Electronics industry - 262 entries found
Your search criteria are
Shih T.S., Liou S.H., Chen C.Y., Chou J.S.
Correlation between urinary 2-methoxy acetic acid and exposure to 2-methoxy ethanol
To examine the correlation between airborne 2-methoxy ethanol (ME) exposures and urinary 2-methoxy acetic acid (MAA), 8-hour time weighted average (TWA) personal breathing zone samples and urine samples before and after the shift were collected from Monday to Saturday for 27 workers exposed to ME and on Friday for 30 control workers. No correlation was found between airborne exposure to ME and urinary MAA for special operation workers due to the use of personal protective equipment. For regular operation workers, a significant correlation was found between urinary MAA (mg/g creatinine) on Friday at the end of the shift and the weekly mean exposures of ME in a 5 day working week. The proposed biological exposure index BEI, which corresponds to exposure for 5 days and 8 hours a day to 5ppm, extrapolated from the regression equation, is 40mg MAA/g creatinine. A significant correlation was also found between the weekly increase of urinary MAA and the weekly mean exposures of ME. The recommended value of the weekly increase of urinary MAA for 5 days repeated exposures of 5ppm ME is 20mg/g creatinine.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 1999, Vol.56, No.10, p.674-678. Illus. 21 ref.
Liu W.C.V., Sanchez-Monroy D., Parga G.
Anthropometry of female maquiladora workers
This paper presents 12 body dimensions of female workers of the maquiladora industry along the Mexico-US border. These data are compared with anthropometric characteristics of Mexican-American females and females in Colombia, Japan, Korea and the US. Anthropometric characteristics of female maquiladora workers were found to be significantly different from those of the Mexican-American females. On the average, the maquiladora females were 47mm shorter in stature than Mexican-American females. The maquiladora females also had smaller biacromial breadth, by 18mm, and wider bitrochanter breadth, by 25mm, than the Mexican-American females. The results also show that maquiladora females and Japanese females shared similar anthropometric characteristics. This paper provides a preliminary data set for the anthropometric characteristics of the maquiladora females.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, June 1999, Vol.24, No.3, p.273-280. 16 ref.
Elliott R.C., Jones J.R., McElvenny D.M., Pennington M.J., Northage C., Clegg T.A., Clarke S.D., Hodgson J.T., Osman J.
Spontaneous abortion in the British semiconductor industry: An HSE investigation
Following reports from the USA which suggested an association between risk of spontaneous abortion (SAB) and work in fabrication rooms and/or exposure to ethylene glycol ethers, the United Kingdom Health and Safety Executive (HSE) conducted a case-control study to examine the risk of SAB in British female semiconductor industry workers. 2,207 women who had worked at eight manufacturing sites during a 5-year retrospective time frame participated in the study. The overall SAB rate in the industry was 10.0% (65 SABs/651 pregnancies). The crude odds ratio (OR) for fabrication work was 0.65. This was essentially unchanged after adjustment for a range of potential confounding factors in the first three months of pregnancy and was reduced to 0.58 after adjustment for smoking in the previous 12 months. There were no statistically significantly elevated ORs for any work group or any specific chemical or physical exposure in the industry. There is no evidence of an increased risk of SAB in the British semiconductor industry. Reactions to this article included two letters to the editor contesting the validity of the conclusions of the study.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1999, Vol.36, No.5, p.557-572; 584-585; 586. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Farrow A., Shea K.M., Little R.E.
Birthweight of term infants and maternal occupation in a prospective cohort of pregnant women
To study the relationship between birthweight of term infants and maternal occupation, information on job titles, socio-demographic factors and other lifestyle factors was obtained through questionnaires from a cohort of 14,000 pregnant women in the United Kingdom. For 9,282 women who delivered term infants and reported a job for the relevant period, there was a significant difference in mean birthweight among the nine major job groups. A 148g difference was found between the mean birthweight of infants born to women with professional occupations and those with plant and machine operative jobs. Multiple regression analysis was used, adjusted for sex of infant, parity, maternal height, smoking, caffeine consumption and race. Despite the absence of a significant association between birthweight and job after adjustment, it was found that the jobs with the lowest birthweights included metal forming or welding, electric or electronic work, jobs in the textile industry, and assembling and working with mobile or stationary equipment.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 1998, Vol.55, No.1, p.18-23. 37 ref.
Ergonomics in industry - Two cases of implementation
Ergonomía en la industria - Dos casos de implementación [in Spanish]
Topics: automation; case study; Colombia; electronics industry; ergonomics; housekeeping; lighting; noise; protective gloves; sound attenuation; work efficiency; work organization; workplace design.
Protección y seguridad, Jan.-Feb. 1998, Vol.44, No.257, p.23-28. Illus.
Luo J.C.J., Hsu K.H., Hiseh L.L., Wong C.J., Chang M.J.W.
