Surface treatment - 644 entries found
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Lückner S., Österberg L.
Improving the working environment at low pressure spraying work stations
Möjligheter att förbättra arbetsmiljön vid lågtryckssprutning [in Swedish]
A description of the low-pressure paint spraying technique is given, and it is pointed out that during normal work up to 50% of the paint sprayed may be lost into the atmosphere. To minimise atmospheric contamination, it is proposed that : the spray method and spray nozzle should be selected to ensure that paint atomisation is no finer than necessary; spraying parameters should be optimised to minimise spray loss; ventilation air should be directed in such a way as to carry spray mists away from the operator. The most important parameter affecting spray loss is the spraying distance: the greater the spraying distance the greater the paint loss. Increased air pressure and decreased paint flow also increase the paint loss.
Sveriges Mekanförbund, Box 5506, 11485 Stockholm, Sweden, Feb. 1982. 21p. Illus. 7 ref.
Nironi G., Ravarini L.M.
The operator's protective booth in spray painting
Nella verniciatura fondamentale la cabina per la protezione dell'operatore [in Italian]
Considerations on the basic health and safety requirements to be met by paint spray booths are followed by sections on: classification of spray booths and walls; cleaning of the mist-laden exhaust air; booth dimensions; ventilation system; exhaust ventilation, pressurisation, air conditioning; requirements with regard to the elimination of solvents and paint particles, to micro-climate and ambient air pollution; tables of solvent TLV's and illumination levels for paint work; minimum ventilation performances (air volume and velocity, turbulence, temperature, humidity); monitoring of air velocity; booth flooring; spray painting of cavities; relations between booth and paint spray equipment.
Rivista di meccanica, Oct. 1982 (II), No.771, p.97-107. Illus.
Gspan P., Kenda A.
Assessment of harmful substances in varnishing shops
Ocenjevanje škodljivih snovi v lakirnicah [in Slovenian]
To evaluate the exposure of varnish spayers in the furniture industry, the statistical distribution of the concentration of organic solvent vapours and of the concentration/TLV relation was investigated. Possible errors in evaluation are discussed. As the lognormal type of distribution was confirmed, the reliability of the determination was assumed to be 95%. When several harmful substances were present in the shop atmosphere, sampling was done by specially trained workers (10min twice a day), and the samples were analysed by professionals. Presentation of the mathematical model used and proposal of an index for the evaluation of the ventilation efficiency.
Delo in varnost, May-June 1982, Vol.27, No.3, p.82-90. Illus. 11 ref.
Wibowo A.A.E., Herber R.F.M., van Deyck W., Zielhuis R.L.
Biological assessment of exposure in factories with second degree usage of cadmium compounds
Biological assessment of occupational exposure to cadmium (Cd pigments for glass bottle labelling, Cd stabilisers in plastics production, Cd electroplating of engine parts, Cd stabilisers and pigments in wall paper production, CdS in television tube production) in 124 exposed and control workers included: cadmium in blood (CdB) and urine (CdU), β-microglobulin, creatinine in urine, haemoglobin, and haematocrit. In these types of work the low external cadmium exposure does not result in different CdB levels, but only in different CdU levels, revealing an increased body burden due to long-term low-level occupational Cd exposure. In biological assessment of exposure to Cd, it is essential to take age and smoking habits fully into account.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Feb. 1982, Vol.49, No.3-4, p.265-273. Illus. 12 ref.
Static electricity in coating processes
Fire hazards; fluid coating processes (compressed-air spraying high fluid-pressure airless atomising, electrostatic coating, disc atomising, dipping, etc.); dry powder coating (electrostatic spray guns, electrostatic fluidised beds); coating materials; hazards of static charges; precautions (earth monitoring; antistatic flooring in coating compartment; static elimination on coating equipment; paint/powder recovery systems); example of a plant for spraying aluminium coating on aluminium-alloy motor-car wheels (degreasing workpieces, maintaining earth contact, cleaning and maintenance).
Fire Prevention, July-Aug. 1982, No.151, p.22-26. Illus.
Niemelä R., Heikkilä P., Rantanen S., Liius R., Lund G.
Local exhaust systems and air contaminants in hot dip galvanising
Kuumasinkitysaltaiden kohdepoistot ja ilman epäpuhtaudet [in Finnish]
The composition and concentrations of fumes released during hot dip galvanising were determined and effectiveness of local exhaust ventilation systems in hot dip galvanising shops were assessed. Fume concentration and composition were measured in 9 plants, and ventilation effectiveness was determined in 5 plants. The main source of fume was usually the flux, and fume composition was ammonium chloride (41%), zinc ammonium chloride (47%), zinc chloride (5%), zinc and zinc oxide (7%) and small amounts of hydrogen chloride. Average fume concentration in the worker's breathing zone was 5.6mg/m3. Highest exposure occured when immersing articles in molten zinc. Highest fume concentrations were in plants with no local exhaust ventilation systems. The most effective systems had an exhaust hood covering the full length of the tank with an airflow of 1.3m3/s/m2. Other factors in exhaust hood design are described. French translation available from INRS, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France.
Tiöterveyslaitos, Laajaniityntie 1, 01620 Vantaa 62, Finland, 1982. 50p. Illus. 20 ref. Price: Fmk.20.00.
