Surface treatment - 644 entries found
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Pisaniello D.L., Muriale L.
The use of isocyanate paints in auto refinishing - A survey of isocyanate exposures and related work practices in South Australia
A survey of 45 crash repair workshops where two-pack polyurethane spray paints are used has been carried out. Painters were interviewed using a combined health-work practice questionnaire. Monitoring for airborne isocyanate was undertaken in 14 spray shops. Health data from the questionnaire were compared with corresponding data for control groups of mechanics and industrial spray painters, not exposed to isocyanates. Compared with the other two groups, the isocyanate spray painters generally reported more respiratory and skin problems. Airborne isocyanate concentrations associated with various operations were monitored with both impinger and paper tape methods. A direct comparison of the two methods is presented.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1989, Vol.33, No.4, p.563-572. Illus. 22 ref.
Assessing exposure to solvent vapour during the application of paints, etc. - Model calculations versus common sense
Simple formulae expressing average and maximum concentrations of solvent vapour in indoor air during the application of paints, glues, and the like, have been derived using a six parameter mathematical exposure model MEM 1. The model is valid for solvents that evaporate from the liquid without fractionation and at a constant rate. Some features of the relation between exposure level and system parameters were found to be considerably more tricky than expected.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1989, Vol.33, No.4, p.507-517. Illus. 17 ref.
Lamant V., Oury B., Peltier A.
A method for characterising working environments in hot-dip galvanising
Méthode de caractérisation des ambiances de travail en galvanisation à chaud [in French]
Although no pathological disorder has ever been reported in hot-dipping workshops in France, the thick grey-white fumes given off when pieces are dipped in the molten zinc cause concern to occupational physicians, who are not convinced that they are harmless. The main pollutants encountered in the workshops are hydrochloric acid (pickling), ammonium chloride and zinc chloride (fluxing and zinc bath), zinc and zinc oxide (zinc bath). Since zinc chloride is a greater health hazard than zinc oxide (metal fume fever), it was decided to develop a sampling method for selective determination of gaseous and particulate chlorides, ZnO and ZnCl2, ammonium chloride and the ammonia which can be released during the thermal decomposition of ammonium chloride. On the strength of tests carried out in 10 hot-dip workshops which were used as development laboratories, the following retention supports were selected: combined PVC filter + filter impregnated with sodium carbonate, for use in the vicinity of the pickling and fluxing baths or the molten zinc bath to trap ZnCl2, already used for inorganic acid sampling; a quartz fibre filter for use in the vicinity of the molten zinc bath, to trap the insoluble zinc; this type of filter is already recommended for sampling aerosols containing the salts of metals such as nickel or chromium.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st Quarter 1989, No.134, Note No.1721-134-89, p.87-97. 25 ref.
Riihimäki H., Wickström G., Hänninen K., Mattsson T., Waris P., Zitting A.
Radiographically detectable lumbar degenerative changes as risk indicators of back pain - A cross-sectional epidemiologic study of concrete reinforcement workers and house painters
The subjects were 216 concrete reinforcement workers and 201 house painters. A questionnaire provided information on work history and earlier back accidents, and a standardised interview produced data on back symptoms. The occurrence of disc space narrowing, anterior and posterior spondylophytes, and end-plate sclerosis was recorded separately for each intervertebral space from lateral lumbar radiographs. Moderate to severe degenerative changes were associated with increased risk of sciatic pain but not with the occurrence of lumbago or nonspecific back pain. The different types of degenerative changes provided no further information. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis degenerative changes and earlier back accidents were significant independent predictors of sciatic pain. When these two variates were allowed for, the effect of occupation was not significant.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 1989, Vol.15, No.4, p.280-285. 34 ref.
Seldén A.I., Belin L., Wass U.
Isocyanate exposure and hypersensitivity pneumonitis - Report of a probable case and prevalence of specific immunoglobin G antibodies among exposed individuals
A car painter experienced three episodes of a hypersensitivity pneumonitis-like disease after exposure to two-component acrylic lacquers with hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) as the curing agent. High titres of HDI-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibodies were found in the patient's serum by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In the ELISA, 5 to 10% of the sera from 455 isocyanate-exposed but asymptomatic workers were positive, depending on the criterion used for a positive test, whereas 0% of the sera from 157 unexposed referents was found to be positive. Among 10 subjects with isocyanate-induced asthma and isocyanate-specific IgE antibodies, 50% had specific IgG. It was concluded that the presence of isocyanate-specific IgG antibodies in serum is correlated with isocyanate exposure rather than with symptoms of isocyanate induced disease.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1989, Vol.15, No.3, p.234-237. 21 ref. Illus.