Lung function and general illness symptoms in a semiconductor manufacturing facility
Pulmonary risk in a semiconductor plant was assessed by conducting pulmonary function tests and a symptoms survey. There was a borderline significance of higher prevalence of restrictive lung abnormality in male photolithographic workers than in male control workers. There was a significantly higher prevalence of restrictive lung abnormality in male ion-implantation workers than in male control workers. There were significantly higher prevalences of airway irritation, eye irritation, headache, stress, tiredness, and poor memory in female photolithographic or etch/diffusion workers than in control workers. Results suggest that restrictive lung abnormality is a potential health effect in male silicon-wafer fabrication workers in the semiconductor industry. Topics: chest radiography; electronics industry; epidemiologic study; eye irritation; fatigue; mental stress; migraine; pulmonary function; respiratory diseases; respiratory function tests; risk factors; semiconductor devices; sex-linked differences.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 1998, Vol.40, No.10, p.895-900. 18 ref.
Ladou J., Rohm T.
The international electronics industry
The manufacture of microelectronics products is accompanied by a high incidence of occupational illnesses, which may reflect the widespread use of toxic materials, including metals, photoactive chemicals, solvents, acids and toxic gases. There are also problems of radiation exposure and occupational stressors. The fast-paced changes of the technology underlying this industry, as well as stringent security precautions, have added to the difficultly of instituting proper health and safety measures. The microelectronics industry is a good example of an industry that is exported to many areas of the world before health and safety problems have been properly addressed and resolved. Topics: abortion; electronics industry; epidemiological aspects; harmful substances; health hazards; manufacturing processes; semiconductor devices; welding fumes.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan.-Mar. 1998, Vol.4, No.1, p.1-18. Illus. 26 ref.
Guendelman S., Samuels S., Ramirez M.
Women who quit maquiladora work on the U.S.-Mexico border: Assessing health, occupation, and social dimensions in two transnational electronics plants
Topics: accident absenteeism; anamnesis; assemblers; cohort study; electronics industry; healthy worker effect; Mexico; migrant workers; risk factors; sickness absenteeism; social aspects; women.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1998, Vol.33, No.5, p.501-509. Illus. 24 ref.
Analysis of dangerous substances
Gefahrstoff-Analytik [in German]
Update (43rd) to the loose-leaf collection of methods for monitoring compliance with exposure limits and anti-pollution laws, and for analysis of process gases, abstracted under CIS 90-955. This issue presents an overview of the analytical techniques of the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration, describes new analytical systems from the Dräger Corporation as well as their full line of indicator tubes, gives updated versions of the Chemical Safety Law (Chemikaliengesetz), Occupational Safety and Health Law (Arbeitsschutzgesetz) and Technical Rules (TRGS) 900, 903 and 905 on exposure limits, and introduces a consensus document on good laboratory practice and data processing. Topics: atmospheric pollution; chemical safety; compendium; compressed air; dangerous substances; data sheet; determination in air; directive; Germany; laboratory work; law; legislation; manuals; microelectronics; neighbourhood protection; storage tanks; threshold limit values; USA.
Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft AG & Co. KG, Rudolf-Diesel-Str. 3, 86899 Landsberg/Lech, Germany, 43. Ergänzungslieferung, Nov. 1997. 210p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Ho S.F., Phoon W.H.
The significance of aches/pains among workers in an electronics factory
315 female workers with at least three months employment history in a factory manufacturing disk drives were studied. Each worker completed a self-administered questionnaire on their personal particulars, hours of work, opinions on the work and the workplace and the presence and severity of aches/pains experienced. 44.8% of the workers had complaints of aches/pains, Of these, 57.5% reported an improvement in their symptoms during their days off. 41.8% had symptoms affecting two or more sites. The most commonly affected sites were the hands and shoulders, followed by the head and back. 66.7% of these workers reported that the pains were severe enough to affect their activities. 53.9% had to seek some form of medical treatment and 23.4% took medical leave. However, the physical examinations of this group of workers were normal. The symptoms appeared to be influenced by their attitude towards work. A significantly higher number of workers with symptoms expressed dissatisfaction with work and had complaints of a noisy and cold environment. Topics: electronics industry; hand; individual susceptibility; job dissatisfaction; musculoskeletal diseases; questionnaire survey; repetitive strain injury; risk factors; shoulder; sickness absenteeism; symptoms; women.
Medical Journal of Malaysia, June 1997, Vol.52, No.2, p.134-138. 17 ref.
Fine mechanics and electrotechnics mutual occupational accident insurance associations: Information and trends
Berufsgenossenschaft der Feinmechanik und Elektrotechnik: Infos und Trends [in German]
Topics: CD-ROM; computerized data bases; directory; electronics industry; Germany; legislation; occupational safety; precision mechanics; training material.
BC Verlags- und Mediengesellschaft mbH, Töpferstr. 14, 65191 Wiesbaden, Germany (e-mail: email@example.com), 1997. CD-ROM (needs Windows 3.1, 3.11 or 95).
Risk of lead poisoning during lead-tin wire electronic soldering operations
Risque de saturnisme lors des opérations de soudure électronique au fil plomb-étain [in French]
Topics: lead; determination in air; determination in blood; electronics industry; France; lead poisoning; questionnaire survey; soldering and brazing; tin.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 1997, Vol.37, No.4, p.455-458. Illus. 7 ref.
