Electronics industry - 262 entries found
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Bennett D.E., Mathias C.G.T., Susten A.S., Fannick N.L., Smith A.B.
Dermatitis from plastic tote boxes impregnated with an antistatic agent
An outbreak of dermatitis occurred among exployees of a microelectronics firm. In a cross-sectional epidemiologic investigation, the authors found that dermatitis of the hands or arms had occurred among 14 of 29 (48.3%) employees of the incoming inspection department where plastic tote boxes recently purchased from one manufacturer had been used, compared to only one case among 17 (5.9%) employees in another department which had not used these boxes. Affected workers could detect an oily film on the surfaces of these new boxes, but not on older ones. The authors identified the oily film to be a surface accumulation of bis-hydroxyethyl-tallow amine (BHETA), an antistatic agent with which the tote boxes had been impregnated. Subsequent toxicologic investigation established that BHETA could provoke both follicular and nonfollicular irritant dermatits, and was also a potential skin sensitiser. Antistatic agents should be considered as potential causes of dermatitis among employees who handle electrical parts transported in plastic boxes, particularly when affected employees can detect an oily film on the box surfaces.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Mar. 1988, Vol.30, No.3, p.252-255. 2 ref.
Health hazards in the electronic industry
Instruction manual based on material developed by a Swedish labour union organisation and aimed at workers. This version is adapted to circumstances in Malaysia, but it is easily adaptable to any English-speaking country. Contents: health hazards in the electronic industry; semiconductor manufacturing; the external environment (dust elimination); preventive maintenance; heat, thermal radiation and exposure to cold.
International Metalworkers' Federation, 54 bis, rte des Acacias, C.P. 563, 1227 Genčve 22, Switzerland, 1988. 27p. Illus.
Assessment of the developmental risks resulting from occupational exposure to select glycol ethers within the semiconductor industry
The hazards posed by the monomethyl and monoethyl ethers of ethylene glycol and their acetates are discussed. Included are: properties and uses; exposure hazard ratings; potential for exposure; personal protective equipment; developmental toxicology; hazard assessment (mutagenicity); reproductive toxicology tests; adequacy of the TLVs; sampling and analysis; risk assessment; skin absorption. The airborne concentration of the ethers is generally low enough to protect workers against reproductive and other toxic effects as long as dermal exposure is minimal.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, 1988, Vol.23, No.1, p.29-75. Illus. Bibl.
Guide to occupational hygiene
Rukovodstvo po gigiene truda [in Russian]
Second of 2 volumes addressed to industrial physicians, specialists in occupational medicine, plant physicians and other medical personnel. Vol.2 is arranged in 16 chapters devoted to occupational hygiene problems in the following industries: mining; coal-mining (opencast and underground); iron and steel (sintering and iron-ore pellet plants, cakes and by-products, blast-furnace processes, steelmaking, ferroalloy smelting processes etc.); non-ferrous metals (manufacturing of alumina, aluminium, copper, lead, mercury, zinc etc.); machinery (foundry, press forging, heat-treating, machine shops etc.); electronics; chemicals; oil and gas extraction and refining; microbiology; synthetic polymers (plastics, man-made fibers, synthetic rubber, rubber products); construction and building materials; asbestos processing; textiles and light industry (textile, clothing, leather goods, shoe making); wood, pulp and paper, woodworking; printing; work with ionising radiation (nuclear power plants, radioactive sources, x-ray equipment, particle accelerators, etc.).
Izdatel'stvo "Medicina", Petroverigskij per. 6/8, 101000 Moskva, USSR, 1987. Vol.2, 446p. 58 ref. Price: SUR 1.90.
Rivers J.K., Rycroft R.J.G.
Occupational allergic contact urticaria from colophony
First report of allergic contact urticaria from colophony (asthma from occupational exposure is well known). The victim was a 34-year-inspector of printed circuit boards.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 1987, Vol.17, No.3, p.181. 1 ref.
Ergonomic work-stand for printed circuit board assembly
Ergonomiczne stanowisko do montażu układów elektronicznych [in Polish]
Experiments carried out in a laboratory model of the work-stand were aimed at a quantitative assessment of the working conditions existing at traditional assembling stands and semi-automatic stands. These stands are equipped with electronic component delivery systems and light-spot indication systems in order to show the assembler the position of particular components on the printed board. Hand and eyeball movements were examined. The influence of the introduction of semi-automatic work-stands on working conditions and on the efficiency of printed circuit board assemblers was determined.
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1987, Vol.37, No.135, p.171-186. 4 ref.
