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CIS 96-1372 Le Bot J. Y.
Monitoring ventilation. Applications for painting booths
Contrôle de la ventilation. Applications aux cabines de peinture [in French]
This article discusses existing methods of monitoring (measurement of airspeed, visual observation of the state of the filters, measurement of static and differential pressures) and presents the major types of differential manometer (liquid column, diaphragm), their principles of operation and their regulation as a function of calculated changes in load. It also reviews general issues (the use of painting booths, malfunctions, regulations, standards, general principles, definition of insufficient ventilation.
Travail et sécurité, Jan. 1996, No.544, p.56-59. Illus.

CIS 96-732 Rudzinski W.E., Dahlquist B., Svejda S.A., Richardson A., Thomas T.
Sampling and analysis of isocyanates in spray-painting operations
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1995, Vol.56, No.3, p.284-289. 26 ref. ###

CIS 96-731 Conroy L.M., Menezes Lindsay R.M., Sullivan P.M.
Lead, chromium, and cadmium emission factors during abrasive blasting operations by bridge painters
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1995, Vol.56, No.3, p.266-271. 26 ref. ###

CIS 96-730 Goyer N.
Performance of painting booths equipped with down-draft ventilation
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1995, Vol.56, No.3, p.258-265. Illus. 14 ref. ###

CIS 96-870 Holmström M., Granstrand P., Nylander-French L.A., Rosén G.
Upper airway symptoms and function in wood surface coating industry workers
Respiratory and ocular symptoms were investigated in workers employed in the surface coating of wood products using either ultraviolet radiation curing (UV) or acid curing (AC). Symptoms were investigated by questionnaire and medical examination among surface coating line workers, finishing workers and a control group. Nasal, pharyngeal and ocular symptoms of discomfort were common among all exposed groups. Symptoms were most frequent in UV line workers and finishers of UV coated wood products. Mucociliary clearance was significantly slower in UV line workers. Low levels of organic solvents and coating dusts were measured in the workers' breathing zones.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1995, Vol.28, No.2, p.207-220. 55 ref.

CIS 96-759 Woods J.N., McKarns J.S.
Evaluation of capture efficiencies of large push-pull ventilation systems with both visual and tracer techniques
The contaminant capture efficiencies of push-pull ventilation systems fitted to twenty large open-surface metal finishing tanks were tested using videotaped smoke testing and novel tracer gas methods. Real-time infrared detection of sulfur hexafluoride tracer gas permitted convenient adjustment of air flows for optimum capture efficiency. The careful control of cross-drafts was the most significant factor for contaminant capture at tank liquid surfaces. The ventilation systems were therefore modified to reduce air flow rates and redirect air flows. These modifications also reduced noise levels and system energy requirements.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1995, Vol.56, No.12, p.1208-1214. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 96-525 Rossinelli L.
Health protection during pulverization with spray guns - Two-component polyurethane varnishes
Gesundheitsschutz beim Spritzen: Zweikomponenten-Polyurethanlacke [in German]
Protection de la santé lors de la pulvérisation au pistolet - Vernis polyuréthane à deux composants [in French]
Practical guide to protective measures during the use of spray guns using two-component polyurethane varnishes. Isocyanate-based hardeners are used for the treatment of this kind of varnish. These hardeners are highly reactive chemicals that can cause serious health damage in the case of exposure. Main points covered: polyurethane varnishes; health hazards; protective measures; observations (in particular, legislation in effect in Switzerland, respecting warning labels, first-aid measures in case of accidental exposure).
Schweizerische Unfallversicherungsanstalt, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, 1st ed., Nov. 1995. 7p. Illus.

CIS 96-227 Heitbrink W.A., Wallace M.E., Bryant C.J., Ruch W.E.
Control of paint overspray in autobody repair shops
Controls for reducing worker exposure to paint overspray were evaluated in six autobody shops and a spray-painting equipment manufacturer's test facility. Respirator usage was also studied. Of the three types of spray-painting booths studied, downdraft spray-painting booths appeared to provide the lowest worker exposure to paint overspray. Ventilated vehicle preparation stations did not control paint overspray. Switching from a conventional spray-painting gun to a high-volume low-pressure gun reduced particulate overspray exposure by 50%. Respirator usage was generally inappropriate; respirators were poorly maintained and/or did not fit. Proper use of engineering controls and respirators is recommended.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1995, Vol.56, No.10, p.1023-1032. Illus. 39 ref.

