Surface treatment - 644 entries found
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Estlander T., Kari O., Jolanki R., Kanerva L.
Occupational allergic contact dermatitis and blepharoconjunctivitis caused by gold
Topics: airborne dust; allergens; allergy tests; case study; change of employment; conjunctivitis; dermatitis; eczema; electroplating; Finland; gold and compounds; hypersensitivity; sensitization dermatitis; skin tests.
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 1998, Vol.38, No.1, p.40-41. 25 ref.
Health and Safety Executive, Health and Safety Laboratory
Hexavalent chromium in chromium plating mists: Colorimetric field method using 1,5-diphenylcarbazide
Topics: carcinogens; chromium and compounds; colorimetry; comment on law; data sheet; description of equipment; description of technique; determination in air; electroplating; limitation of exposure; mists; sampling and analysis; toxic effects; United Kingdom.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Rev.ed., Apr. 1998. 16p. 31 ref. Price: GBP 12.00.
Health and Safety Executive
Electrical systems in the electroplating industry
Topics: data sheet; electrical equipment; electrical safety; electroplating; inspection; preventive maintenance; responsibilities; safety guides; United Kingdom.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, rev.ed. 1998. 4p. Illus. 6 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Health surveillance requirements in the electroplating industry
Topics: data sheet; electroplating; harmful substances; health hazards; health service records; legislation; medical supervision; surface coating; United Kingdom.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, rev.ed. 1998. 2p. 12 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Workplace welfare in the electroplating industry
Topics: cleaning of workplaces; containment of spills; data sheet; electroplating; housekeeping; lighting; surface coating; thermal environment; United Kingdom; ventilation; welfare facilities.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, rev.ed. 1998. 4p. Illus. 11 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Monitoring requirements in the electroplating industry, including electrolytic chromium processes
Topics: air sampling; chromium and compounds; data sheet; determination in air; electroplating; exposure records; harmful substances; legislation; location of sampling points; mists; surface coating; United Kingdom.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, rev.ed. 1998. 4p. 12 ref.
Topics: carcinogens; chrome ulcer; chromium and compounds; dermatological effects; diseases of nose and sinuses; electroplating; legislation; medical supervision; occupational hygiene evaluation; perforation of the nasal septum; questionnaire survey; respiratory diseases; skin diseases; ulceration of the nasal mucosa; United Kingdom.
Occupational Health, Mar. 1998, Vol.50, No.3, p.28-30. Illus. 14 ref.
Auffarth J., Bredendiek-Kämper S., Fröhlich N., Lampe C.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Exposure to harmful substances during thermal spraying
Stoffbelastungen beim thermischen Spritzen [in German]
This study examines exposure to harmful dusts and gases during thermal spraying in six workplaces using various spraying technologies and materials (nickel, chromium, zinc, molybdenum, copper, antifriction metal). In automatic spraying booths, exposure levels were low (less than 10% of the occupational exposure limit (OEL)). When manual feed of the spray parts was performed, the short-term exposure limit (STEL) could be exceeded. Flame spraying in spraying rooms with natural ventilation or local exhaust ventilation led to exposure above OEL. Breathing equipments or breathing masks were generally used during spraying. When reentering without breathing mask the spraying room after spray periods, STELs were exceeded. The decrease of exposure levels beyond OEL could take up to two and a half hours. Exposure to nitrous gases, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and ozone were generally well beyond the OELs
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1997. 69p. Illus. 25 ref. Price: DEM 20.00.
Ministério do Trabalho
Electroplating - What you need to know about the quality of life at work
Galvânicas - O que você precisa saber sobre qualidade de vida no trabalho [in Portuguese]
This training manual in the form of a comic strip is aimed at workers in the electroplating industry. It describes the main environmental and health hazards of this industry, as well as good working conditions, and explains how the workers can obtain medical advice and improve conditions of work with the active participation of unions. Pathologies specific to this industry (chromium ulcer, cancer of the nasal septum) are described and recommendations for the use of toxic chemicals (sodium hydroxide; sulfuric, nitric and hydrochloric acids; cyanides) are provided.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 05409-002, Brazil, 1997. 40p. Illus.