Safety of hand-held motor-operated electric tools - Part 2: Particular requirements for spray guns for non-flammable liquids
Sécurité des outils électroportatifs à moteur - 2ème partie: règles particulières pour les pistolets pour liquides non inflammables [in French]
This international standard applies to spray guns for non-flammable liquids. It should be used in conjunction with the first edition of IEC Publication 745-1 on general safety requirements for hand-held motor-operated tools.
International Electrotechnical Commission, 3, rue de Varembé, Genève, Switzerland, 1989. 15p.
Sandmark B., Broms I., Löfgren L., Ohlson C.G.
Olfactory function in painters exposed to organic solvents
The olfactory function of 54 painters exposed to organic solvents was compared with that of 42 unexposed referents. A new clinical test validated for the sense of smell was used, i.e. the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test. Age, smoking habits, exposure to organic solvents, and medical disorders of importance for the sense of smell were recorded. The painters had a somewhat lower test score than the referents. However, the influence of the exposure variable was not statistically significant in a multiple regression analysis including age and smoking habits. The exposure to organic solvents was low, and therefore an effect of high exposure on olfactory function cannot be ruled out. Since some of the painters had earlier been highly exposed, the effects of high exposure are likely to be reversible.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Feb. 1989, Vol.15, No.1, p.60-63. 20 ref.
Kessel R., Redl M., Mauermayer R., Praml G.J.
Changes in lung function after working with the shotcrete lining method under compressed air conditions
Shotcrete techniques under compressed air are increasingly applied in the construction of tunnels. Up to now little is known about the influence of shortcrete dusts on the fuction of the lung. The lung function of 30 miners working with shotcrete under compressed air (before and after one shift) was measured. They carried personal air samplers to assess the total dust exposure. Long term effects were studied on a second group of 29 individuals exposed to shotcrete dusts and compressed air for two years. A significant increase of airway resistance and a significant decrease of some flow volume parameters were found after one workshift. These changes partially correlate close to the dust exposure. After a 2yr exposure a significant decrease of mean expiratory flow (MEF)50 and MEF25 was found. These results point to damage in the small airways and emphasise the major role of the lung functon test - including the flow-volume manoeuvre for the medical examination of the workers. Additionally, workers should carry filter masks.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1989, Vol.46, No.2, p.128-132. Illus. 8 ref.
Nagaya T., Ishikawa N., Hata H.
Sister chromatid exchange analysis in lymphocytes of workers exposed to hexavalent chromium
To investigate the usefulness of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) analysis in lymphocytes as an indicator for mutagenic effects after in vivo exposure to hexavalent chromium (Cr), SCE frequency was analysed in lymphocytes of 44 Cr platers occupationally exposed to hexavalent Cr and 47 controls. Although urinary Cr analysis confirmed that the Cr platers were exposed to Cr, no effects of the exposure on SCE frequency were found. Smokers, both Cr platers and controls, had a significantly higher SCE frequency than non-smokers. These results suggest that SCE analysis in human lymphocytes is not a good indicator of possible mutagenic effects of exposure to hexavalent Cr.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 1989, Vol.46, No.1, p.48-51. Illus. 24 ref.
Bureau of Labour Protection, Ministry of Labour
Safety code for painting - Ventilation and air clean-up in painting processes [China]
Tuzhuang zuoye anquan quicheng - tuqui gongyi tongfeng jinghua [in Chinese]
This standard (effective 1 Apr. 1987) sets out the requirements for ventilation of the painting workshop and purification of exhaust air so that the concentrations of harmful substances in air do not exceed the levels set in TJ 36-79 (Standard on hygiene in industrial enterprise design). It includes: generalities, localised air exhaust, ventilation in paint spraying and powder spraying rooms, general air exhaust, air supply system, ventilation ducts, machine rooms, carbon adsorption method of air purification, catalytic combustion method, thermal combustion method, liquid absorption method. The appended commentary explains some points in the standard, and lists the other standards included in the "Standard on safety in painting" series: safety in painting processes (GB 6514-86), safety in pre-painting treatment, ventilation and air purification in pre-painting treatment, safety in painting equipment and machine design, and management of occupational safety techniques.
In: Reference Collection of National Occupational Safety and Health Standards 1985-1986, China Standards Publishing Co., Beijing, China, Apr. 1988, p.384-393. Price: CNY 11.00 (whole volume).
Bureau of Labour Protection, Ministry of Labour
Safety code for painting - Safety in painting processes [China]
Tuzhuang zuoye anquan guicheng - tuqui gongyi anquan [in Chinese]
This standard (effective 1 Apr. 1987) states the occupational safety and hygiene requirements applicable to the painting process. It contains: generalities, site of painting operations, fire hazard ranking of types of paint, workshop hygiene, electrical equipment and ignition sources, ventilation and air purification, paint material, paint drying, air paint spraying, airless paint spraying, electrostatic coating, powder coating, electrophoretic coating, dip coating, curtain coating, roll coating, hand painting, and painting operations in confined spaces. Commentaries on the standard are appended.
