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Surface treatment - 644 entries found

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2003

CIS 03-303 Grasel S.S., Alves V.A.F., da Silva C.S., Cruz O.L.M.., Almeida E.R., de Oliveira E.
Clinical and histopathological changes of the nasal mucosa induced by occupational exposure to sulphuric acid mists
The aim of this study was to assess potential alterations of the nasal mucosa by clinical and histopathological evaluation of workers exposed to sulfuric acid mists at anodizing plants and to correlate the findings with duration of exposure and sulfuric acid concentrations in the air. A total of 52 workers from five plants underwent a clinical evaluation (standard questionnaire, clinical, and ear, nose and throat examination including nasal endoscopy). For the histopathological study, 20 of the 52 subjects (study group) were randomly selected, as well as 11 unexposed subjects (control group), matched by sex, age and smoking habit. Nasal biopsy specimens were obtained from the anterior septum mucosa. The histopathological study revealed squamous metaplasia in 79% and atypia in 5% of the study group samples. No association was found between exposure duration and the clinical and histopathological variables, but a significant association was found between sulfuric acid concentrations higher than 200µg/m3 and pale mucosal patches and ulcerations in the exposed subjects. Logistic regression analysis showed that the exposed subjects had a fivefold risk of developing atypia compared with the unexposed subjects. The risk for histopathological lesions increased with higher sulfuric acid concentrations in the air, revealing an exposure-response relation.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2003, Vol.60, No.6, p.395-402. Illus. 20 ref.

2002

CIS 03-1739 Marzal F., González E., Miñana A., Baeza A.
Influence of push element geometry on the capture efficiency of push-pull ventilation systems in surface treatment tanks
A full-scale installation which simulates a surface treatment tank provided with a push-pull ventilation system was designed. This study examines the influence of the geometry of the push element on the capture efficiency of the system. Among the key findings: the capture efficiency increases with the number of holes because of the continuous curtain formed, the size of the holes having no significant effect within the range studied (5-20mm diameter); the push element is best supported on the tank wall so that no air from outside penetrates below the emitting jets because in this way the impact of the curtain on the tank occurs earlier and losses are less; the best results are obtained when the holes are directed downwards towards the tank surface at an angle of between 22 and 45°.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, June 2002, vol.46, No.4, p.383-393. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 03-104 Vieira Sobrinho F.
Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego
Local exhaust ventilation in electroplating
Ventilação local exaustora em galvanoplastia [in Portuguese]
Electroplating operations require good local exhaust ventilation in order to avoid health problems among workers. This manual, which replaces the edition of 1995 (see CIS 01-731), covers the following topics: basic principles of industrial hygiene, electrolytic processes and industrial ventilation; toxicity of products used in eletroplating; components of a local exhaust ventilation system; dimensioning of aspiration equipment and ducts; general ventilation (dilution of pollutants, air circulation); assessment of the efficiency of a captor; exhaust in cleaning and polishing operations.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 05409-002, Brazil, 2nd ed., 2002. 85p. Illus. 2 ref. Price: BRL 7.00.

CIS 02-1820 Sadhra S., Petts J., McAlpine S., Pattison H., MacRae S.
Workers' understanding of chemical risks: Electroplating case study
The understand individuals' knowledge and beliefs about chemical risks in small companies, this study focused on the chrome plating sector. It involved face to face interviews with workers, structured questionnaires to test the prevalence of beliefs identified in the interviews, an expert questionnaire, and a workshop to discuss findings. Workers' responses were compared with those of occupational health and safety experts. Although chromium platers appeared to understand the short-term adverse effects of the chemicals to which they are exposed based primarily on experience, their understanding of chronic effects was incomplete. They were aware of the hazardous nature of the chemicals with which they work, but had difficulties articulating the effects of these chemicals and how exposure might occur. A significant minority of workers displayed deficiencies in understanding key technical terms used in safety data sheets. New risk information needs to be designed which addresses the information needs of workers while being written in terms they understand.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2002, Vol.59, No.10, p.689-695. 23 ref.