Kiilunen M., Aitio A., Tossavainen A.
Occupational exposure to nickel salts in electrolytic plating
Exposure to nickel was measured in 38 nickel plating shops in Finland. The average after-shift urinary nickel concentration of 163 workers was 0.16µmol/L. After the 1-5 week vacation, urinary nickel concentration was higher than the upper reference limit of non-exposed Finns, indicating that a part of water-soluble nickel salts is accumulated in the body. Urinary nickel concentrations in the shops considered clean in an industrial hygiene walk-through were not different from those observed in the shops considered dirty. The correlation between concentrations of nickel in air and in urine was low, and the amount of nickel excreted in urine exceeded the calculated inhaled amounts, indicating exposure by other routes such as ingestion. Topics: breathing atmosphere; determination in air; determination in urine; electroplating; exposure evaluation; nickel and compounds; occupational health survey.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Apr. 1997, Vol.41, No.2, p.189-200. Illus. 16 ref.
Wieslander G., Norbäck D., Edling C.
Airway symptoms among house painters in relation to exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) - A longitudinal study
A study of 175 house painters from 1989 to 1992 showed no increase of asthma or respiratory symptoms in painters exposed only to water-based paint (WBP). Most painters had a mixed exposure to solvent-based paint (SBP) and WPB, the main source of volatile organic compounds being the limited use of SBP. WBP was perceived as less irritative than SBP, but complaints of airway irritation from WBP increased during the study period. The most pronounced increase of airway irritation in relation to both WBP and SBP was observed among painters with the highest solvent exposure. Results indicate that emissions of volatile organic compounds from SBP may contribute to the development of respiratory symptoms and airway irritation among these painters. Topics: asthma; epidemiologic study; exposure evaluation; functional respiratory disorders; irritation; organic compounds; painting; paints; respiratory diseases; solvents; subjective assessment; symptoms; volatile substances.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Apr. 1997, Vol.41, No.2, p.155-166. Illus. 17 ref.
Wolford R., Larson M., Merrick D., Andrews M., Tillet S.
A comparison of safety-and-health training of painters in Alaska, Oregon and Washington
Topics: Alaska; comparative study; economic aspects; fans; health hazards; Oregon; painting; paints and varnishes; programme evaluation; questionnaire survey; respirators; safety consciousness; safety training in industry; USA; Washington.
Publications, The Center to Protect Workers' Rights, 111 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20001, USA, Jan. 1997. 37p. 5 ref.
Protecting workers exposed to lead-based paint hazards: A report to Congress
Topics: abrasive blasting; antifertility effects; carcinogenic effects; cardiovascular disorders; lead; epidemiological aspects; exposure evaluation; haematological effects; health engineering; neighbourhood populations; paint removal; painting; paints; renal damage; report; respirators; sampling and analysis; substitution; teratogenic effects; USA.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Publications Dissemination, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, Jan. 1997. xii, 74p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Isocyanates: Health surveillance in motor vehicle repair
Topics: asthma; data sheet; health service records; irritants; isocyanates; medical supervision; paint spraying; respirators; spray booths; United Kingdom; vehicle repair and servicing.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Oct. 1997. 2p. 9 ref.
Randolph B.W., Lalloo U.G., Gouws E., Colvin M.S.E.
An evaluation of the respiratory health status of automotive spray-painters exposed to paints containing hexamethylene di-isocyanates in the greater Durban area
Topics: dermatitis; eye irritation; hexamethylene diisocyanate; motor vehicle industry; paint spraying; pulmonary function; respiratory function tests; South Africa; spirometry.
South African Medical Journal, Mar. 1997, Vol.87, No.3, p.318-323. Illus. 24 ref.
de Gaudemaris R., Gary Y., Romazini S., Coudert M., Teinturier P., Grosset-Janin J.P.
