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Surface treatment - 644 entries found

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  • Surface treatment

1984

CIS 85-1149 Collinson J.G., Rajhans G.S.
Automotive body repair shop hazards
Five auto body shops in Ontario were surveyed to determine the degree of hazard associated with the use of isocyanate-containing paints and hardeners. Free isocyanate levels ranged from <0.001ppm to 0.003ppm. However, the combined exposure to monomeric and polymeric forms of isocyanates in paints could reach levels >0.005ppm. Suggestions are made regarding other hazards (noise, solvents, pigments, body fillers), exhaust ventilation and personal respiratory protection.
Occupational Health in Ontario, Oct. 1984, Vol.5, No.4, p.156-171. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 85-1045 Chatterjee D.S.
A health survey of car painters of different ethnic origin and the importance of racial factors
A survey consisting of an epidemiologic study, lung function tests, and haematological and biochemical investigations was conducted among 163 spray-painters in a car plant and 159 matched controls. Subjective symptoms (headache, fatigue, skin and eye irritation), lower counts of white blood cells, neutrophils and monocytes, and higher levels of urinary excretion of hippuric acid were significantly more common among sprayers than controls. When racial origin was also taken into consideration, the prevalence of symptoms and medical test abnormalities was markedly different for sprayers of different racial origin (white, black or Asian).
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1984, Vol.34, No.3, p.86-89. 16 ref.

CIS 85-436 Doorgeest T.
Paint products containing biocides
Verfprodukten die biocide stoffen bevatten [in Dutch]
Informative round-up on biocides which are added to certain paints (bactericides, fungicides, herbicides, insecticides). Sections cover: basic information; precautions to be taken by painters who use water-based paints, antifouling paints, insecticidal paints, mould preventing paints, stains for outdoor use; personal protective equipment; preparations containing chlorine compounds; thermal removal of biocide-containing paint coats; removal of paint coats on impregnated wood; warning labels; harmful substances set free by fires in paint stores and work rooms; TLVs; determination in air; first aid; legal provisions in the Netherlands; Dutch data sheets available on the subject.
De veiligheid, Sep. 1984, Vol.60, No.9, p.445-452. Illus.

CIS 85-322 Metal coating - Regulations for workshop layout
Traitements de surface - Rčgles d'aménagement des ateliers [in French]
Contents of this data sheet: prevention of water and air pollution; waste disposal; fire prevention; listing of appropriate regulations in force in France.
Face au risque, Oct. 1984, No.206, p.105-106.

CIS 85-510 Dabrowski J.C., Jonkierre G.
Safety in waste-water purification units of surface treatment shops
La sécurité dans les stations d'épuration des ateliers de traitements de surfaces [in French]
Description of a serious accident caused by the release of hydrocyanic acid in the drains of a zinc-plating plant, which resulted in the deaths of 4 workers. Comments on procedures to follow in case of suspected hydrocyanic acid poisoning, and on the proper use of chemical substances in surface treatment shops.
Revue de la sécurité, June 1984, No.212, p.37-43. Illus.

CIS 85-391 Whitehead L.W., Ball G.L., Fine L.J., Langolf G.D.
Solvent vapor exposures in booth spray painting and spray glueing, and associated operations
Exposure to over 20 solvents was determined in 7 US plants for 89 exposed workers and 36 unexposed workers (control group). All spray painting and glueing was conducted in operating spray booths. Only low to moderate exposures were observed, with one TWA exposure exceeding the combined TLV. Exposure from spray painting or glueing operations can be kept to a minimum if carried out in well ventilated booths.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1984, Vol.45, No.11, p.767-772. 5 ref.

CIS 85-215 Bridge painting
This data sheet describes hazards associated with painting bridges, particularly those carrying road or rail traffic or allowing passage of shipping, and methods for the prevention of accidents. Contents: hazards; lead poisoning; electrical shock; scaffolds and ladders; face and eye protection; work above water; safety nets; selection and training; medical examinations.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611, USA, 1984. 4p. Illus. 7 ref. Bibl.

CIS 84-1655 Rosenberg C., Tuomi T.
Airborne isocyanates in polyurethane spray painting: Determination and respirator efficiency
Samples were collected on reagent impregnated glassfiber filters and analysed by HPLC. Average recoveries of the HDI monomer (hexamethylenediisocyanate) and the HDI oligomer were 97 and 92% respectively. Measured concentrations of HDI in air exceeded frequently the exposure limit of 0.07mg/m3 in use in Finland. The sampling technique was used to measure HDI levels inside various types of respirators worn by the painters. The respirators with only chemical cartridges were efficient in retaining the monomer but an average 40% penetration was measured for the oligomer. A combination of filter and chemical cartridge was efficient in retaining both contaminants.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1984, Vol.45, No.2, p.117-121. 21 ref.