Chromium compounds: production and occupational exposure
Brief description of the production of chromium-containing chemicals and alloys, and literature survey of occupational exposure in the welding, chromate, chromium plating, ferrochromium, tanning and leather working and chromium pigment industries. For most occupations, exposure is to a mixture of Cr oxidation states and solubility fractions with a few notable exceptions: in the tanning industry, exposure is almost exclusively to soluble Cr(III), in the plating industry to soluble Cr(VI), and in the pigment industry, some wokers handling only lead chromate are exposed primarily to insoluble Cr(VI). Because of the wide variety of physical and chemical characteristics of the material of which airborne occupational exposures are composed, one can expect that the deposition, accumulation, clearance, bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of chromium differs widely from industry to industry, and great care must be taken in comparing exposures.
Svejsecentralen, Park Allé 345, 2600 Glostrup, København, Denmark, 1982. 80p. Illus. 88 ref.
National Action Committee for Safety and Health in the Construction Industry (Comité national d'action pour la sécurité et l'hygiène dans la construction)
Spray painting in the construction industry
La peinture par pulvérisation ou projection dans la construction [in French]
Booklet on the prevention of the specific hazards of spray painting in the building trade: poisoning and occupational diseases principally due to solvents, thinners and pigments; collective and personal protection; industrial hygiene, medical prevention; fire and explosion hazards of products used (paints and varnishes, products for spraying; tables of products most commonly used and their composition, toxicology, and suitable safety measures); mechanical or electrical hazards of the equipment used.
Notes de sécurité construction - Série travaux - Fascicule n°28, 70 Boulevard Poincaré, 1070 Bruxelles, Belgium, June 1982. 27p. Illus.
This standard, adopted as an American National Standard 2 Dec. 1981, covers the application of flammable or combustible materials when applied as a spray by compressed air, "airless" or "hydraulic atomisation" or by steam, or electrostatic methods or by any other means; it also covers the application of combustible powders when applied by powder spray guns, electrostatic powder spray guns or fluidised beds. Definitions; chapters on: location of spray application operations; spray area; electrical and other sources of ignition; ventilation; flammable and combustible liquids storage and handling; fire protection; operations and maintenance; fixed electrostatic apparatus; electrostatic hand spraying equipment; drying, curing or fusion apparatus; automobile undercoating in garages; powder coating; organic peroxides and plural component coatings; training; static electricity; portable fire extinguishers; explosion-proof electrical equipment.
National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02269, USA, 1982. 66p. Illus. 18 ref. Price: US$.7.25.
What happens in the body of paint-exposed workers ?
Cosa succede nell'organismo umano per l'esposizione alle vernici [in Italian]
Round-up of health hazards written for people on the shop floor: fate of solvent vapours and paint aerosols absorbed by inhalation; skin absorption of organic solvents; local damage caused by irritants to mucous membranes and skin (upper airways, eyes, mouth); general health damage (liver, digestive tract, kidneys, blood, nervous system); symptoms of acute, subacute and chronic poisoning by solvent vapours; synergism of chronic effects; significance of neuropsychic damage (impairment of vigilance, concentration ability and perceptual-motor performance).
Rivista di meccanica, July 1982 (II), No.766, p.79-84. Illus.
Dipping and coating processes
This standard, adopted as an American National Standard on 2 Dec. 1981, covers: definitions, location of dipping and coating processes, ventilation, construction of dipping and coating equipment, heat treatment of metals, cooling by immersion in combustible liquids, storage and handling of flammable and combustible liquids, flash point, electrical and other sources of ignition, electrical equipment for potentially explosive atmospheres, protection systems (automatic water spray extinguishing, carbon dioxide, dry chemical and halogenated agent extinguishing systems); hardening and tempering tanks; training.
National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park, Quincy, 02269 MA, USA, 1982. 47p. Illus. 21 ref. Price: US$.7.25.
Winding of low-power a.c. commutator motors and occupational safety
Namotavanje kolektorskih motora naizmenične struje malih snaga sa zaštitom na radu [in Serbocroatian]
This manual intended for those who rewind the coils of this type of universal motor deals with: design, use and operating principle of commutator motors; types of rotor and stator windings; conductor and insulating materials used for motor windings; impregnation and baking of rotor windings; calculation of the winding elements; observance of safety and health rules (correct rewiring of earth and safety circuits, balancing of rotors; fire and explosion protection of impregnating shops, exhaust ventilation; medical supervision of impregnating workers exposed to lacquer and resin vapours).
Institut za dokumentaciju zaštite na radu, Višegradska 33, Niš, Yugoslavia, 1982. 168p. Illus. 14 ref.
Pham Q.T., Meyer Bisch C., Gaertner M., Mur J.M., Pierre F., Huez D.
Respiratory investigations on workers in a polyester-fibreglass car-body assembly plant
Enquête respiratoire chez les ouvriers d'une usine de montage de carrosseries en fibres de verre-polyesters [in French]
Lung function testing of 203 workers trimming and painting polyester-fibreglass car bodies. Cases of bronchitis did not seem to be linked to occupational exposure. Findings included asthmatic signs and symptoms in workers exposed to polyurethane adhesives and paints and two-component polyester or epoxy resins, and functional disorders in smokers exposed to polyester-fibreglass dust and in persons doing painting and glueing work.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1982, Vol.43, No.2, p.97-103. Illus. 20 ref.