From epidemiological studies to the implementation of a prevention policy in SMEs: Example of a programme undertaken in surface treatment workshops in Savoie and Haute-Savoie
De la mesure épidémiologique à la mise en place d'une politique de prévention dans les P.M.E.: exemple d'une action conduite dans les ateliers de traitement de surface de Savoie et Haute-Savoie [in French]
Topics: caustic substances; chemical burns; chrome ulcer; cohort study; electroplating; France; health hazards; irritants; irritation; perforation of the nasal septum; plant safety organization; plating solutions; small enterprises; ulceration of the nasal mucosa.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Sep. 1997, Vol.58, No.5, p.440-448. 16 ref.
Kanerva L., Kiilunen M., Jolanki R., Estlander T., Aitio A.
Hand dermatitis and allergic patch test reactions caused by nickel in electroplaters
Topics: eczema; electroplating; Finland; nickel; questionnaire survey; sensitization dermatitis; skin allergies; skin tests.
Contact Dermatitis, Mar. 1997, Vol.36, No.3, p.137-140. 28 ref.
Applying environmental accounting to electroplating operations: An in-depth analysis
This report presents the findings of an investigation into the application of environmental accounting practices in electroplating facilities. The research entailed on-site investigations and literature reviews. Environmental costs involved in electroplating operations are analyzed and issues to be considered in implementing environmental analysis in these operations are described. Many facilities are using environmental analysis without knowing or calling it that; most conventional costs associated with environmental management (wastewater treatment, hazardous waste disposal) are recognized and captured in new project or process evaluations.
Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pollution, Prevention and Toxics, Washington, DC 20460, USA, May 1997. 53p. 53 ref.
Bright P., et al.
Occupational asthma due to chrome and nickel electroplating
The clinical features of chrome-induced occupational asthma in seven subjects exposed to chrome and nickel fumes in metal electroplating works are described. Diagnosis was made from a history of asthma with rest day improvement, and confirmed by specific bronchial provocation testing with potassium dichromate and nickel chloride. Sensitivity to chrome may occur in situations where exposure levels are likely to be within the current exposure standards. There may be cross reactivity with nickel.
Thorax, 1997, Vol.52, p.28-32. Illus. 25 ref.
Health and Safety Executive, Health and Safety Laboratory
Triglycidyl isocyanurate (and coating powders containing triglycidyl isocyanurate) in air
A method is described for the analysis of time-weighted average concentrations of triglycidyl isocyanurate (TGIC) and premix and coating powders containing TGIC in air. Principle: a measured volume of air is drawn through a silanized glass fibre filter mounted in an inhalable dust sampler; the sample is extracted using one of two methods depending on whether TGIC is present in air alone or in a premix or coating powder; the resulting solution is analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with a UV detector. The method is validated between 0.01 and 0.2mg/m3 pure TGIC for sample volumes of 200L. The detection limit for TGIC is typically around 0.18µg per sample (0.9µg /m3 for a 200L volume air sample).
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, June 1997. 7p. 13 ref. Price: GBP 12.00.
These 17 chapters in a major new survey of OSH examine health and safety issues in various manufacturing industries: achieving safer products; robot system safety design; small companies; welding (ergonomics and occupational hygiene); conventional lathes, cutters and upright drilling machines; surface treatment and metal finishing; industrial photographic film developing; woodworking; automotive industry; road vehicle repair; the electronics and electromechanical workplace; mining industry; metallurgical industry; glass industry; printing; shipbuilding and ship repairing.
In: The Workplace (by Brune D. et al., eds), Scandinavian Science Publisher as, Bakkehaugveien 16, 0873 Oslo, Norway, 1997, Vol.2, p.435-648. Illus. Bibl.ref.
DMSO/CS2 mixture: A solvent system for desorption of polar and nonpolar paint solvents from activated charcoal
A technique is described which allows collection and analysis of a range of volatile organic emissions from automotive painting operations in a single procedure. Glass charcoal tubes were spiked with a mixture of paint solvents dissolved in carbon disulfide (CS2). The adsorbed compounds were desorbed with either CS2 or a mixture of CS2 and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Analysis was carried out by gas chromatography. An extraction solvent consisting of 4% DMSO in CS2 gave a satisfactory recovery (higher than 80%) for many commonly used paint solvents. This procedure has an advantage over current standard methods that may require multiple extractions.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1997, Vol.58, No.8, p.603-607. 7 ref.