CIS 84-1116 Jayjock M.A., Levin L.
Health hazards in a small automotive body repair shop
This survey is based on a 1-year study of a typical body repair shop in the USA. Airborne hazards include: organic solvents used during spray painting (of 10 substances tested, only xylene (100-230ppm) and methyl cellosolve acetate (30-45ppm) exceeded TLV-STEL values, and only during the winter, when spraybooth fans had to be turned off); isocyanates (4-9% by weight of the enamel paint used - air concentration determination unsuccessful); metals in paint pigments (highest levels measured: chromium - 0.49mg/m3, cadmium - 0.48mg/m3, lead - 0.64mg/m3); dust (highest level: 39.8mg/m3). Other hazards: noise (highest level: 110-115dB(A) for 30min); vibration due to pneumatic hand tools (Raynaud's phenomenon symptoms reported by workers). Recommendations based on the results are listed.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1984, Vol.28, No.1, p.19-29. Illus. 12 ref.

1983

CIS 85-1719 Ambrož O., Kašpar J.
Occupational safety and health in the use of thermal flame, electric-arc and plasma spraying
Bezpečnost práce při využívání technologie termického nástřiku plamenem, elektrickým obloukem a plazmou [in Czech]
Thermal spraying is the coating of a surface with material that has been vapourised at high temperature. The process presents many of the hazards of welding: electromagnetic radiation, noise, gases, vapours and dust from the process itself, and secondary risks of shocks, burns, fires and explosions due to defective equipment or careless operation. Radiation, noise and emissions can be reduced by the use of proper enclosures and ventilation. Personal protective equipment offers protection against harmful factors not eliminated by control measures. Relevant Czechoslovak standards and directives are cited.
Bezpečnost a hygiena práce, Aug. 1983, Vol.33, No.8, p.228-233. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 85-1712 Suenaka T., Miyajima K.
Long-term survey of the work environment in a continuous lead-plating plant
Measurements of lead and zinc concentration in workplace air, of lead concentration in blood, and of lead and coproporphyrin concentration in urine of workers were made at a plating plant from 1971 to 1982. The plant applies a lead-zinc alloy coating to steel strip. Process improvements and emission controls immediately reduced lead concentration in air, but lead concentrations in the urine of workers decreased only 3 years later. In 1977, the lead concentration in air was <41µg/m3 measured by personal samplers and <5.2µg/m3 by area sampling, and the blood lead concentration was 17±3.4µg/100g, while in 1982 the average lead concentration in blood was 12±2.7µg/100g and the lead concentration in urine was 14.6µg/L.
Proceedings of the Osaka Prefectural Institute of Public Health, Sep. 1983, No.21, Edition of Industrial Health, p.11-16. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 85-1416 Paoli M.C.
Electroplating and occupational pathology
Galvanoplastie et pathologie professionnelle [in French]
After a survey of the processes preparatory to metal coating (degreasing, cleaning, pickling), this thesis establishes for each metal applied (chromium, nickel, cadmium, copper, zinc, tin, gold, silver, lead, brass) the particular electroplating method used, the characteristics of the metal and the associated health hazards. Particular attention is paid to the risks of cancer associated with the use of chromium and nickel. A chapter is devoted to cyanides, often present in electroplating baths. Other health hazards (asthma, skin diseases), due to the heating of the baths and to waste treatment, are surveyed. The principal technical prevention methods are ventilation of vats and of surface treatment baths and fume extraction.
Université Paris VII, Faculté de médecine Saint-Antoine, Paris, France, 1983. 90p. 69 ref.

CIS 85-1235 Improvements of painters' and varnishers' working environment
Förbättringar i mĺlarnas och lackerarnas arbetsmiljö [in Swedish]
Presentation of the practical results of 6 development projects undertaken by Ergonomi Design Gruppen AB, Bromma, Sweden: (1) a portable exhaust fan combined with a plastic-film duct and balloon that seals the open window shutter when inflated so that no exhausted paint mist is recirculated into the room; (2) a face mask consisting of a film reel and a curved frame across which a transparent film is drawn and torn off as soon as it is soiled; (3) an airline respirator for spray painters which is connected to the spray air hose; (4) an air curtain provided by an annular nozzle surrounding the spray-gun nozzle; (5) a ventilated ceiling above spray-painting boxes which forces the contaminated air downwards and creates a fresh-air breathing zone round the painter's head; (6) advice for the choice, use and maintenance of half-face masks. It is also shown how painters can test and improve the ventilation at their workplaces.
Arbetarskyddsfonden, Box 1122, 111 81 Stockholm, Sweden, 1983. 12p. Illus.