A fact-finding study on lead exposure of workers in painting of a tower and bridge
In 125 painters, exposed to lead (Pb) in the course of painting a bridge and tower, the erythrocyte ALAD and zinc protoporphyrin correlated well with blood-Pb levels.
Occupational Health Journal - Sangyō Igaku Jānaru, Jan. 1982, Vol.5, No.1, p.28-32. Illus. 4 ref.
Practical ventilation guide - 2. Ventilation of surface treatment vats and tanks
Guide pratique de ventilation - 2: ventilation des cuves et bains de traitement de surface [in French]
This study is intended as a guide and reference document for the design and monitoring of installations for collecting or diluting the pollutants given off by surface treatment vats and tanks. Field of use: all chemical or electrolytic processes in which the parts to be treated are immersed in liquids (excluding solvent degreasing processes, processes using salt or molten-metal baths and organic coating processes in general). Sections are devoted to: general principles of ventilation; ventilation system design (determination of category and overall level of risk, choice of ventilation configuration, flowrate calculations, effluent treatment); installation inspection and monitoring. Appendices: classification of surface treatment processes and general design data for ventilation systems.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st quarter 1982, No.106, Note No.1361-106-82, p.1-21. Illus. 10 ref.
Ahlin G., Kåmark B.
Dosage of chemicals into surface treatment baths
Dosering av kemikalier till ytbehandlingsbad [in Swedish]
Report of a study of the dosage of chemicals into surface treatment baths, using methods of reduced occupational risk. Chapters include: the occupational health problems of manual dosage; ways of reducing risk (training, automation, protective equipment); factors influencing the consumption rate of chemicals; monitoring and control mechanisms; dosage equipment (pumps, conveyor scales, screw conveyors, mixing baths); equipment for bath parameter control (pH value, conductivity, electric current, surface tension and density measurements, ion-selecting electrodes, automatic titration equipment, colorimeters); handling equipment and facilities for manual dosage; equipment selection; examples of dosage equipment installation in specific cases (with cost shown); needs for further research.
Sveriges Mekanförbund, Box 5506, 114 85 Stockholm, Sweden, 1981. 34p. Illus. 16 ref. Price: Swe.cr.15.00.
Turbin E.V., Aldyreva M.V., Matjuhin V.V.
Physiological and hygienic evaluation of working conditions in synthetic leather manufacture
Fiziologo-gigieničeskaya ocenka uslovij truda lic, zanjatyh v proizvodstve iskusstvennyh kož [in Russian]
Before, during and after a shift, physiological data (pulse rate, blood pressure, maximum muscle force and reflex time) were collected on male and female workers producing polyvinyl chloride-based synthetic leather. Similar changes in measured values were seen in both sexes. Although all trades examined (mill and calendar operators, checkers and primers) showed fatigue, working conditions for primers were worse than others: whereas other workers are exposed only to phthalate plasticisers, primers are also exposed to phosphate (including tricresyl phosphate) plasticisers (sometimes at levels above the maximum acceptable concentration) and can spend as much as 16% of their working time bent over their work. The physiological data on female primers showed them to be more strongly affected by the job, and suggested that the job be classified as more strenuous for women than for men.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Aug. 1981, No.8, p.30-35. 4 ref.
Asbestos control - Sprayed on applications
This brief booklet is designed to provide information and guidelines which will assist in the elimination of potential hazards associated with sprayed-on asbestos-containing applications. Sections cover: health effects; applicable standards; recognising and evaluating the hazard; controlling the hazard; environmental monitoring for airborne asbestos; respiratory protection; transport and disposal of asbestos-containing refuse.
Alberta Workers' Health, Safety and Compensation, Occupational Health and Safety Division, 9321 - 48th Street, Edmonton, Alberta, T6B 2R4, Canada, 1981. 40p.
Vázquez Tadei G.
Acute renal failure in carbon tetrachloride poisoning
Fracaso renal agudo en la intoxicación por tetracloruro de carbono [in Spanish]
Description of a case of acute renal failure in a house painter due to massive exposure to carbon tetrachloride, with favourable course following haemodialysis. The literature on acute renal failure in carbon tetrachloride poisoning, and the clinical and histological features of this disease entity are analysed with special reference to the combination of carbon tetrachloride exposure and alcohol consumption.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Jan.-Mar. 1981, Vol.29, No.113, p.30-36. Illus. 105 ref.
Tymański S., Zaborski L., Matuszewski J., Maryn J.
Dust pollution of air in working stations of a Gdańsk shipyard
Dust analyses and measurements were made in the galvanising shop, foundry, metal polishing shop and grinding shop of a shipyard. In the galvanising shop, the dust was considered a serious health hazard, and the gantry crane operators was exposed to levels 2.2 times higher than the maximum allowable concentration. In the foundry, dust levels were 1.5-1.8 times higher than the maximum allowable concentration. Metal polishers were exposed to over 2 times the maximum allowable concentration for dusts with a low free crystalline silica content. In the grinding shop the dust levels were over 4 times higher thann the maximum allowable concentration, and the geometrical means of particle size distribution were in the range 1.32-1.6µm.