In: Reference Collection of National Occupational Safety and Health Standards 1985-1986, China Standards Publishing Co., Beijing, China, Apr. 1988, p.373-383. Price: CNY 11.00 (whole volume).
Pisati G., Baruffini A., Galli C., Riboldi L., Tomasini M.
Selenious acid poisoning in a galvanisation worker. Description of a clinical case
Intossicazione da acido selenioso in galvanica - Descrizione di un caso clinico [in Italian]
Selenium, which is an essential trace element found in many animal species and in man, is highly irritating for the skin and mucous membranes. Cases of acute intoxication have been described in man with gastrointestinal disorders and irritation of the skin and upper airways. Necrotic hepatitis and cirrhosis have also been observed in animal experiments. The paper reports the case of a galvanisation worker occupationally exposed to selenious acid, probably mainly via skin absorption, who in the space of 2 weeks developed a severe irritative dermatitis on the face and arms, accompanied by acute hepatitis with steatosis and necrosis. The skin lesions, duly treated, healed in a month, but it took over a year for the signs of cytolysis to disappear. The action of the systemic toxicity of selenium appears to be due to the fact that it interferes with essential enzymatic systems (glutathione, succinicodelydrogenase, urease, methioninadenosiltransferase), with consequent disturbance of microsomial system function and fatty acid synthesis.
Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 1988, Vol.79, No.2, p.127-135. Illus. 32 ref.
Sugrobov N.P., Uspenskij Ju. I.
Occupational safety and health in painting
Ohrana truda pri proizvodstve maljarnyh rabot [in Russian]
This booklet is intended for painters. Contents: occupational safety organisation (workplace design, occupational hazards, personal protective equipment); materials used in painting (oils, artificial and natural resins, pigments, plasticisers, solvents, etc.); scaffolds, cradles; safety in preparing paints; surface preparation; outdoor and indoor painting work; safety in using scaffolds and cradles; safety of machinery and other equipment (general data, surface cleaning, puttying and polishing machines, paint sprayers, pneumatic spraying units); safe working methods for operators of movable painting stations; safety in paper hanging; painting in winter months; fire prevention.
Izdatel'stvo Strojizdat, Kaljaevskaja ul. 23a, 101442 Moskva, USSR, 1988. 53p. Illus. Price: SUR 0.20.
Work with electrolytic surface treatment [Norway]
Arbeid med elektrolytisk overflatebehandling [in Norwegian]
This directive gives guidance on the health hazards associated with electrolytic surface treatment and proposes safe practices for this type of work. Contents: preparation, cleaning and degreasing of surfaces; anodising; rules for chemical substances; rules for ventilation, noise, lighting, technical equipment and ergonomics; safety measures. A list of about 50 hazardous substances used for electrolytic surface treatment together with data on their respective health hazards is appended as well as a list of relevant Norwegian directives.
Direktoratet for arbeidstilsynet, Postboks 8103 Dep., 0032 Oslo 1, Norway, Sep. 1988. 17p. Illus.
De Medinilla J., Espigares M.
Contamination by organic solvents in auto paint shops
A study on the levels of organic compounds in various auto paint shops is presented. Toluene, xylenes and other aromatic compounds were observed as the most usual components. The degree of hazard for some substances was indicated as the exposure ratio for each of the paint shops.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1988, Vol.32, No.4, p.509-513. 3 ref.
Risk and severity of accidents in tunnel construction employing shotcreting
Unfallrisiko und Unfalltragweite beim Tunnelbau in Spritzbetonbauweise [in German]
Frequency and severity of accidents as well as types of injuries and causes of accidents were determined at 10 railway tunnel construction sites employing the shotcreting technique. From the data collected, the accident risk with and without inclusion of fatal accidents was evaluated at 500 and 1200 days lost, respectively, per 100,000 hours of work. Hand injuries were the most common. Mobile machines topped the list of accident causes.
Die Industrie der Steine und Erden, 1988, Vol.98, No.4, p.96-106. Illus. 18 ref.
White M.C., Baker E.L.
Measurements of respiratory illness among construction painters
The prevalence of different measurements of respiratory illness among construction painters was examined and the relation between respiratory illness and employment as a painter assessed in a cross-sectional study of current male members of 2 local affiliates of a large international union of painters. Respiratory illness was measured by questionnaire and spirometry. Longer employment as a painter was associated with increased prevalence of chronic obstructive disease and an interactive effect was observed for smoking and duration of employment as a painter. Multiple regression analysis showed a significant association between years worked as a painter and a decrement in FEV1 equal to about 11mL for each year worked. This association was larger among painters who had smoked. The prevalance of chronic bronchitis was significantly associated with increased use of spray application methods.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1988, Vol.45, No.8, p.523-531. 20 ref.