NIOSH Alert - Request for assistance in reducing the potential risk of developing cancer from exposure to gallium arsenide particulates in the microelectronics industry
This Alert describes reports of animal studies indicating potential carcinogenicity. Safe working methods, personal protective clothing and equipment, and decontamination and waste disposal are recommended.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, 1987. 8p. 11 ref.
Schwarz G., Rakoski J.
Special dermatological problems of clean-room work
Spezielle dermatologische Probleme bei der Arbeit in Reinräumen [in German]
The development and production of microelectronic devices require so-called "clean-room" conditions. Dermatologists increasingly are confronted with the skin problems of persons working within this environment. The skin problems associated with dryness are attributable to the low humidity in the "clean-rooms", and to the lamellar flow of filtered air.
Dermatosen in Beruf und Umwelt, 1987, Vol.35, No.3, p.98-100. 3 ref.
Beetz M., Steinecke-Fittkau V.
Industriegewerkschaft Metall für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland
Diseases of occupational origin among women in the metalworking industry - Literature survey
Arbeitsbedingte Erkrankungen von Frauen in der Metallwirtschaft - Eine Literaturübersicht [in German]
Contents of this literature survey: metal production, surface treatment, machine construction; the automobile industry; the aircraft industry; the electronics industry; precision engineering and optical equipment (including watchmaking); jewelry and sport equipment; work on computer terminals and pregnancy. The 4 most commonly occurring health problems are: cancer; allergies; musculoskeletal problems; headaches and eye trouble connected with precision work.
Union-Druckerei, Theodor-Heuss-Allee 90-98, 6000 Frankfurt am Main, Federal Republic of Germany, 1987. 58p. 224 ref. Index. Price: DEM 2.50.
Kohno K., Yoshida Y., Hirota T., Doi K.
Health surveillance of hydrofluoric acid workers - Urinary fluoride monitoring and fluoride clearance in the aging kidney
Fussan sagyōsha no kenkō kanri ni kansuru kenkyū - Seibutsugaku-teki shihyō to shite no nyōchū fusso nōdo to jinkinō no kankei, toku ni nenrei no eikyō ni tsuite [in Japanese]
Pre-workshift and post workshift fluoride concentrations were measured in urine samples from electronics industry workers who used hydrofluoric acid in the manufacture of television picture tubes, integrated circuits and other components. There was a linear relationship between post-workshift urinary fluoride concentration and HF concentration in the air. A mean urinary fluoride concentration of 4ppm corresponded to an atmospheric HF concentration of 3ppm, which is the Maximal Allowable Concentration recommended by the Japanese Association of Industrial Health and also the Threshold Limit Value suggested by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. A cross-sectional analysis of healthy subjects by 10-year age groups showed a progressive linear decline in creatinine clearance and fluoride clearance (CF). The 24-hour excretion of fluoride and CF were well correlated with each other after fluoride administration. Thus, exposure to HF can be monitored by measuring urinary fluoride. Renal fluoride clearance decreases not only with progression of kidney disease but also with advancing age.
Occupational Health Journal, May 1987, Vol.10, No.3, p.26-33. Illus. 23 ref.
Goldstein M., Weiss H., Wade K., Penek J., Andrews L., Brandt-Rauf P.
An outbreak of fume fever in an electronics instrument testing laboratory
An apparent outbreak of fume fever was identified among six workers in an electronics instrument testing laboratory during a routine thermal evaluation of conductivity on electrical cable. The employees experienced characteristic symptoms of fume fever. Three employees required hospitalisation; they demonstrated fever, leukocytosis and significant arterial-alveolar oxygen gradients, all of which resolved over several hours. To prevent future occurrences, an attempt was made to delineate the aetiologic agent by exactly reproducing the circumstances of the event and analysing them for the evolution of metal fumes or pyrolysis products of polymers. The pertinent findings included overall poor ventilation in the laboratory and the development of significant chloride air contamination during the test. This latter finding raises the possibility that a chloro polymer contaminant was the aetiologic agent.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1987, Vol.29, No.9, p.746-749. 21 ref.
Redmond S.F., Schappert K.R.
Occupational dermatitis associated with garments
An outbreak of irritant contact dermatitis associated with residual perchloroethylene (PCE) in dry-cleaned garments was studied at a large semiconductor manufacturing facility. A new method was developed to measure PCE levels, which was used to detect concentrations ranging from 0.83 to 32.01ppm in the garment.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Mar. 1987, Vol.29, No.3, p.243-244. 4 ref.
Fischer G., Gränz A.