CIS 02-1821 Scholz P.F., Materna B.L., Harrington D., Uratsu C.
Residential and commercial painters' exposure to lead during surface preparation
This article describes a project aimed at preventing lead poisoning among residential and commercial painters. Full-shift personal samples were collected from 25 participants, with 8-hr TWA results ranging from 0.8 to 550µg/m3 (arithmetic mean: 57µg/m3). Six of the 25 samples (24%) were above the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit of 500µg/m3, all involving dry manual sanding or uncontrolled power sanding. 30-minute task-specific samples also were collected. The value for uncontrolled power sanding as 580µg/m3 respectively, while that of power sanding using high-efficiency particulate-arresting (HEPA) respirators was 33µg/m3. These results are cause for concern because these surface preparation methods are widely performed wearing only half-mask respirators, while the use of HEPA respirators would reduce paint dust exposure levels by approximately 80 to 90%. These tools should be more widely promoted as a safer alternative work method.
AIHA Journal, Jan.-Feb. 2002, Vol.63, No.1, p.22-28. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 02-841 Materna B.L., Harrington D., Scholz P., Payne S.F., Stubbs H.A., Hipkins K., Merideth E., Kirsch L., Lomax G., Coyle P., Uratsu C.
Results of an intervention to improve lead safety among painting contractors and their employees
Painters are at risk of lead poisoning when preparing surface for painting in older buildings. An intervention strategy was evaluated for improving lead safety in small businesses. 21 painting contractors received 32 hours of training, technical assistance, and a safety manual; their employees attended an 8-hr training session. Impact evaluation involved interviewing participants at baseline, immediately post-intervention and one year later, and conducting contractor focus groups post-intervention. Employers met 15 of the 27 target objectives and workers met 3 of 12; however, even in areas where objectives were not met, both groups made improvements. Motivated contractors and their employees can make moderate improvements in lead-safe practices if provided with extensive training and technical assistance. Changes that are costly, unfamiliar, or perceived as a threat to work quality are more difficult to implement.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 2002, Vol.41, No.2, p.119-130. 32 ref.

CIS 02-702 Brown L.M., Moradi T., Gridley G., Plato N., Dosemeci M., Fraumeni J.F.
Exposures in the painting trades and paint manufacturing industry and risk of cancer among men and women in Sweden
Using data from the 1960 and 1970 Swedish censuses and the Swedish Cancer Register for 1971 to 1989, this study investigated variations in cancer risk by gender associated with painting and paint manufacturing. Among men, standardized incidence ratios were significantly increased for lung cancer among painters and lacquerers, bladder cancer among artists, and pancreas cancer, lung cancer, and non-lymphocytic leukaemia among paint and varnish plant workers. Risks for women were elevated for cancers of the oesophagus, larynx, and oral cavity among lacquerers and for oral cancer among glazers. These findings are consistent with the report of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) that classified painting as an occupationally related cause of cancer and provide further evidence that the risk of certain cancers is increased by exposures in the paint manufacturing process.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2002, Vol.44, No.3, p.258-264. 39 ref.

CIS 02-630 Langhoff T., Lang K.H., Schmidt J.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Inclusion of safety and health protection during the planning and implementation of investment projects - A report based on practical experience
Einbeziehung von Sicherheit und Gesundheitsschutz bei der Planung und Durchführung von Investitionsvorhaben - ein Bericht aus der Praxis [in German]
The objective of this project was to understand the factors behind the good safety performance of a steel company, which had in particular been able to achieve low rates of occupational injury during the planning and implementation phases of investment projects. Approaches based on European Foundation for Quality Management models were applied to the evaluation of excellence during the design, planning, and building phases of a galvanization unit within the steelworks site. Three factors were found to be responsible for the good safety performance of the company: "contextual conditions for occupational safety and health" (including the early involvement of external authorities and departments); "central processes of occupational safety and health" (in particular the selection and qualification of external contractors); "assessment dimensions pertaining to the investment" (including controlling of the benefits of occupational safety and health). These factors are considered applicable to other sectors and to firms of various sizes.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2002. 103p. Illus. 7 ref. Price: EUR 11.00.