Bulletin of the Institute of Maritime and Tropical Medicine in Gdynia, 1981, Vol.32, No.3/4, p.225-234. Illus. 17 ref.
Safe work in the painting trade
Seguridad del trabajo en la empresa [in Spanish]
Boyahanerlerde güvenli çalişma [in Turkish]
Veilig werken in het schildersbedrijf [in Dutch]
Sécurité du travail pour le peintre en bâtiment [in French]
Brochure with safety and health advice addressed to painters working indoors and outdoors: protection against falls when the working level is higher than 2.5m; correct use of portable ladders; stability of mobile work platforms; suspended ladders; suspended scaffolds; aerial baskets and mobile lift platforms; work on overhead-line towers, crane structures, bridges, ships and storage tanks (use of safety nets, safety belts); safe use of paints (personal hygiene; knowledge of danger symbols; flammable, toxic, harmful, corrosive, irritant constituents of paints and varnishes; list of hazards and precautions; symbols regarding personal protective equipment to be worn).
Bedrijfschap Schildersbedrijf, Postbus 377, 2280 MA Rijswijk, Netherlands, [1981?]. 43p. Illus.
Žiharev M.N., Smuglin V.Ja.
Nitrogen oxide detoxication installation
Ustanovka dlja obezvreživanija okislov azota [in Russian]
Description of an installation designed to detoxicate the gaseous effluents from electroplating baths. The effluents are exhausted through a cylindrical combustion chamber where coke is burnt on a grate (700-800°C), and the nitrogen oxides are reduced to elementary nitrogen when passing through the coke bed.
Mašinostroitel', Mar. 1981, No.3, p.31-32. Illus.
Ivannikova T.F., Fialkovskaja T.A.
Occupational safety and health for painters in mechanical engineering
Bezopasnost' truda pri nanesenii lakokrasočnyh pokrytij v mašinostroenii [in Russian]
Sections cover: Harmful agents and hazards encountered in modern painting processes (toxic substances and solvent vapours); safe handling of paints and varnishes; characteristics of painting equipment and corresponding safety and health measures during its use (pneumatic paint spraying, airless spraying, electrostatic spraying, flow-coat application, electro deposition of paints, polymer powder coating); ventilation systems (general requirements, design of local exhaust hoods and exhaust ventilation systems); personal protective equipment (protective clothing, barrier creams, skin cleansers, gloves, respirators, eye protectors, personal hygiene); first aid; environmental protection.
Izdatel'stvo "Mašinostroenie", Stromynskij per. 4, 107076 Moskva B-76, USSR, 1981. 113p. Illus. 59 ref. Price: Rbl.0.40.
Health and Safety Executive
Vehicle finishing units: fire and explosion hazards
Aspects covered: spray painting of vehicles; drying, baking and/or curing the applied paint; precautions (exhaust ventilation; exclusion of ignition sources; fire precautions; means of escape in case of fire; access for rescue; explosion relief; automatic ventilation monitoring). Appendices: technical data (especially safety aspects) of spraying, drying and curing enclosures, and combustion units.
H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London SE1 9NH, United Kingdom, Apr. 1981. 8p. Illus. Price: £1.00.
Niskanen T., Merisalo T., Saari J.
Concrete reinforcement workers and house painters - Part 3: Musculoskeletal strain during work
Raudoittaja- ja maalaritutkimus - Osa 3: tuki- ja liikuntaelimistön kuormitus työssä [in Finnish]
Report of a study to determine the extent of musculoskeletal strain in concrete reinforcement workers and house painters due to poor work postures, lifting heavy loads, accidents and sudden movements that cause microtrauma. Workers were observed on the building site, and their movements, the loads they carried and any minor accidents likely to cause microtrauma were recorded over a 30-hour period. Interviews and accident report forms were used to study the occurrence of minor accidents. Reinforcement workers had significantly more minor accidents than painters. Taking all load factors into consideration, back strain was higher for reinforcement workers but strain due to awkward postures of the upper limbs was higher for the painters. Recommendations are given for reducing musculoskeletal strain in reinforcement work: location of bar cutting and bending equipment as close as possible to each other; use of cranes to lift bars; trestles at correct working height, etc.
Työterveyslaitos, Julkaisutoimisto, Laajaniityntie 1, 01620 Vantaa 62, Finland, 1981. 160p. Illus. 68 ref.
Yamada Y., Kido T., Okada A., Nogawa K., Kobayashi E.
Studies on the biological effects of low level lead exposures - Part 1. Estimation of usefulness of some biochemical tests as parameters for occupational lead exposures
Erythrocyte ALAD, free erythrocyte protoporphyrin (FEP), ALA and coproporphyrin (CP) in urine, and lead (Pb) levels in blood (PbB) and in urine (PbU), were monitored in male painters in a ceramics works. At PbB levels of 5-50µg/dl and PbU levels of 10-200µg/l log ALAD and log FEP showed good linear correlations with PbB, and ALA-U and CP-U showed significant but lesser correlations with PbB. A good linear correlation was found between PbU and log ALAD and log FEP, and ALA-U showed fairly good correlation with log PbU. ALAD and FEP were the most sensitive tests for determining increasing PbB or PbU. FEP monitoring is the most sensitive and useful test for occupational lead exposures.
Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, May 1981, Vol.23, No.3, p.260-269. Illus. 41 ref.
European Committee of Paint, Printing Ink and Artists' Colours Manufacturers' Associations
Safe powder coating
Sécurité des revêtements en poudre [in French]
Safety recommendations on the electrostatic application of powder coatings: explosion hazard of powder/air mixtures; precautions to prevent accidental powder ignition; health hazards. Safety measures for the construction of plant and equipment: spray booths, tunnels, stores, high-voltage equipment, ventilation and waste-powder extraction installations. Recommendation on appliance control and maintenance, and for personal protection.
Hosein H.R., Farkas S.
Risk associated with the spray application of polyurethane foam
Exposure to isocyanate vapour and to dust and overspray of polyurethane foam was evaluated using personal and area sampling at sites where insulating foam was applied by spraying in confined spaces. Exposure to tolylene diisocyanate vapour was frequently ≥ 0.08ppm for personal samples and 0.148ppm for area samples. Organic vapour cartridge respirators used by the sprayers were covered with overspray. Helpers used protective plastic bags over the head which posed an oxygen-starvation hazard. Workers' necks, faces, hair and clothing were contaminated with polyurethane particles and dust. Recommendations are made for reductions of significant health hazards existing at these work sites.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1981, Vol.42, No.9, p.663-665. 14 ref.
Canada Safety Council
Contents: potential health and safety hazards in thermal insulation work (heat illnesses, hazards of insulation materials, safety hazards); preventive measures (general, locations requiring special care, fire safety precautions); personal protective equipment (protective clothing, respiratory protection); first aid (treatment for heat illnesses); glossary; references; 2-pages summary for poster display.
1765 St. Laurent Blvd., Ottawa, Ontario, K1G 3V4, Canada, 1981. 11p. 4 ref.
Wickström G., Hänninen K., Kalliokoski P., Lindström K., Luopajärvi T., Mattsson T., Merisalo T., Niskanen T., Riala R., Riihimäki H., Saari J., Seppäläinen A.M., Suomala R., Waris P., Zitting A.
Study of concrete reinforcement workers and maintenance house painters. Part 1: Background, study design and central results
Raudoittaja- ja maalaritutkimus. Osa 1: tausta, rakenne ja keskeiset tulokset [in Finnish]
The effects of heavy work and of exposure to solvents were examined in groups of 252 concrete reinforcement workers and 231 maintenance house painters, respectively. The painters acted as a reference group for findings of musculoskeletal problems amongst the reinforcement workers and the reinforcement workers acted as a control group for findings related to the nervous system in the painters. 240 of the reinforcement workers had also participated in a 1972 study. Back symptoms were found at similar levels in both groups. Degenerative changes in the lumbar spine appeared at an earlier age and severe degenerative changes were more common among reinforcement workers than among painters. Nausea, dizziness, runny nose and absentmindedness as well as weakness of visual memory and long reaction times were more common among painters but no neurophysiological differences were found between the 2 groups.
Työterveyslaitos, Laajaniityntie 1, 01620 Vantaa 62, Finland, 1981. 49p. Illus. 8 ref. Price: Fmk.20.00.
Ekholm U., Juringe L., Rosén G.
Chromium exposure in surface treatment
Kromexponering vid ytbehandling [in Swedish]
Report on a method used in 13 undertakings using different chromium (Cr)-plating methods, to determine the Cr and Cr compound concentrations to which workers are exposed in various operations. Sections cover: description of project; Cr-plating methods and procedures; composition of plating baths; level of automation; measures to prevent chromic acid mist concentrations; other electrolytic surface-treatment processes; measurement methods; installations studied and measurement results; summary of results and discussion (highest exposure was in hard chroming: hexavalent Cr concentrations between 1 and 5µg/m3).
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, Fack, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1981. 41p. Illus. 5 ref.
Feigley C.E., Ehmke F.M., Goodson T.H., Brown J.R.
Experimental determination of volatile evolution rates from coated surfaces
An apparatus was constructed which measured the rates of evolution of the volatile solvents methanol, ethanol, toluene, isopropanol, MEK and MIBK from layers of shellac coatings of varying thickness. Early, wet-stage, drying resulted in a high evolution rate which was dependent upon gas phase mass transport properties and was not a function of thickness of the applied coating. All experiments at the same air velocity had the same evolution rates. After a 90% of ethanol, the major solvent, evolution rates were low for all air velocities and coating thickness compared to earlier rates. Under fixed air flow conditions the coating exhibited the same initial evolution rates and nearly the same final rates, however, the time required to reach the final rate was a function of coating thickness. If similar trends are found for other coating materials, a simple model may be developed capable of predicting the rate of volatile loss from industrially important coatings into work room air as a function of average air velocity, coating thickness and air temperature.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, May 1981, Vol.42, No.5, p.365-372. Illus. 17 ref.
Il'nickaja A.V., Koroleva V.A., Levin A.I.