These 17 chapters in a major new survey of OSH examine health and safety issues in various manufacturing industries: achieving safer products; robot system safety design; small companies; welding (ergonomics and occupational hygiene); conventional lathes, cutters and upright drilling machines; surface treatment and metal finishing; industrial photographic film developing; woodworking; automotive industry; road vehicle repair; the electronics and electromechanical workplace; mining industry; metallurgical industry; glass industry; printing; shipbuilding and ship repairing.
In: The Workplace (by Brune D. et al., eds), Scandinavian Science Publisher as, Bakkehaugveien 16, 0873 Oslo, Norway, 1997, Vol.2, p.435-648. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Shigemi J., et al.
The relationship between job stress and mental health at work
A questionnaire survey of 763 workers in a Japanese electronics company identified 37.8% with mental health problems. Regression analysis indicated that after adjusting for sex, age, marital status, familial stress and physical health, subjective job stress was significantly associated with the state of mental health. Significant stress factors included too much trouble at work, too much responsibility, not being allowed to make mistakes, poor relationship with superiors, and being unable to keep up with technology.
Industrial Health, Jan. 1997, Vol.35, No.1, p.29-35. Illus. 16 ref.
Matsuda S., et al.
A study of complaints of fatigue by workers employed in Vietnamese factories with newly imported technology
A questionnaire survey of 389 workers in 10 Vietnamese factories with newly imported technology revealed that about 60% of the workers were satisfied with their current working conditions. Heat, dust and noise were identified as the most important risks. Main complaints concerned machines and equipment which were too large for Vietnamese workers, the rapid work pace, and monotonous working conditions. Female workers complained of irregularity of menstruation. The prevalence rate of subjective fatigue complaints increased significantly after work. In general, these problems were more common among workers in textile and electronics factories. Limitations of the study are discussed.
Industrial Health, Jan. 1997, Vol.35, No.1, p.16-28. 27 ref.
Keira T., et al.
Adverse effects of colophony
This literature survey reviews the uses of colophony in industry, its adverse health effects, epidemiologic studies related to its use, diagnosis of colophony-related disorders, pathophysiology and control measures. Colophony is a mixture of resin acids used in a variety of industries, in particular, as a soldering flux in the electronics industry. Its main health effects are bronchial asthma and contact dermatitis. Control measures include medical examinations focusing on allergic history, and replacement of colophony in soldering flux.
Industrial Health, Jan. 1997, Vol.35, No.1, p.1-7. 63 ref.
Ergonomics program development: Prevention in the workplace
The development of an ergonomics programme to prevent work-related repetitive strain injuries in an electronics manufacturing company is described. Hazard assessment consisted of a review of injury/illness records by department and location, work site surveys, and a survey of workers for evidence of risk-related tasks. Tasks were prioritized according to degree of hazard, and alternative interventions were developed for each task. Intervention activities included evaluation by an ergonomics corrective action team and an ergonomics specialist team, training, exercises, and changes to equipment and processes. The programme resulted in a significant reduction in repetitive strain injury severity.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1997, Vol.58, No.2, p.145-149. 6 ref.
D'Hertefelt H., Willocx M., Bentein K.
The body at work - Applying ergonomics at the workplace
Le corps au travail - Pratiques ergonomiques dans l'entreprise [in French]
Belastende houdingen en bewegingen - Ergonomie in de praktijk [in Dutch]
Topics: Belgium; building industry; case study; check lists; dairy industry; electronics industry; ergonomic evaluation; ergonomics; fibrous glass industry; hand-arm vibration; health care personnel; manual handling; manuals; manufacturing industries; meat industry; petroleum refining; pharmaceutical industry; plastic films; safe working methods; supermarkets; textile industry; transport of materials; waste disposal; wire ropes; work posture.
Institut national de recherche sur les conditions de travail, rue de la Concorde 60, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium, 1996. 254p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index.
Frieling E., Pfitzmann J., Pfaus H.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Work organisation and working hours in the field of research and development - An empirical analysis of mechanical and electrical engineering
Arbeitsorganisation und Arbeitszeitsregelungen im F&E-Bereich - Eine empirische Analyse in der Metall- und Elektrobranche [in German]
Topics: computer aided design; electronics industry; flexible working time; Germany; machinery industry; part-time employment; questionnaire survey; statistical aspects; work organization; work time schedules.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Verlag für neue Wissenschaft GmbH, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1996. xi, 240p. Illus. 113 ref.
Bureau of Workers' Activities
Chemicals in the workplace
Vol.1 of this training module covers the following aspects of chemical hazards in the workplace: routes of entry of chemicals into the body; health effects of chemicals; classification of chemicals; how to obtain information about industrial chemicals; role of health and safety representatives. Exercises: mapping chemical risks in the workplace; case study of chemical hazards; making a chemical hazard data sheet; chemicals check list. Vol.2 (Appendices) contains 11 annexes containing important subsidiary information on chemicals, such as: list of IARC evaluations; list of extremely hazardous chemicals (WHO, IPCS); how to find various kinds of information on chemicals; chemicals that have toxic effects on reproduction; carcinogenic chemicals in electronics manufacturing; list of examples of chemical antidotes; hazard data sheets for 30 commonly used chemicals in industry; chemical groups.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1996. 2 vols (x, 48p. + ii, 112p.) Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: CHF 5.00 (for the collection: CHF 50.00).
