Swe-Cr.10.00.
Söderberg I., Calissendorff B., Elofson S., Knave B., Nyman K.G.
Microscope work - I. Investigation of visual disorders in workers using microscopes in the electronics industry
Mikroskoparbete - I. Utredning av ögonbesvär hos mikroskopoperatörer på elektronisk industri [in Swedish]
Results of an investigation in a Swedish plant manufacturing miniaturised electronic components, during which 75 workers (91% women) using microscopes for assembling or checking the components complained of visual fatigue. The authors examined the workers concerned for refractory disorders, eye disorders in general, and binocular vision. Subjective symptoms of visual fatigue were recorded in 80% of microscope workers. A statistical analysis of the results shows a significant relation between these symptoms, on the one hand, and astigmatic refraction disorders, quality of binocular vision and duration of employment in microscope work, on the other.
Arbete och hälsa, Vetenskaplig skriftserie, 1978:16, Arbetarskyddsverket, Stockholm, Sweden, 1978. 54p. Illus. 26 ref.
Žislin L.Ė., Oveckaja N.M., Černyh L.V.
Toxic and hygiene characterics of lead zirconotitanate
Toksiko-gigieničeskaja harakteristika cirkonata-titanata svinca [in Russian]
Lead zirconotitanate (LZT) is used in electronics as a piezoelectric material. The various grades of LZT contain 20-22% Zr, 11-12% Ti and 56-67% Pb. The grade most commonly used is LZT-23, which has the highest lead content. In studies in rats and guinea-pigs the toxic effects of LZT-23 depended on the lead content, although the toxicity and cumulative properties of lead are considerably reduced in this form. There were no specific health effects in workers exposed to LZT dust during production. An exposure limit of 0.1/m3 is recommended.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, May 1978, No.5, p.31-34. 9 ref.
Health and safety aspects of soldering and brazing.
Items discussed in this guide for workers: preparation of the workplace (remove flammable materials, fireproof the floor); hazards of the equipment and operations (soldering irons, torch and flame heated irons, dip soldering, furnace brazing, induction, resistance, spray gun, infrared and hot air fusion equipment); fire protection; health hazards (cleaners, fluxes, fuel gases); environmental control (ventilation); personal protective equipment (face and eye, skin, respirators); confined spaces; labelling; first aid.
DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No.78-197, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Sep. 1978. 42p. Illus. 4 ref. Price: US-$2.00.
Occupational asthma in the electronics industry.
Introductory considerations on types of asthmatic reaction (immediate, late, recurrent) after exposure of a sensitised worker to a causative agent in the workplace, and on common causes of occupational asthma (biological and chemical allergens) are followed by a study of specific allergens causing asthma in the electronics industry: non-corrosive fluxes for soldering based on colophony; soldering or tinning of polyurethane-coated wires, releasing toluene diisocyanate fumes; curing agents for epoxy resin systems used for special wire coatings and encapsulating. Diagnosis: lung function tests (peak flow readings at work and at home); determination of sensitising agent (breathing zone air samples); search for specific antibodies (particularly IgE antibodies); bronchial provocation tests. Considerations on effectiveness of local exhaust ventilation, and measures to have this condition recognised as a prescribed occupational disease in the United Kingdom.
Occupational Health, Sep. 1978, Vol.30, No.9, p.411-417. Illus. 1 ref.
Smith M.J., Colligan M.J., Hurrell J.J.
Three incidents of industrial mass psychogenic illness (preliminary report) - A methodological approach for evaluating outbreaks of mass psychogenic illness in industry.
The first of these 2 articles describes 3 separate incidents of mass psychogenic illness (MSI) in very different situations, with details of the background, the incident itself, and subsequent medical and psychological findings. The main characteristics are summarised. The second article reports the development by the Behavioral and Motivational Factors Branch of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) of a programme to study this phenomenon. It incorporates an extensive questionnaire the primary emphasis of which is on assessing the state or trait characteristics of the affected workers that make them susceptible to MSI and on determining the mechanism of its transmission. The psychological scales used in the questionnaire are described. So far, the data base contains introduction on some 100 affected and 100 non-affected workers from the 3 incidents described.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, June 1978, Vol.20, No.6, p.399-402. 14 ref.
Women in the workplace - A symposium.
Record of proceedings of the symposium (Oakland, California, 24-25 Mar. 1977), at which the following principal themes were discussed: how the occupational environment can affect the ability of women to have healthy children; hazards that affect reproduction; health hazards to working women (mining industry, health care facilities, occupational diseases of beauticians, electronics manufacturing, rubber/plastics industry, airline industry); medico-legal aspects; guidelines for evaluating the disability of pregnancy: trends in US Federal Occupational Health Standards and their impact on women; job modification for better safety and efficiency; the trade union perspective on women in the workplace; panel discussion on societal responsibilitites. Open question-and-answer session (CRT terminals; possible effect of some toxic chemicals on women workers' menstrual periods; teratogenicity, mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, etc.).
