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Electronics industry - 262 entries found

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CIS 94-268 Shusterman D., Windham G.C., Fenster L.
Employment in electronics manufacturing and risk of spontaneous abortion
A large case-control study of environmental risk factors for spontaneous abortion was conducted in a California county. Because of the prevalence of electronics production work within this population, a specialized questionnaire was administered to self-identified electronics production workers. The odds ratio for spontaneous abortion and any electronics production work was 0.94 (95% confidence interval = 0.58, 1.5). Odds ratios for the three main branches of electronics production (semi-conductor fabrication, printed circuit board manufacturing, and assembly) were likewise near or below unity. Specific production activities with elevated odds ratios included semi-conductor diffusion, parts encapsulation, soldering, and flux removal, although the numbers were small and none of the confidence intervals excluded unity. Limitations of this study included modest statistical power and a potential for non-differential misclassification of exposures, both of which could bias findings towards the null.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1993, Vol.35, No.4, p.381-386. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 93-1887 Chan O.Y., Gan S.L., Yeo M.H.
Study on the health of female electronics workers on 12 hour shifts
Health complaints, blood pressure, sleep and sickness absence experience were studied in 308 female electronics workers employed for at least one year on 12h shifts - 253 on permanent and 55 on rotating schedules. Seventy-five 8h day workers acted as controls. There were no significant differences in symptom prevalence between the controls and 12h shift workers, except for complaints of tiredness, with a higher proportion of the rotating shift group also having headaches. No significant differences in prevalence of hypertension were noted. Although subjects on the night shift had shorter sleep than controls and 12h day workers, only the group on rotating schedule had a higher proportion of workers who did not sleep well compared to the controls. Sickness absence was not increased in the 12h shift groups when compared to the controls. The results indicate no serious health problems among workers on 12h shift for over a year.
Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1993, Vol.43, No.3. p.143-148. 18 ref.

CIS 93-1935 Sheehy J.W., Jones J.H.
Assessment of arsenic exposures and controls in gallium arsenide production
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) researchers conducted a study of control systems for electronics facilities using gallium arsenide. Three facilities which appeared to have effective controls were chosen for in-depth evaluation through industrial hygiene sampling. The following gallium arsenide processes were studied: Liquid Encapsulated Czochralski (LEC) and Horizontal Bridgeman (HB) crystal growing, LEC cleaning operations, ingot grinding/wafer sawing, and epitaxy. Results at one plant showed that in all processes except epitaxy, average arsenic exposures were at or above the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) action level of 5µg/m3. While cleaning the LEC crystal pullers, the average potential arsenic exposure of the cleaning operators was 100 times the OSHA PEL. At the two other plants, personal arsenic exposures were well controlled in LEC, LEC cleaning, grinding/sawing, and epitaxy operations.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1993, Vol.54, No.2, p.61-69. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 93-1275 Mathur N., Gupta B.N., Rastogi S.K., Mahendra P.N., Pangtey B.S., Husain T., Bharti R.S.
Socioeconomic and health status of electronics workers employed in organized industry
To study their socioeconomic and health status, 1,770 workers in the organised electronics industry in India were surveyed. Mean age of the workers employed in this industry was 32.5±6.01 years. The average per capita income/month was INR 333, indicating a higher socioeconomic status, compared with the status of the national population as well as compared with their counterparts in the unorganised sectors. Respiratory symptoms and impairment rates were significantly higher in workers exposed to soldering fumes. The high prevalence of congested or inflamed throat was also related to chemical exposure, especially among solderers and workers exposed to metal oxides. The ocular symptoms and signs were also related to chemical exposure. Musculoskeletal disorders were related to erratic ergonomic postures.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1993, Vol.23, No.2, p.321-331. 25 ref.


CIS 94-1732 Dennis J.A., Muirhead C.R., Ennis J.R.
Human health and exposure to electromagnetic radiation
General features of electromagnetic fields and their interactions with the human body are described followed by a review of the epidemiological data on adverse health effects of exposure to electromagnetic radiation. The evidence suggests that there are no long-term effects on general health from the levels to which people are normally exposed; the average female use of visual display unit does not seem to be at risk of adverse birth outcome. Studies of electrical and electronic workers are suggestive of a link between electromagnetic field exposures and cancer but the results are subject to the confounding factor of occupational class.
National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 ORQ, United Kingdom, July 1992. iv, 147p. Illus. approx. 300 ref. Price: GBP 10.00.

CIS 94-933 Reither K.
Gas cleaning in semiconductor production facilities
Abluftreinigung bei Halbleiterproduktionen [in German]
Gaseous chlorine and hydrochloric acid are among the pollutants emitted in semiconductor production facilities. For cleaning the gases emitted by the various semiconductor production methods in use, gas absorption and adsorption are applied. The design of a gas cleaning system comprising two gas scrubbers (absorbers) and one activated-carbon adsorber is illustrated. Recommended safety features include monitors for the composition of the scrubbing fluids, their temperature and pressure.
WLB - Wasser, Luft und Boden, July-Aug. 1992, No.7-8, p.58-60. Illus.