Correa A., Gray R.H., Cohe R., Rothman N., Shah F., Seacat H., Corn M.
Ethylene glycol ethers and risks of spontaneous abortion and subfertility
Occupational exposures to ethylene glycol ethers (EGE) are of concern since their reproductive toxicity has been well documented in animal studies. A retrospective cohort study was conducted among workers at two semiconductor manufacturing plants in the eastern United States in 1980-1989. Assessment of potential exposure to mixtures containing EGE was based on reported processes and company records. Among female workers potential exposure to mixtures containing EGE was associated with increased risks of spontaneous abortion and subfertility. Both of these risks exhibited a dose-response relation. Among spouses of male worker potentially exposed to mixtures containing EGE, there was no increased risk of spontaneous abortion, but a nonsignificant increased risk of subfertility was ascertained.
American Journal of Epidemiology, Apr. 1996, Vol.143, No.7, p.707-717. 38 ref.
Harber P., Schenker M.B., Balmes J.R.
Occupational and environmental respiratory disease
Contents of this manual: history of occupational and environmental respiratory disease; clinical and epidemiologic methods; exposure assessment methods; general disease categories; agents causing various respiratory diseases (asbestos, man-made fibres and nonasbestos fibrous silicates, nonfibrous inorganic dusts, coal, silica, cotton dust, organic solvents, metals, acute gaseous exposure, ionizing radiation, infectious organisms, diesel exhaust); industries associated with respiratory disease (agriculture, forestry products, mining, foundries and steelmaking, petroleum, electric power generation, welding, electronics and semiconductors, hospitals and laboratories, diving, aerospace); environmental health effects (environmental tobacco smoke, indoor and outdoor air pollution); clinical programmes; regulatory and policy issues; workplace control strategies (respirators, exposure control).
Mosby-Year Book Inc., 11830 Westline Industrial Drive, St. Louis, Missouri 63146, USA, 1996. xviii, 1038p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 110.00.
Federal environmental regulations affecting the electronics industry
This document provides information on U.S. environmental regulations potentially affecting the electronics industry. The requirements cover those chemicals identified as being in use in the semiconductor manufacturing, printed wiring board manufacturing, semiconductor packaging, and display manufacturing industries.
Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 401 M Street SW, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Sep. 1995. v, 67p.
Gräff B., Hubert K., Zoller H.J.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Study on air velocities and air temperatures in industrial workplaces
Untersuchungen von Luftgeschwindigkeiten und Lufttemperaturen an industriellen Arbeitsplätzen [in German]
Air temperature, air velocity and relative humidity were measured at various locations in 11 industrial plants. The measurements were taken at 0.1, 1.1 and 1.7m above the ground. In all cases the values for air turbulence and air temperatures were in the acceptable range. Industrial plants studied included manufacturers of ventilation and air conditioning systems, a large truck assembly plant, a manufacturer of electronic components, a boiler manufacturer, a company producing punched metal products and chemical plants producing household products.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Verlag für neue Wissenschaft GmbH, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1995. 188p. Illus. 8 ref.
Iron and metal industry
Jern- og metalindustri [in Danish]
A systematic summary of publications and documentation regarding working environment factors and the state of workers' health in the Danish iron and metal industry. The sector is characterized by many different operations, including the processing and assembly of metal and metal articles with large and small machines as well as with hand tools. Many different materials and chemicals are used. Other activities include the handling and transportation of articles and the collecting, monitoring and dissemination of information. Exposure to all well-known working environment factors can be found in this sector. The highest exposures are found in shipbuilding. The principal problems in different parts of the industry are: iron and metal goods industry - strain injuries, noise and accidents (other factors are brain injuries and respiratory diseases); machine processing - noise, strain injuries and accidents (also respiratory diseases); electronics industry - strain injuries and skin diseases (also respiratory diseases); shipbuilding yards - noise, strain injuries and accidents (also brain injuries and cancer); instrument, gold and silver industries - strain injuries and respiratory diseases.
Arbejdstilsynet, At-Salg, Landskronagade 33, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, 1995. 96p. Price: DKK 100.00 + tax.
Williams M.E., Baldwin D.G., Manz P.C.
Semiconductor industrial hygiene handbook - Monitoring, ventilation, equipment and ergonomics
This manual provides a practical guide to the provision of industrial hygiene services in the semiconductor processing industry. Contents: industrial hygiene monitoring for chemical and physical agents (exposure assessment, biomonitoring, air contaminants, continuous gas monitoring, radiation hazards); ventilation systems; personal protective equipment (chemical protective gloves, respirators); indoor air quality; ergonomics (stressful postures, materials handling, workplace and equipment design); record keeping; plan review. Appendices provide details of semiconductor processing technology.
Noyes Publications, Mill Road, Park Ridge, New Jersey 07656, USA, 1995. xv, 348p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: USD 64.00.