CIS 85-146 Lindberg E., Hedenstierna G.
Chrome plating: symptoms, findings in the upper airways, and effects on lung function
Respiratory symptoms, lung function and changes in the nasal septum were examined in 100 subjects exposed to chromic acid during plating and were compared with results for 119 non-exposed controls. Nasal irritation was common among subjects exposed to a daily average >1µg/m3 chromic acid. The frequency of chronic bronchitis was similar in exposed and control groups. Exposure to peak levels of ≥20µg/m3 chromic acid caused nasal septal ulceration and perforation and both forced vital capacity and forced expired volume in 1s were reduced by 0.2L. A reduction in forced mid-expiratory flow from Monday to Thursday was observed in subjects exposed to a daily average ≥2µg/m3 chromic acid. An 8h mean exposure to >2µg/m3 may cause a transient decrease in lung function and short-term exposure to ≥20µg/m3 chromic acid can cause septal ulceration and perforation.
Archives of Environmental Health, Nov.-Dec. 1983, Vol.38, No.6, p.367-374. 16 ref.

CIS 84-1971 Lindberg E., Vesterberg O.
Urinary excretion of proteins in chromeplaters, exchromeplaters and referents
β2-microglobulin (MG) was measured in the urine of 24 presently exposed chromeplaters, 27 previously exposed chromeplaters and 37 referents. The MG concentration and the number of values >0.30mg/l was higher in the presently exposed group than in the referents. A dose-effect relation between the concentration of hexavalent chromium in air and the number of elevated values of urinary MG was found in the presently exposed group. No differences were found between the previously exposed group and the referents. There were no indications that exposure raised the excretion of albumin in urine. An acute effect on the kidney tubules is indicated which is reversible even in workers with previous relatively high exposure.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1983, Vol.9, No.6, p.505-510. 20 ref.

CIS 84-1919 Blomquist G., Nilsson C.A., Nygren O.
Sampling and analysis of hexavalent chromium during exposure to chromic acid mist and welding fumes
Field samples were taken during manual metal arc welding on stainless steel without shield gas and during chromium (Cr) plating, and various analytical techniques which avoided reduction of hexavalent to trivalent Cr were evaluated and compared. Replacement of sulfuric acid with sodium acetate as a leaching solution prior to analysis by the diphenylcarbazide (DPC) method eliminated reduction, and the method had a detection limit of 2µg/m3 in a 30l air sample. For chromic acid mist, the DPC method and atomic absorption spectrophotometric analysis gave the same results. In the analysis of welding fumes the modified DPC method gave the same results as the more laborious and less sensitive carbonate method.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1983, Vol.9, No.6, p.489-495. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 84-1273 Howery J.
Cleaning the air for robotic spraying and finishing
Safety and maintenance procedures, air flow and make-up considerations and the positioning and location of robots in spray-painting booths are discussed in connection with the use of robots in spraying and finishing operations.
National Safety News, Aug. 1983, Vol.128, No.2, p.54-55. Bibl.

CIS 84-1419 Ekholm U., Ulfvarson U., Lindberg E.
Conditions of exposure in the Swedish chromium-plating industry
Exponeringsförhĺllandena i svensk förkromningsindustri [in Swedish]
Concentrations of total chromium and Cr(VI) were measured by stationary and personal samplers at 15 chromium-plating plants, almost all the plants in Sweden employing more than 5 platers. The exposure range varied widely in hard plating, and 8h-TWA concentrations of <1 and up to 20-46µg/m3 were measured. In decorative chromium-plating exposure was almost always <0.5µg/m3. Near the baths and when handling workpieces about half the total exposure to Cr was to Cr(VI), in grinding work 10-20%. Exposure variations were investigated at 4 plants over a week: in more than 90% of the samples results varied by less than 50% from the corresponding median value.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1983. 18p. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 84-1288 Matsunaga J., Une H., Nakayoshi N., Momose Y., Maeda M., Watanabe D., Magori Y., Esaki H., Kamo H., Kuroki K.
Occupational exposure to organic solvents of painters in car repair workshops
Organic solvent concentrations in the air, individual exposure levels and concentrations of urinary hippuric acid during 24h were measured to estimate levels of exposure to organic solvents of 8 painters in car repair workshops. All the organic solvent concentrations in the air were below TLVs. In individual exposures, high toluene concentrations were observed during painting in booths with ventilators on the side wall (410-660ppm), but not in booths with ventilators for longitudinal ventilation from ceiling to the floor (28-87ppm). The average urinary hippuric acid concentration in painters was 0.33mg/ml.
Medical Bulletin of Fukuoka University, Sep. 1983, Vol.10, No.3, p.173-178. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 84-1128 Eber A.
Use of lattice beams for support during tunnelling
Gitterträger als Stützsystem im Tunnelbau [in German]
Lattice beam types are presented (of rectangular or triangular section) followed by a description of tests of lattice beams with or without gun-applied concrete. The resistance of the beams increased with the setting time of the concrete. Lattice beam design is evaluated, and practical examples of the use of these beams are given. Use of lattice arches is closely tied to the gun-applied concrete.
Tiefbau-Berufsgenossenschaft, 1983, Vol.95, No.4, p.270-276. Illus.