Atmospheric ionisation and radiation sources in production areas of a microchip factory
Ionenklima und Strahlenquellen in Produktionsstätten eines Chip-Werkes [in German]
Although high-voltage ion implantation equipment and thickness meters were in use in production areas of a microchip manufacturing facility, monthly exposures of employees were around 5mrem, i.e. close to natural background levels and well below the 166mrem maximum allowable dose per year (in Austria) for members of the general population. No negative ions were detectable in the air of fully air-conditioned offices or clean rooms. Positive ions were detectable at all measuring points; the positive ion concentration in the room with the thickness meter rose several-fold when the device was in use. Even in non-air-conditioned offices, total ion levels were lower than in the open air.
Sichere Arbeit, Jan. 1987, Vol.40, No.1, p.13-16. 39 ref.
Occupational health and safety in automation and robotics
The proceedings of the 5th University of Occupational and Environmental Health International Symposium on Automation and Robotics (Kitakyushu, Japan, 20-21 Sep. 1985) presents 29 articles and a concluding report covering: occupational health issues in the automated factory; man-machine systems for VDT work in factories and offices; the interaction between man and robot in high-technology industries; OSH problems caused by increases in the robot population; occupational health issues in office automation; the role of industrial medicine at the man-robot interface; human factors considerations for introducing robots; measures for improving the OSH of people working with VDTs or robots; the future of robotics and automation - their effects on health.
Taylor and Francis Ltd., Rankine Road, Basingstoke, Hants RG24 OPR, United Kingdom, 1987. 437p. Illus. Bibl. Price: GBP 40.00.
Asia Monitor Resource Center
Health hazards in the electronics industry: A handbook
A very thorough guide to the health hazards that occur in the electronics industry, written for workers. Coverage: the major processes used in the industry (semiconductor wafer fabrication, semiconductor assembly, printed circuit board fabrication, final product assembly); major jobs (cleaning, bonding, encapsulation and marking, etching and plating, soldering); dangerous chemicals; allergies and irritation; reproductive hazards; cancer hazards; radiation; noise; stress; methods of hazard control (responsibilities, organisation of a health committee, information and education, monitoring the workplace, hazard control, first aid, medical care). A sample occupational and environmental history form is given. A list of over 250 chemical substances known to be used in electronics manufacturing includes for each: chemical structure, physical properties, uses in the industry, toxicity, exposure standards (TLV and MAC), routes of entry, health effects, methods of control. A special index by synonyms is also provided to this list of chemicals.
International Metalworkers' Federation, 54bis, route des Acacias, Case postale 563, 1227 Genčve, Switzerland, 1987. 259p. Illus.
Guidelines for controlling exposure to methylene chloride [USA]
This instruction provides guidelines to employers and employees for controlling exposure to methylene chloride (dichloromethane) in the workplace. The appendix which makes up the body of the directive covers potential sources of exposure, health effects, monitoring, general methods of control, education and training, industry-specific methods of controls, physical properties of methylene chloride and its major uses.
Assistant Secretary for Occupational Safety and Health, US Department of Labor, Washington, DC 20210, USA, 10 Mar. 1986. 37p. 52 ref.
Hello and welcome
Hej och Välkommen [in Swedish]
Videotape (Swedish, with English subtitles). It demonstrates the importance of a properly organised introduction of new employees to work and safety practices in an industrial setting (assembly of electronic components). The involvement of union and safety representatives is emphasised.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1986. Videotape (VHS, PAL). 15min.
Rosenberg N., Gervais P.
Colophony-induced asthma in the workplace
Asthme professionnel ą la colophane [in French]
Information note aimed at occupational physicians. Prevalence in the exposed population (mainly solderers in the electronics industry). Diagnosis in the work environment; medical confirmation (skin tests and establishing a functional profile suggesting asthma; aetiological diagnosis). Study (1-4 years after diagnosis) of the evolution of the condition in 28 subjects who had been sensitised during soldering operations in the electronics industry. Medical and technical prevention. Compensation.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, Dec. 1986, No.28, p.311-313. 17 ref.
Vidaček S., Kaliterna L., Radošević-Vidaček B., Folkard S.
Productivity on a weekly rotating, shift system: circadian adjustment and sleep deprivation effects?
The productivity of 53 female workers and sleeping habits of 30 of them from an electronics component factory were studied. The circadian adjustment to night work appears to be the dominant factor in increased productivity for the first 3 or 4 successive night shifts, then sleep deprivation results in a decrease of productivity. Sleep deprivation may also affect productivity during the morning shift.