Combined effects of physical and chemical factors in the industrial use of plasma processes
O sočetannom dejstvii fizičeskih i himičeskih faktorov pri promyšlennom ispol'zovanii plazmennyh processov [in Russian]
Results of medical studies on 97 workers employed in plasma-arc welding, cutting and metal spraying and exposed to high levels of noise and ultrasound, metal aerosols, fume, electromagnetic radiation in the visible wavelength range and a high level of atmospheric ionisation. Workers using hand-guided plasma torches for more than half the work shift presented neural and vegetative asthenia syndromes. Workers employed on automated plant using the same processes presented none of the signs and symptoms encountered in the manual welders.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Jan. 1981, No.1, p.30-32. 7 ref.
German Federal Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs (Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Sozialordnung)
Technical rules on flammable liquids
Technische Regeln für brennbare Flüssigkeiten [in German]
Notification of technical rules (Dec. 1981 edition) issued in accordance with the Ordinance of 27 Feb. 1980 on flammable liquids: TRbF 401 - Guideline for inside coatings of storage tanks for class AI, AII and B flammable liquids; TRbF 402 - Guideline for inside coatings of storage tanks for class AIII flammable liquids. Characteristics of coating materials, testing, verifications, application of coating.
Bundesarbeitsblatt, Dec. 1981, No.12, p.55-92. Illus.
Safety directives for welding and similar work
Directives concernant la sécurité lors des travaux de soudage et techniques connexes [in German]
Directives concernant la sécurité lors des travaux de soudage et techniques connexes [in French]
These directives apply to welding, brazing, metal spraying, thermal cutting and heating used in metal machining and forming. The following aspects of each process are considered: layout and equipment of the workplace from the point of view of safety and health; use of plant and tools; personal protective measures; fire safety; precautions to be taken for work on containers and other hollow bodies; safety measures for work in confined spaces.
Association suisse pour la technique du Soudage, St.-Alban-Vorstadt 95, 4006 Base, Switzerland, 1981. 163p.
Practical guide for painters in industry
Guide pratique du peintre industriel [in French]
Guide containing detailed information on how to operate painters' equipment, control and adjustments, maintenance, performance, and health and safety problems. 12 chapters are devoted to: ingredients, consistence and drying of paints; corrosion; compressed-air, high-pressure and mixed spraying; electrostatic coating; paint pumps; hot paints; defects of paint surfaces. Chapter 13 (OSH aspects): pollution in painting shops, hazards of some ingredients in paints; booths; text of pertinent French regulations; fire precautions; painting outside booths; environmental pollution; personal protection; precautions when using spraying equipment; frequent errors committed in spray painting; labelling of paint containers.
Technique et documentation, 11 rue Lavoisier, 75384 Paris Cedex 8, France. 274p. Illus.
De Gélis B.
A machine for spraying concrete in tunnels
Une machine à projeter le béton en galerie [in French]
Review of the hazards and working conditions during wall consolidation in a newly driven tunnel, and description of a new technical development to deal with the problems of spraying wet concrete (a gun shooting ready-mixed concrete). The machine comprises 3 sub-units: 1. a vehicle on which are mounted the pumps, tanks and hoses; 2. the jib on which is mounted the cabin fitted with a telescopic boom carrying the concrete gun; 3. the concrete gun itself. Only the boom carrying the concrete gun is actually in the danger zone; the control cab is located in the section of the tunnel where the walls have already been consolidated, i.e. are safe from any falling rock.
Cahiers des Comités de prévention du bâtiment et des travaux publics, Mar.-Apr. 1981, No.2, p.51-53. Illus.
O'Brien D.M., Hurley D.E.
An evaluation of engineering control technology for spray painting
The control technology for spray painting and coating processes was evaluated in field surveys of 11 finishing processes in the automobile refinishing, wood and metal furniture, non-automotive transportation equipment, heavy machinery and appliance finishing industries. The processes provided representative coverage of spray finishing operations relative to the number of exposed workers, different control techniques, physical size of the workpiece, and the coating systems used. Levels of control in spray booths, relative to methods of application, and as provided by respiratory protection were examined for the specific hazards associated with paint mist, lead, chromium, toxic metals, and organic solvents. Specific control options and recommendations are presented.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, June 1981. 157p. Illus. 52 réf.
Carelli G., La Bua R., Rimatori V., Porcelli D., Iannaccone A.
Interferences in the spectrophotometric S-diphenylcarbazide determination of environmental hexavalent chromium in a chromium and zinc plating plant
The atmospheric particulate in a chromium (Cr) and zinc plating plant was collected on glass wool filters and using an electrostatic sampler. The hexavalent Cr (Cr(VI)) was extracted with both 1.4% sulfuric acid and 7% sodium carbonate solutions and then determined by the S-diphenylcarbazide method. Strong interference was observed after extraction in the acid medium. Alkaline extraction permitted 95 ± 6% recovery of the total Cr and was suitable in releasing Cr(VI). The alkaline samples were analysed using the standard addition method to compensate for depressive interference of 26 ± 8%. The absorbance of the Cr-S-diphenylcarbazide complex decreases with time, and measurements must be made within a few minutes of reagent addition.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Mar. 1981, Vol.7, No.1, p.56-61. 8 ref.