Recognition of health hazards in industry: A review of materials and processes
Following a general introduction to the recognition of health hazards in industry, the remaining chapters of this manual cover hazards associated with materials and processes in different industries: metal production (aluminium, iron and steel); metal preparation (abrasive blasting, acid and alkali cleaning of metals, metal degreasing, grinding, polishing and buffing); metal product fabrication (forging, foundry operations, metal machining, welding, heat treating, nondestructive testing); metal finishing (electroplating, metal thermal spraying, painting); chemical-based products (chemical processing, petroleum refineries, rubber products, acids, ammonia and chlorine, paint manufacture, plastic products); electronics (soldering, microelectronics, batteries); minerals (quarrying, mining, smelting, mineral products); pulp and paper; textile fibres (cotton and rayon). Control methods are outlined.
John Wiley and Sons Ltd, Baffins lane, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 1UD, United Kingdom, 2nd ed., 1995. xiii, 538p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 70.00.
Sun C.C., Guo Y.L., Lin R.S.
Occupational hand dermatitis in a tertiary referral dermatology clinic in Taipei
In order to identify the important industries and causal agents for occupational hand dermatitis (OHD), patients seen in the Contact Dermatitis Clinic of the National Taiwan University Medical Center were interviewed and examined. Patch testing was carried out, using the European standard series and suspected allergens on patients suspected of having allergic skin diseases. OHD was diagnosed according to medical history, work exposure, physical examination and patch test findings. Of the 448 patients with hand dermatitis seen between 1987 and 1993, 36% were diagnosed as having OHD. Electronics, hairdressing, and the medical, chemical and construction industries were the most prominent sectors associated with OHD. In the patients with OHD, 58.5% had irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) and 41.5% allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Dorsal fingers, nail folds and dorsal hands were most frequently involved in patients with ACD; dorsal fingers, volar fingers and fingertips were most frequently involved with those with ICD. Patients with atopic history and palm involvement were more likely to have ICD, and those with nail fold involvement more likely to have ACD. In patients with ACD, the most important allergens were dichromate, nickel, cobalt, fragrance mix, epoxy resin, thiuram mix, and p-phenylenediamine.
Contact Dermatitis, Dec. 1995, Vol.33, No.6, p.414-418. 14 ref.
Broadwell D.K., Darcey D.J., Hudnell H.K., Otto D.A., Boyes W.K.
Work-site clinical and neurobehavioral assessment of solvent-exposed microelectronics workers
Clinical and neurobehavioural assessments were carried out among 25 microelectronics workers and a matched control group. Retrospective exposure assessments in the study group suggested chronic low-level exposure to solvents, with intermittent acute exposures. Results of neurobehavioural tests indicated that the exposed group had measurable deficits in sensory, motor and cognitive function. They also reported more medical symptoms and altered mood states. Three workers had findings consistent with a solvent-induced encephalopathy. Results support an association between chronic low-dose solvent exposure and measurable neurobehavioural changes.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1995, Vol.27, No.5, p.677-698. Illus. 83 ref.
de Peyster A., Silvers J.A.
Arsenic levels in hair of workers in a semiconductor fabrication facility
This study examines the relationship between total arsenic (As) levels in the hair of employees in a semiconductor fabrication facility and job responsibility, a surrogate variable for As exposure potential. Maintenance personnel who regularly worked in equipment cleaning areas were assumed to have a higher potential for occupational exposure to As than other employees. Hair samples were collected from workers with high, medium and low potential for exposure and from controls (administrative employees). Total As in hair was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Exposure levels were established by taking air and wipe samples, and by evaluating returned questionnaires designed to detect nonoccupational As sources. Mean hair As, though somewhat higher than in controls, was not significantly higher in any of the exposed groups. In general, nonoccupational sources of As seemed to contribute more to hair As levels than any occupational exposure. Monitoring for low-level As exposure in this industry should only be considered if nonoccupational exposures can also be examined.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1995, Vol.56, No.4, p.377-383. 22 ref.
The safe storage, handling and use of special gases in the micro-electronics industry
Contents of this code of practive (1988 edition, see CIS 91-261): key requirements for employers of personnel using special gases; potential hazards of compressed gas containers; potentially hazardous properties of gases; location, design, construction and operation of the gas container storage area; handling of gas containers; gas supply points; gas supply systems; disposal of waste gases; operating principles for gas supply systems; plant maintenance; general safety requirements (protective equipment, training, emergency response).
British Compressed Gases Association, 14 Tollgate, Eastleigh, Hampshire SO53 3TG, United Kingdom, Rev.ed., 1995. ix, 55p. 33 ref. Price: GBP 35.00 (GBP 30.00 to member companies).
New materials and the working environment
Papers presented at an interdisciplinary seminar (Lyngby, Denmark, 22-24 August 1994). Titles: new materials and implications for the work environment; production and use of powder metallurgy products; production and use of advanced technical ceramics; fabrication of advanced polymer matrix fibre composites; new methods in surface treatment; particle deposition, retention and toxicity of poorly soluble dusts; toxicity of man-made mineral fibres; formation and emission of tungsten oxide fibres during hard-metal production; occupational hazards during machining of fibre-reinforced plastics; exposure to reactive compounds during production of fibre-reinforced plastics; life-cycle assessment in a historical perspective; integrated environmental and occupational assessment of new materials (in Denmark); the management response to new materials and their growing impact on safety, health and environment.