Ergonomics, Dec. 1986, Vol.29, No.12, p.1583-1590. Illus. 13 ref.
Ungers L.J., Jones J.H.
Industrial hygiene and control technology assessment of ion implantation operations
Workplace monitoring suggests that ion implantation workers are exposed to low levels of arsenic, boron and phosphorus. Dosimetry for ionising radiation indicates that serious exposures are unlikely to occur while engineering controls remain intact. The effectiveness of existing controls is discussed, particularly in the case of maintenance and repair personnel. Recommendations are made regarding additional preventive measures and future areas of research are identified.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1986, Vol.47, No.10, p.607-614. Illus. 14 ref.
Spilman M.A., Goetz A., Schultz J., Bellingham R., Johnson D.
Effects of a corporate health promotion program
The effects of a pilot health promotion programme at a large telecommunications corporation in the USA were evaluated. The study group was given an initial health risk appraisal and offered health education modules. A control group was given the health risk appraisal with no modules; a second control group was neither given the appraisal nor offered modules. The health promotion programme was found to lower health risks and improve health-related and job-related attitudes among the study group. Participants in specific intervention modules experienced gains in positive health behaviours.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1986, Vol.28, No.4, p.285-290. 2 ref.
Safety features illustrated in the use of industrial robots employed in production in precision mechanical/electronic industries and manufacture of appliances
Industrial robots are flexible, programmable production tools which have been successfully introduced into the production sector and are increasingly gaining in importance. The kinematic and control flexibility of these machines, and especially their high-speed movements, make special demands on safety engineering. General safety measures, and in particular those aiming at securing the loading and unloading areas of industrial robot cells, are illustrated with reference to a number of robot applications implemented in our company. These measures were based on the requirements laid down in the relevant specifications, especially in draft guideline VDI 2853, and embodied in the recognised rules of safety engineering.
Journal of Occupational Accidents, June 1986, Vol.8, No.1-2, p.91-98. Illus. 8 ref.
Fisher F.L., Williamson R.B., Toms G.L., Crinnion D.M.
Fire protection of flammable work stations in the clean room environment of a microelectronic fabrication facility
An applied engineering programme is described which investigates the fire safety of combustible wet stations used within microelectronic clean room fabrication facilities. The main concern involves the impact of a wet bench fire on the clean room environment of the fabrication facility. The effectiveness of the installed fire detection and suppression systems is discussed as well as the additional steps which should be taken in order to insure early detection and suppression of fires.
Fire Technology, May 1986, Vol.22, No.2, p.148-165. Illus. 9 ref.
Soldering in the electronics industry
Contents of this occupational hygiene guide: glossary; duties and responsibilities of employers and employees; health and safety committees; assessment of the working environment; information, instruction and training; environmental control and work methods; protective equipment and clothing; cleaning and maintenance; air monitoring; health surveillance sheets; records. A sample assessment sheet and health surveillance sheet are given in the appendix.
Occupational Health and Toxicology Branch, Division of Public Health, Department of Health, Wellington, New Zealand, Oct. 1985. 25p.
Electrostatic charge - Dangers and preventive measures
Elektrostatische Aufladungen - Gefahren und Bekämpfungsmassnahmen [in German]
Principles and characteristics: mechanism of static electricity generation in various environments (solids, liquids, granular substances), types of discharge, ways of preventing the building up of hazardous levels of static electricity (earthing, relative humidity, additives, field separation, ionisation, humidification). Practical problems and solutions: coating of containers, glue production, cleaning of tankers, loading of tank cars, transfer of liquids likely to accumulate an electrostatic charge, emptying of bulk material, interference due to static electricity in microelectronics and in the optical industry.
Verlag Tribüne, Am Treptower Park 28-30, DDR-1193 Berlin, 1985. 49p. Illus. 28 ref.
Gustavsson P., Hogstedt C., Jonsson U.
Impact on health of the exposure of capacitor manufacturing workers to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) - an epidemiological and medical investigation
Hälsoeffekter av yrkesmässig exponering för polyklorerade bifenyler (PCB) bland kondensatorarbetare - epidemiologisk och medicinsk undersökning [in Swedish]
A cohort study of 142 male Swedish capacitor manufacturing workers. Twenty-three deaths and 7 cancers were noted. These numbers would be expected for the general population. Although one person had 2 rare tumours (a semi-malignant mesenchymal tumour and a malignant lymphoma) and the follow-up period was short, the results do not suggest that PCB exposure presents a high risk of cancer under the conditions of this factory. Annual medical examinations of some of the cohort revealed no abnormal results attributable to PCB exposure.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1985. 21p. Illus. 32 ref.