Occupational skin ulceration in chrome platers
This short report describes the occurrence of chrome ulcer observed on the hands of 13 chrome platers. Contact of hexavalent chrome with the skin only results in a ulcer if there is a cut or abrasion on the skin; a permanent scar is produced. Platers should be informed of the importance of avoiding cuts and of covering any cuts that do occur with waterproof dressings. Personal protective equipment should be used to prevent contact with chromic acid.
Occupational Medicine, July 1997, Vol.47, No.5, p.309-310. 4 ref.
Halliday-Bell J., Palmer K., Crane G.
Health and safety behaviour and compliance in electroplating workshops
A questionnaire survey of employers and employees in six electroplating establishments in the United Kingdom revealed a lack of compliance with statutory requirements regarding the control of substances hazardous to health; deficiencies were evident in assessment, control and health surveillance. Many employees had work-related skin problems, typically dermatitis. In general, workers were ignorant about the hazards of the materials handled, and did not always use adequate personal protective equipment, or adopt a skin care programme. There is a need for better training and more attention to skin care in these workshops.
Occupational Medicine, May 1997, Vol.47, No.4, p.237-240. 7 ref.
Podeu R., et al.
Evaluation of exposure to aromatic solvents at workplaces in a sheet steel coating plant
Air sampling and biomonitoring of aromatic solvents were carried out in an Austrian sheet steel coating plant. 36 workers working 3 separate shifts were studied. Air monitoring showed very low concentrations of toluene, o-, m- and p-xylene, ethylbenzene and propylbenzene. Concentrations of xylenes, ethylbenzene and toluene in post-shift blood samples were also low. Benzene was not detected in air or blood samples, and urinary phenol excretion was not enhanced. Results reveal no evidence of a health hazard caused by these substances in this plant.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 1997, Vol.3, No.1, p.24-30. 5 ref.
Kuo H.W., Lai J.S., Lin T.I.
Concentration and size distribution of airborne hexavalent chromium in electroplating factories
Area and personal sampling for hexavalent chromium were carried out at four electroplating factories in Taiwan. Samples were collected using a particle fractionating sampler and were analyzed using visible spectrophotometry. A comparison of three types of factories (chromium, nickel-chromium and zinc) showed that the highest concentrations of chromium were found in chromium electroplating factories near the electroplating tank. Chromium particles obtained through area sampling yielded a mass median diameter between 1.67 and 6.38µm, and those from personal sampling between 0.75 and 4.73µm. Both and large and small chromium particles may have effects on the respiratory system.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1997, Vol.58, No.1, p.29-32. 18 ref.
Vieira Sobrinho F.
Ministério do Trabalho
Local exhaust ventilation in electroplating
Ventilação local exaustora em galvanoplastia [in Portuguese]
Electroplating operations require good local exhaust ventilation in order to avoid health problems among workers. This manual covers: basic principles of industrial hygiene, electrolytic processes and industrial ventilation; components of a local exhaust ventilation system; dimensioning of aspiration equipment and ducts; general ventilation (dilution of pollutants, air circulation); assessment of the efficiency of a captor; exhaust in cleaning and polishing operations.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 05409-002, Brazil, 1996. ix, 48p. Illus. 2 ref.
Fuchs J., Hengstler J.G., Hummrich F., Oesch F.
Transient increase in DNA strand breaks in car refinishing spray painters
Topics: coachwork; DNA; exposure tests; genetic effects; length of exposure; length of service; paints; spray coating.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1996, Vol.22, No.6, p.438-443. Illus. 20 ref.
A survey of respiratory and dermatological disease in the chrome plating industry in the West Midlands, UK
A cross-sectional survey of 20 chrome plating plants in the United Kingdom involved a questionnaire survey and clinical examination of 71 chrome platers. 23% of platers had dermatitis at the time of the visits and 45% of companies had at least one case of dermatitis in their plating workforce. 23% of platers had evidence of old chrome ulcers and 13% had evidence of new and healing ulcers. 17% had nasal inflammation and 14% had septal perforations. Lower respiratory symptoms were rare. Preventive measures are discussed.