Coating powders - Composition and toxic hazards
Peintures en poudre - Composition et risques toxicologiques. [in French]
This note, giving detailed information on the composition and toxic hazards of coating powders, is divided into 3 parts: list of powders classified by binders, indicating hardeners; list of uses of coating powders; review of chemical components of coating powders and their toxic properties.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st quarter 1981, No.102, Note No.1301-102-81, p.51-53.
Occupational safety of house painting
Sigurnost pri ličilačkim i fasaderskim radovima [in Serbocroatian]
Contents of this occupational safety manual aimed at painters (particularly house painters): movement on the building site; scaffolding and ladders; materials handling; electricity: harmful substances (acids, solvents, paints); personal protection; fire prevention; bad weather during work; hazards connected with renovation and restoration work. A list of questions on the material covered in the book is appended.
Institut za sigurnost, Zagreb, Yugoslavia, 1980. 53p. Illus.
Moreton J., Falla N.A.R.
Analysis of airborne pollutants in working atmospheres: The welding and surface coatings industries
This book introduces U.K. regulations governing airborne pollutants, maximum recommended concentrations of airborne pollutants, a systematic approach to airborne pollution monitoring, and contains two parts dealing with welding and surface coating. Chapters cover: airborne pollutants in welding; sampling of welding workshop atmospheres; analysis of welding fumes and pollutant gases; origin of airborne pollutants in the surface coatings industry; collection and analysis of gasesous and particulate atmospheric pollutants; future developments in sampling and analysis.
Analytical Sciences Monographs No.7, The Chemical Society, Burlington House, London W1V 0BN, United Kingdom, 1980. 184p. Illus. 295 ref. Price: £15.00.
Riala R., Kalliokoski P.
Concrete reinforcement workers and house painters - Part 5: Solvent exposure in house painters
Raudoittaja- ja maalaritutkimus - Osa 5: altistuminen liuotinaineille korjausmaalaustyössä [in Finnish]
Report of a study to determine occupational solvent exposure levels in house painters by means of industrial hygiene surveys and work history questionnaires in 77 work situations on 13 construction sites; the effects of working area air volume, paint type and consumption, and ventilation on solvent concentration were also studied. In small, poorly ventilated rooms (e.g. closets and bathrooms) solvent naphtha concentrations averaged 300cm3/m3; wall and ceiling painting with solvent-based paints produced average solvent concentrations of 210cm3/m3; window and door painting 80cm3/m3. The presence of a strong draught reduced concentrations by two-thirds. Work with 2-component epoxy paints produced solvent concentrations exceeding the Finnish TLV 20-50min after painting; wood preservative application gave naphtha concentrations of 65cm3/m3. Paint mists and solvent vapour concentrations were high during spray painting (17mg/m3 and 235cm3/m3 average). The average life-time dose of solvent naphtha was calculated as 12.2kg and the average annual dose 0.54kg. Over the study period, these levels fell.
Työterveyslaitos, Julkaisutoimisto, Laajaniityntie 1, 01620 Vantaa 62, Finland, 1980. 91p. Illus. 30 ref. Price: Fmk.25.00.
Lindström K., Seppäläinen A.M.
Concrete reinforcement workers and house painters - Part 4: Symptoms, psychological functions and neurophysiological findings in house painters exposed to solvents
Raudoittaja- ja maalaritutkimus - Osa 4: korjausmaalarien oireet, psyykkiset suoritukset ja neurofysiologiset löydökset sekä liuotinaltistus [in Finnish]
Report of a study on the frequency of central and periperhal nervous system signs and symptoms in 219 occupationally solvent-exposed house painters aged 35-44 years, carried out by means of a questionnaire on acute and chronic symptoms, psychological testing, EEG and nerve conduction velocity measurement; concrete reinforcement workers served as controls. Solvent exposure was estimated on the basis of long-term naphtha concentrations (40cm3/m3, i.e. about 20% of Finnish TLV). Painters had more frequent nausea and drunkeness at work, mucous membrane irritation, poorer visual memory, longer reaction times and reduced concentration and observation capacities. The frequency of abnormal EEGs among painters was similar to that in the general population but they were generally in relatively large brain areas and often bilateral. The highest exposure levels did not produce the poorest neurophysiological findings.
Työterveyslaitos, Julkaisutoimisto, Laajaniitynitie 1, 01620 Vantaa 62, Finland, 1980. 84p. Illus. 33 ref. Price: Fmk.25.00.
Waris P., Hänninen K., Luopajärvi T., Mattsson T., Merisalo T., Riihimäki H., Suomala R., Wickström G., Zitting A.
Concrete reinforcement workers and house painters. Part 2: Musculoskeletal system findings
Raudoittaja- ja maalaritutkimus. Osa 2: tuki- ja liikuntaelimistön tila [in Finnish]
Report of a study of 252 concrete workers and 231 house painters aged 19-64 years (average 41-42 years) and with an average employment duration of 15 years for the reinforcement workers and 22 years for the painters. Data was collected by questionnaires, interviews, clinical examination and radiography to determine musculoskeletal signs or symptoms in these workers and their occupational component. During the month preceeding the study, pain the neck and shoulder region had been experienced by nearly half those examined, aches in the shoulder joints by one-third, aches in the elbow joints by one-sixth, aches in the wrist by one-fifth and finger aches or numbness by one-third. Back symptoms were reported by 86% of reinforcement workers and 76% of painters; 17% of reinforcement workers and 12% of painters had been on sick leave due to back trouble during the previous year. Radiography revealed degenerative changes in the cervical spine (59% of cases) the right acromio-clavicular joint (nearly 20%) and the lumbar spine (80% among reinforcement workers and 70% among painters). Suggestions for the prevention of musculoskeletal disease are presented.