Working safely with paint
Formas seguras de trabajar con pinturas [in Spanish]
Safety and training guide. Hazards combatted: inhalation of paint; sensitisation; fires and explosions; reactivity. English and Spanish language versions.
Order Department, Business and Legal Reports, 64 Wall Street, Madison, CT 06443, USA, 1988. 15p. Illus.
White M.C., Baker E.L., Larson M.B., Wolford R.
The role of personal beliefs and social influences as determinants of respirator use among construction painters
The purpose of this study was to identify and rank potential determinants of respirator use among painters in the construction industry. As part of a health survey of union painters, 169 male spray painters were questioned about their own beliefs concerning the consequences of wearing cartridge respirators, as well as about the perceived attitudes of others in the workplace toward respirators. Intended respirator use was clearly associated with beliefs. The most important beliefs concerned discomfort or inconvenience. Other determinants that were associated with respirator use were respirator availability, cigarette smoking, and social influences. It was concluded that the most effective intervention strategy to increase respirator use would be multidimensional and that efforts to change only a worker's beliefs may have limited success.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 1988, Vol.14, No.4, p.239-245. 20 ref.
Lee H.S., Goh C.L.
Occupational dermatosis among chrome platers
Fourteen (38%) of 37 chrome platers in 17 chrome electroplating factories surveyed had occupational contact dermatitis, chrome ulcers, or both. Seven had chrome ulcers, 6 had contact dermatitis and 1 had both. Another 16 (43%) workers had scars suggestive of previous chrome ulcers. Mucosal irritation was present in 57% of the workers. The most common was throat irritation (49%) followed by nasal irritation (41%). Skin ulceration appeared to be a more specific sign of occupational dermatosis in chrome platers than dermatitis when the prevalence rates were compared to controls. Of the 7 workers with chrome ulcers, only 1 was allergic to chromate. Of the 6 workers with dermatitis, 2 were allergic to chromate and 1 to nickel. Irritant factors are therefore important in the aetiology of contact dermatitis in these chrome platers.
Contact Dermatitis, Feb. 1988, Vol.18, No.2, p.89-93. 12 ref.
Ribak J., Lilis R., Suzuki Y., Penner L., Selikoff I.J.
Malignant mesothelioma in a cohort of asbestos insulation workers: Clinical presentation, diagnosis, and cause of death
A cohort of 17,800 asbestos insulation workers in the USA and Canada was enrolled for prospective study on 1.01.67 and followed up to the present. Altogether, 356 workers had died of malignant mesothelioma by 1984; 134 of pleural and 222 of peritoneal mesothelioma. The time elapsed from onset of exposure to the development of first symptoms was longer in the group with peritoneal mesothelioma. The most effective approach to the diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma was by open lung biopsy; exploratory laparotomy was the test for diagnosing peritoneal mesothelioma. Patients with pleural mesothelioma died mostly from pulmonary insufficiency whereas those with peritoneal mesothelioma succumbed after a period of pronounced wasting.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 1988, Vol.45, No.3, p.182-187. Illus. 33 ref.
Le Bot J.Y.
Control of filter clogging in a ventilation system: The case of vehicle spray paint booths
Contrôle pratique de l'encrassement des filtres d'un système de ventilation: cas des cabines de peinture fermées [in French]
In a ventilated enclosure, it is necessary to remove the airborne solid contaminants. Filters of variable efficiency are installed for this purpose. The user then has to clean or replace these filters at regular intervals. This paper considers at what time these operations should be carried out and proposes a solution. It covers the following points: theoretical approach to fan working, filters replacement, theoretical control methods, methods proposed by manufacturers, theoretical working of a ventilation circuit, suggested solution.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd Quarter 1988, No.132, Note No.1684-132-88, p.409-413. Illus.
Methods for preventing emission and spreading of chromic acid mist from chromium electroplating baths
Metody zapobiegania emisji i rozprzestrzeniania się mgły kwasu chromowego z kąpieli do galwanicznego chromowania [in Polish]
Methods presented in the article fall into 2 groups: mechanical and physico-chemical. Mechanical methods include: local ventilation, use of tank covers and floats. Local ventilation is most frequently used in practice, but it is very energy-consuming. Physico-chemical methods involve the change in the qualitative and quantitative composition of chromium electroplating baths. Perfluorinated surface-active compounds may be of importance in the future due to their resistance to chromic acid at elevated temperatures.
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1988, Vol.38, No.136, p.39-50. 68 ref.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften
Coating operations [Federal Republic of Germany]
Verarbeiten von Beschichtungsstoffen [in German]
These safety regulations, which concern the preparation, application and drying of coating materials, contain sections devoted to: design, equipment and layout of work premises (dimensions, protection against fire and explosions, ventilation, construction of exhaust ventilation systems, dip baths, electrical installations); painting operations; workplace (spray booth, etc.), earthing, housekeeping, personal protective equipment. A supplementary booklet contains more detailed rules and commentaries for the application of these regulations. Duplicate of CIS 89-31.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburgerstrasse 449, 5000 Köln 41, Federal Republic of Germany, 1988. 16p. + 28p. Illus. Index.