Occupational Medicine, Dec. 1996, Vol.46, No.6, p.432-434. 10 ref.
Schmittner H., et al.
The Arge Bau Study of painters in Heidelberg: Field study of health problems associated with organic solvents
Heidelberger Malerstudie der Arge Bau. Feldstudie zu lösemittelassoziierten Befindlichkeitsstörungen [in German]
In this epidemiologic study the prevalence of painters' symptoms associated with exposure to organic solvents was determined with the help of different questionnaires. The questionnaires were administered to a group of 366 painters with more than 10 years of occupational exposure to organic solvents. For comparison, a control group of 193 bricklayers and scaffold assemblers without occupational exposure to organic solvents was included in the study. Statistical evaluations of the answers in the questionnaires yielded a significantly higher prevalence of neurotoxic symptoms associated with organic solvents including headaches and fatigue among painters than among the control group.
Mitteilungen der Südwestlichen Bau-Berufsgenossenschaft, 1996, No.1, p.29-33. Illus.
Bolle L., et al.
Neurobehavioral test performance among apprentice painters: Baseline data
The neurobehavioural performance of 57 apprentice painters was compared with that of 62 apprentices from other manual trades involving no significant exposure to solvents. Their performances were compared twice over a period of three years. There were no major differences in performance between the two groups, with the exception of the verbal ability test; the lower results observed for painters in this test may be explained by socioeconomic factors. Overall, results suggest that because of the heterogeneity of subjects, it is important to obtain baseline data prior to any exposure to solvents.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1996, Vol.29, No.5, p.539-546. Illus. 20 ref.
Spray Painting Regulations 1996 [Lesotho]
These regulations (effective on publication) cover: interpretation; spray painting inside and outside the booth; booth ventilation; exhaust ducts in booth; electrostatic spray painting; storage and handling of flammable paints and materials; precautions against ignition; obligatory provision of respiratory protection equipment; cleaning of the booth. In schedules: toxic paint substances (solid and solvent components; curing agents); TWA exposure standards for atmospheric contaminants.
Lesotho Government Gazette, 15 Nov. 1996, Vol.41, No.106, p.1339-1347.
Holmes N., Gifford S.
Social meaning of risk in OHS: Consequences for risk control
In a study of employers and employees in the painting industry in Victoria, Australia, observations of activities, events and social interactions at work were recorded, along with direct quotations, records of conversations, discussions and informal interviews. Data analysis highlighted ways in which employers and employees understand the control of risk within the context of the industry's social structure. Two themes which emerged from the data analysis are discussed: risk context and sources, and risk protection and expectations. Implications for risk control strategies and the role of occupational safety and health authorities are discussed.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Aug. 1996, Vol.12, No.4, p.443-450. 29 ref.
Ausschuss für Gefahrstoffe
Safety rules for harmful substances TRGS 516: Antifouling paints
Technische Regeln für Gefahrstoffe TRGS 516: Antifouling-Farben [in German]
Ordinance TRGS 516 on antifouling paints issued in July 1996 replaces ordinance TRGS 516 of October 1989. It pertains to the handling, storage, transport, application, removal and disposal of antifouling paints. Antifouling paints are applied as surface coating to hulls of ships and other water transport and fishing equipment to prevent the growth of microorganisms and plants or the propagation of animals. Antifouling paints prohibited from use are listed. Measures reducing emission levels during the application and removal of antifouling paints are prescribed. The Ordinance also lists personal protective equipment needed by those working with such paints and it outlines the medical examinations needed by personnel exposed to the paints.
Bundesarbeitsblatt, July-Aug. 1996, Vol. 7-8, p.67-70.
Rudzinski W.E., Norman S., Dahlquist B., Greebon K.W., Richardson A., Locke K., Thomas T.