National Institute of Occupational Health, Lersø Parkallé 105, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, Mar. 1995. 166p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Exposure to chemical substances at workplaces with high proportions of women
Arbeitsplätze mit Gefahrstoffbelastung und hohem Frauenanteil [in German]
Three-tiered research project on exposure to chemicals at workplaces occupied mainly by women: statistics on the size and evolution of the female workforce; review of literature and specialized research on women's occupations involving exposure to hazardous substances; reports on plant visits and exposure measurements. Assessment of exposure at women's workplaces: printing and graphic arts; metal industries; electricity/electronics; glass/ceramics; chemistry/plastics; textile industry; leather/shoe industry; food industries; cleaning; health services; other. Enterprises reported on: garment; dental laboratories; optics; jewellery; electroplating; computer-assisted metalworking; electricity; mixed industries (gluing, welding, injection moulding, painting, silkscreen printing). Appendix: tables on the breakdown (in %) of women's jobs in various economic sectors in Germany (Dec.77 to Mar.92).
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1995. 236p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Report for 1990 of a study committee for testing the toxicity and other aspects of dangerous exotic chemicals used in the IC industry and elsewhere
Heisei 2 nendo - IC sangyō-ra de sayō sareru yūgaisei michi kagaku busshitsu ni taisuru dokusei shiken-ra no chōsa kenkyū i-inkai hōkokusho [in Japanese]
Report of a committee of academic and industrial experts. In 1990, its tasks were to determine the toxicity of phosphine and to conduct a questionnaire survey in the workforce involved in the manufacture of integrated circuits (ICs). Because of its high toxicity, a 4h LC50 (mouse) for phosphine could not be established directly; extrapolation from lethality at lower doses gives an estimate of 26.5-33.4ppm. Of 156 firms that received the questionnaire, 68 (120 sites, 47,000 workers) responded. Enterprises that provide equipment and gases to IC manufacturers were included as well as IC manufacturers themselves. The structures of the workforces by age, sex, type of contract and size of enterprise were determined. The identities and quantities of 50 chemicals used (silanes, compounds of arsenic, boron, rare earth elements, etc.) were tabulated. The existence of data sheets for these products and of systems for disposing of them as waste were also determined. Blood analyses were performed on a sample of the respondents and on controls employed outside the IC industry; all IC employees showed higher red blood cell counts, haemoglobin levels and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase activities, while those over 40 years of age also had elevated cholesterol and neutral fats. Facts on 251 accidents that occurred between Jan. 1985 and Oct. 1990 were collected.
Japan Industrial Safety and Health Association, Industrial Hygiene Inspection Centre, 5-35-1 Chiba, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108, Japan, no date. 360p. Illus.
Accidents in semiconductor industries
Handōtai kanren sangyō ni okeru jiko rei [in Japanese]
Accidents that have occurred in the semiconductor industry in Japan are reviewed and summarized in order to clarify hidden hazards in workplaces in the industry. The accidents fall into five categories: silane fires, silane or germane explosions, metallic silicone powder explosions, explosions or violent decompositions of chemical waste and leakage of toxic gases. Analysis of the accidents is followed by suggestions of preventive measures.
Journal of the Japan Society for Safety Engineering - Anzen kōgaku, 15 Dec. 1994, Vol.33, No.6, p.369-375. Illus. 41 ref.
Lee H.S., Koh D., Chia H.P., Phoon W.H.
Symptoms, lung function, and diurnal variation in peak expiratory flow rate among female solderers in the electronics industry
To determine whether solderers had increased diurnal variation in peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and chronic impairment of lung function, a cross-sectional study of 150 female operators doing manual soldering using flux-cored solder wire and 52 administrative staff from two electronics factories was carried out. A questionnaire was answered, the forced respiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were measured and three-hourly PEFR monitored for five working days. Because the racial composition of the experimental and control groups was different, FEV1 and FVC were analyzed for a matched sub-set of the employees. Solderers with five or more years of exposure had a significantly lower FEV1/FVC, i.e. mild obstruction, after adjustment for age, smoking and asthma.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1994, Vol.26, No.5, p.613-619. 12 ref.
Jalbert M., Maître A., Stoklov M., Romazini S., Morin B., Perdrix A.
Lead poisoning risk in microwelding operations in the electronics industry
Risque saturnin des opérations de microsoudure en électronique [in French]
Lead exposure of welders using a lead and tin alloy was assessed comparing the blood lead levels of 169 welders in the electronics industry and those of 98 controls. Procedures included monitoring of airborne lead and surveying personal hygiene practices and soldering use by questionnaire. Atmospheric concentrations were all under 75µg/m3. No blood level was over 40µg/100mL, and there was no significant difference between blood lead levels of microwelding operators and controls. However, men and women have different lead levels, and eating and drinking at the workplace significantly modify blood lead concentration. According to this study, manual soldering operators in the electronics industry, using soldering irons and a solder of 40% lead and 60% tin, are not being exposed to a lead hazard.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, 1994, Vol.55, No.8, p.589-594. 25 ref.
Vincent R., Poirot P., Subra I., Carton B., Jeandel B.