CIS 94-271 Bauer S., Wolff I., Werner N., Hoffmann P., Herzschuh R., Oemus K., Rath F.W., Voigt R.
Toxicological investigations in the semiconductor industry - I. Studies on the acute oral toxicity of a complex mixture of waste products from the aluminium plasma etching process
In dry etching processes complex mixtures of inorganic and organic compounds arise. Two different fractions of the complex mixture (an ethanolic solution (ES) and an insoluble liquid residue (LR)) were examined for acute oral toxicity in rats. Analytical data showed that the ES contained mainly inorganic compounds, whereas the LR contained various halogenated hydrocarbons. Neither death nor behavioural changes occurred after oral administration and observation up to 23 days. ES caused a lower mean arterial blood pressure in both sexes, increased ECG P-R intervals in male rats, and caused some mild biochemical and haematological alterations and changes in relative organ weights compared to the control groups. Exposure to LR influenced food and water intake, and caused a significant decrease in body weights, signs of polyuria, as well as changes in various relative organ weights and biochemical and haematological parameters. The blood pressure of the male animals fell and the heart rates of both sexes decreased.
Toxicology and Industrial Health, May-June 1992, Vol.8, No.3, p.141-156. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 93-1590
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo
Trabajo a distancia [in Spanish]
Translation of the issue of the ILO "Conditions of work Digest" devoted to telework (see CIS 91-166). Composed of three main parts, it presents an extensive overview on the issue. An introduction examines the extent of telework, the reasons for its introduction and its implications for workers, employers and communities. It introduces occupational, geographical and sectoral distribution of telework and provides information on legal status of teleworkers, their working conditions, and the potential of telework to assist the disabled and other special categories of workers. This part also reports on the positions of workers' and employers' organisations regarding telework. A second part contains 57 case descriptions of telework practice, including initiatives of public authorities and enterprise experiences. An annotated bibliography with over 150 entries shows how the debate on telework has developed in the past 10 years.
Condiciones de trabajo, 1992, No.4, 276p. Bibl.ref.

CIS 93-1251 Bauer S., Wolff I., Werner N., Hoffmann P.
Health hazards in the semiconductor industry. A review
The development of semiconductor production has been accompanied by an increased use of toxic production materials and an increased release of potential toxic wastes, which are harmful to health and environment. This paper gives an overview of occupational health hazards resulting from production materials in the microelectronics industry and from waste products originating as gases from plasma-etching processes in photolithography during semiconductor production. The paper proposes methods for using experimental toxicology to investigate the occupational risks from complex mixtures of chemicals in the semiconductor industry.
Polish Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1992, Vol.5, No.4, p.299-314. Illus. 63 ref.

CIS 93-188 Upfal M.
Liver enzymes among microelectronics equipment maintenance technicians
Equipment maintenance workers within the microelectronics industry have opportunities for occupational exposure to a variety of toxic agents. This pilot investigation compares liver enzymes in this population with that of other co-workers. Participants (n=135) were randomly selected from a medical surveillance programme at the manufacturing facility. Nine job categories were examined, including equipment maintenance workers and electronic technicians. Abnormal liver enzymes were detected among equipment maintenance workers (n=8; odds ratio 16.4; p<.008) and electronic technicians (n=10; odds ratio 27; p<.0005). The data suggest that independent and/or interactive aetiologic roles of occupation and alcohol should be further investigated. Early detection of subclinical occupational or recreational hepatotoxicity with appropriate employment of industrial hygiene control technology and/or the reduction of alcohol consumption may provide a means of preventing liver disease.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1992, Vol.34, No.4, p.384-390. 31 ref.

CIS 92-1979 Leira H.L., Tiltnes A., Svendsen K., Vetlesen L.
Irritant cutaneous reactions to N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP)
Several workers in a small electrotechnical company in Norway experienced irritant reactions of the skin after a few days of working with the solvent N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP). Due to concern about the health risk of commonly-used organic solvents, the company had chosen to use NMP when one of its products had to be treated with a solvent. After 2 days of work with NMP, 10 of the 12 involved workers displayed acute irritant contact dermatitis of the hands. According to published reports, NMP is not considered to be particularly irritant to the skin. The Safety Data Sheet of a Norwegian sales firm contained no information on cutaneous hazards, but the Safety Data Sheet of an American producer of NMP stated the risk of severe dermatitis upon prolonged contact. NMP seems to be more irritant to the human skin than reported thus far.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 1992, Vol.27, No.3, p.148-150. 9 ref.