CIS 95-2136 Durand K.T.H., Egilman D.S.
The DuPont Imron® studies: An example of possible misrepresentation of data in the industrial hygiene literature
Opinion article (not peer reviewed) commenting on a 1985 article by Vasta J.F. in the same journal ("Respirator cartridge evaluation for isocyanate containing Imron® and Cantari® enamels", see CIS 85-785). It is claimed that the original article contained intentionally misleading information suggesting that air-purifying respirators provided adequate protection against isocyanate-based paints (data suggesting the opposite are claimed having been suppressed). The manufacturer employing the researcher in question stood to gain significantly from results supporting this hypothesis. The Editor's comments preceding the article discuss the ethical issues involved. The rebuttal by Krivanek N.D. (p.826-829) defends the integrity of the original research article and its author and questions the motives of the authors of the present article.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1995, Vol.56, No.8, p.817-825. 33 ref. Editor's comments, p.815-816; rebuttal on p.826-829.

CIS 95-1004 Fischer T., Bohlin S., Edling C., Rystedt I., Wieslander G.
Skin disease and contact sensitivity in house painters using water-based paints, glues and putties
A dermatological investigation of 202 Swedish construction painters included patch testing with ingredients of water-based paints, glues and putties. 48 painters had a history of eczema, of which 25 had a history of hand eczema. In 25 painters, factors in the work environment were estimated to contribute to the eczema, and in 11 of these their work was concluded to be the main cause of the disease. Allergic reactions to metals, preservatives, polymerizing agents, resins, solvents and film-forming agents are discussed. Findings indicate that construction painters do not face a high risk of skin disease.
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 1995, Vol.32, No.1, p.39-45. 60 ref.


CIS 97-76 Painting - Prevention of electrical hazards
Travaux de peinture - Prévention des risques électriques [in French]
Training brochure on the prevention of electrical hazards in the construction industry (in particular, those affecting painters), covering the following topics: relevant legislation in effect in France; preparatory work on construction sites; personal protection; measures concerning equipment and tools; definitions; safety measures applying to all kinds of painting work; lock-out procedures; work on pylons. In annexes: safety plans; model forms for certificates; safety signs and posters.
Organisme Professionnel de Prévention du Bâtiment et des Travaux Publics (OPPBTP), 204, rond-point du Pont-de-Sèvres, Tour Amboise, 92516 Boulogne-Billancourt, France, 1994. 56p. Illus. Price: FRF 77.00 (members), FRF 96.00 (non-members).

CIS 96-2189 Wieslander G., Norbäck D., Edling C.
Occupational exposure to water based paint and symptoms from the skin and eyes
Water-base paints contain organic solvents and many additives, some of them in small quantities. This complexity can lead to many new hazards in house painters, particularly of an allergic and irritative nature. This case-control study compares the health status of painters who have used water-base and oil-base paints, in order to find out if exposure to water-base paints increases the risks of mucous membrane and skin symptoms. It is shown that the introduction of water-base paints has actually improved the working environment of house painters, and that these paints cause less discomfort and airways irritation than the earlier solvent-based paints. Some dermal symptoms, however, might be due to exposure to components of water-base paints.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 1994, Vol.51, No.3, p.181-186. 18 ref.

CIS 96-802 Muttray A., Konietzko J.
Perturbations of the sense of smell caused by chemicals at work
Störungen des Riechvermögens durch und für Arbeitsstoffe [in German]
The work and exposure histories and results of the medical examinations of three victims of anosmia (loss of smell) are described. The chemicals involved in causing the loss of smell were acetone, cyclohexanone, dichloromethane and tetrahydrofuran in the case of a plumber whose work involved installing and repairing plastic pipes in water treatment plants. Mixtures of organic solvents and non-occupational factors led to loss of smell in the case of a painter. Chromates or solvents were involved in the case of a worker in the chromium plating department of a shock-absorber manufacturing plant.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Umweltmedizin, Oct. 1994, Vol.29, No.10, p.409-413. 43 ref.

CIS 96-729 Ruijten M.W.M.M., Hooisma J., Brons J.T., Habets C.E.P., Emmen H.H., Muijser H.
Neurobehavioral effects of long-term exposure to xylene and mixed organic solvents in shipyard spray painters
A cross-sectional study was performed in shipyard painters exposed to organic solvents and age-matched referents. The work duties of the painters mainly involved spray painting with solvent-based paints containing > 50% xylene. Results indicate that complaints regarding mood changes, equilibrium and fatigue were more severe in painters than in controls, but were not related to the estimated life-time exposure index. Decreased nerve function was observed in the lower extremities and to some extent in the upper extremities. The refractory period appeared to be a sensitive parameter in motor nerves. Most neurophysiological parameters investigated were significantly related to the exposure index. Behavioural testing revealed impairment of simple visuo-motor performance and complex perceptual coding. A relationship between effects on perceptual coding and the exposure index was also demonstrated.
Neurotoxicology, Fall 1994, Vol.15, No.3, p.613-620. 33 ref.