CIS 84-1060 Lindberg E., Vesterberg O.
Monitoring exposure to chromic acid in chromeplating by measuring chromium in urine
Ambient concentrations of chromium VI were measured for 5 days and all urine was collected from 8 exposed workers for 7 days. Urinary chromium concentrations increased from Monday morning to Tuesday afternoon and then remained constant for the rest of the workweek. In 90 chromium platers exposure was measured for 1 day, and urine samples were collected before and after the workshift on Monday and Thursday. There was a correlation between exposure and post-shift urinary chromium concentrations on the Thursday. Concentrations of ≤100nmol/l correlated with TWA values of <=2µg/m3 (below which level no severe nasal septal damage or lung function effects have been reported). Urine analyses are recommended for monitoring of chromium-exposed workers. Air sampling requires much greater personnel resources.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 1983, Vol.9, No.4, p.333-340. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 84-1025 Ameille J., Lebeau B., Tisnes J., Orvoen-Frija E., Rochemaure J., Proteau J.
Organic isocyanates and hypersensitivity pneumopathies
Isocyanates organiques et pneumopathies d'hypersensibilité [in French]
Case study of hypersensitivity pneumopathy due to inhalation of hexamethylene diisocyanate by a garage employee occasionally engaged in spray painting. Symptoms, radiological observations, and results of bronchial lavage and respiratory function tests are compared with data in the literature. The scarcity of reports on this response to isocyanates probably causes the true incidence to be underestimated. Greater awareness of the hazard should promote preventive measures.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1983, Vol.44, No.7, p.477-481. Illus. 28 ref.

CIS 84-825 Beving H., Malmgren R., Olsson P., Tornling G., Unge G.
Increased uptake of serotonin in platelets from car painters occupationally exposed to mixtures of solvents and organic isocyanates
12 car painters and a control group of 50 non-exposed subjects were studied. The mean platelet count in the exposed workers was markedly lower, and 3 had values below the 95% tolerance interval limit of the controls. In 9 workers the serotonin uptake rates were significantly elevated. The method can be used to reveal early organ damage before appearance of clinical symptoms.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1983, Vol.9, No.3, p.253-258. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 84-824 Franchini I., Magnani F., Mutti A.
Mortality experience among chrome plating workers - Initial findings
Mortality over a 3-year period in 9 chromium-plating plants was reviewed. Total deaths in the 178 workers studied were close to expected, while deaths from tumours were doubled. Most cancer deaths occurred among hard-chromium platers, as did all lung cancer deaths. The increased mortality seems to be related to exposure intensity.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1983, Vol.9, No.3, p.247-252. 28 ref.

CIS 84-173 Brochard P., Ameille J., Brun B., Gagnant B., Philbert M.
Bronchial cancer and chromium plating
Cancer bronchique et chromage électrolytique [in French]
Discussion of a case study of bronchial cancer in the light of the literature. No formal proof could be established of the carcinogenicity of hexavalent or soluble substances (such as chromic acid) to which chromium platers are exposed. It may be suggested at most that the cancer risk in this field is less than that in chromate or pigment manufacture. However, further studies should be undertaken to evaluate the cancer risks involved in chromium plating.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1983, Vol.44, No.1, p.35-37.

CIS 84-172 Ameille J., Brochard P., Vigier C., Domont A., Rochemaure J., Proteau J.
Chromium plating and chronic obstructive bronchopulmonary diseases
Chromage électrolytique et bronchopneumopathies chroniques obstructives [in French]
Description of 3 cases of chronic obstructive bronchopulmonary diseases (COBD) in chromium platers. For each subject, his allergic, respiratory, smoking and professional history was considered. Symptoms and the results of respiratory function tests are described. Whether chromium plating causes COBD is discussed. It is suggested that the medical check-ups required by French regulations should include at least one spirometry test every year.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1983, Vol.44, No.1, p.33-35.