Study of an enterprise that renovates cars for the French National Railways: Occupational hazards in painting and their prevention
Etude dans une entreprise de rénovation de wagons S.N.C.F.: risques professionnels dans le secteur peinture et prévention [in French]
This medical thesis examines medical aspects of the work in freight (container) car painting shops, which include paint-stripping (shotblasting) and paint-application sections. Noise, dust and the paints themselves are the major hazards. For each, the thesis presents the various clinical conditions that it can provoke, as well as technical and medical preventive measures.
Université de Montpellier, Faculté de médecine, Montpellier, France, 1988. 142p. Illus. 45 réf.
Alexandersson R., Hedenstierna G.
Respiratory hazards associated with exposure to formaldehyde and solvents in acid-curing paints
Thirty-eight employees exposed to formaldehyde when working with acid-hardening lacquers and 18 nonexposed controls were examined. The mean exposure to formaldehyde during an 8-hr workday was 0.40mg/m3 air, and the mean exposure to peak values was 0.70mg/m3. Mean exposure to solvent was about 1/10 of the hygienic effect. Eye, nose, and throat irritation was more common in exposed persons than in controls. Monday morning, after two exposure-free days, forced vital capacity (FVC) values were found to have declined by 0.24L and forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1.0) by 0.21L, compared with normal values. There was a weak correlation between the individual concentration of IgG and decrease in FVC and FEV1.0. No significant changes were noted in any other lung function variable before a workshift, and no lung function changes were noted over a full workshift. Deviations in FVC and FEV1.0 values did not correlate with peak or mean exposures, or with employment time.
Archives of Environmental Health, May-June 1988, Vol.43, No.3, p.222-227. Illus. 15 ref.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften
Electrolytic and chemical surface treatment; electrochemical processes [Federal Republic of Germany]
Elektrolytische und chemische Oberflächenbehandlung; Galvanotechnik [in German]
These safety regulations deal with the electrolytic and chemical surface coating of work pieces, including cleansing and waste water treatment, and in particular with: handling and storage of toxic substances, plating tanks, cyanide tanks, protection from overheat, safety devices, feeding and evacuation systems, exhaust devices, marking, solution preparation, maintenance and personal protection. In an annex: rules of application.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburger Strasse 449, 5000 Köln 41, Federal Republic of Germany, 1 Apr. 1988. 14 + 19p.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften
Coating with paints and varnishes [Federal Republic of Germany]
Verarbeiten von Beschichtungsstoffen [in German]
These safety regulations deal with the preparation, application and drying of liquid coating materials (except metallic coating and synthetic resin coating) and cover the following: design, equipment and layout of work premises (ventilation, protection against fire and explosions, exhaust ventilation system, dip bath, electrical installations); workplace (spray booth, etc.), earthing, cleaning of workplaces, personal protective equipment. Supplement: rules of application, comments and examples of protective measures.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburger Strasse 449, 5000 Köln 41, Federal Republic of Germany, 1 Apr. 1988. 14 + 26p.
Limitation of the use of steel chains for slings in hot galvanising - an experimental investigation
Verwendungsbeschränkungen von Rundstahlketten als Anschlagmittel in Feuerverzinkereien - eine experimentelle Untersuchung [in German]
Stress on chain slings in hot galvanising plants is high because they are first dipped into hydrochloric acid and subsequently into liquid zinc, which is heated to 450°C. Experimental investigations of the strength and erosion of various chain materials under these conditions were used to derive criteria for the suitability of chain materials.
Die Nordwestliche, 1988, No.5, p.146-150. Illus.
Guide for ventilation practice. 10 - Printing of large and/or bulky equipment
Guide pratique de ventilation. 10 - Peinture des matériels de grandes dimensions [in French]
The subjects covered include: an outline of hazards and French regulations; general principles of ventilation; a classification of large objects by category; choice of ventilation technique; technical solutions; side draft, down draft and open booths, spray painting machines; drying; drying installations (drying at room temperature, drying ovens, mixed paiting/drying booths), heat sources; interlocks; supply air processing; injection, filtering and heating; extraction of polluted air; filtering and wet purification; inspection and maintenance of ventilation systems and related equipment; ventilated installations for spray guns cleaning and paint mixing; noise control. "Technical files" based on real industrial situations are provided as examples.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd Quarter 1988, No.131, Note No.1672-131-88, p.223-239. Illus.
Alexandersson R., Plato N., Hedman B.K., Hedenstierna G.