CIS 95-1783 Hanaoka T., Fukabori S., Nakaaki K.
Occupational health findings of workers exposed to organic solvents in small-sized painting enterprises
Shōkibo tosō jigyōsho ni okeru yūki yōzai toriatsukai sagyōsha no bakuro to kenkō no jittai to sono mondai ten [in Japanese]
In 41 small painting establishments in downtown Tokyo, airborne toluene levels were measured and 205 workers underwent medical examinations. (Mixed organic solvents were used at all the sites, but the major component was toluene.) Toluene concentrations in air ranged between 1 and 27ppm, while urinary hippuric acid levels were 0.04-3.44g/L (average 0.67±0.58g/L). No abnormalities attributable to solvent exposure were seen in the results of blood and urine analysis, but dermatological effects were evident: 76% of the workers had defatted skin and 17% had hardened horny layers. Some 87% of the workers used solvents to clean paint from their hands; greater use of solvents for hand cleaning was correlated with more severe dermatological effects. The habit was more common among workers less than 30 years old and in establishments with four or fewer workers.
Journal of Science of Labour - Rōdō Kagaku, 10 Oct. 1994, Vol.70, No.10, p.463-473. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 95-1403 Lundberg I., Nise G., Hedenborg G., Högberg M., Vesterberg O.
Liver function tests and urinary albumin in house painters with previous heavy exposure to organic solvents
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 1994, Vol.51, No.5, p.347-353. Illus. 38 ref. ###

CIS 95-999 Moreau A., Dompmartin A., Castel B., Remond B., Michel M., Leroy D.
Contact dermatitis from a textile flame retardant
A case study is presented of a painter with contact sensitivity to Flammentin ASN® following use of a protective cotton cap treated with this flame retardant. The painter presented with eczema of the forehead and face at the sites of cap contact. Patch tests with the treated cap and flame retardant were positive. The case is compared to other published reports.
Contact Dermatitis, Aug. 1994, Vol.31, No.2, p.86-88. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 95-647 Occupational diseases in galvanizing and electroplating plants
Berufskrankheiten in der Galvanik [in German]
Of 815 occupational diseases in galvanizing and electroplating plants reported in Germany in the period between 1982 and 1992, 92 were compensated. Almost 50% of the occupational diseases receiving compensation were skin diseases, 15% were noise-induced hearing losses and 14% were diseases caused by chromium and its compounds. It is recommended to reduce the concentrations of harmful substances by installing local exhausts and enclosures or by automation so that exposure limits are complied with. In cases where the biological threshold limits for chromium and its compounds are exceeded, medical surveillance of the exposed employees is necessary.
G+S - Gesund und Sicher, June 1994, No.6, p.185-186. Illus.

CIS 95-581 Ameille J., Villoingt L.
Prognostic value of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in car painters exposed to isocyanates
Valeur pronostique de l'hyperréactivité bronchique chez des peintres automobiles exposés aux isocyanates [in French]
Thirty five painters exposed to HDI and HDI prepolymers underwent two respiratory examinations consisting of a standardized questionnaire and measurement of pulmonary function including a methacholine challenge over a 2-year period. Non specific bronchial hyperresponsiveness (NSBH) was present initially in 11 workers and was associated with a higher tobacco consumption, a higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms and lower baseline values of lung function tests. Compared with car painters without NSBH, those with NSBH had a greater, though not significant, reduction in FEV (76mL/year versus 37mL/year). No case of asthma was diagnosed neither in car painters with NSBH, nor in those without. So, despite the weak number of patients in our study, it appears that the presence of NSBH in car painters exposed to isocyanates is not a good predictor of asthma. On the other hand, performing a test of bronchial hyperreactivity might be used as means of identifying subjects at risk for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, 1994, Vol.55, No.5, p.317-321. 34 ref.

CIS 95-281
Health and Safety Executive
Control of exposure to triglycidyl isocyanurate (TGIC) in powder coatings
This data sheet provides guidance on safety during the formulation or use of TGIC. Contents: use of TGIC as a curing agent; health effects (irritation, sensitization, genetic effects in animals suggest potential reproductive or carcinogenic effects); occupational exposure limits; application and maintenance of control measures (use of alternative coatings or curing agents, hazard evaluation, equipment design, ventilation, protective clothing); exposure monitoring; information and training.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Aug. 1994. 4p. 7 ref.