CIS 83-1887 Cornu J.C., Leleu J.
Study of a closed painting booth - Anemometric measurements and air pollution
Etude d'une cabine de peinture fermée - Mesures anémométriques et pollution de l'air [in French]
Air flow and pollution rates were measured in an experimental automobile spray-painting booth (manned and unmanned) with various blower and extractor configurations and air-flow regimes; glyptal paint was used. Similar measurements were obtained in the field for a polyurethane paint system. Regardless of the type of paint used, there are several basic considerations in assuring healthy working conditions in the booth: the overall air flow through a booth is not an adequate measure of its performance - only air velocity measurements at several different points will provide sufficient information; air velocities that are too low prevent the establishment of a stable air-flow regime; 0.3m/s is proposed as a threshold value; effects of higher velocities are discussed; blower and extractor configuration have a strong effect on air distribution within the booth.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygične du travail, 4th quarter 1983, No.113, Note No.1450-113-83, p.505-516. Illus.

CIS 83-1886 Guide for ventilation practice - 9: Ventilation of painting areas and booths
Guide pratique de ventilation - 9. Ventilation des cabines et postes de peinture [in French]
A document produced by collaboration of ventilation and chemical safety specialists with trade union representatives. It is a guide and reference document for the design and operation of ventilation systems for spray-painting areas and booths. Contents: review of some regulations, of the hazards involved and of general safety principles; painting equipment (configuration, dimensions, air purification systems with their air flow characteristics); drying equipment (configurations, heat sources, ventilation); air filtration devices; conditioning of incoming air; noise reduction; inspection and maintenance of ventilation systems. Characteristics of common solvents, calculations for drying ovens and catalytic heaters are appended.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygične du travail, 4th quarter 1983, No.113, Note.1449-113-83, p.485-504. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 83-1982 Andersson R., Göransson K., Andersson G., Marklund S., Zingmark P.A.
Epidemic occupational photodermatosis in the face
During 1976-1979, 76 of 158 workers of an engineering factory acquired facial eczema, with a clinical picture corresponding to that of phototoxic or photoallergic eczema. Chemicals were rarely handled. Until Feb. 1979 factory products were sprayed with solvent paints based on epoxyacrylic resin or alkyl-acrylic-melamine resin. Subsequently automatic powder painting was used. The powder contained epoxy-polyester resin as a binding agent. The painting parts were dried and cured in a stove. The substance causing the eczema was not traced. It is suggested that unintentional heating of the painting powder may have produced photoactive substances which spread through the factory via the ventilation system. Laboratory tests with epoxy resin, polyester resin, and the powder paint yielded pyrolysis products which were photoreactive.
Lancet, 26 Feb. 1983, Vol.1, No.8322, p.472.

CIS 83-1808 Liere H.
Protective measures against fire and dust explosions during industrial powder coating
Massnahmen zum Schutz vor Brand und Staubexplosionen bei der industriellen Pulverbeschichtung [in German]
In powder-coating installations, protective measures must be taken against fires and explosions in the coating booths. A theoretically simple solution is to reduce the powder concentration by introducing more air, but this is difficult to implement. First protective step: earthing the workpiece and installing electrostatic neutralising devices (a.c. tinsel bars). The second step, tested in practice, is: the installation of a Halon fire-extinguishing system, activated by infrared-radiation detectors. Other suggestions: quick-closing pneumatic valves, activated by pressure detectors or flame detectors.
Staub, 1983, Vol.43, No.10, p.398-402. Illus.

CIS 83-977 Ostrowska A.
Ventilation on electroplating baths - exhaust rims
Wentylacja przy wannach galwanicznych - ssawki szczelinowe [in Polish]
Description of exhaust ventilation rims designed for electroplating tanks and of the aerodynamic considerations which led to the choice of a tapered shape for the rim box. This shape ensures that the exhaust draft is equal over the entire length of the slot. The calculations and diagrams are reproduced.
Bezpieczeństwo pracy, Apr. 1983, No.4, p.17-20.

CIS 83-1101 Dahlquist I., Fregert S., Trulson L.
Contact allergy to trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) in an aziridine plastic hardener
Report of 4 cases of hand and face dermatitis in workers exposed to a floor varnish containing polyurethane and a polyfunctional aziridine hardener and additives; the aziridine hardener was produced by reacting propyleneimine with a polyfunctional acrylate, trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA). All 4 workers reacted to the hardener and to TMPTA which is present in excess in the product. In addition, 2 workers reacted to pentaerythritol triacrylate (PETA), which may also be used in aziridine hardeners. TMPTA and PETA cross-react, and are known sensitizers in UV-hardening acrylates.
Contact Dermatitis, Mar. 1983, Vol.9, No.2, p.122-124. 6 ref.