Persson J., Kilbom Å., Jonsson B.
Risk factors for work related disorders of the neck and shoulder - a 2-year study of individual risk factors
Belastningsrelaterade besvär i nacke och skuldror - en studie över individuella riskfaktorer [in Swedish]
96 women in the electronics industry were followed over a 2-year period. Their work was traditionally "light", characterised by repetitive arm movements, short work cycles and static work postures. The independent variables studied were: muscle strength, previous medical history, productivity, hobbies and work technique. By stepwise multiple regression analysis these independent variables were related to frequency, severity and localisation of occupational cervico-brachial disorders (OCD), subdivided into 4 stages. Working technique, previous sick-leave and high productivity imply an increased risk of OCD. Static muscle strength and change of working tasks could be identified as predictors for improvement.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1985. 117p. Illus. 13 ref. Price: Swe.cr.45.00.
McKenzie F., Storment J., Van Hook P., Armstrong T.J.
A program for control of repetitive trauma disorders associated with hand tool operations in a telecommunications manufacturing facility
Repetitive trauma disorders, including strains, tendinitis, ganglions and carpal tunnel syndrome were the leading cause of lost time and compensation expenses at this plant employing 6000 workers in 1979. The plant-wide incidence rate of OSHA reportable repetitive trauma disorders was 2.2 cases per 200,000 workhours and resulted in 1001 lost workdays. Incidence rates as high as 4.6 were reported in some areas. In 1981, the plant safety and health committee undertook a control programme that included creation of a task force, a training programme, improvements in the design of workstations and tooling, and management of restricted workers. During 1982, the incidence rate of repetitive motion disorders has decreased to 0.53 cases per 200,000 workhours and resulted in only 129 lost workdays.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1985, Vol.46, No.11, p.674-678. Illus. 6 ref.
Occupational dermatitis from soldering flux among workers in the electronics industry
Observations on 26 patients with contact dermatitis from soldering flux who were seen at an occupational dermatology clinic in Singapore. All were exposed to non-rosin organic flux from the same supplier. The sex and race distribution of the cases paralleled the sex and race distribution in the electronics industry, which differs from the distribution for the population as a whole. The dermatitis was subactute in 14 of the 26 patients. In some cases, the dermatitis extended to the forearms. Twenty-two had irritant contact dermatitis from the flux and 4 were allergic to aminoethylethanolamine, a constituent of the flux. One worker was sensitive to acetic acid in addition to aminoethylethanolamine. Transfer to other work or the wearing of plastic or rubber gloves produced complete clearing in 13 cases; 11 showed more than 50% improvement, and 2 defaulted on follow-up.
Contact Dermatitis, Aug. 1985, Vol.13, No.2, p.85-90. Illus. 7 ref.
Sorahan T., Waterhouse J.A.H., McKiernan M.J., Aston R.H.R.
Cancer incidence and cancer mortality in a cohort of semiconductor workers
No excess cancer morbidity or mortality was found in this study of 1,807 workers in a semiconductor factory (employed a minimum of 1 month over a 10-year period), with the exception of melanoma, of which there were 3 cases (0.68 expected). Only 1 of the melanoma victims had had occupational exposure to ultraviolet light.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1985, Vol.42, No.8, p.546-550. 2 ref.
Ungers L.J., Jones J.H., McIntyre A.J., McHenry C.R.
Release of arsenic from semiconductor wafers
The production of integrated circuits and other semiconductor devices requires the introduction of impurities or dopants into the crystal lattice of a silicon substrate. Inorganic arsenic, which is regulated by OSHA as a carcinogen, is frequently used as a dopant material. Silicon wafers were found to emit arsenic over a 3-5h period following ion implantation. Total amounts emitted approached 6.0µg/100 wafers processed within 4h after implantation. The implication of the potential hazard to workers is discussed.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1985, Vol.46, No.8, p.416-420. Illus. 4 ref.
The 9th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association: Ergonomics International 85, reviews and indexes
Proceedings of the 9th Congress of the International Es Association (Bournemouth, United Kingdom, 2-5 Sep. 1985). Aspects covered: ergonomics in the mid eighties; high technology and human needs; multiple ergonomic interventions and transportation safety; the nature and measurement of stress; office work ergonomics; fitness for work; trends in human reliability analysis; relation between ergonomics and standards; retraining for new skills; ergonomics in industrially developing countries.
Ergonomics, Aug. 1985, Vol.28, No.8, special issue, p.1113-1299. Illus. Bibl.