CIS 02-354 Petts J., McAlpine S., Homan J., Sadhra S., Pattison H., McRae S.
Health and Safety Executive
Development of a methodology to design and evaluate effective risk messages - Electroplating case study
This report presents the findings of an application of the mental-models approach to the design and testing of risk information. This approach focuses on the beliefs and knowledge of workers compared to experts in order to identify deficiencies in knowledge and to design more effective risk information. The study focussed on small firms in the electroplating sector, and involved questionnaires, workshops and structured interviews. It was found that the level of understanding of the chemical risks associated with electroplating was generally good. However, mental-models approach enabled the design of new risk messages, where the information was presented in the form of practical advice expressed in simple language. These risk messages proved effective in raising awareness of the long-term risks posed by chemicals used in the electroplating industry.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. viii, 109p. Illus. 46 ref. Price: GBP 20.00.

2001

CIS 02-1320 Deschamps F.J., Guillaumot M., Raux S.
Neurological effects in workers exposed to manganese
To examine the effects on the nervous system in enamel production workers with low blood levels (approx. 200µg/m3) of and long exposure to manganese (Mn), 138 workers and 137 controls received questionnaires on symptoms, a battery of psychological tests and blood concentrations assays of the metal. Airborne Mn concentrations were determined by personal and stationary sampling. The mean duration of exposure was 19.87 years. The workers did not have significantly higher concentrations of Mn in blood than the controls and showed no significant disturbance of neurological performance.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2001, Vol.43, No.2, p.127-132. 26 ref.

CIS 02-1373 Vork K.L., Hammond S.K., Sparer J., Cullen M.R.
Prevention of lead poisoning in construction workers: A new public health approach
Two key features of CRISP (the Connecticut Road Industry Surveillance Project) are: a contract-specified lead health protection programme and a centralized system of medical monitoring. Data from 90 bridge projects from 1991 to 1995 and approximately 2,000 workers were evaluated. Peak lead concentrations in the blood of CRISP workers were compared with those from workers outside of Connecticut. After 1992, only the painting employees experienced peak blood lead levels exceeding 50µg/dL; other Connecticut workers had significantly lower peak blood lead levels than did workers from other states.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 2001, Vol.39, No.3, p.243-253. 38 ref.

CIS 02-358 Practical ventilation guide - 2. Ventilation of surface treatment vats and tanks
Guide pratique de ventilation - 2. Cuves de traitement de surface [in French]
This study is intended as a guide and reference document for the design and monitoring of installations for collecting or diluting the pollutants emitted by surface treatment vats and tanks. It applies to all chemical or electrolytic processes in which the parts to be treated are immersed in liquids (excluding solvent degreasing processes, processes using salt or molten-metal baths and organic coating processes in general). Contents include: hazard evaluation; collection systems; flowrate calculations; design of the ventilation network. Appendices: classification of surface treatment processes and general design data for ventilation systems. Replaces CIS 82-400.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 6th ed., Sep. 2001. 23p. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 02-270 Brugnot C., Beauté C., Hasni-Pichard H., Lauzier F.
Applying resins in confined spaces during construction work - Highlighting of exposures and proposals for prevention measures
Application de résines en espaces confinés dans l'activité BTP - Mise en évidence des expositions et propositions de moyens de prévention [in French]
To satisfy growing technical and aesthetic requirements, synthetic resins used in surface coatings (of floors, vessels, piping, etc.) contain an increasing variety of chemicals. The potential hazards from handling and applying these resins are a subject of concern, as confirmed by field evaluations of the working environment and biological monitoring at 9 construction sites in the Ile-de-France region. To limit these hazards, it is recommended that all parties (formulators, equipment manufacturers and suppliers) work together. This first study enabled the highlighting of the problems, and would need to be followed by long-term evaluations involving pluridisciplinary teams.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 2001, No.184, Note No.2152-184-01, p.5-23. Illus. 34 ref.

CIS 01-1713 Andrieu F., Guinel P., Ichou O., Knab A.
Spray-gun painting and car body repair-shop work: What surveillance?
Peintres au pistolet et carrossiers, quelle surveillance? [in French]
The objective of this field study was to evaluate exposure hazards among spray-gun painters and body-repair-shop workers and to recommend appropriate medical surveillance. Ten garages, including four for trucks, were studied with respect to noise, working postures, workers' heart rate and the presence of chemicals (safety data sheets, ambient air analysis, determinations in urine). Results show that both categories of workers are exposed to noise and are subject to important postural, musculoskeletal and cardiac constraints, particularly in the case of garages for trucks. They are also both constantly exposed to atmospheric pollutants (solvents, thermal degradation products). Finally, the exposure of spray gun painters to isocyanates does not appear to be a problem if personal protective equipment is used.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2001, Vol.41, No.1, p.13-30. Illus. 14 ref.