CIS 92-2067 Fernandez J.E., Uppugonduri K.G.
Anthropometry of South Indian industrial workmen
Results of an anthropometric survey of South Indian male workers in the electronics industry indicate that, in general, South Indian men are smaller than men from Central, Western and Northern parts of India and also smaller than American, German and Japanese men with whom comparisons were made. This difference needs to be allowed for when considering buying and using imported equipment for the electronics industry in South India.
Ergonomics, Nov. 1992, Vol.35, No.11, p.1393-1398. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 92-1329 Klein R., Clauzade B.
Design and development of two generators of electromagnetic interference - Application to the study of electronic system immunity
Conception et réalisation de deux applicateurs de perturbations électromagnétiques rayonnées - Application à l'étude de l'immunité des systèmes électroniques [in French]
In order to test electronic system immunity to electromagnetic radiation, systems must be subjected to disturbing electromagnetic interference. In practice this requires devices capable of applying a perfectly controlled field to a very precise area. This paper presents 2 such devices: APERL, which operates in the 730 to 1065MHz frequency range, centred around 860MHz, with applied field intensity 100V/m. This device is used for irradiating parts of large systems (on industrial sites or in the laboratory); APP, which operates in the 2 to 250MHz frequency range, centred around 100MHz, with applied field intensity 100V/m. This apparatus is used to irradiate small systems.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd Quarter 1992, No.147, Note No.1878-147-92, p.159-175. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 92-895 Charpentier P.
Design of a dependable microprocessor-based service. Rules and techniques
Conception d'un dispositif à microprocesseur sûr de fonctionnement - Règles et méthodes [in French]
After a brief summary of the problems posed by the dependability of microprocessor-based devices, this article sets forth some rules and methods for preventing or simply detecting faults or disturbances liable to affect such devices. The fruit of INRS experience and bibliographical research, these rules are to be applied in the design of hardware and software for microprocessor-based devices.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st Quarter 1992, No.146, Note No.1866-146-92, p.5-14. Illus. 21 ref.


CIS 95-2119 Mergler D., Huel G., Bowler R., Frenette B., Cone J.
Visual dysfunction among former microelectronics assembly workers
Study conducted on 54 former microelectronics workers and 54 controls in the United States.
Archives of Environmental Health, Nov.-Dec. 1991, Vol.46, No.6, p.326-334. 57 ref. ###

CIS 94-730 Helander M.G., Grossmith E.J., Prabhu P.
Planning and implementation of microscope work
In electronics manufacturing, many of the assembly operations require the use of microscopes. This paper presents measures and suggestions that could help in relieving visual and postural fatigue in microscope work. These measures include the ergonomic design of microscope workstations as well as of microscopes themselves, process changes to minimise use of the microscope, replacement of microscope workstations with television systems, and a training programme for inexperienced operators. The main emphasis in implementing these recommendations was the ergonomic design of microscope workstations; several examples are given.
Applied Ergonomics, Feb. 1991, Vol.22, No.1, p.36-42. 26 ref.

CIS 93-647 Bates M.N.
Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields and cancer - The epidemiologic evidence
The paper reviews the epidemiological evidence that low-frequency electromagnetic fields generated by alternating current may cause cancer. Residential exposure studies as well as studies of electrical and electronics workers are reviewed. Using conventional epidemiological criteria for inferring causal associations, the evidence strongly suggests that such radiation is carcinogenic. The evidence is strongest for brain and central nervous system cancers in electrical workers and children. Weaker evidence supports an association with leukaemia in electrical workers. Some evidence also exists for an association with melanoma in electrical workers. Studies so far have used imperfect surrogates for any true biologically effective magnetic field exposure. The resulting exposure misclassification has produced relative risk estimates that understate any true risk.
Environmental Health Perspectives, Nov. 1991, Vol.95, p.147-156. 56 ref.

CIS 92-2027 Mirón J.L.
Static electricity and its consequences
La electricidad estática y sus consecuencias [in Spanish]
The basics of static electricity and the types of damage that it provokes are reviewed. Electric shocks affecting personnel and fires and explosions are mentioned among the occupational risks of static electricity. The supression of static charge in the working area in order to have protected work stations is discussed. Ten basic points for establishing a programme for the control of static electricity are presented. Areas in which electrostatic discharge is common (particularly in the electronics and printing industries) are identified.
Mapfre seguridad, July-Sep. 1991, Vol.11 (3rd Quarter), No.43, p.15-23. Illus.