CIS 95-234 Moya C., Antó J.M., Newman Taylor A.J.
Outbreak of organising pneumonia in textile printing sprayers
Eight textile printing factories using spraying techniques in Valencia, Spain were investigated following the occurrence of severe interstitial lung disease in three employees. Clinical and radiological data and biopsy specimens from 71 (27.6%) workers with abnormal respiratory features indicated the occurrence of an outbreak of organizing pneumonia which resulted in six deaths. Although the precise toxicological mechanism is unknown, it is proposed that the lung disease was caused by spray procedures which caused inhalation of a respirable aerosol of Acramin FWN.
Lancet, 20 Aug. 1994, Vol.344, No.8921, p.498-502. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 94-1693 Practical guide to ventilation. 14 - Free-jet blasting in blasting chambers
Guide pratique de ventilation. 14 - Décapage, dessablage, dépolissage au jet libre en cabine [in French]
Guide and information sheet intended for people and organizations involved in the development, construction, use and control of ventilation systems in free-jet blasting chambers. Main contents: risks (poisoning; fire and explosion, etc.); technical aspects: main activities concerned; equipment used (blasting apparatus, chamber); operating principles of high-pressure blasting equipment; ventilation: purpose, design, choice; characteristics of air exhaust and supply devices; air exhaust rates; make-up air and heating; dust control; rejection of polluted air outside premises, air recirculation; operators outside the blasting chamber; automated devices; metallizing; personal protection; inspection and maintenance; fires and explosions; noise; lighting (required lighting; lighting calculations; lighting fixtures); servo-systems (blasting/closing of doors, blasting/ventilation and lighting).
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 1st Quarter 1994, No.154, Note No.1948-154-94, p.5-19. Illus. 24 ref.


CIS 99-862 Midtgård U.
Nordic Council of Ministers
Surface treatment and film deposition techniques: Occupational hazards and toxicity of selected compounds
Topics: caustic substances; health hazards; irritation; literature survey; manufacturing processes; new technologies; respirable dust; spray coating; surface coating; toxic substances.
National Institute of Occupational Health, Lersø Parkallé 105, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, 1993. 32p. Illus. 114 ref.

CIS 95-1761 Hefflin B.J., Etzel R.A., Agocs M.M., Stratton J.W., Ikawa G.K., Barsan M.E., Schutte G.R., Paschal D.C., Kozman A.R.
Mercury exposure from exterior latex paint
An investigation was conducted to determine the extent of mercury exposure from the outdoor application of exterior latex paints. Air and urinary mercury concentrations of 13 professional male painters were compared with those of 29 men having non-painter occupations. The median concentration of mercury for the four paint samples obtained was 570mg/L. The median air mercury concentration was higher for painters than for nonpainters. The median urinary mercury concentration was nearly twice as high for painters as for nonpainters. Among painters, urinary mercury concentrations increased with the percentage of time spent applying exterior paint. These data suggest increased mercury exposure among professional painters who use mercury-containing exterior paint outdoors.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Oct. 1993, Vol.8, No.10, p.866-870. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 95-657 Hewer H.W., Odoj G.
Harmful substances used in painting china
Gefahrstoff-Situation beim Porzellan-Malen [in German]
Dichloromethane, turpentine, toluene and xylene are the solvents used in applying gold paint to china. The German exposure limits (MAK) for these substances are 360, 560, 380 and 440mg/m3 respectively. The biological threshold limits for dichloromethane, toluene and xylene are 2, 1.7 and 2mg/L (blood). Dichloromethane is a carcinogen. Toluene is a teratogen, xylene and turpentine are allergens. In compliance tests no concentrations in excess of the limits mentioned were found. Protective measures are outlined to keep exposure low.
Keramik und Glas, Sep. 1993, No.3, p.121-126. Illus.

CIS 94-2060 Von Pidoll U., Krämer H.
Minimum ignition energy of coating powders for electrostatic coating
Die Mindestzündenergie von Pulverlacken für die elektrostatische Pulverbeschichtung [in German]
More than 40 coating powders were tested to determine their minimum ignition energies, which depend on the specific surface area of the powder calculated from the particle size distribution. In addition, the chemical composition of the powder, the amount of resin, and the tendency to agglomerate have an influence. The lowest ignition energy, 1.7mJ, was obtained for transparent epoxy coating powders with particle diameters below 25µm. There is no fire or explosion hazard with these powders if they are applied with hand-held spray guns according to EN 50050.
PTB Mitteilungen - Forschen und Prüfen, 1993, Vol.103, No.4, p.329-333. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 94-1653 Dugrillon D., Boudet M., Casagrande C., Charlanes D., Delorme M., Gaucheron D., Gosselin M.P., Lebert D., Ruet P., Vaille-Brunet B., Vellay M., Vesperini D.
Paint and varnish spraying booths
Cabines de projection de peintures et vernis [in French]
A study of 34 spraying booths for liquid paint and varnishes was undertaken in France by occupational physicians to determine noise levels and ventilation speeds. The efficiency of ventilation in the booths appeared in most cases unsatisfactory and personal protective equipment worn in the booths by workers was of poor quality and inadequate. Efforts made to inform painters and enterprises, in particular to seek alternative solutions to the use of solvents for washing hands, should be furthered and intensified.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 1993, No.55, p.265-268. 6 ref.