Hazard assessment of the electronic component manufacturing industry
The processes investigated in this NIOSH study include the manufacturing of receiving electron tubes, cathode ray television picture tubes, transmitting electron tubes, semi-conductor and related devices, electronic capacitors and resistors. The hazard assessment encompassed tripartite meetings, literature reviews and industrial hygiene surveys. The only potential for significant health hazards to workers was found in the semi-conductor industry where a large number of toxic chemical agents is used.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, NIOSH, Robert A. Taft Laboratories, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, Feb. 1985. 142p. Illus. 214 ref.
Is there high risk in high tech?
Among the numerous recognised health hazards involved in the production of semiconductors, exposures to skin and respiratory irritants to central nervous system depressants (solvents), to known or suspected carcinogens, mutagens and teratogens and to arsenic from gallium arsenide dust constitute the major problems. The apparent lack of adequate occupational safety and health programmes in the industry is discussed.
Occupational Hazards, Apr. 1985, Vol.47, No.4, p.63-67. Illus.
Goh C.L., Soh S.D.
Occupational dermatoses in Singapore
Statistics for 1983 from the Singapore Occupational Dermatoses Clinic. 97% of 389 cases were contact dermatitis, of which 66.3% were irritant and 33.7% allergic, in both male and female workers. Cutting oils, solvents and flux from the engineering and electronic industries were the commonest irritants, and chromate from cement in the construction industry was the commonest allergen. The other occupational allergens were rubber chemicals and epoxy resins. The construction industry was the largest source of occupational dermatoses cases seen; possible preventive measures are discussed.
Contact Dermatitis, Nov. 1984, Vol.11, No.5, p.288-293. 30 ref.
Industrial fire hazards handbook
Contents of this updated manual: industrial fire risk management; life safety in industrial occupancies; plant emergency organisation and training; fire hazards in 20 major industries; special fire hazards in 13 processes; general occupancy fire hazards.
National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02269, USA, 1984. 2nd edition. 1077p. Illus. Bibl.
Guardiola Huertas C., Ruperez Calvo J.
The influence of new technologies on the working world
Influencia de las nuevas tecnologķas en el mundo laboral [in Spanish]
Survey of the problems caused by the introduction of new technologies in various countries (Federal Republic of Germany, Canada, USA, United Kingdom, France, Italy, Japan, Switzerland, Scandinavian countries) and in the EEC in general. Description of the programmes introduced by the ILO (PIACT) and the EEC to deal with the problem.
Salud y trabajo, Sep.-Oct. 1984, No.45, p.25-34. Illus. 27 ref.
Polato R., Alessandrģ M.V., Dal Vecchio L., Maestrelli P.
Epidemiologic applicability of the aspecific bronchial challenge test
Applicabilitą del test di provocazione bronchiale aspecifica in epidemiologia [in Italian]
230 workers in an electronics manufacturing plant were studied using a standardised health questionnaire, skin prick tests, lung function and methacholine inhalation in order to assess the potential value of the methacholine challenge test. The provocation dose of methacholine causing a 15% decrease in FEV1 was chosen to assess bronchial response. Subjects with provocation doses below 400µg were deemed to have bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Using the association of bronchoconstriction symptoms and/or a family history of atopy, 71.4% of subjects with hyperresponsive airways were selected. The inclusion of subjects with a positive prick tests did not increase the sensitivity of the method. The methacholine test is judged to be the best method for assessing bronchial response.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1984, Vol.75, No.3, p.180-187. 35 ref.
Caprioli R., Beretta E.
Air conditioning of the working environment and upper respiratory tract disease
Il condizionamento dell'aria negli ambienti di lavoro e patologia delle alte vie aeree [in Italian]
2 groups of women working in an electronics components factory and under the influence of different kinds of air conditioning systems were monitored for upper respiratory tract disease. The relative humidity of the air breathed by both groups was 33-38%. Workers exposed to an air conditioning system involving a larger number of sudden changes in temperature and air currents showed upper respiratory tract symptoms and inflammation more frequently than workers in the other group. It is suggested that low relative humidity also contributed to the high prevalence of such symptoms.
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 1984, Vol.75, No.5, p.385-392. Illus. 19 ref.
de Schryver A., Corbey R.