Evaluation of 1-(9-anthracenylmethyl)piperazine for the analysis of isocyanates in spray-painting operations
A new reagent, 1-(9-anthracenylmethyl)piperazine (MAP), was evaluated for the derivatization of airborne 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) and polyisocyanates generated during spray-painting operations. The reagent, which offers enhanced sensitivity and uniformity of response to both the monomeric and oligomeric forms of HDI, was compared with 1-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazine (MOP). The validity of the side-by-side sampling protocol was also evaluated. HDI monomer concentrations were below the limit of detection. For polyisocyanates, there was no significant difference in the results as determined by two impingers containing MAP and a third containing MOP when these were positioned in a side-by-side arrangement.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1996, Vol.57, No.10, p.914-917. 20 ref.
Strickland D., Smith S.A., Dolliff G., Goldman L., Roelofs R.I.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and occupational history: A pilot case-control study
In this study 25 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and 25 controls were assessed. The strongest association with ALS was exposure to welding or soldering materials (OR=5.0) and work in the welding industry (OR=5.3). Perhaps the most obvious candidate for causing agent from materials used in welding and soldering is lead. Other suggestions of risk were seen in paint and pigment manufacturing, shipbuilding, electroplating and the dairy industry. More research is needed to obtain more definite conclusions.
Archives of Neurology, Aug. 1996, Vol.53, p.730-733. 11 ref.
Lefèvre A., Peltier A., Dessagne J.M., Muller J.P., Boulet A., Elcabache J.M., Houot F.
Hot-dip galvanization - Assessment of exhaust devices on molten zinc tanks
Galvanisation à chaud - Evaluation de dispositifs de captage sur des creusets de zinc fondu [in French]
Measurements of pollutant concentrations taken around hot-dip galvanizing tanks in four firms did not reveal any risks to the operators, in spite of the mediocre performance of exhaust devices, thereby confirming the results of studies conducted previously in this type of workshop. The ventilation systems tested failed to extract the pollutants fully, especially during the most critical production phases. They did, however, significantly improve the quality of the work environment, in particular by evacuating the heat given off by the bath. The trace helium technique for measuring capture efficiency proved to be a reliable means of assessing the performances of the different devices installed at the zinc tanks. Booth or hood systems were shown to be the best suited to this process, since they allow for the natural movement of the pollutants and are not very sensitive to disturbances caused by draughts.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 1996, No.164, Note No.2025-164-96, p.301-320. Illus. 12 ref.
Guidelines for the safe use of chemicals in electroplating and related industries
Contents of these guidelines: legislation; plant design (managing hazardous substances, engineering controls for plating tanks, electrical safety); safe plant operation (material safety data sheets, storage and handling of chemicals, personal protection, emergency procedures, maintenance, information and training); provision of eye-wash facilities, showers and eating facilities; health surveillance and first aid (cyanide poisoning); monitoring chromium plating tanks. In appendices: workplace checklists; exhaust ventilation for open tanks; chemicals used in electroplating; product safety card. Glossary.
Occupational Safety and Health Service, Department of Labour, P.O. Box 3705, Wellington, New Zealand, June 1996. 35p. 16 ref. Price: NZD 10.00.
Behavioral methods and organic solvents: Questions and consequences
This paper reviews some illustrative examples of studies of human neurobehavioural effects from experimental as well as long-term occupational organic-solvent exposure. Some of the methodological problems such as representativity of study groups, quantification of exposure and test methods encountered in these studies are discussed, as well as some reasons for the relative success of the work performed by certain Scandinavian research teams.
Environmental Health Perspectives, Apr. 1996, Vol.104, Suppl. No.2, p.361-366. 56 ref.
Cullen M.R., Redlich C.A., Beckett W.S., Weltmann B., Sparer J., Jackson G., Ruff T., Rubinstein E., Holden W.
Feasibility study of respiratory questionnaire and peak flow recordings in autobody shop workers exposed to isocyanate-containing spray paint: Observations and limitations
In a questionnaire survey of shop owners and workers at 23 autobody shops, data were collected on the characteristics of the shop and the spray paint systems in use, industrial hygiene practices, and workers' respiratory symptoms. Peak expiratory flow measurements were collected for 24 workers. The approach met with limited success. While a high rate of respiratory symptoms consistent with occupational asthma was identified (19.6%), validation of the questionnaire by use of peak expiratory flow recordings was limited by poor worker participation and inadequate data collection. Further studies are required to document rates of occupational asthma among these workers.