2000

CIS 04-128 Wojucki J., Augustyńska D., Drygała M., Pośniak M.
Occupational safety and health in small business - Occupational safety and health in electroplating plants - OSH check list; Employers' guide
Bezpieczeństwo i higiena pracy w małych przedsiębiorstwach - Bezpieczeństwo i higiena pracy w zakładach galwanizerskich - Lista kontrolna bhp; Poradnik pracodawcy [in Polish]
The check list for the evaluation of occupational safety and health in electroplating plants is designed for use in conjunction with the corresponding employer's guide. It lists the potential hazards that may be found in these workplaces and provides suggestions for their control or elimination. It also contains a list of relevant Polish legislation and technical standards.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 2000. 27+45p. 67 ref.

CIS 02-1238 Alkhuja S., Miller A., Mastellone A.J., Markowitz S.
Malignant pleural mesothelioma presenting as spontaneous pneumothorax: A case series and review
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is thought to arise from the mesothelial cells that line the pleural cavities. Most patients initially experience the insidious onset of chest pain or shortness of breath, and it rarely presents as spontaneous pneumothorax. Case reports of four patients who presented in this manner are included. Three of the patients were exposed to asbestos directly or indirectly at shipyards during World War II; the fourth was exposed as an insulator's wife. Two of our cases were not recognized to have MPM on histological examination at first thoracotomy and remained asymptomatic for 12 and 22 months, respectively. In none of the patients was spontaneous pneumothorax the cause of death. Since many people were exposed to asbestos during and after World War II, spontaneous pneumothorax in a patient with the possibility of such exposure should raise the suspicion of malignant pleural mesothelioma.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 2000, Vol.38, No.2, p.219-223. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 02-1158 Did you know the hazards of electroplating?
Contents of this information leaflet on the hazards of electroplating: description of the electroplating process; hazardous chemicals to which electroplating workers are exposed (acids, alkalis, solvents, nickel solutions, chromic acid, arsine, cyanides); safe working methods; emergency treatment in cases of acute cyanide poisoning.
Ministry of Manpower, Occupational Health Department, 18 Havelock Road #05-01, Singapore 059764, Republic of Singapore, [c2000]. 6p. Illus.

CIS 01-1520 Edeler J.
Anticorrosion work on pylons - Protection against falls
Korrosionsschutzarbeiten auf Gittermasten - Schutz gegen Absturz [in German]
Pylons for electrical power lines are exposed to inclement weather conditions and have therefore to be periodically protected against corrosion. Workers have to be protected from falls from heights by appropriate arresting devices. This article describes how to safely perform anticorrosion work on different types of pylons. The anchoring system and rope arrangements are described, as well as their correct use.
BAU-BG Aktuell, 2000, No.2, p.16-18. Illus.

CIS 01-1487 Surakka J., Lindh T., Rosén G., Fischer T.
Workers' dermal exposure to uv-curable acrylates in the furniture and parquet industry
The use of ultraviolet radiation-curable coatings (UV-coatings) has increased rapidly in the parquet and furniture industry. Work with UV-coatings involves risk from skin exposure to chemically reactive, concentrated acrylates that are known skin contact irritants and sensitizers. Skin exposure to UV-coatings was measured employing a quantitative tape stripping method that was developed for this purpose. A pilot study was performed at three workplaces. In the main study, workers' skin exposure to uncured UV-coatings was measured at seven workplaces and on two separate workdays (rounds 1 and 2) within a six-month period to determine exposure variation. Skin exposure was measured at four standardized sites on the hand, 3-4 times per work shift. A questionnaire was carried out with the workers in both rounds to find out factors that can affect skin exposure to UV-coatings. Despite the limited sampling area and sampling sites, we could find residues of tripropylene glycol diacrylate at all sampling times, even at the beginning of the work shift. This may be due to transfer of UV-coatings through contaminated equipment, shoes and surfaces. The study indicates that there is a risk of harmful skin exposure to UV-coatings in the furniture and parquet industry.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Dec. 2000, Vol.44, No.8, p.635-644. Illus. 33 ref.