Occupational health aspects to be kept in mind when fitting up a new microelectronics factory
Arbeidsgeneeskundige aspecten bij het oprichten van een nieuwe fabriek voor micro elektronica [in Dutch]
Introductory sections on production techniques (oxidation, photolithography, etching, doping, thermal diffusion, metal vapour deposition, metallisation, encapsulation) are followed by considerations on the hazards and precautions to be taken during the production of chips in microelectronic laboratories (dopants, corrosive substances, ionising radiation, fire hazards, alarm procedure). A special section is devoted to antimony: uses, metabolism, poisoning, TLVs, workplace and biological monitoring. The risks inherent in stepping up the manufacturing scale are dealt with in detail.
Tijdschrift voor sociale gezondheidszorg, 10 Oct. 1984, Vol.62, No.20, p.796-804. Illus. 23 ref.
Elias R., Cail F.
Work with binocular microscopes - Visual and postural strain
Travail sous binoculaires - Astreintes visuelles et posturales [in French]
Study of working conditions during the use of binocular microscopes in the electronic component industry. Surveys in 3 enterprises included standardised interviews with operators and measurements of visual fatigue. Visual fatigue was caused by excessive eye accommodation aggravated by factors such as fixed vision and contrasting luminance in the field of vision. Postural fatigue manifested itself by localised pain, mostly at the nape of the neck and the lower back. The causes of these problems are analysed, and measures designed to improve working conditions are suggested.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygične du travail, 4th quarter 1984, No.117, Note No.1500-117-84, p.451-456. Illus. 12 ref.
Boxer P.A., Singal M., Hartle R.W.
An epidemic of psychogenic illness in an electronics plant
A questionnaire survey of symptoms indicated that 98 workers experienced light-headedness, headache, sleepiness, and numbness or tingling of the face or extremities. Attack rates by work station followed no apparent pattern, and extensive medical and environmental evaluation, including air sampling for numerous solvents and gases provided no physical or chemical explanation for the epidemic. Compared with well employees, ill employees were more commonly female, complained more frequently of odours, and believed that greater danger existed of the illness recurring. Blood gas analysis of 7 of 11 ill workers showed respiratory alkalosis, consistent with hyperventilation.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, May 1984, Vol.26, No.5, p.381-385. 15 ref.
This trades union data sheet covers hazards associated with the use of solvents for degreasing metal surfaces in the engineering and electronics industries and in laboratories. Contents: toxicity (white spirit, trichloroethylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, methylene chloride, trichlorotrifluoroethane); exposure limits; control measures (cold degreasing, vapour degreasing, ventilation, thermostats, condensing coils, degreasing operations, monitoring, maintenance, cleaning, protective clothing, storage, disposal of waste, first aid, medical monitoring); checklist for degreasing tank inspections. A safety poster is included.
Association of Scientific, Technical and Managerial Staffs, 79 Camden Road, Camden Town, London NW1 9ES, United Kingdom, 1984. 7p. Bibl.
Greaves I.A., Wegman D.H., Smith T.J., Spiegelman D.L.
Respiratory effects of two types of solder flux used in the electronics industry
Questionnaires and lung spirometry were administered to 93 female and 11 male electronics workers who soldered printed circuit boards. 68 subjects worked only with a rosin-core solder and 36 had changed from the rosin-core to an aqua-core (phosphorous hexate) solder 15 months before the study. Symptoms of eye, throat and nose irritation occurred in almost half of the group. Lower respiratory tract symptoms, including cough, phlegm production and wheezing also occurred with increased frequency compared to the general population. Similar symptom rates occurred in the groups using the different core types. Lung spirometry tests and symptoms improved over weekends and during vacations, indicating a work-related effect.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1984, Vol.26, No.2, p.81-85. 7 ref.
Courtney D., Merrett J.D.
Respiratory symptoms and lung function in a group of solderers
Respiratory symptoms (using a modified MRC questionnaire) and lung function (using a Vitalograph dry wedge spirometer) were evaluated in 1611 women working in a large electronics company. When 4 classes (solderers, ex-solderers, non-solderers and office workers) were compared, few significant differences were found. Ex-solderers had more respiratory symptoms than members of the other groups (significantly more in the case of chest illness), while lung function differences were more related to smoking habit than to exposure to solder fumes.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1984, Vol.41, No.3, p.346-351. 8 ref.
Schmitt-Thomas K.G., Meisel H.
Workplace contamination during soldering by emission of gases and aerosols from solders and fluxes
Arbeitsplatzbelastung beim Weichlöten durch Gas- und Aerosolemissionen aus Lotmetallen und Flussmitteln [in German]
A review of the sources of air pollution in soldering (especially rosin- and hydrazine-based fluxes) is followed by qualitative and quantitative analyses of pollutants under laboratory conditions. The boiling curves and pyrolytic behaviour of fluxes containing rosin, hydrazine or neither were determined. Pollutant concentrations depended on the purity and stabilisation of rosin. High concentrations of hydrazine were found when hydrazine fluxes were used at excessively high temperatures. Evaluation of the overall environmental effect of the emissions cannot be based on simple addition of the levels of individual pollutants, as there may be synergistic effects.