CIS 83-715 Gagnant-Bouilly B.
Carcinogenic effect of chromic acid CrO3 - A clinical case study and literature review
Effet cancérogčne de l'acide chromique CrO3 - Etude d'un cas clinique et revue de la littérature [in French]
The different aspects of a clinical case of lung cancer in a young person with moderate smoking habits, exposed to chromic acid vapours in a chromium plating shop, are described and placed in the context of existing literature. This MD thesis sets out the toxicological data on chromium and the clinical, epidemiological and experimental data on carcinogenesis specific to chromium in general and to chromic acid in particular. In the light of the corrected data of this thesis, the non-carcinogenic nature of chromic acid, as classified by NIOSH, needs to be looked at again, as the substance was shown to be mutagenic in tests in vitro. It also altered the DNA structure and brought about chromosomal changes. Experiments in vivo on carcinogenesis should be continued and cases of respiratory cancers in workers exposed to chromic acid notified systematically.
Université de Paris VII, Faculté de médecine Lariboisičre Saint-Louis, Paris, France, 1983. 137p. 132 ref.

CIS 83-682 Direct-fired air heating - Its use in paint-spray booths
Le chauffage en veine d'air - Utilisation dans les cabines de peinture [in French]
Brief description of the principle and operation of a direct-fired air heating system which, by its very nature, entails a twofold hazard. Firstly, a toxicological hazard due to the introduction of combustion residues into the workshop air; secondly, an explosion hazard due to the use of naked flames in an atmosphere which may contain flammable vapours. Special instructions are outlined for the use of such heating systems in a paint-spray booth and drying oven.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygične du travail, 1st quarter 1983, No.110, note n°1406-110-83, p.25-29. Illus.

CIS 83-346 Ravarini L.M.
Safe spray painting with hand-held electrostatic guns
Per verniciare in sicurezza con le apparecchiature elettrostatiche manuali [in Italian]
An overview of the electric discharge and fire hazards associated with electrostatic paint spraying is followed by some OSH definitions and precautions to be taken (storage of flammable paints and solvents, safe cleaning of equipment, preventive maintenance, instruction of personnel, system and equipment safety). The static electricity hazard can be countered by providing conductive surfaces, earthing the equipment and wearing antistatic footwear and gloves. The importance of periodically measuring the resistivity of the paint (influence of temperature) is emphasized. There is no Italian safety standard on electrostatic paint spraying.
Rivista di meccanica, Feb. 1983 (I), No.779, p.61-65. Illus.

1982

CIS 84-801 Sotaniemi E.A., Sutinen S., Arranto A.J., Pelkonen R.O.
Liver injury in subjects occupationally exposed to chemicals in low doses
Hepatic damage was investigated in 23 subjects (15 chemical industry workers and 8 painters) aged 23-49 by comparing case histories, liver function tests, hepatic microsomal enzyme activities in vivo and in vitro with histology. All had abnormal liver tests after years of exposure to solvents, paints and varnishes. There was a 2 to 4-fold increase in serum aminotransferases associated with normal liver or reactive hepatitis, with or without fatty liver. All but those workers with fatty change had metabolically active liver denoting adaptive and toxic changes in cellular ultrastructure. The biochemical liver tests returned to normal 3-6 weeks after cessation of exposure.
Acta medica scandinavica, 1982, No.212, p.207-215. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 84-698 Spiridonova V.S., Šabalina L.P.
Experimental study of the toxicity of zinc phosphates
Ėksperimental'noe issledovanie toksičnosti fosfatov cinka [in Russian]
Acid and neutral zinc phosphates (promising anticorrosion pigments) were administered to rats, mice or rabbits by intragastric, intraperitoneal, intratracheal and epicutaneous routes. The solubilities of the phosphates in simulated physiological solutions were measured, and the pHs of the resulting solutions were determined. For mice, the intraperitoneal LD50 averaged 600mg/kg for the acid zinc phosphate and 551.6mg/kg for the neutral compound. Intratracheal administration of either compound produced a pneumotoxic effect 3 months after administration, but symptoms were not detectable 6 and 12 months after exposure. Both compounds were absorbed by the skin and were mildly irritant to the conjunctiva of the eye. Thus, workers should be protected from exposure to zinc phosphate dusts. A tentative safe exposure level of 0.5mg/m3 is recommended.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Aug. 1982, No.8, p.23-25. 2 ref.

CIS 84-625 Cirla A.M.
The paint spraying environment and the protection of operators
L'ambiente della verniciatura e la protezione dell'operatore [in Italian]
Health hazards of spray painting are surveyed and appropriate protective measures are proposed. Aspects covered: exposure evaluation and limits (sampling and determination in air of harmful substances - particularly of organic solvents, such as ketones, esters, alcohols, hydrocarbons, terpenes; TLVs to follow); protection of spray painters (water-flushed backwalls in paint booths, exhaust ventilation of paint mists for paint booths, personal protective equipment and personal hygiene, wearing of masks); pollution-control measures in the workplace. Italian legislation is reviewed.
Rivista di meccanica, Oct. 1982 (1), No.770, p.127-132.