CIS 01-1174 Health effects of occupational exposure to asphalt
This report evaluates the data on health effects of occupational exposure to asphalt that have become available since the publication of a NIOSH criteria document in 1977. Known carcinogens such as benzo(a)pyrene and other polycyclic aromatic compounds are likely to be present in asphalt fumes generated at worksites. There is epidemiological evidence that roofers are at an increased risk of lung cancer. The main toxic effects include irritation of the eyes and upper respiratory tract, although numerous symptoms including skin irritation, nausea, headaches and fatigue are also reported. Based on current information, NIOSH recommends adhering to the exposure limit of 5mg/m3 during any 15-minute period, and preventing dermal exposure, keeping the temperature of heated asphalt as low as possible, using controls and good work practices to minimize exposure, and providing appropriate respiratory protection.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, Dec. 2000. xviii, 132p. 179 ref.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/pdfs/01-110.pdf [in English]

CIS 01-816 Moen B.E., Hollund B.E.
Exposure to organic solvents among car painters in Bergen, Norway
Several official regulations have been adopted in Norway in recent years to reduce the exposure of car painters to organic solvents. This study evaluated some of the effects of these regulations, by measuring the levels of exposure to organic solvents in six car-painting garages. Both stationary and personal monitoring were performed. In addition, the occurrence of acute symptoms in the nervous system, skin and upper airways, the use of personal protective equipment and the workers' satisfaction with the ventilation were determined using the results of a questionnaire study. All air samples showed low levels of exposure, far below the limit values. The highest levels were found for toluene. Most workers reported always using gloves, overalls and respiratory protective equipment during the car painting. The study indicates that the exposure to organic solvents is low and the risk of adverse health effects related to organic solvents is probably also low.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, May 2000, Vol.44, No.3, p.185-189. 13 ref.

CIS 01-381
Health and Safety Executive
Controlling exposure to coating powders
This guidance document is mainly aimed at users of coating powders in small firms to enable them to reduce the risk to their employees' health. Contents: health effects of coating powders; legal requirements; occupational exposure limits; how to determine if there is an overexposure problem; exposure management (substitution, using coating powders correctly, minimizing process costs, personnel protective equipment, training, air monitoring, health surveillance). Case studies of improvements implemented by four companies are described. A training CD ROM is included.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, June 2000. iv, 60p. Illus. 17 ref. Price: GBP 10.95. + CD ROM (runs on Windows 95/98 or NT4 sp3 platforms, requires a sound card).

CIS 01-380 Surface treatment plants - Integrating safety by design - Creation, expansion, modification
Ateliers de traitement de surface - Concevoir en sécurité intégrée - Création, extension, modification [in French]
Aimed primarily at company owners and process engineers, this booklet proposes a systematic approach to and practical rules for the design of new surface coating plants or for modifications of existing plants that take into account the need to reduce the most important hazards. The approach consists of specifying the needs, both existing and projected, and of attributing sufficient surface area to each operation. The rules proposed for the design of equipment, bath lines and buildings are aimed at reducing chemical, mechanical, transportation and handling hazards, but also at improving working conditions.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1st ed., July 2000. 39p. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 01-520 Guide for ventilation practice - 9.1 Booths for spray-painting of liquids
Guide pratique de ventilation - 9.1 Cabines d'application par pulvérisation de produits liquides [in French]
Guide and reference document for the design and operation of ventilation systems in booths for the spraying of liquids (paints, varnishes, etc.). Contents: areas of application; review of the main regulations, hazards involved and general safety principles; air purification in the various types of spray cabins (cabins with vertical, horizontal or other types of ventilation), drying equipment, polluted air filtration devices; conditioning of incoming air; noise reduction; inspection and maintenance of ventilation systems. Replaces CIS 83-1886.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1st ed., 2000. 22p. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 01-426 Sorahan T., Harrington J.M.
Lung cancer in Yorkshire chrome platers, 1972-97
The mortality of a cohort of 1,087 chrome platers from 54 plants situated in the United Kingdom was investigated for the period 1972-97. All subjects had been employed as chrome platers for over 3 months and all were alive at the beginning of the study period. Mortality data were also available for a cohort of 1,163 comparison workers with no known occupational exposure to chrome compounds. Information on duration of chrome work and smoking habits collected for a cross sectional survey carried out in 1969-72 were available for 916 of the chrome platers; smoking habits were available for 1,004 comparison workers. Based on serial mortality rates for the general population of England and Wales, significantly increased mortality from lung cancer was observed but not in male comparison workers. Occupational exposures to hexavalent chromium may be responsible for the increased mortality from lung cancer in this cohort.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2000, Vol.56, No.6, p.385-389. 24 ref.