CIS 94-1601 Bolm-Audorff U., Jöckel K.H., Kilguss B., Pohlabeln H., Siepenkothen T.
Malignant tumours of the lower urinary tract and occupational risk factors
Bösartige Tumoren der ableitenden Harnwege und Risiken am Arbeitsplatz [in German]
Chemists, chemical workers, employees in the rubber industry and hairdressers run a significantly higher risk of developing malignant tumours of the lower urinary tract. Painters were found to be at higher risk also, but not on a statistically significant level. Smoking and the consumption of beer and coffee were identified as non-occupational risk factors.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, Am Alten Hafen 113-115, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1993. 179p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 94-1238 Forst L.S., Abraham J.
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis presenting as sarcoidosis
A case report is presented to illustrate a misdiagnosis of sarcoidosis in a spraypainter whose history was suggestive of hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by exposure to toluene diisocyanate in the workplace. The two diseases have similar clinical, laboratory and pathological features and are thus difficult to distinguish. Since early recognition of hypersensitivity pneumonitis can lead to complete reversal of the disease in many cases, it is important to make the diagnosis as early as possible.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 1993, Vol.50, No.6, p.497-500. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 94-978 Bolt H.M., Golka K.
On the past exposure of painters to azo colorants
Zur früheren Exposition von Malern gegenüber Azofarbmitteln [in German]
Present experimental data indicate that the bladder cancer risk of painters using azo dyes depends on the kind of azo dyes used. Only bioavailable soluble azo dyes may have a carcinogenic effect. An examination of past exposures of painters to bioavailable azo dyes reveals that up to the 1950's bioavailable, soluble azo dyes including dyes based on benzidine were used for the surface treatment of wood. In those days painters had to mix and prepare the dyes from powders. Skin contact and inhalation were unavoidable. After 1960 the carcinogenic azo dyes were no longer used by painters.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Umweltmedizin, 1993, Vol.28, No.10, p.417-421. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 94-951 Macaluso M., Delzell E., Rose V., Perkins J., Oestenstad K.
Inter-rater agreement in the assessment of solvent exposure at a car assembly plant
This study investigated the feasibility and the reproducibility of a retrospective assessment of solvent exposure in the painting operations of a car assembly plant. Five industrial hygienists (the raters) reviewed summary documents on plant operations and solvent exposure levels, developed from plant records and interviews. Inter-rater agreement was evaluated by computing the percent concordance index and the intra-class correlation coefficient (r1). There was discordance among raters, a large proportion of which pertained to low exposure levels (1-5ppm). Inter-rater agreement was good for cumulative exposure scores computed for frequent exposures.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1993, Vol.54, No.7, p.351-359. Illus. 40 ref.

CIS 94-619 Myer H.E., O'Block S.T., Dharmarajan V.
A survey of airborne HDI, HDI-based polyisocyanate and solvent concentrations in the manufacture and application of polyurethane coatings
This study summarizes the results of industrial hygiene surveys in paint manufacturing and application operations using polyurethane coatings containing hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) and HDI-based polyisocyanates, with some attention paid to other organic solvents. 466 samples were collected from 47 operations (mostly in application). The application surveys covered painting of transportation vehicles, large military and civilian equipment, and other industrial and construction painting jobs. The major results of these measurements show that there is some potential for isocyanate overexposure of unprotected workers and that it is greater in spray than in nonspray operations.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1993, Vol.54, No.11, p.663-670. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 93-2024 Electrical systems in the electroplating industry
This data sheet describes the hazards associated with the use of electrical systems in the electroplating industry and outlines a strategy for effective control and compliance with the Electricity at Work Regulations 1989 (see CIS 89-1439). This strategy includes inspection and examination of the electrical system and its equipment, implementation of a programme of remedial work, examination of working methods and preventive maintenance.
Health and Safety Executive, Information Centre, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, 1993. 4p. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 93-1914 Workplace welfare in the electroplating industry
This data sheet gives guidance on compliance with the Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1992 (see CIS 93-351). Some common problems occurring in electroplating shops are highlighted (wet floors, inadequate ventilation and lighting, dirty toilets and washing facilities, dirty walls, floors and surfaces, temperature too low or too high) along with associated hazards, causes and suggested remedies. Under the new Regulations, adequate rest areas and welfare facilities are required.
Health and Safety Executive, Information Centre, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, 1993. 4p. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 93-1922 Churg A., Stevens B.
Absence of amosite asbestos in airway mucosa of non-smoking long-term workers with occupational exposure to asbestos
There is considerable experimental evidence that asbestos fibres are taken up by epithelial cells and that uptake of fibres is associated with various deleterious, particularly mutagenic, effects. It is not known, however, whether asbestos fibres are taken up by human bronchial epithelial cells in vivo. To investigate this question, the amosite asbestos content of the mucosa of seven different airways and four parenchymal sites supplied by these airways in six necropsy lungs from heavily exposed never-smoking long-term shipyard and insulation workers without asbestosis was examined. Amosite asbestos was readily found in moderately high concentration in all parenchymal samples, but 33 of 40 airway samples that could be evaluated showed no amosite fibres. The seven positive airways had fibre concentrations that were always much lower than the parenchymal concentrations, and these very few fibres may have been contaminants from the parenchyma. These data suggest that, at least in non-smokers, amosite asbestos either does not penetrate into or does not accumulate in human airway mucosa. These findings also call into question the idea that asbestos acts as a direct airway carcinogen in humans.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 1993, Vol.50, No.4, p.355-359. 29 ref.