Exposure, lung function, and symptoms in car painters exposed to hexamethylene diisocyanate and biuret modified hexamethylene diisocyanate
The mean exposure to biuret-modified hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI-BT) was 115µg/m3 in the air (range 10-385µg/m3), which exceeds the time-weighted Swedish threshold level of 90µg/m3. Exposure to hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) was about 1.0µg/m3 with brief peaks. This study investigated the effects of HDI and HDI-BT on lung function and included car platers, exposed to the same solvents and grinding dust as painters, but not to isocyanates, and car mechanics, not exposed to the agents. Car painters and platers were compared to mechanics on Monday before work. Acute effects of painting were tested by comparing the lung function values on Monday morning with those on Friday afternoon. Spirometry in painters and platers did not differ from that in mechanics. Closing volume in relation to vital capacity was increased in painters, suggestive of a "small airways disease" on Monday before work and tended to increase during a work week. Platers did not differ from mechanics.
Archives of Environmental Health, Nov.-Dec. 1987, Vol.42, No.6, p.367-373. 42 ref.
Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po standartam
Construction. Anticorrosion work. Safety requirements [USSR]
Stroitel'stvo - Raboty antikorrozionnye - Trebovanija bezopasnosti [in Russian]
This standard (effective 1 July 1987) applies to the anticorrosion treatment of equipment, buildings and fittings structures of installations under construction, in operation or under repair. Contents: generalities; processes and operations; temporary buildings, yards and shelters; materials; tools and equipment; placement of equipment and workplace organisation; storage and transportation of materials; personnel; personal protective equipment; anticorrosion work carried out while enterprises are in operation; verification of compliance.
Izdatel'stvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per. 3, 123840 Moskva, GSP, USSR, 1987. 13p. Price: SUR 0.05.
Mrvos R., Dean B.S., Krenzelok E.P.
High pressure injection injuries: A serious occupational hazard
High pressure injection equipment such as airless paint sprayers, high pressure grease guns, and fuel injection apparatus constitutes a serious safety hazard resulting in a significant morbidity. These devices deliver paint, solvents, and grease at pressures of 600-12,000psi. Substances penetrate minute skin wounds and spread widely through fascial planes and tendon sheaths, producing significant vascular compression and systemic toxicity. Of 95 suspected high pressure injection injury cases, 20 were determined to be actual injection injuries from equipment producing pressures in the range of 1,500-12,000psi. The injected substances included latex paint, mineral spirits, and concrete sealer. 14 injuries involved digits. Digital amputation was necessary in 3 patients. Hospital admissions averaged 6.5 days. Successful management of these cases involves awareness of the problem and rapid referral of the patient to an emergency department and to a competent orthopaedic or plastic surgeon.
Clinical Toxicology, 1987, Vol.25, No.4, p.297-304. 11 ref.
Protection from the dangers of working with chromium
This data sheet covers the hazards associated with electroplating. Covered are: the process; effects of chrome poisoning; protective measures; chromium and lung cancer; latency; statistics on chrome ulceration in different industries.
United Trade Press Limited, 33-35 Bowling Green Lane, London EC1R ODA, United Kingdom, Nov. 1987. p.F:12:1-F:12-4. 4 ref.
Albrecht W.N., Bryant C.J.
Polymer-fume fever associated with smoking and use of a mold-release spray containing polytetrafluoroethylene
An ephemeral and debilitating flu-like illness was experienced by stamp-makers. A combination of the use of a mould-release spray containing polytetrafluoroethylene, poor general hygiene, and smoking during and after use of the spray was responsible for the workers' symptoms, commonly referred to as polymer-fume fever. Recommendations which resulted in the abatement of illness included: ventilating the vulcanising furnace, cessation of smoking in the workplace, and using a mould-release spray that does not contain fluorocarbons.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1987, Vol.29, No.10, p.817-819. 6 ref.
Spray painting [Sweden]
Sprutmålning [in Swedish]
Contents of these regulations (effective 1 Jan. 1988): prevention of fires and explosions; ventilation systems; other installations and equipment; special rules for high pressure spray painting; special rules for electrostatic coating. Detailed commentaries are appended together with some examples of warning signs available on the Swedish market.
LiberDistribution, 162 89 Stockholm, Sweden, 27 Feb. 1987. 33p.
Huggins R., Levy N., Pruitt P.M.
Testing of gloves for permeability to UV-curable acrylate coatings
The handling of formulations used in the coating of optical fibres requires protective measures in order to prevent contact dermatitis and/or allergic dermatitis. A study was undertaken using a modification of a standard ASTM permeability test. Nitrile rubber gloves provided the best protection of the glove materials tested.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1987, Vol.48, No.7, p.656-659. Illus. 8 ref.
Herrick R.F., Smith T.J.