CIS 01-64
Health and Safety Executive
Working safely with coating powders
This brochure is aimed at workers involved in spray painting with coating powders. It contains information on the health issues (irritation of the lungs, eye and skin, allergic reactions) and recommends precautions to protect health (dust control, spraying method, correct use of equipment, use of respiratory protective equipment). A check list of employers' and employees' duties is included.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, May 2000. 11p. Illus. 1 ref.

1999

CIS 01-1465 Sérieys J.C., Cornu P.
Improving the air flow performance of a ventilated area with walls and mechanical compensation
Améliorer le fonctionnement aéraulique d'une aire ventilée avec paroi et compensation mécanique [in French]
Ventilated areas are rarely mentioned among the first solutions recommended to risk prevention problems. However, in some cases, introducing such areas represents the only possible way of complying with occupational health and safety standards. A working group was set up to review the subject and propose improvements. The results of a site study and a predictive ventilation optimization study for a painting booth are presented. The on-site study revealed airflow deficiencies in the ventilated areas. Ventilation modelling helped to validate several hypotheses by varying the following parameters: air flow, exhaust vent size, type of extraction, height and shape of walls, and type of mechanical compensation. The result is a proposal for an optimized ventilated area which now needs to be tested on site.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 1999, No.176, p.17-33. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 01-1120 Crespo J., Galán J.
Exposure to MDI during the process of insulating buildings with sprayed polyurethane foam
Buildings are often insulated with sprayed-in-place polyurethane foam even though few data are available concerning exposure levels to isocyanates during the spraying process. New data are given on personal exposure to methylene-bis (4-phenylisocyanate) (MDI) during the insulation of dwellings and office buildings with sprayed polyurethane foam. Personal samples were taken for the sprayer and helper during outdoor and indoor applications. Levels of exposure were significant, especially for the sprayer, with values of up to 0.077mg/m3 and 0.400mg/m3 during outdoor and indoor applications, respectively.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Aug. 1999, Vol.43, No.6, p.415-419. 12 ref.

CIS 01-710 Rodrigues F., Sousa J.P., Telo E., Gonçalves G., Aleixo I., Vicente F., Gonçalves I.C.
Hazards from electroplating processes - Safety and health manual
Riscos de processos de electrodeposição - Manual de prevenção [in Portuguese]
This manual is aimed at preventing occupational hazards and promoting workers' health at companies using electroplating processes. The first part describes the electroplating process and the subsequent steps (polishing and cleaning) of the electroplated parts. The second part presents the various electroplating processes for different metals (chromium, nickel, zinc, copper, tin, brass, gold and silver) and the third part describes the methodology for hazard evaluation and the protective measures (storage, labeling, ventilation, personal protective equipment). Part 4 presents a case study of 120 electroplating companies of the Águeda region, Portugal. A glossary and legal requirements are included.
Instituto de Desenvolvimento e Inspecção das Condições de Trabalho (IDICT), Lisboa, Portugal, Dec. 1999. 244p. Illus. 66 ref.