CIS 93-1932 Haberlin G.M., Heinsohn R.J.
Predicting solvent concentrations from coating the inside of bulk storage tanks
A technique is presented for assessing health risks associated with coating the inside surface of a bulk storage tank. The technique uses a sequential box model to predict the time-varying solvent concentrations at arbitrary points inside the vessel during an ongoing coating process. Input parameters include volumetric flow rates of exhaust and makeup air, solvent threshold limit values and evaporation rates, and a set of exchange coefficients that characterise air circulation inside the vessel. This technique enables engineers to rate quantitatively the anticipated health risks of applying a combination of coatings. The technique also provides engineering managers a predictive tool to organise work schedules so that health and safety can become input parameters to an engineering enterprise.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1993, Vol.54, No.1, p.1-9. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 93-1900
Health and Safety Executive
Health surveillance requirements in the electroplating industry
This data sheet outlines legal requirements for health surveillance of employees along with the procedures involved and the health records required. A table lists hazardous substances and processes in the electroplating industry with the associated health risks and health surveillance required.
HSE Information Centre, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, May 1993. 2p. 10 ref.

CIS 93-2016
Health and Safety Executive
Monitoring requirements in the electroplating industry
This data sheet outlines requirements for routine monitoring under the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 1988 (COSSH) (CIS 89-1092). Situations where monitoring is required are outlined along with monitoring procedures and record keeping. A table lists some commonly used hazardous substances in the electroplating industry for which monitoring is or may be required.
HSE Information Centre, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, May 1993. 2p. 11 ref.

CIS 93-1558 Demers P.A., Vaughan T.L., Koepsell T.D., Lyon J.L., Swanson G.M., Greenberg R.S., Weiss N.S.
A case-control study of multiple myeloma and occupation
This study investigates the relationship between multiple myeloma and employment in various occupations and industries. Interviews were obtained from 89% (692) of eligible incident cases and 83% (1683) of eligible controls. An elevated risk was observed among persons ever employed as painters [odds ratio (OR)=2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.2-3.6], particularly for those employed for 10 or more years. A small excess risk was observed among agricultural workers employed for 10 or more years, with a higher relative risk observed among farm laborers (OR=1.8, 95% CI=1.0-4.0). Among agricultural workers who reported having been highly exposed to pesticides, the OR was 5.2 (95% CI=1.6-21.1). Some evidence was also found to support an association with firefighting and employment in the petroleum- and coal-products manufacturing industries. Little evidence was found to support the previously noted association with wood exposure, and no evidence for an association with employment in the rubber or petroleum refining industries was found.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 1993, Vol.23, No.4, p.629-639. 32 ref.


CIS 95-1135 Kivimäki J., Riihimäki H., Hänninen K.
Knee disorders in carpet and floor layers and painters
This study indicates that kneeling work increases the risk of knee disorders and such radiographic changes that might be an initial sign of knee degeneration.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Oct. 1992, Vol.18, No.5, p.310-316. 16 ref.

CIS 94-875 Society of Occupational Medicine, Industrial Hygiene and Ergonomics of Western France - Meeting of 24-25 October 1991
Société de médecine du travail, d'hygiène industrielle et d'ergonomie de l'ouest - Séances des 24 et 25 octobre 1991 [in French]
Main subjects treated at the meetings of 24 and 25 Oct. 1991 of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Industrial and Hygiene and Ergonomics of western France: prevention of atheromatosis and occupational medicine; psychotropic drugs at work; keeping a handicapped worker in his job; carpal tunnel syndrome; radial tunnel syndrome or epicondyalgia due to movement; repetitive strain of the upper limbs; periarticular diseases: how to proceed; upper limb periarticular diseases; carpal tunnel syndrome and compression of the posterior branch of the radial nerve at the elbow-level; survey of carpal tunnel syndrome of occupational origin; periarticular pain of the upper limbs and working conditions in poultry slaughterhouses and canneries.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1992, Vol.53, No.6, p.453-476. Illus.