Occupational Medicine, June 1996, Vol.46, No.3, p.197-204. Illus. 29 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Safety of New Austrian Tunnelling Method (NATM) Tunnels - A review of sprayed concrete lined tunnels with particular reference to London clay
This review considers health and safety issues of sprayed concrete tunnel linings in soft ground in urban areas; the focus is on safe design and construction. Contents: description of the NATM process; worldwide review of NATM safety and incidents involving tunnel collapse; requirements of relevant United Kingdom health and safety legislation; NATM safety principles (hazard evaluation and risk reduction, human factors, competence and training, quality assurance); designing for safety; management arrangements (risk-based control strategy). Glossary.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1996. 86p. Illus. 149 ref. Price: GBP 25.00.
Health and Safety Executive
Post construction audit of sprayed concrete tunnel linings
This research report describes the use of sprayed concrete in tunnels and examines the existing literature, specifications, testing requirements and testing methods for the quality control of sprayed concrete tunnel linings. Weaknesses in existing guidelines are identified and a comparative procedure for the post-construction examination of these linings is proposed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1996. ix, 86p. 383 ref. Price: GBP 20.00.
Heitbrink W.A., Verb R.H., Fischbach T.J., Wallace M.E.
A comparison of conventional and high volume-low pressure spray-painting guns
Two coats of paint were applied to a car body shell in a downdraft spray-painting booth using both a gravity-fed conventional gun and a gravity-fed high volume-low pressure (HVLP) gun. Measurements were made of particulate overspray and solvent vapour concentrations, film thickness on the car body, and mass of paint. The film thickness per mass of paint for the HVLP gun was 33% higher than that for the conventional gun. The particulate overspray and solvent vapour concentrations were both higher with the conventional gun. The use of HVLP spray-painting guns should be encouraged.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1996, Vol.57, No.3, p.304-310. Illus. 19 ref.
Maître A., Leplay A., Perdrix A., Ohl G., Boinay P., Romazini S., Aubrun J.C.
Comparison between solid sampler and impinger for evaluation of occupational exposure to 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate polyisocyanates during spray painting
Two air sampling methods were used to monitor the level and variability of a painter's exposure to 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) polyisocyanates while spraying Tolonate-based paints in a paint booth. Personal air samples were collected by midget impingers containing 1-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazine (MPP) absorber solution and by MPP-impregnated filters. Potential exposure to HDI polyisocyanates measured by impinger devices ranged from 0.25 to 3mg/m3. Impregnated filters significantly underestimated atmospheric concentrations of HDI polyisocyanates in the painter's breathing zone. Use of an appropriate half-face mask with 90% efficiency is recommended to reduce residual exposure to below the recommended STEL (1mg/m3).
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1996, Vol.57, No.2, p.153-160. 36 ref.
Zhuang Z., Myers W.R.
Field performance measurements of half-facepiece respirators - Paint spraying operations
Workplace protection factors were measured for three half-facepiece respirators fitted with combination high-efficiency filter/organic vapour cartridge air-purifying elements. Exposures to aluminium, chlorine, chromium, silicon, strontium and titanium were estimated during aircraft paint-spraying operations. Ambient and in-facepiece concentrations of all elements combined and of titanium and chromium are tabulated along with workplace protection factors by shift, location, worker, respirator and type of paint application. When these respirators were conscientiously worn, used in conjunction with existing controls, and were properly maintained, they ensured an effective protection of workers.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1996, Vol.57, No.1, p.50-57. Illus. 11 ref.
Lundberg I., Michélsen H., Nise G., Hogstedt C., Högberg M., Alfredsson L., Almkvist O., Gustavsson A., Hagman M., Herlofson J., Hindmarsh T., Wennberg A.