CIS 92-1622 Beaulieu H.J., Schmerber K.R.
M-Pyrol (NMP) use in the microelectronics industry
The cyclic amide, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, or M-Pyrol, is commonly encountered in the microelectronics industry as a solvent used primarily for dissolving plastic materials. Preliminary toxicological information is emerging documenting properties of M-Pyrol as a severe eye irritant. Prolonged skin contact can lead to severe irritation. No threshold limit value (TLV) has been established for M-Pyrol; however, the GAF Corporation currently recommends a time-weighted average (TWA) value of 100ppm. Initial evaluations during this study of worker exposure to the chemical indicate that severe eye irritation and headaches are experienced at levels as low as 0.7ppm in air for even short periods of time (30 minutes). In order to prevent eye irritation and headaches, it is recommended that worker exposures to M-Pyrol vapour do not exceed 0.1ppm (skin).
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Oct. 1991, Vol.6, No.10, p.874-880. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 92-1694 Rosenthal F.S., Abdollahzadeh S.
Assessment of extremely low frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic fields in microelectronics fabrication rooms
Extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic and electric fields were measured in four microelectronics fabrication rooms that utilised a variety of electrical devices. Magnetic field levels measured in the aisles of the workrooms ranged from 0.2-7.0mG; electric field levels ranged from 0.1-5.0V/m. At 2" (ca. 5cm) from the surfaces of various workroom devices, magnetic field levels ranged from 5.0-400mG; at 2ft (ca. 60cm) from the device surfaces, levels ranged from 0.5-70mG. From the measured levels and information obtained on typical work patterns, 8-hour time-weighted average personal exposures were estimated for various work scenarios.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Sep. 1991, Vol.6, No.9, p.777-784. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 91-1879 Ducatman A.M., Forman S., Teichman R., Gleason R.
Occupational physician staffing in large US corporations
Increased provision of occupational health services outside the workplace has been accompanied by signs of change in the quantity and structure of in-house corporate services. The occupational physician:employee ratios of the 25 largest US corporations were compared with each other, with the probable level of hazard as suggested by Bureau of Labor Statistics reports, and with both gross and per-capita measures of profitability. It was found that large corporations still employ a disproportionate share of available occupational health expertise. Oil and chemical companies employ the largest number of occupational physicians per capita; computer, electronics, and scientific equipment manufacturers employ the largest number of occupational physicians per capita relative to occupational illness/injury/lost workdays per capita. Tobacco companies employ the fewest occupational physicians by either measure. Corporate profitability explained more than half the variability for the one large within-sector comparison and appeared most related to employment practices for the most successful and least-successful companies.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, May 1991, Vol.33, No.5, p.613-618. 25 ref.

CIS 91-1930 Lipscomb J.A., Fenster L., Wrensch M., Shusterman D., Swan S.
Pregnancy outcomes in women potentially exposed to occupational solvents and women working in the electronics industry
Associations of occupational solvent exposure and/or work in electronics production with adverse pregnancy outcomes were examined in a large cross-sectional community-based reproductive health study of 1038 California women pregnant between 1980 and 1985. Occupational solvent exposure was determined by two different methods: Bureau of Census codes judged by experts to probably include solvent exposure and self-reported exposure. First trimester solvent exposure classified by either method (n=52) was significantly associated with spontaneous abortion, adjusted odds ratio 3.34 (95% confidence interval 1.42, 7.81). Among 29 women reporting regular and daily solvent exposure, the adjusted odds ratio increased to 4.44 (95% confidence interval 1.86, 10.58). Work in electronics assembly was significantly associated with delivering a low birth weight infant (adjusted odds ratio 5.38; 95% confidence interval 1.42, 20.46) but was not associated with spontaneous abortions. Further research using biological monitoring and/or other objective measures of exposure is needed to validate these findings.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, May 1991, Vol.33, No.5, p.597-604. 34 ref.

CIS 91-1635 Grandjean P.
World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe
Ecogenetics - Genetic predisposition to the toxic effects of chemicals
A review of the current knowledge in the science of ecogenetics, published as a follow-up to the WHO Consultation on Genetic Predisposition to Toxic Effects of Chemicals, held in Krefeld (Germany), 17-20 Oct. 1989. Of particular interest from an OSH viewpoint are chapters on: genetic disposition to occupationally-related diseases (E.J. Calabrese); detection of unsuspected non-fava-bean-sensitive glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in semiconductor fabrication workers in Israel (D.T. Teitelbaum and B. Raikhlin); predisposition in exposure to carbon disulfide (D. Djuric); ethical aspects of genetic predisposition to disease (in particular, as they affect workers, P. Grandjean); significance of hypersusceptibility for risk assessment (C. Sonich-Mullin); regulatory practices to protect hypersusceptible groups of workers (F. Kaloyanova).
Chapman and Hall, 2-6 Boundary Row, London SE1 8HN, United Kingdom and 29 West 35th Street, New York, NY 10001, USA, 1991. xiv, 288p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 35.00.