American Industrial Hygiene Association, 475 Wolf Ledges Parkway, Akron, Ohio 44311, USA, Mar. 1977. 162p. 94 ref.
Zoz N.I., Kuznecov Ju.A.
Visual accommodation disorders due to work with the microscope
Sostojanie akkomodacionnogo apparata organa zrenija pri rabote s mikroskopom [in Russian]
A thousand workers using binocular microscopes for assembly of electronic components were examined: visual disturbances were found which increased in severity with length of service. Accommodation power was assessed according to the amplitude of absolute accommodation and the positive component of age-adjusted relative accommodation. Visual stress was largely due to over-focussing of the microscope. Correct focussing of the microscope by assembly workers is recommended.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Dec. 1977, No.12, p.13-15. 3 ref.
Žislin L.Ė., Oveckaja N.M., Černyh L.V.
Toxicological testing of ferroelectric materials
Gigieno-toksikologičeskaja ocenka proizvodstva segnetoėlektrikov [in Russian]
Animal studies with 11 ferroelectric materials similar in crystalline structure to perovskite. All showed low biological activity and were moderately toxic on single administration. The toxic effects are related to the content of harmful elements such as lead. Prolonged exposure to the dust of ferroelectrics can cause mild pulmonary fibrosis. Only those containing lead are absorbed by the skin and have cumulative properties. Recommended dust exposure limit: 6mg/m3. When lead is present, its exposure limit (0.1mg/m3) applies.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, June 1977, No.6, p.13-15. 5 ref.
Beretta F., Cortona G., De Bigontina G.
Lead absorption hazard in female microsoldering workers
Rischio di assorbimento di piombo in lavoratrici addette a microsaldature [in Italian]
Medical and biological examinations in 33 women microsoldering lead-tin alloy printed circuits are reported. Lead absorption was moderate, except in one case with a blood lead level above 40µg/100ml. Mean blood lead values were higher than in a control group, and periodical controls suitable for jobs involving relatively low exposure are recommended.
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 1977, Vol.68, No.5, p.340-348. Illus. 22 ref.
André G., Barbry J.L., Granjon M., Burgert J.C.
Example of noise reduction at source
Exemple de réduction du bruit à la source. [in French]
An account of action taken and results of measurements of noise and vibration from machines for assembling diodes in strips. Noise levels in other parts of the shop were within permissible limits, but around the machines in question (model: type "Universal") noise reached 92dB(A) level. After consideration of various remedial measures, preference was given to reduction of noise at source by safety engineering. This consisted in soundproofing each machine by inserting rubber antivibration mountings between the vibrating machine parts (diode feed tray and chutes). The reasons for adopting this solution are given. A noise reduction of 17dB(A) was achieved.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th quarter 1977, No.89, Note No.1081-89-77, p.453-463. Illus.
Ožiganova V.N., Ivanova I.S., Dueva L.A.
Bronchial asthma in radio assembly workers
Bronhial'naja astma u radiomontažnikov [in Russian]
Results of 15 case studies of bronchial asthma in solderers. The occupational aetiology was confirmed by inhalation test (with metal and colophony fumes) administered to the workers concerned during the remission period. The atopic form of asthma observed was due to the pyrolysis products of colophony, which include formaldehyde. After cessation of exposure the asthmatic crises disappeared and working capacity returned to normal. Clinical examinations and allergicity tests are proposed, for early diagnosis.
Sovetskaja medicina, Apr. 1977, No.4, p.139-141.
"Visualising" environmental factors - Ergonomic studies
Facteurs d'ambiance "visualisants" - Expérimentation ergonomique. [in French]
Communication to a seminar on environmental factors and interior climates held in Brussels on 27-28 Oct. 1976 under the auspices of the Belgian National Board for the Improvement of Working Conditions (Commissariat général à la promotion du travail). Results of an industrial study since 1956 in workers undertaking a visual precision task with miniaturised microelectronic elements (welding of 40µm spiral filaments). Results: not only the quantitative aspect of lighting, but also the spectral composition of the light from fluorescent tubes is important. The solution found was to emphasise the red end of the spectrum. A further point stressed is that of "visualising light", identified in 1966: i.e. auxiliary lighting above the visible range, and increasing the efficiency of the main lighting. Summary in Dutch and English.
Cahiers de médecine du travail - Cahiers voor arbeidsgeneeskunde, June-Sep. 1977, Vol.14, No.2-3, p.161-165. Illus. 1 ref.