Occupational exposure to methylene chloride
Exposition professionnelle au dichlorométhane [in French]
Methylene chloride exposure in France is surveyed through an examination of two sets of findings: those of a campaign conducted in 20 firms in various sectors of the economy (chemical, pharmaceutical, food and electronics industries; manufacturing and utilization of paint strippers, cleaning solvents in the polyester industry, reprocessing of chlorinated solvents, etc.): 621 samples (396 long-term personal samples, 160 short-term and 125 atmospheric samples), and those of an analysis of 1,710 samples collated by the CRAM inter-regional chemical laboratories and available on the COLCHIC database. Many of the findings in the first set exceeded the current limit values recommended by the Ministry of Labour (ELV = 1,800mg/m3; MEV = 360mg/m3), not to mention the new values currently under discussion (ELV = 360mg/m3; MEV = 180mg/m3). In the second case, although the findings are not comparable to those of the other campaign, they do confirm the large number of different sectors with high risk factors. In the light of these results substitute processes need to be found. In particular, so-called "open-air" processes should be banned.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 2nd Quarter 1994, No.155, Note No.1958-155-94, p.157-167. 37 ref.
Klein R., Clauzade B.
Immunity of microprocessor-based systems to radiated electromagnetic interference
Immunité de systèmes à microprocesseurs aux perturbations électromagnétiques rayonnées [in French]
Most components of automatic systems used in industrial process control are standard programmable microelectronics systems, and their malfunction may affect operator safety. The purpose of this study was to analyze the level of immunity of certain components to radiated interference. One programmable industrial controller, 2 sensors (pressure and temperature), one regulator and 3 microprocessors were tested using a measuring method comparable to the standard method. The results show that even if immunity is taken into account at the design stage, malfunctions still occur when the level of interference exceeds the immunity threshold specified by relevant standards, which can sometimes happen in the industrial environment.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 1st Quarter 1994, No.154, Note No.1952-154-94, p.51-59. 6 ref.
Koh D., Lee H.S., Chia H.P., Phoon W.H.
Skin disorders among hand solderers in the electronics industry
Full-time solderers (n=150) and non-soldering administrative staff (n=52) were examined to determine the prevalence of work-related skin disorders. Prevalence rates of ever having a work-related rash since the start of work were 19.5% for workers using multicore flux and 10.3% for liquid flux users; prevalence rates for those wearing cotton gloves were lower than those for ungloved workers. Six solderers (all ungloved multicore flux users) had work-related dermatitis. Findings suggest that work-related skin disorders are fairly common among solderers and that the use of gloves and liquid flux reduces the risk of such disorders. Acne and elevated skin sebum levels were not found to be associated with soldering.
Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1994, Vol.44, No.1, p.24-28. 16 ref.
European Space Agency (ESA)
ESA Technology Transfer Database
On-line database on all aspects (including safety and health) of technology transfer, based on the T.E.S.T. (Transferable European Space Technologies) catalogue. Subjects covered by the database: automation and robotics; communications; computer software; computer-aided technologies; electric components and systems; electronics and optoelectronics; energy; life sciences and medicine; materials; mechanical components and systems; sensors and measuring techniques; structural design and mechanisms.
ESA-IRS, Via Galileo Galilei, 00044 Frascati, Italy, 1994-. Computer database, available on-line.
Hazard assessment and control technology in semiconductor manufacturing II
Proceedings of a conference on hazard assessment and control in semiconductor manufacturing held in Massachusetts, USA, October 1991. Topics covered: health studies (statistics of injury and illness 1982-1990, reproductive health, respiratory symptoms, carpal tunnel syndrome); exposure assessment (glove permeation by solvents, exposure to inorganic acids and magnetic fields etc.); toxicology (biological indicators of exposure to III-V semiconductors, medical management of exposure to hydrofluoric acid etc.); process hazard review (FMECA, HAZOP etc.); control technologies; new technologies. The proceedings of the first conference were abstracted as CIS 90-159.
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), 6500 Glenway Avenue, Bldg. D-7, Cincinnati, OH 45211-4438, USA, 1993. vii, 347p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Kitazawa S., Shimada T., Yanagisawa T.
Noise generated by an electronic parts feeder and its abatement
Denshi buhin kyokuki kara no soon to sono taisaku [in Japanese]
Vibrating parts feeders are widely used in industry. The type considered here dispenses electronic components. The parts are kept moving through the feed hopper by the vibration of an alternating-current solenoid. In the original design, two feeders each driven by its own solenoid, were mounted on a single base, which rested on the floor. When the two were mounted on a plate that was separated from the base by rubber spacers and were driven by one off-centre solenoid, noise emission was reduced by 14-15dB.
Journal of the INCE of Japan, 1 Feb. 1993, Vol.17, No.1, p.30-33. Illus. 1 ref.
Health and Safety Executive, Technology and Health Sciences Division
A review of the control of toxic gases within the microelectronic semiconductor manufacturing industry
This report reviews the use, control and monitoring of hazardous substances within the microelectronic semiconductor manufacturing industry with particular emphasis on certain toxic gases. Contents: the UK industry; the manufacturing process and hazardous substances likely to be encountered; use, control and monitoring of hazardous substances (solvents, acids, alkalis, arsine, phosphine, diborane, silane); biological monitoring; waste disposal of toxic gases; prevention of exposure to toxic gases by substitution.
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Oct. 1993. vi, 19p. 24 ref.