CIS 91-1577 Klein R., Clauzade B.
The effects of electromagnetic interference on some equipment - Risks related to malfunction
Effets des perturbations électromagnétiques sur certains équipements - Risques liés aux dysfonctionnements [in French]
The recent development of microprocessor-based systems has led to the close study of their resistance to electromagnetic interference. These sometimes include malfunctions which can affect the safety level of the electronic devices operating industrial equipment. This electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) problem has 3 main factors: the source of the perturbation, the coupling mode and the system affected. Actual cases of malfunction were studied and are described in the article. Basic rules are established to reduce the level of electromagnetic interference, and to increase the resistance of systems to such interference.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st Quarter 1991, No.142, Note No.1811-142-91, p.5-20. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 91-1154 Nicholas C., Wangel A.
University of Malaya's Institute for Advanced Studies
Safety at work in Malaysia
This book is the outcome of a one day workshop held at the University of Malaya's Institute for Advanced Studies, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 3 October 1989. It provides a profile of current research on occupational safety and health problems in Malaysia and presents an overview of the legal and institutional arrangements for standard-setting, monitoring of occupational safety and health problems, and the compensation of industrial accidents. Proposals for legislative reform in this field are also discussed. The book also documents particular work hazards in the country. These include mineral and cotton dust exposure, the effects of office automation, hazards at sawmills, and the consequences of working in the electronics industry. The experience of workers and the role of safety organisations at the plant level are also considered.
Sun U Book Co. Sdn. Bhd., Lot 4, Jalan 13/6A, 46200 Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia, 1991. ix, 196p. Illus. 208 ref.

CIS 91-909 Gupta B.N., Rastogi S.K., Husain T., Mathur N., Pangtey B.S.
A study of respiratory morbidity and pulmonary function among solderers in the electronics industry
Pulmonary function assessment of 197 solderers using lead-tin alloy impregnated solder was compared with findings observed in 143 unexposed controls. Findings showed an excessive prevalence of respiratory symptoms in the exposed workers, with a higher prevalence among females. The solder fumes mainly induced a restrictive type of ventilatory disturbance followed by a mixed variety. A small fraction of the exposed group suffered from bronchial obstruction, although only a mild degree of ventilatory abnormalities was observed. The concentrations of lead fumes and organic solvents were found to be below recommended TLV values. Recommendations include provision of improved ventilation with local exhaust ducts for each worker.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1991, Vol.52, No.2, p.45-51. Illus. 23 ref.


CIS 97-966 Cote A.E.
Industrial fire hazards handbook
Contents of this manual: industrial fire risk management; hazard analysis and risk assessment; life safety in industrial occupancies; plant emergency organization and training; pre-planning for industrial emergencies; fire hazards in 22 major industries and in 14 processes; general occupancy fire hazards associated with flammable and combustible liquids, industrial gases, liquefied petroleum gases, computer centres, clean rooms, laboratories, boiler-furnaces, fluid power systems, refrigeration systems, air moving equipment, materials handling systems, electrical installations, and industrial storage; warehouse pre-fire planning and fire fighting operations; industrial waste control; record storage; industrial housekeeping.
National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02269, USA, 3rd ed., 1990. 1304p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index.

CIS 96-217 Clean room safety and health management
Kurīn rūmu no anzen eisei kanri [in Japanese]
Clean rooms are especially important in four sectors of Japanese industry: precision instruments, electronics, food and pharmaceuticals. In addition describing the environmental conditions that must be met for a clean room to meet applicable criteria in Japan and elsewhere, this report explains the physical, chemical and biological hazards due to the clean-room environment and to the processes conducted in clean rooms, presents typical management structures for clean-room operations in the four industrial sectors, summarizes applicable Japanese safety and health regulations and lists hazardous substances and their properties. Annexes list (1) hazardous reactions of substances used in the processes typical of clean rooms, and (2) permissible levels of contaminants in wastes for land fill or disposal at sea.
Japan Industrial Safety and Health Association, 5-35-1 Shiba, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108, Japan, Sep. 1990. 128p. Illus. 36+3 ref.

CIS 92-1294 Sartori P., Pahlmann W.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Pollutant exposure in the microelectronics industry
Stoffbelastung in der Mikroelektronik [in German]
A questionnaire survey of users of semiconductor technology in the Federal Republic of Germany resulted in an inventory of 358 substances. For each substance its use (e.g. for etching, cleaning, oxidation) and the hazards involved were compiled. Workplace exposure was estimated by taking into account types and conditions of processes, quantities of substances used and existing occupational safety standards. Measurements were taken at representative workplaces. In most cases concentrations were far below the maximum allowable values. Summaries in English and French.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, Am Alten Hafen, D-W-2850 Bremerhaven 1, Germany, 1990. 122p. Illus. 42 ref. Price: DEM 22.00.

CIS 91-1580 Roos G.
Aspects of occupational medicine concerning manufacture in clean rooms
Arbeitsmedizinische Aspekte bei der Fertigung in Reinräumen [in German]
Health requirements placed on workers in the microchip manufacturing industry who work in clean rooms include absence of respiratory diseases, urinary tract infections, skin diseases, obesity, impaired vision, claustrophobia, epilepsy, frequent migraines and spinal diseases. The importance of abstention from smoking during and 2 hours prior to work in clean rooms and the ability to work in shifts is stressed. Clothing worn in clean rooms must protect against high air velocities.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, Sep. 1990, Vol.25, No.9, p.407-408, 413-418. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 91-1576 Wave solder operations in the electronics industry: An occupational health and safety guide
This guide identifies hazards associated with wave solder operations and advises on precautions. Contents: legal requirements; description of the wave soldering process; chemical hazards (including air sampling strategies and lead control programmes); safety hazards; fire protection; equipment lockout recommendations during maintenance; checklists for managers.
Industrial Accident Prevention Association, 2 Bloor Street West, Toronto, Ontario M4W 3N8, Canada, 1990. 34p. 6 ref.