Solvents under surveillance
Solvants sous surveillance. [in French]
Profusely illustrated report on the pollution prevention installations in the workshops and laboratories of a electronic sub-unit assembly plant for computers: solvent extraction equipment (exhaust under the workbench, low and high extraction, with and without filter, etc.); ventilated storage room divided into 2 compartments, one for flammable, the other for toxic substances; cupboards with exhaust facility; non-breaking bottles; fireproof waste bins; etc. Personal protective and firefighting equipment are also provided.
Travail et sécurité, June 1977, No.6, p.302-309. Illus.
Sadčikova M.N., Nikonova K.V., Denisova E.A., Snegova G.V., L'vovskaja Ė.N., Soldatova V.A.
Arterial blood pressure during exposure to low-intensity microwave irradiation and to high temperature
Arterial'noe davlenie pri vozdejstvii mikrovoln maloj intensivnosti i vysokoj temperatury [in Russian]
Results of a comparative survey of 353 electronics workers exposed to microwave during manufacture and tuning of radar equipment and UHF packs, and 352 controls. The authors observed significant changes in arterial blood pressure in workers exposed to energy densities of several hundred µW/cm2 and to high ambient temperature. On the contrary, no tendency to hypertension was observed in cases where exposure did not exceed 10µW/cm2, or in the controls. A correlation was established between the duration of exposure to microwave and heat, on the one hand, and the degree of hypertension, on the other.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Feb. 1977, No.2, p.17-21. 10 ref.
Gaseous mixtures containing monosilane
Monosilanhaltige Gasgemische [in German]
Description of research to determine the maximum concentration of monosilane in argon, nitrogen and hydrogen, to prevent the spontaneous combustion of monosilane when these mixtures are released into the atmosphere. The article recalls the properties of monosilane (silicomethane) and the conditions for its thermal decomposition. The results of the research carried out show that mixtures of 1.5mol% monosilane in argon, 2mol% in nitrogen and 2.5mol% in hydrogen may be handled without risk of spontaneous combustion.
Arbeitsschutz, Sep. 1976. No.9, p.299-302. 5 ref.
Ishihara N., Kanaya A., Ikeda M.
m-Dinitrobenzene intoxication due to skin absorption.
Case history and laboratory investigation following the intoxication of a 37-year-old woman, employed in the production of electronic parts, who developed cyanosis with general malaise and anorexia after the introduction of an improved chemical mixture (containing 0.5% m-dinitrobenzene) into the production process. Tests showed that m-dinitrobenzene penetrates protective latex gloves such as were worn by the patient. The fact that m-dinitrobenzene is known to be absorbed through the skin and to cause systemic poisoning indicates that the main route of invasion was skin absorption via the gloves. No hepatotoxicity was found.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 26 Jan. 1976, Vol.36, No.3, p.161-168. 17 ref.
Čakrtova E., Knížek M., Lepší P.
Hazards of phosphine formation during polishing of gallium phosphide plates
Fosforovodík jako riziko při mechanickém opracování destiček fosfidu galia [in Czech]
Mechanical grinding of gallium phosphide in an aqueous emery suspension gave rise to considerable quantities of phosphine in the grinder's breathing zone, reaching about 0.1mg/m3, the mean maximum permissible level in Czechoslovakia. Phosphine results from hydrolysis of gallium phosphide, and its release can be controlled by adding an oxidiser (H2O2) to the aqueous emery suspension.
Pracovní lékařství, Sep. 1975, Vol.27, No.7-8, p.250-254. Illus. 14 ref.
Materne D., Lauwerys R., Buchet J.P., Roels H., Brouwers J., Stanescu D.
Investigations of the hazards of exposure to cadmium in 2 plants producing and 2 using cadmium
Investigations sur les risques résultant de l'exposition au cadmium dans deux entreprises de production et deux entreprises d'utilisation du cadmium. [in French]
Account of an occupational health survey covering 163 workers exposed to cadmium and approximately the same number of controls employed in 4 different plants. Detailed description of observations and examinations: questionnaire and clinical examination, lung function tests, ECG and chest radiography, laboratory tests. Findings: slight lung and kidney impairment was found in some workers (the pulmonary lesion consisted of a slight obstructive syndrome, occasionally with incipient emphysema); abnormal laboratory findings became worse with length of exposure; the slight kidney damage was found in 70% of the workers with over 20 years' exposure. Conclusion: the total permissible concentration of Cd in air should not exceed 50µg/m3; furthermore, in view of the correlation between urinary Cd and proteinuria, urinary Cd in exposed workers should not exceed 15µg/g creatinine.
Cahiers de médecine du travail - Cahiers voor arbeidsgeneeskunde, Mar.-June 1975, Vol.12, No.1 and 2, p.3-76. Illus. 65 ref.
< previous | 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 | next >