Neuropsychiatric function of housepainters with previous long-term exposure to organic solvents
Topics: alcoholism; cohort study; confounding factors; construction work; dose-response relationship; electroencephalography; exposure evaluation; long-term exposure; nervous function tests; neuropsychic effects; organic solvents; painting; psychological tests; Sweden; toxic encephalosis.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1995, Vol. 21, Suppl.1, p.1-44. Illus. 105 ref.
Working conditions and health in jewelleries, watchmaking, electroplating and workshops
Condiciones de trabajo y salud en joyerías, relojerías, platerías y talleres [in Spanish]
Topics: chemical products; cladding; Colombia; electricity; jewellery manufacture; lighting; mechanical hazards; mental workload; physical hazards; physical workload; small enterprises; training manuals; training material; ventilation; watchmaking industry.
Fundación para el Desarrollo del Comercio, Fundecomercio, Santafé de Bogotá, Colombia, 1st ed., 1995. 24p.
Dahlqvist M., Tornling G., Plato N., Ulfvarson U.
Effects within the week on forced vital capacity are correlated with long term changes in pulmonary function: Reanalysis of studies on car painters exposed to isocyanate
Study to examine if car painters who work with polyurethane paints that contain hexamethylenediisocyanate (HDI) and hexamethylenediisocyanate biuret trimer (HDI-BT) develop acute as well as chronic impairment of lung function. Data were reanalyzed from two earlier studies on a group of car painters. Data on changes in forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) within the week were available for 20 car painters who were also examined six years later. Ten men showed a decline in FVC within the week. A significant correlation was found between the change in FVC within the week and the long term (six year) change in FVC, standardized for the effects of aging and smoking and adjusted for the number of peak exposures. The results suggest that the decrease in FVC within the week might serve as a guide to identify car painters at risk of a further decrement in lung function above the effects of aging, smoking and exposure.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 1995, Vol.52, No.3, p.192-195. 17 ref.
Glasgewebe-Tapeten [in German]
Glass-fibre wallpaper is becoming very popular in Germany, so that paperhangers are increasingly exposed to glass fibres. However, workplace monitoring of respirable particles have shown that no respirable, carcinogenic fibres with diameters <3mm and length >5mm are being released. The fibres observed had diameters between 6 and 11mm. They were found to cause skin irritation which can be avoided by application of a greaseless barrier cream. Since glass-fibre wallpaper requires application of a lacquer or paint, subsequent exposure to harmful solvents or epoxy resins cannot be excluded. Some of the applied lacquers contain isocyanates.
Sicher bauen, Feb. 1995, No.2, p.62-63. Illus.
Perrault G., Larivière P., Dufresne A., Patry L., Michaud D., Baril M.
Localization and oxidation state of chromium in some industrial aerosols
Localisation et état d'oxydation du chrome dans quelques aérosols industriels [in French]
Aerosol samples were collected during manual metal arc stainless steel welding, surface treatment by spraying of a chromate solution, plastic coloration with lead chromate pigment and electrolytic plating. The levels of the different chemical forms of chromium were not always the same in the total and respirable fractions of the samples. The sampling of total dust is recommended for welding fumes from stainless steel. The sampling of respirable dust would be the best practice in terms of health protection at the three other worksites of the study. Determination of total chromium and total chromium VI are recommended for chromium electroplating. At the present stage of scientific knowledge, the analysis of soluble chromium VI is still recommended, in spite of its analytical difficulties, for spraying and stainless steel welding, with the addition of insoluble chromium VI in the case of plastic coloration.
Travail et santé, Dec. 1995, Vol.11, No.4, p.S.27-S.30. 24 ref.
Le Bot J. Y.
Monitoring ventilation. Applications for painting booths
Contrôle de la ventilation. Applications aux cabines de peinture [in French]
This article discusses existing methods of monitoring (measurement of airspeed, visual observation of the state of the filters, measurement of static and differential pressures) and presents the major types of differential manometer (liquid column, diaphragm), their principles of operation and their regulation as a function of calculated changes in load. It also reviews general issues (the use of painting booths, malfunctions, regulations, standards, general principles, definition of insufficient ventilation.
Travail et sécurité, Jan. 1996, No.544, p.56-59. Illus.
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