Bérylliose pulmonaire [in French]
Data sheet on lung berylliosis. Pathophysiology: pathogenesis of acute berylliosis; pathogenesis of chronic berylliosis. Prevalence and epidemiology. Diagnosis of berylliosis: acute berylliosis; chronic lung berylliosis (diagnosis in the workplace, diagnosis in specialized environments; aetiologic diagnosis). Evolution. Prevention: medical and technical prevention. Compensation in France.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 1993, No.55, p.259-263. 41 ref.
Dufresne A., Krier G., Muller J.F., Perrault G.
Measurement of metallic particles extracted from the lung parenchyma of two electricians and one electrotechnician
X-ray spectroscopy and laser microprobe mass analysis were used to determine the chemical nature of particles extracted from the lung parenchyma of two electricians and one electrotechnician who had died of lung cancer. The retained particles were qualitatively representative of these workers' work history (e.g. the electrician who had worked in a mine had retained more silicates than the two others). The concentration of nickel in the lungs of these workers was higher than the concentrations measured in the lungs of 39 other workers who died of different types of cancers.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1993, Vol.54, No.9, p.564-568. Illus. 8 ref.
Avoidance of health risks in the manufacture of semiconductors
Vermeiden von Gesundheitsrisiken in der Halbleiterfertigung [in German]
The proportion of micronuclei in the lymphocytes of female workers in a semiconductor production plant was determined. The workers were responsible for cleaning and maintenance of the plasma etching reactor and exposed to more than 70 different chemical substances. With 9 to 14 micronuclei per 500 cells the number was above that expected (<8/500 cells). In order to reduce the incidence of micronuclei to <8/500 cells, exhaust hoods were installed, the training of the workers was improved, respirators were distributed for work on the open plasma etching reactor, and the reactor was purged with nitrogen prior to opening.
Siemens-Zeitschrift, Special-FuE, Fall 1993, p.22-25. Illus.
International Metalworkers' Federation (IMF)
Community and environmental hazards in microelectronics manufacturing
Les dangers de l'industrie microélectronique pour les collectivités et l'environnement [in French]
A survey of the occupational and environmental hazards associated with the microelectronics industry. Contents: how hazards (i.e. dangerous substances) escape; lasting presence of toxic substances; a case study from the Mexico-US border; pollution (of air, water, soil); handling and storage; accidents, spills, other emergencies; how local communities are affected (effects of solvents, gases, metals, acids and alkalis, bonding chemicals, mixtures); improving hazard control (air pollution control, record keeping). Glossary of terms used.
IMF Bulletin on Occupational Health and Safety - Bulletin FIOM sur l'hygiène et la sécurité au travail, 1993, No.33, p.1-15 (whole issue). Illus. 11 ref.
A study of occupational dermatoses in the electronics industry
This thesis presents the results of a literature survey on dermatological hazards in the electronics industry along with a questionnaire survey of workers in two electronics factories in the United Kingdom and Singapore. Work-related skin disorders were common: 94 (33%) of the UK workers and 482 (19%) of the Singapore workers had at least one previous episode of a work-related skin disorder. The majority of disorders were due to trauma of the skin (burn scars, abrasions) while cases of irritant or allergic contact dermatitis were infrequent. There was an increasing trend in the prevalence of acne.
Journal of Occupational Medicine - Singapore, Jan. 1993, Vol.5, No.1, p.v-x, 1-76. Illus. 130 ref.
Mathiassen S.E., Winkel J., Sahlin K., Melin E.
Biochemical indicators of hazardous shoulder-neck loads in light industry
Prolonged, repetitive handling of light material is known to increase the risk of shoulder-neck disorders. Biological risk indicators related to musculoskeletal exposure, applicable by the general practitioner in the workplace, could provide an instrument for early intervention and rehabilitation. Eight women were studied, all of whom were full-time workers performing assembly tasks associated with a high prevalence of shoulder-neck complaints. All subjects were more tender in the shoulder region than young women in low-risk occupations. Heart-rate recordings indicated a low general metabolical load during work. Concentrations in antecubital venous blood of several markers for metabolical stress and cellular damage were normal for all subjects, and showed no increase during three consecutive working days. Thus, the blood markers did not reflect hazardous shoulder-neck exposure.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1993, Vol.35, No.4, p.404-407. 20 ref.
Shusterman D., Windham G.C., Fenster L.
Employment in electronics manufacturing and risk of spontaneous abortion
A large case-control study of environmental risk factors for spontaneous abortion was conducted in a California county. Because of the prevalence of electronics production work within this population, a specialized questionnaire was administered to self-identified electronics production workers. The odds ratio for spontaneous abortion and any electronics production work was 0.94 (95% confidence interval = 0.58, 1.5). Odds ratios for the three main branches of electronics production (semi-conductor fabrication, printed circuit board manufacturing, and assembly) were likewise near or below unity. Specific production activities with elevated odds ratios included semi-conductor diffusion, parts encapsulation, soldering, and flux removal, although the numbers were small and none of the confidence intervals excluded unity. Limitations of this study included modest statistical power and a potential for non-differential misclassification of exposures, both of which could bias findings towards the null.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1993, Vol.35, No.4, p.381-386. Illus. 17 ref.
< previous | 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 | next >