CIS 91-1669 Brauns U.
Gas detection in clean rooms of the microelectronics industry in the context of technology and safety engineering
Gasdetektion für Reinräume der Mikro-Elektronik im technologischen und sicherheitstechnischen Umfeld [in German]
The outlined gas detection system installed in a clean room of a microelectronics plant in Germany comprises: electrochemical hydrogen and other process gas detectors for monitoring room air and waste gas as well as leakage detectors. A central control panel coordinates all detectors, triggers alarm and switches off the gas supply. The gas is transported in double-jacketed pipes.
AUER Mitteilungen, 1990, No.12, p.13-20. Illus.

CIS 91-1181 Vandevyver B., Leprince A.
Working conditions in clean rooms - Survey in 9 firms
Les conditions de travail en salles propres - Etude dans 9 entreprises [in French]
This paper describes working conditions and the risks involved in working in clean rooms in different sectors of activity (pharmaceutical industry, microelectronics, food industry etc.) The study focusses on four major aspects of working conditions: noise, air conditioning, changing into and out of working clothes, and isolation and communication difficulties. Strain proved to increase with the stringency of the cleanliness requirements. The results of the study point the way to recommendations on ventilation, communication between the clean rooms and the outside world, work organisation and personnel management.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th Quarter 1990, No.141, Note No.1800-141-90, p.775-786. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 91-465 Koh D., Foulds I.S., Aw T.C.
Dermatological hazards in the electronics industry
This article reviews dermatological hazards in connection with the main industrial processes in the electronics industry. They include exposure to irritants and allergens during common operations such as soldering, cleaning operations, materials handling, procedures for control of static electricity and low humidity in the work environment. In spite of the numerous dermatological hazards, the risk for work-related skin disorders among electronics workers appears to be low when compared with other industries. However, the vast size of the electronics workforce will contribute to large numbers of workers with occupational dermatoses. Occupational health personnel responsible for factories in the electronics industry should therefore be aware of the dermatological hazards present, and how these may lead to work-related dermatoses.
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 1990, Vol.22, No.1, p.1-7. Illus. 45 ref.

CIS 91-166 Telework
This issue of the ILO's Conditions of Work Digest, composed of 3 main parts, presents an extensive overview on telework. An introduction examines the extent of telework, the reasons for its introduction and its implications for workers, employers and communities. It introduces occupational, geographical and sectoral distribution of telework and provides information on legal status of teleworkers, their working conditions, and the potential of telework to assist the disabled and other special categories of workers. This part also reports on the positions of workers' and employers' organisations regarding telework. A second part contains 57 case descriptions of telework practice, including initiatives of public authorities and enterprise experiences. An annotated bibliography with over 150 entries shows how the debate on telework has developed in the past 10 years.
Conditions of Work Digest, 1990, Vol.9, No.1, 252p. Bibl. Index. Price: CHF 40.00.

CIS 90-1383 Ayoub M.A.
Ergonomic deficiencies: II. Probable causes
This is Part II of a 3-part series that examines various aspects of ergonomic deficiencies at work. Causes of ergonomic deficiencies and their identification and assessment through the use of checklists are considered.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1990, Vol.32, No.2, p.131-136. Illus. 8 ref.