Development of a sampling and analytical method for measuring the epoxy content of aerosols: I. Development of the analytical method; II. Application of the method to epoxy-containing aerosols
A method was developed for determining the quantity of the epoxide group in pure epoxy resins, resins in partially-cured mixtures with amine curing agents, and commercial epoxy surface coatings. The method collects the aerosol in a midget impinger containing dimethylformamide, which inhibits the curing reaction between the epoxy and curing agent, preserving the unreacted epoxy functional groups present in the aerosol. It is based upon the reaction of the epoxide group with bromide in the presence of acid, with measurement of excess bromide in the reaction mixture by normal pulse polarography. The method was applied to aerosols containing mixtures of epoxy resin and amine curing agents in various degrees of cure, to aerosols containing large quantities of non-epoxy components, and to aerosols of epoxy surface coatings. The method is capable of precise and accurate measurement of epoxide functionality, and it is applicable to the measurement of epoxy-containing aerosols in spray finishing operations.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1987, Vol.48, No.9, p.766-772. Illus. 16 ref.
Fidler A.T., Baker E.L., Letz R.E.
Neurobehavioural effects of occupational exposure to organic solvents among construction painters
The relationship between exposure to mixed organic solvents and changes in central nervous system function was studied in 101 construction painters. Solvent exposure was estimated using questionnaire data. Adverse effects on the central nervous system were assessed by self-reported questionnaires and 8 tests of a computer-administered neurobehavioural evaluation system. The results were both biologically plausible and in agreement with other empirical evidence. A consistent positive association was observed between most measures of exposure and the occurrence of neurotoxic symptoms, notably dizziness, nausea, fatigue, problems with arm strength, and feelings of getting "high" from chemicals at work. Associations with exposure were found with the neurobehavioural evaluation system tests of symbol digit substitution and digit span; however, no consistent effect on neurobehavioural function was observed. This pattern of the occurrence of neurotoxic symptoms without clear evidence of function deficit is consistent with the type I toxic central nervous system disorder as classified by the World Health Organisation.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1987, Vol.44, No.5, p.292-308. Illus. 108 ref.
Sorahan T., Burges D.C.L., Waterhouse J.A.H.
A mortality study of nickel/chromium platers
A cohort of 2,689 nicel/chromium platers between 1946 and 1983 was studied. All members of the cohort had some period of chrome exposed employment. Overall, compared with the general population of England and Wales, statistically significant differences relating to cancer were found for cancer of the stomach, primary cancer of the liver, cancer of the nose and nasal cavities, cancers of the lung and bronchus, and all cancers. Chrome bath workers are the more heavily exposed workers, and a striking difference in SMRs was found for lung cancer among men first employed as chrome bath workers and men first employed as other chrome workers. Significant positive associations were found only for cancers of the lung and bronchus and duration of chrome bath work. Exposure to nickel was an important confounding exposure.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 1987, Vol.44, No.4, p.250-258. 12 ref.
Handfield-Jones S., Boyle J., Harman R.R.M.
Contact allergy caused by metal sprays
Report of a case of a worker who coated pipes with synthetic rubber. He shoed no reaction to rubber or rubber chemicals in patch tests, but showed strong positive reactions to nickel and chromium. Investigation showed that he worked near 2 metal spraying areas where airborne nickel levels were 4 times higher and chromium up to 18 times higher than the UK Health and Safety Executive recommended maximum time-weighted averages. Recognised risks of metal spraying include dust, explosion and fume fever; nickel or chrome allergy has not been recognised previously.
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 1987, Vol.16, No.1, p.44.
Spray booth ventilation in autobody shops
This review covers health hazards, design considerations, airflow rate and safe working procedures.
Alberta Community and Occupational Health, Occupational Health and Safety Division, 10709 Jasper Ave., Edmonton, Alberta T5J 3N3, Canada, 1987. 3p.
Séguin P., Allard A., Cartier A., Malo J.L.
Prevalence of occupational asthma in spray painters exposed to several types of isocyanates, including polymethylene polyphenylisocyanate
The prevalence of occupational asthma was assessed in 4 paint shops of a large assembly plant where 51 employees were exposed to several types of isocyanates, including polymethylene polyphenylisocyanate (PPI). Three employees were first referred by their physician for asthma symptoms. A questionnaire was administered to the other 48 employees. Seven of these were suspected of having work-related asthma. Airway hyperexcitability to inhaled histamine was demonstrated in these 10 subjects (3 referred and 7 screened). The diagnosis of occupational asthma was confirmed in 6 subjects (3 referred and 3 screened) through specific inhalation challenges in the laboratory to a paint system component containing PPI. Thus, the prevalence of occupational asthma was 11.8% in these paint shops using several types of isocyanates, including PPI.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1987, Vol.29, No.4, p.340-344. Illus. 15 ref.
Ernst P., Shapiro S., Dales R.E., Becklake M.R.