CIS 84-32
Canadian Safety Council
Spray painting
Contents of this data sheet: introduction; methods of application (compressed air, airless, electrostatic); industrial uses; potential health and accident hazards; preventive measures (substitution of materials and equipment, personal protective equipment, ventilation); training and supervision; first aid; waste disposal; glossary; 2-page summary for poster displays.
1765 St. Laurent Blvd., Ottawa, Ontario, K1G 3Vr, Canada, 1982. 23p. 31 ref.

CIS 83-2028 Foŕ V., Peruzzo G.F.
Health hazards and injuries in the electroplating industry
Rischi e danni nell'industria galvanica [in Italian]
Report of a continuing-education seminar held in Milano, Italy (20 March-15 May 1980). Contents: general principles of electroplating; cycles of operations in electroplating shops; problems of biological monitoring; health hazards in nickel and chrome plating (damage to skin, digestive tract and upper respiratory tract); clinical and functional aspects of upper respiratory tract disorders; immunological aspects; epidemiological data on dermatitis among electroplaters; investigation of working conditions in several shops; results of air analyses in shops; sampling methods; problems of analysis; control of atmospheric pollutants in electroplating shops; protection of the environment against liquid effluents.
Istituto di Medicina del lavoro, "Clinica del lavoro L. Devoto", Via S. Barnaba 8, Milano, Italy, 1982. 314p. Illus. Bibl.

CIS 83-1627 Cocheo V., Silvestri R., Bombi G.G., Perbellini L.
Purge and trap analysis of toluene in blood: comparison with the headspace method
This new method, for the analysis of volatile organic substances in biological fluids, has a linear range of about 7.5 to 1,500µg/l and is in excellent agreement with the conventional head-space method. Results of testing of the method on blood samples from a group of 20 furniture painting shop workers are presented.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1982, Vol.43, No.12, p.938-941. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 83-1443 Tsubota N., Tamura J., Niraoka Y., Nakagawa S., Kanemitsu T., Okada N.
Environmental evaluation of furniture painting in Fuchu City - Measurement by personal samplers
Toluene exposure was determined by personal sampler (100 persons) and environmental measurements, and working conditions were investigated by questionnaire. Levels of exposure to toluene were: finishing > peripheral working> rough working> intermediate working. Environmental measurement alone may underestimate exposure for peripheral and rough workers. The quantity of paint used can serve as an indication of toluene exposure. Measurement by personal sampler proved to be very useful.
Journal of the Hiroshima Medical Association, 28 Dec. 1982, Vol.35, No.12, p.1578-1586. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 83-1229 Grand J., Nœuvéglise J.
Special medical supervision for house painters, and in particular spray painters
La surveillance médicale particuličre des peintres en bâtiment, notamment des peintres au pistolet [in French]
Review of the difficulties confronting occupational physicians owing to the complexity of acquiring data about the substances used by house painters (labelling and information provided by the manufacturer are often inadequate), the working conditions (exposure time, methods of paint application, etc.), and current legislation (interpretation of laws and regulations). Suggestions are made for collecting better information about working conditions in general and specific workplaces in particular.
Revue de médecine du travail, 1982, Vol.10, No.5, p.273-282.

CIS 83-1382 Takeuchi Y., Ono Y., Hisanaga N., Iwata M., Okutani H., Matsumoto T., Gotoh M., Fukaya Y., Ueno K., Seki T., Mizuno S.
Environmental and health surveys on car repair workers exposed to organic solvents
25 painters and 22 non-exposed controls were studied in 7 car repair workshops. 23 solvents were analysed by gas chromatography. Toluene was the commonest constituent, followed by xylene and ethyl benzene. Short-term concentrations in the workers' breathing zone during painting were above the TLV in 10 of 14 workers. TWAs measured by personal monitoring were below the TLV in 12 of 13 of them (average approx. 38% of the Japanese TLV). Painters had more complaints of drunkenness, light-headedness and sore throat, diarrhoea, epigastric discomfort, dullness of extremities and dizziness than the control group.
Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, 1982, Vol.24, p.305-313. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 83-1228 O'Brien D.M., Hurley D.E.
An evaluation of control technology for spray painting
Field surveys of finishing operations are reported and the literature reviewed. Spray booths meeting OSHA design requirements were capable of controlling total paint mist and organic solvent vapours to within recommended maximums. They are partially effective in controlling toxic metals and other dangerous materials. The working environment can also be improved by the use of paint application methods that minimise energy expended in the atomisation process so as to reduce the amount of spray mist. Respiratory protection is required in spray finishing operations that employ significant quantities of highly toxic materials such as lead, chromium, or reactive compounds (isocyanates and epoxy curing agents), and for protection against paint mist and organic solvents in painting spaces where ventilation is not effective.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1982, Vol.43, No.9, p.695-703. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 83-1096 Kurppa K., Husman K.
Car painters' exposure to a mixture of organic solvents - Serum activities of liver enzymes
102 car painters exposed to toluene, xylene and other solvents and a control group were studied. Activities of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, ornithine carbamoyl transferase, and γ-glutamyl transferase did not differ between the 2 groups. Enzyme activities were not higher in the subgroup of car painters who had peripheral nervous system effects of the solvents.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1982, Vol.8, No.2, p.137-140. 12 ref.