CIS 91-2013 Barham T.D., Russell M.F., Gooding D.
Improving the protection afforded by earmuffs to employees who are exposed to noise
This study investigated causes of variations in the protection afforded by earmuffs among different wearers. Microphones were installed in five earmuff cups worn by workers in an electronics factory where the noise was due to a large lamination press. Real-time measurements of sound level pressure were made both before and after instruction on how to fit the earmuffs correctly. Results showed that simple instruction on how to fit the hearing protectors gave an overall improvement in protection of 4dB. The effect of wearing safety spectacles was found to be negligible. Subjects with short hair tended to achieve higher levels of protection than those with long or curly hair.
Noise Control Engineering Journal, Sep.-Oct. 1989, Vol.33, No.2, p.67-76. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 91-1232 Bruze M., Almgren G.
Occupational dermatoses in workers exposed to epoxy-impregnated fiberglass fabric
In a plant producing printed circuit boards 84 of 143 employees complained of dermatoses. Of these 79 were examined by patch tests with products from the work environment. In 35 (22%) evidence of occupational dermatoses was found. Contact allergy to bisphenol A diglycidyl ether was diagnosed in six persons.
Dermatosen, 1989, Vol.37, No.5, p.171-176. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 91-164 Szadkowski D.
New problems at workplaces arising from the combination of familiar substances with new production methods
Neue Probleme bei der Kombination bekannter Arbeitsstoffe mit neuen Arbeitstechniken [in German]
New technologies can pose new problems as is illustrated by the production of semiconductors. Workers are exposed to 60 different gaseous pollutants in clean rooms with about 43 air exchanges per hour. Experimental studies are being conducted to gain information on the harmfulness of that exposure. As an example, preliminary results of the exposure of rabbits to various mixtures of 1,1,2-trichloroethane and 1,4-dioxane are summarised. They reveal a dependence of enzyme activity on the mixing ratio and on the duration of exposure.
Information für den Betriebsarzt, 1989, No.3, p.2-5. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 91-167 Suzuki M.
Structure and air flow pattern of clean rooms for LSI manufacturing
Handōtai kurin-rūmu no kōzō to kūki no nagare [in Japanese]
In clean rooms used for LSI manufacturing, it is indispensable to circulate a high volume of air all the time. A clean room, whose ceiling is covered with an air filter and whose floor is perforated, is shaped in such a way as to maintain laminar air flow as much as possible. The relation between clean room structure and accidents caused by process gases, chemicals (acids and solvents), electricity and fire is discussed. The most effective means of accident prevention in clean rooms used is to educate the workers in how to work and how to evacuate the clean room.
Journal of Industrial Hygiene of Japan - Rōdō eisei kōgaku, June 1989, No.28, p.9-14. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 90-877 Flick H.
Unskilled labour by women in industrial production
Frauenarbeitsplätze für ungelernte und angelernte Tätigkeiten in der industriellen Produktion [in German]
Unskilled work by women in consumer electronics, textile and clothing industries involves e.g. assembly-line work, soldering or ironing. Work-related health problems (backache and neck disorders, visual function disorders, noise-induced hearing loss) and preventive measures (e.g. ergonomic design of workplaces) are outlined. A survey on job satisfaction revealed for instance that women with high physical strain felt satisfied with their work.
BAD-Inform, 1989, No.2, p.1-6. Illus. 1 ref.

CIS 90-322 Paul M., Himmelstein J., Weinstein S., Pransky G., McDougal C., Brogie B., Legendre S.
Ocular infections and the industrial use of microscopes
A cluster of ocular infections occurred in one area of a computer fabrication facility that relied on the use of industrial microscopes. A questionnaire was administered to all employees in this area. Microscope oculars were cultured and compared with control microscopes from a nonindustrial setting. Risk of infection was correlated with the number of hours of microscope use per day and subjective indicators of cleanliness. Bacterial cultures confirmed increased colony counts in industrial oculars compared with control oculars. Hygienic practices were instituted similar to those employed in medical settings. No further outbreaks of conjunctivities have been reported in a 1-year follow-up.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1989, Vol.31, No.9, p.763-766. 24 ref.

CIS 90-321 Doyle L., Gallagher K., Health B.S., Patterson W.B.
An outbreak of infectious conjunctivitis spread by microscopes
Among the potential occupational hazards of microscope use is the transmission of infectious agents among employees. A large (145 cases) and costly ($647 000) epidemic of viral conjunctivitis in a microelectronics factory is reported. Spread of the illness appeared to be through sharing of microscopes among employees. Routine handwashing instructions and safety glasses failed to prevent spread of the epidemic. Mandatory screening prior to work and temporary plant shut-down were finally successful. Efforts to control this outbreak and recommendations to prevent similar epidemics in other workplaces are discussed.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1989, Vol.31, No.9, p.758-762. 12 ref.

CIS 90-159
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists
Hazard assessment and control technology in semiconductor manufacturing
Presentations from a symposium (Cincinnati, Ohio, USA, 20-22 Oct. 1987) co-sponsored by the Semiconductor Industry Association, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. The meeting provided a forum for the exchange of information among researchers, health and safety personnel from industry, equipment and material suppliers and representatives of US governmental agencies. The areas covered were: health studies, hazard control technology of manufacturing processes, catastrophic releases and emerging technologies. The health studies include statistics on occupational injuries and illnesses in the industry for the period 1980-1985.
Lewis Publishers Inc., 12 South Main Street, P.O. Drawer 519, Chelsea, MI 48118, USA, 1989. 329p. Illus. Bibl. Index. Price: USD 45.00.


CIS 93-234 Baba H.
Chemical hazards in the electronics industry
Denshi sangyō ni okeru kemikaru hazādo [in Japanese]
The characteristics of chemical hazards that are encountered in the electronics (particularly, the semiconductor) industry, as compared to other manufacturing industries, are described. The magnitude of the problem is illustrated by the large variety of highly dangerous chemicals used and released in the manufacture of optoelectronic and integrated circuit devices, the hazards posed to workers and the environment, and the difficulties and costs of counteracting them. The processes and chemicals involved in the fabrication of semiconductor-grade silicon, single crystal formation, integrated circuit devices, light-emitting diode and solar photovoltaic devices are presented.
Air Cleaning - Kūki Seijō, Oct. 1988, Vol.26, No.3, p.1-13. Illus.