Determinants of respiratory symptoms in insulation workers exposed to asbestos and synthetic mineral fibres
Responses to a mailed respiratory symptom questionnaire from 537 insulation workers without diagnosed asbestosis were analysed by logistic regression. Wheezing complaints and breathlessness were related primarily to current cigarette smoking and to symptoms suggesting an asthmatic predisposition antedating work in the trade. There was also evidence that these complaints were related to occupational exposure in subjects with prior airways hyperreactivity. An asthmatic predisposition antedating work in the trade was the major determinant of acute respiratory symptoms in the workplace. The effects of workplace exposures on respiratory symptoms may have been underestimated due to selective withdrawal from the active workforce and due to inaccuracies in the measure of exposure used.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1987, Vol.44, No.2, p.90-95. 22 ref.
Work with paints [Netherlands]
Verfverwerking [in Dutch]
This directive (a revision of CIS 77-50) contains instructions for the promotion of safety in paint manufacturing, storage, processing and use, particularly from the point of view of fire and explosion prevention. The prevention of poisoning due to exposure to toxic paints is also dealt with.
Labour Inspectorate, Directorate-General of Labour (Arbeidsinspectie, Directoraat-Generaal van de Arbeid), Postbus 69, 2270 MA Voorburg, Netherlands, 2nd ed., 1986. 23p. Illus. 23 ref.
Manual paint spraying in the woodworking and furniture industries
Manuel sprøjtelakering i træ- og møbelindustrien [in Danish]
Contents of this training booklet giving practical advice on paint spraying: hazardous fumes and dust, occupational exposure limits, replacement of hazardous substances or products, personal protective equipment, paint spraying techniques, ventilation, air intake and drying. A checklist and a list of relevant Danish directives are appended.
Branchesikkerhedsråd nr.5, Almen industri, DA/gr., Nørre Voldgade 34, 1358 København K, Denmark, 1986. 32p. Illus. 6 ref.
Perfilova G.S., Zaripova E.P., Brodilo L.I.
Risk of developing diseases with temporary disability in workers in electroplating shops
Risk vozniknovenija zabolevanij s vremennoj utratoj trudosposobnosti u lic rabotajuščih v gal'vaničeskih cehah [in Russian]
Working conditions and morbidity rates of workers in electroplating shops at instrument-making plants were studied. Morbidity rates for most diseases are higher among women than among men. Diseases of the respiratory, circulatory and musculo-skeletal systems, and inflammation of the skin and subcutaneous tissue were prevalent. The length of service and, particularly, the patient's age had the greatest impact on morbidity with temporary disability. A high incidence of diseases was observed in workers in the main and auxiliary occupations, a low one in workers engaged in maintenance work.
Sovetskoe zdravoohranenie, Dec. 1986, No.12, p.43-47. Illus. 5 ref.
Health hazards in chrome plating work
Hälsorisker i förkromningsarbete [in Swedish]
Report on a study of exposure conditions in the Swedish chrome plating industry and a clinical examination of the impact of exposure on airways, pulmonary and renal function. A cohort study of cancer mortality in chrome plating workers and spray painters who had used paint containing lead chromate and zinc chromate was also made. Correlations found between different levels of mean daily airborne exposure, expressed in µg of Cr(VI)/m3 and complaints/examination findings in the airways are presented (nasal irritation, atrophy of septal mucosa, ulceration of the nasal septum, impairment of pulmonary function). A comparison with the national average showed that cancer mortality in cohorts was in close agreement with the expected figure. However, cancer deaths concentrated in groups with long-term exposure to high concentrations of chromates.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1986. 11p. Illus. 6 ref.
Order on professional painting work [Denmark]
This order, entry into force 1 Nov. 1982, applies to work with paints, adhesives and related substances, materials and work for the application of wall paper, hessian, tapestry, etc. Covered are: scope and definitions; need for code numbers; use and safety measures; condition of the workpace; exemptions; complpaints; penalties; commencement. The annexes are in Danish.
Ministry of Labour, København, Denmark, 1984. 24p.
Varigos G.A., Nurse D.S.
Contact urticaria from methyl ethyl ketone
First report of contact urticaria due to methyl ethyl ketone. The reaction was seen in a paint sprayer.
Contact Dermatitis, Oct. 1986, Vol.15, No.4, p.259-260. 2 ref.
Air quality improvement in the workplace [France]
Assainissement des atmosphères des locaux de travail [France] [in French]
Summary of French regulations. Classification by type of enterprise and type of workplace. Appropriate measures for certain operations and hazards: use of asbestos, arsenic, benzene, methyl bromide, arsine or lead; paint spraying; abrasive blasting; underground work. Obligations of contractors concerning construction or renovation. List of texts.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, Oct. 1986, No.27, p.253-265. 6 ref.
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