CIS 83-1146 Waninger K.
Consideration of accident black spots associated with the "New Austrian Tunnel Construction Method" (NAT)
Betrachtung von Unfallschwerpunkten bei der "Neuen Österreichischen Tunnelbauweise" (NÖT [in German]
A technical introduction (methodological principles, sequence of operations, equipment, measurements, applicability and limitations of the method) followed by a statistical analysis of the accidents occurring during the driving of tunnels in general and during the use of the Austrian technique in particular (age, injury, phase of construction, task). Shotcreting, rockbursts and transport were revealed as focal points. Other factors studied: noise, wetness and dirt, dust and exhaust gases, physical stress and shift work, difficulties of communication, productivity-based remuneration. Conclusions for improved safety: technological improvements, training, work organisation.
Tiefbau-Berufsgenossenschaft, Feb. 1982, Vol.94, No.2, p.64-77. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 83-1064 Remijn B., Koster P., Houthuijs D., Boleij J., Willems H., Brunekreef B., Biersteker K., Van Loveren C.
Zinc chloride, zinc oxide, hydrochloric acid exposure and dental erosion in a zinc galvanizing plant in the Netherlands
Picklers were estimated to work 27% of their time in concentrations above the MAC-C value for HCl. 70% of the zinc fumes were present in the form of the chloride. Erosion of incisor teeth occurred in 90% of workers. Causality is not clear, as no control group was used.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1982, Vol.25, No.3, p.299-307. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 83-687 Ostrowska M.A.
Local push-pull exhaust ventilation for surface treatment vats
Nawiewno-wywiewna wentylacja miejscowa przy wannach z kąpielami technologicznymi [in Polish]
Studies aimed at optimising the characteristics of the system to obtain maximum economy of energy and improved safety and health conditions, with particular reference to electroplating shops, are described. Aspects studied were laminar air flows drawn along the surface of the open baths, exhaust spectra of the exhaust hoods and their interaction with total enclosure of the vat. The results were combined with data from the world literature to generate flow parameters and construct a push-pull device for vats of Polish manufacture, taking the particular requirements of automatic electroplating into account. This type of ventilation is effective and allows the total air flow in vats more than 0.7m in width to be reduced by half compared with local exhaust ventilation systems.
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1982, Vol.32, No.114, p.201-217. Illus. 38 ref.

CIS 83-808
Federation of Industrial Mutual Accident Insurance Associations (Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften)
Safety rules for mortar placers and mortar guns
Sicherheitsregeln für Mörtelförder- und Mörtelspritzmaschinen [in German]
These safety rules apply to mobile machines, with or without an integral mixing system, used for the placing and projection of mortar. Requirements are stipulated for design, construction and equipment (marking, air tank, loading hopper, piping), operating conditions, machine inspection and testing, and personal protective measures. List of the relevant regulations in the Federal Republic of Germany.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Gereonstrasse 18-32, 5000 Köln 1, Federal Republic of Germany, 1982. 10p.

CIS 83-348 Lückner S., Österberg L.
Improving the working environment at low pressure spraying work stations
Möjligheter att förbättra arbetsmiljön vid lĺgtryckssprutning [in Swedish]
A description of the low-pressure paint spraying technique is given, and it is pointed out that during normal work up to 50% of the paint sprayed may be lost into the atmosphere. To minimise atmospheric contamination, it is proposed that : the spray method and spray nozzle should be selected to ensure that paint atomisation is no finer than necessary; spraying parameters should be optimised to minimise spray loss; ventilation air should be directed in such a way as to carry spray mists away from the operator. The most important parameter affecting spray loss is the spraying distance: the greater the spraying distance the greater the paint loss. Increased air pressure and decreased paint flow also increase the paint loss.
Sveriges Mekanförbund, Box 5506, 11485 Stockholm, Sweden, Feb. 1982. 21p. Illus. 7 ref.

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