CIS 91-261 The safe storage, handling and use of special gases in the micro-electronics industry
Contents of this Code of Practice: key requirements for employers of personnel using special gases; potential hazards of compressed gas containers; potentially hazardous properties of gases; location, design, construction and operation of the gas container storage area; handling of gas containers; gas supply points; gas supply systems; disposal of waste gases; operating principles for gas supply systems; plant maintenance; general safety procedure.
The British Compressed Gases Association, St. Andrews House, 26 Brighton Road, Crawley, West Sussex RH10 6AA, United Kingdom, 1988. 55p. 17 ref.

CIS 90-901 Bruynzeel D.P., Hennipman G., Van Ketel W.G.
Irritant contact dermatitis and chrome-passivated metal
An outbreak of hand dermatitis is reported amongst employees working on a new assembly line of an electronics factory. Twenty-four out of 41 employees had signs of irritant contact dermatitis. The fingertips and the dorsal parts of the hands were especially affected. Mechanical factors in combination with zinc-chromium compounds from galvanised steel seemed to be responsible for the dermatitis and the dry skin. The use of an emollient solved the problem.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 1988, Vol.19, No.3, p.175-179. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 90-516 Kase T.
Safety for a semiconductor fabrication facility
Handōtai-seizō-kōjō ni okeru anzentaisaku-shisutemu [in Japanese]
There are some potential hazards in semiconductor fabrication facilities including health hazards and risks of fire, explosion, air pollution and water pollution. A gaseous or liquid chemical substance may leak from a pipe, a vessel or other process equipment or an unpredictable chemical reaction may occur in an exhaust equipment, such as a duct or a waste gas scrubber. Fail-safe process equipment, hazard detectors and protective equipment are necessary for safety. A cabinet for cylinders of toxic or combustible gas is an example. It is installed with gas flow monitors, automatic cylinder-valve-closers, gas leakage detectors, exhaust ducts, fire detectors and automatic fire extinguishers. In case of emergency, the cylinder valve will be automatically closed and, simultaneously, alarms will go off in the process room and the control room of the facility. Operators must operate equipment in ways that prevent accidents and decrease hazards. A computer-controlled safety system is useful and increases the reliability of the operator who must correctly operate emergency procedures at critical stages.
Air Cleaning - Kūki Seijō, Oct. 1988, Vol.26, No.3, p.14-33. Illus. 35 ref.

CIS 90-163 Roos G.
Higher rate of miscarriages in microchip manufacture?
Erhöhte Fehlgeburtenrate bei der Fertigung von Mikrochips? [in German]
Two studies in the USA among 300 and 700 women, respectively, in microchip manufacture yielded inconclusive results as to the relationship between work and miscarriages. Safety and health measures by a microchip manufacturer in the Federal Republic of Germany are outlined. They include monitoring of air quality in the workplace, in order to check compliance with exposure limits, and biological monitoring.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, 1988, Vol.23, No.3, p.77-78.

CIS 89-1227 Pastides H., Calabrese E.J., Hosmer D.W., Harris D.R.
Spontaneous abortion and general illness symptoms among semiconductor manufacturers
Personal interviews were conducted with manufacturing workers, spouses of male manufacturers, and an internal control group. Elevated spontaneous abortion ratios were observed for females working in the "diffusion" (38.9%) and photolithographic processes (31.1%). Various general health symptoms were examined and reported more frequently among manufacturers than the non-exposed. These results should be viewed as tentative until studies with larger numbers and more detailed exposure data are carried out.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, July 1988, Vol.30, No.7, p.543-551. 46 ref.

CIS 89-554 Bennett D.E., Mathias C.G.T., Susten A.S., Fannick N.L., Smith A.B.
Dermatitis from plastic tote boxes impregnated with an antistatic agent
An outbreak of dermatitis occurred among exployees of a microelectronics firm. In a cross-sectional epidemiologic investigation, the authors found that dermatitis of the hands or arms had occurred among 14 of 29 (48.3%) employees of the incoming inspection department where plastic tote boxes recently purchased from one manufacturer had been used, compared to only one case among 17 (5.9%) employees in another department which had not used these boxes. Affected workers could detect an oily film on the surfaces of these new boxes, but not on older ones. The authors identified the oily film to be a surface accumulation of bis-hydroxyethyl-tallow amine (BHETA), an antistatic agent with which the tote boxes had been impregnated. Subsequent toxicologic investigation established that BHETA could provoke both follicular and nonfollicular irritant dermatits, and was also a potential skin sensitiser. Antistatic agents should be considered as potential causes of dermatitis among employees who handle electrical parts transported in plastic boxes, particularly when affected employees can detect an oily film on the box surfaces.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Mar. 1988, Vol.30, No.3, p.252-255. 2 ref.

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