Deutscher Verlag für Schweisstechnik, Postfach 2725, 4000 Düsseldorf 1, Federal Republic of Germany, 1984. 45p. Illus. 24 ref.
Demmer H., Küpper B.
Stress at work-stations generally occupied by women
Belastungen bei Arbeitsplätzen, die überwiegend mit Frauen besetzt werden [in German]
This report analyses 900 documents published since 1960 on women's work, with the aim of determining the effects of work on women's health and the proper design of their work-stations. Industries covered include clothing, electronics, optics, postal and telecommunications services, housework, hospitals and offices. Solutions are proposed.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz, Postfach 170202, 4600 Dortmund 17, Federal Republic of Germany, 1984. 210p. 350 ref. Price: DM.27.00.
McCulley J.P., Whiting D.W., Petitt M.G., Lauber S.E.
Hydrofluoric acid burns of the eye
A 21 year-old man working in the semiconductor industry inadvertently poured sodium hydroxide into a container of hydrofluoric acid (HF). The worker sustained eye and face burns from the ensuing explosive reaction. Injection of calcium gluconate, the treatment recommended for HF skin burns, was ineffective because of the toxic effect and additive damage of calcium on eye tissues. Immediate single irrigation with water, normal saline or isotonic magnesium chloride solution is the most effective therapy for ocular HF eye burns.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, June 1983, Vol.25, No.6, p.447-450. Illus. 16 ref.
Söderberg I., Calissendorff B., Elofsson S., Knave B., Nyman K.G.
Investigation of visual strain experienced by microscope operators at an electronics plant
75 microscope operators were examined for eye function and visual strain. The investigation included standardized interviews dealing with symptoms of visual strain, examinations of the refractive state as well as for possible eye diseases, and testing of binocular vision. 80% of the operators experienced various symptoms of visual strain. Identified causes included uncorrected astigmatism, fusion insufficiency and working hours.
Applied Ergonomics, 4 Dec. 1983, Vol.14, p.297-305. Illus. 17 ref.
Sokolov V.V., Ivanova L.A., Gorizontova M.N., Nikonova K.V., Sadčikova M.N.
Cytochemical and cytogenetic changes in the blood of persons working with microwave energy sources
Citohimičeskie i citogenetičeskie izmenenija v krovi lic, rabotajuščih s istočnikami mikrovolnovoj ėnergii [in Russian]
Results from 18 women working as testers of electronic equipment and 29 men maintaining radio equipment. The women were exposed to <10µW/cm2, with total doses ≤70µWh/cm2 during a shift; the men were exposed to 1-100µW/cm2 and received doses of 200µWh/cm2 in the course of a shift. Both groups showed elevated activities of cytoplasmic acid phosphatase in their lymphocytes, neutrophils, platelets and erythrocytes; succinate and lactate dehydrogenase were also elevated in the lymphocytes, and alkaline phosphatase activity was elevated in the neutrophils. Heteroploid and polyploid cell counts were higher than normal, indicating high mitotic activity, and chromosome abnormalities were more frequent than in controls. The changes were more extensive among the men, probably due to their greater exposure. The changes probably represent adaptation to microwave exposure. (Translation into French available from INRS, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France: Traduction INRS 60:83.)
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Oct. 1983, No.10, p.5-10. 14 ref.
Savin B.M., Nikonova K.V., Lobanova E.A., Sadčikova M.N., Lebed' E.K.
New facts in the standardisation of radiofrequency microwave energies
Novoe v normirovanii ėlektromagnitnyh izlučenij mikrovolnovogo diapazona [in Russian]
In 10 electronic and radio plants, the state of health of 1015 workers was determined and ambient levels of radiofrequency (300MHz-300GHz) radiation were measured. In laboratory experiments, 1160 animals of various species were exposed to different power densities for different periods. These studies confirmed the effectiveness of the existing MAC (1W/cm2) and showed a relation of biological effects to the intensity and duration of microwave irradiation. The maximum allowable value for the density of radiation energy flux is determined on the basis of the permissible level of energy load on the body (W) and the length of exposure (T): W=200µW-h/cm2 for all kinds of radiation except that from rotating and scanning antennas, for which W=2000µW-h/cm2.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Mar. 1983, No.3, p.1-4. 7 ref.
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