CIS 94-766 Decree No. 92-634 of 6 July 1992 modifying the Decree of 17 August 1977, as modified, relating to the specific hygiene measures applicable...where personnel is exposed to asbestos dust [France]
Décret du 6 juillet 1992 modifiant le décret du 17 août 1977 modifié relatif aux mesures particulières d'hygiène applicables...où le personnel est exposé à l'action des poussières d'amiante [France] [in French]
This Decree (modifying the Decree of 17 August 1977 (CIS 77-1560), also published in the French Journal officiel of 10 July 1992, p.9294) 1) prohibits the application of asbestos by spraying and activities which involve the incorporation of insulating or sound-proofing materials containing asbestos of a density less than 1g/cm3; 2) sets the maximum level of fibres at 0.60f/cm3 when chrysotile alone is used and at 0.30f/cm3 for all other varieties of asbestos whether isolated or mixed, included mixtures containing chrysotile.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 1992, No.51, p.433.

CIS 94-274 Cohen B.S., Brosseau L.M., Fang C.P., Bowers A., Snyder C.
Measurement of air concentrations of volatile aerosols in paint spray applications
This study investigated whether traditional vapour sampling measures provide reliable estimates of inhalation exposure during spray painting of automobiles. Xylene and toluene were tested as representative solvents. Measured air concentrations of xylene averaged about 2ppm at base-coat paint applications and less than 1ppm at clear coat applications. Toluene concentrations averaged about 0.1ppm for both processes. Comparisons of different samplers showed that droplets produced during the spraying of both base coat and clear coat operations retain liquid solvent when the droplets reach the breathing zone of workers. The fraction of airborne solvent represented by the droplets is influenced by both the solvent vapour pressure in the mixture and the original droplet size. For the solvents and processes tested here droplets contained up to 50% of airborne solvent. The use of prefiltered charcoal sorbent tubes is recommended for monitoring worker exposure to solvents in spray application processes.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Aug. 1992, Vol.7, No.8, p.514-521. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 93-1622 Bernardini P., Scoppetta C.
Exposure to solvents and late onset epilepsy: Two clinical cases
Esposizione a solventi ed epilessia tardiva - Due casi clinici [in Italian]
Two case-studies of late-onset epilepsy appearing in painters with heavy past exposure to organic solvents. Neither of the painters had shown any previous neurological symptoms or any other effects of exposure to solvents. Analysis of these cases and of the literature seems to support the hypothesis of a non-casual association between solvent exposure and epilepsy.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1992, Vol.83, No.3, p.266-273. 15 ref.

CIS 93-1600 Jacob T.R., Hadley J.G., Bender J.R., Eastes W.
Airborne glass fiber concentrations during installation of residential insulation
In an effort to better characterise airborne fibre levels and types associated with the installation of residential insulation, airborne fibre concentrations were measured during the installation of several insulation products. Sample collection and fibre counting procedures followed NIOSH Method 7400 with some modifications. The arithmetic mean concentration of total airborne fibres during installation of batt-type insulation was 0.22f/cm3 (95% c.l.=0.18-0.27f/cm3). Significantly, approx. 20% were respirable glass fibres. For applications of blowing wool, the total airborne fibre concentrations were higher, with means of 1.0f/cm3 (0.9-1.1) or 2.1f/cm3 (1.5-2.7), depending on the product type. Glass fibres were 0.7f/cm3 (0.6-0.8) or 1.7f/cm3 (1.2-2.5) and respirable glass fibres were 0.3f/cm3 (0.2-0.4) or 0.8f/cm3 (0.5-1.3). Similar to the batt installation results, only 20-40% of the total airborne fibres were respirable glass fibres. The night after installation of the insulation was complete, the airborne fibre concentrations dropped to the levels measured before the insulation work began.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1992, Vol.53, No.8, p.519-523. 22 ref.

CIS 93-952 Kauffer E.
Seminar "Insulating mineral wools in construction - Health effects"
Journée d'étude: "Les laines minérales isolantes dans le bâtiment - Effets sur la santé" [in French]
Extended abstracts, illustrations and references of the eight contributions presented at an international seminar organised by the French National Research and Safety Institute at Vandœuvre, France, on 10 Dec. 1991. Titles: manufacture of insulating mineral wools; installing insulation; irritant dermatitis due to glass fibre; toxicity of mineral wools: experimental data; penetration, deposition, clearance and persistence of mineral fibres; long-term effects of artificial mineral fibres on health; exposure to artificial mineral wools in the installation of insulating materials; preventive measures in the use of insulating mineral wools in construction.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, June 1992. 122p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 93-582 Spurgeon A., Gray C.N., Sims J., Calvert I., Levy L.S., Harvey P.G., Harrington J.M.
Neurobehavioral effects of long-term occupational exposure to organic solvents - Two comparable studies
Two comparable cross-sectional studies were carried out employing the same methodology but involving two separate solvent-exposed populations (N=90, N=144). In both studies, solvent-exposed workers were compared with age-matched controls on tests selected from the Neurobehavioural Evaluation System and on standardised questionnaire measures of symptomatology and psychiatric state. A similar pattern of results was obtained in the two studies indicating a significant effect on cognitive functioning, after controlling for confounding variables, occurring in those with more than 30 years of exposure. A more specific effect on learning processes was observed in those with more than 10 years of exposure. There were no indications in either study of a solvent-related increase in psychiatric symptoms.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 1992, Vol.22, No.3, p.325-335. 22 ref.