Työterveyslaitos, Julkaisutoimisto, Laajaniityntie 1, 01620 Vantaa 67, Finland, 1980. 94p. Illus. 63 ref.
Bakonyi T., Czabai I.
Electrostatic charging in the course of high pressure, airless spraying and prevention of the probable accidents
Measurements were made, in the laboratory and at work sites, of the degree of charging of paint mist, the maximum spark discharge energy and the safety of working conditions during high-pressure airless paint spraying. Charge build-up and separation occurred in the space between the spray gun and the workplace, and on the workpiece. The differences in charge potential and static accumulation were great enough that the energy of a probable spark discharge could exceed the minimum ignition energy of the paint mist. Charge accumulation and spark discharge can be prevented by grounding of the workpiece and charge drainage through an eliminator. Dangers of personal charging are minimised by conductive clothing, footwear and flooring.
Published in "Elöadások, kutatások, publikációk" 2. szám, SZOT, Munkavédelmi Tudományos Kutato Intézet, Budapest, Hungary, 1981, p.65-75. Illus.
Stecenko V.G., Žužman V. Ja.
Local exhaust ventilation of harmful substances during the application of anti-corrosion coatings
Lokalizacija vrednostej pri nanesenii antikorrozionnyh pokrytij [in Russian]
An exhaust ventilation and filtration system for contaminated air from spray painting booths is described. Parts being painted are placed on a grid over a water trough into which larger particles are precipitated; a filter cartridge containing metal or plastic swarf (cheap and easily replaced) collects the finer particles.
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, Nov. 1980, No.11, p.17-18. Illus.
Hygienic studies on workers engaged in producing synthetic heatresisting enamel wire. Mixed toxicity of N-dimethylacetamide and N-methylpyrrolidone
The effects of exposure to mixed vapours of N-dimethylacetamide (DMA) and N-methyl-pyrrolidinone (MP) on workers producing heat-resistant enamel wire, were compared with the toxicological effects of the same substances on rats and mice. In workers, haemoglobin and leukocyte levels in peripheral blood increased with long-term exposure and relatively high values of glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic tansaminase (GPT) were observed from time to time during the 2-year study. In rats, exposure to vapour and intraperitoneal injection of DMA and MP resulted in inhibited growth, increases of GOT, GPT, alkaline phosphatase, erythrocyte osmotic resistance and leukocyte alkaline phosphatase, and enlargements of livers, kidneys and adrenal glands. The LD50 values of DMA and MP, administered intraperitoneally to mice, were 2800mg/kg and 2310mg/kg respectively.
Yokohama Igaku (Yokohama Medical Journal), 30 Oct. 1980, Vol.31, No.5, p.327-338. Illus. 20 ref.
Federation of Industrial Mutual Accident Insurance Associations (Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften)
Safety regulations for explosion protection in the design and construction of fluidised-bed spray granulators, dryers and coating plant
Sicherheitsregeln für den Explosionsschutz bei der Konstruktion und Errichtung von Wirbelschicht-Sprüh-Granulatoren, Wirbelschichttrocknern, Wirbelschicht-Coatinganlagen [in German]
Regulation aimed at protecting workers against explosions in plant containing or producing, under normal operating conditions, flammable air/dust, air/vapour or hybrid mixtures. Various primary and secondary safety techniques are reviewed (elimination of ignition sources, injection of inert gas, explosionproof construction, explosion venting, extinguishers actuated by explosion detectors). Examples of the practical application of these principles.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Gereonstrasse 18-32, 5000 Köln 1, Federal Republic of Germany, Oct. 1980. 23p. Illus. Price: DM.2.40.
Occupational safety and health in the woodworking industry - 2. Machines for surface treatment, use of glues and varnishes
Arbeitsschutz in der Holzindustrie - 2. Maschinen zur Oberflächenbearbeitung, Umgang mit Leimen und Lacken [in German]
This booklet gives information on safe work methods and ways and means to avoid hazards. Contents: safe work with glues (type of glue, gluing machines, veneer clippers); safe work when treating surfaces (use of flammable liquids); varnishing equipment and sand papering machines; occupational hygiene in varnishing shops and ventilation design. List of regulations in force in the German Democratic Republic.
Verlag Tribüne, Am Treptower Park 28-30, DDR-1193 Berlin, 1980. 47p. Illus.
Electrolytic surface treatment
Traitement électrolytique de surface. [in French]
Collection of 15 detachable information sheets, 2 of which deal with general aspects of electrolytic surface treatment and the other 13 with different treatment processes: aluminium anodisation; cadmium, chromium, copper, tin, indium, brass and nickel plating, leading, galvanising, precious metal plating (metals in the platinum series, silver and gold plating). The aspects covered are: technology, hazards and pathology, and health engineering (in only some of the information sheets).
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 3rd quarter 1980, No.79 (toxicology supplement). 31p.
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