CIS 93-569 Janko M., McCarthy K., Fajer M., van Raalte J.
Occupational exposure to 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate-based polyisocyanates in the state of Oregon, 1980-1990
Monitoring of exposure to 1,6-hexamethylene (HDI) monomers and HDI polyisocyanates from spray painting and related activities was conducted by taking 562 air samples from 60 workplaces in Oregon, USA, from 1980-1990. A high number of the samples (42%) exceeded the Oregon permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 1mg/m3 for HDI polyisocyanates. Spray finishing operations were divided into three categories: continuous industrial spraying, auto body repair shops, and intermittent spray operations of large objects. In all the surveys, the ventilation facilities and personal protective equipment were evaluated. The exposure levels were related to the HDI polymer content of the paint, types of spray guns used, ventilation facilities, and personal work practices. The impact of the Oregon PEL on the use of personal protective equipment is discussed.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, May 1992, Vol.53, No.5, p.331-338. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 93-545 Rom W.N.
Accelerated loss of lung function and alveolitis in a longitudinal study of non-smoking individuals with occupational exposure to asbestos
77 long-term asbestos workers engaged in the insulation of pipes and boilers were evaluated to quantitate annual loss of lung function. All of them had chest X-rays ≥1/0 ILO category and were life-long non-smokers or ex-smokers for > 5 years. Study parameters included pulmonary function tests and bronchoalveolar lavage for a mean of 3 visits over 30 ± 2 months. Multiple regression analysis revealed significant associations between rales or radiographic opacities and VC, FEV1, and total lung capacity; significant associations were also found between neutrophils/mL lavage fluid with FEV1 and diffusing capacity (all p<0.05). Annual declines for the asbestos-exposed were VC -92±28mL/yr and FEV1 -66±21mL/yr. Compared to other asbestos-exposed cohorts followed longitudinally, asbestos insulators with radiographs ≥1/0 and exposure ≥20 years have higher rates of FVC and FEV1 decline for both non-smokers and ex-smokers.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 1992, Vol.21, No.6, p.835-844. Illus. 38 ref.

CIS 93-554 Zwennis W.C.M., Franssen A.C.
Assessment of occupational exposure to cadmium in the Netherlands, 1980-1989
One thousand five hundred fifty urine samples and 1,295 blood samples, collected from 919 workers, were analysed for cadmium (Cd). The workers were employed at 16 different types of workplaces. In about 7.5% of the samples, the concentration of Cd exceeded the biological limit values (CdU = 5µg/g creatinine; CdB = 5µg/L) proposed by the Dutch Expert Committee for Occupational Standards. Levels higher than these values were measured in both urine samples and blood samples of workers involved in electrochemical plating, in production of Cd stabilisers and enamels, and in soldering with silver-cadmium solder. Significantly higher concentrations of β2-microglobulin (MG) were found in urine samples with CdU >10µg/g creatinine. Cd levels in urine increased with age.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 1992, Vol.21, No.6, p.793-805. Illus. 34 ref.

CIS 93-254 Prescott E., Netterstrøm B., Faber J., Hegedüs L., Suadicani P., Christensen J.M.
Effect of occupational exposure to cobalt blue dyes on the thyroid volume and function of female plate painters
The effect of industrial cobalt exposure on thyroid volume and function was determined for 61 female plate painters exposed to cobalt blue dyes in two Danish porcelain factories and 48 unexposed referents. Thyroid volume was determined by ultrasonography. The cobalt blue dyes were used in one of two forms, cobalt aluminate (insoluble) and cobalt-zinc silicate (semisoluble). Only the subjects exposed to semisoluble cobalt had a significantly increased urinary cobalt content (1.17µg.mmol-1 versus 0.13µg.mmol-1, p<0.0001). These subjects also had increased levels of serum thyroxine (T4) and free thyroxine (FT4I) (p=0.0001 and 0.0029, respectively) unaltered serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and marginally reduced 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3), whereas thyroid volume tended to be lower (p=0.14). The group exposed to insoluble cobalt did not differ significantly in any thyroid-related parameters. No correlation between urinary cobalt and FT4I or thyroid volume was found. The study demonstrates an effect of cobalt on thyroid hormone metabolism.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 1992, Vol.18, No.2, p.101-104. 17 ref.

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