CIS 01-847 da Silva C.S.
Ministério do Trabalho
Critical study of the health of electroplating workers based on relationships between ambient measurements, biological measurements and ENT examinations
Um estudo crítico sobre a saúde dos trabalhadores de galvânicas, por meio das relações entre as avaliações ambientais, biológicas e otorrinolaringológicas [in Portuguese]
The objective of this study was to examine the working environment and health of electroplating workers, and to establish relationships between the concentration in air of various chemicals, their urinary concentrations and observed nasal injuries. 461 workers employed at 22 electroplating plants using various coating processes were studied. Ambient concentrations of acid vapours as well as of chromium, zinc and nickel were measured, together with the urinary concentrations of these metals among exposed workers. Although the ambient levels were far below the threshold values accepted in Brazil, rhinoscopic examination revealed that 35.5% of workers showed moderate or serious injury of the upper respiratory tract (ischaemia, ulcerations or perforations of the nasal septum) and 40.1% showed signs of initial phases of injury or non-specific injury. These results show that the accepted limits in Brazil are insufficient to ensure adequate protection of workers' health.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 05409-002, Brazil, 1999. 196p. Illus. 127 ref.

CIS 01-524 von Pidoll U.
Avoiding the ignition of fibrous coating material (flock) during the electrostatic flocking process
Vermeiden der Entzündung faserförmiger Beschichtungsstoffe (Flock) beim elektrostatischen Beflockungsprozess [in German]
Minimum spark energies giving rise to ignition during electrostatic flocking were determined in samples of over 60 commercially-used flocking materials. For most flock materials, this energy is about 150mJ. The finest flock made of ground cotton had the lowest value of about 80mJ. This minimum energy was influenced by the diameter, length, type and colour of the fibre, and the type of chemical preparation. Direct-current arc discharges caused little inflammation hazard while even weak alternating-current arc discharges were able to ignite the least flammable flock samples. Adhesives with flashpoints below the temperature of the coating process increased the hazard. Measures to reduce the fire and explosion hazard are outlined and recommended for inclusion into future European standards.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Bürgermeister-Smidt-Str. 74-76, 27568 Bremerhaven, Germany, Nov. 1999. iii, 29p. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 01-191
Health and Safety Executive
Chromate primer paints
The hexavalent form of chromium, present in chromate primers is associated with several health hazards including irritation of the respiratory system, skin and eyes. The most common chromates used in primer paints are also classified as carcinogenic. This information sheet outlines the responsibilities of employers and the self-employed with respect to risk evaluation and limitation of exposure under the current regulations applicable in the United Kingdom. Contents include: description of health hazards; occupational exposure limits; prevention and control of exposure; respiratory protective equipment; maintenance of equipment; exposure monitoring; health surveillance; information and training.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Sep. 1999. 4p. 16 ref.

CIS 01-154 Nasterlack M., Dietz M.C., Frank K.H., Hacke W., Scherg H., Schmittner H., Stelzer O., Zimber A., Triebig G.
A multidisciplinary cross-sectional study on solvent-related health effects in painters compared with construction workers
401 painters and 209 construction workers without solvent exposure with at least 10 years of professional experience were subjected to a clinical, neurological, psychiatric, neuropsychological and neurophysiological examination. For personal medical and occupational history, standardized questionnaires were used. Painters reported an excess of specific symptoms that could be assigned to "mood and behaviour". The differences between specific and non-specific questionnaire outcomes on the one hand and the positive correlation between chronic exposure index and symptom scores on the other hand support the hypothesis of solvent-induced effects. Because data are lacking on past solvent exposure, it is not possible to relate these effects to current exposure limits. Currently employed painters differ from controls not exposed to solvents with respect to the frequency of certain symptoms in mood and behaviour. These symptoms are related to life-long solvent exposure rather than to current exposure.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, July 1999, Vol.72, No.4, p.205-214. Illus. 69 ref.

CIS 00-1063 Chen R., Dick F., Seaton A.
Health effects of solvent exposure among dockyard painters: Mortality and neuropsychological symptoms
A mortality study of 1292 male painters who had worked in a dockyard in Scotland for ≥ 1 year between 1950 and 1992 comprised a nested cross-sectional study of 953 surviving painters from the cohort and 953 male non-painters randomly selected from the local population together with a case-control study of those with high symptom scores. Mortality, symptoms and risks associated with painting, adjusting for age, education, smoking, alcohol and personality were measured. Standardized mortality ratios were not signficantly increased. Among the 260 surviving painters and 539 community controls who responded to the questionnaire, there was a significant excess of symptoms among painters; adjusted relative risk (RR) increased significantly with increasing symptom score. These RRs suggested an exposure-response relation.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 1999, Vol.56, No.6, p.383-387. Illus. 28 ref.

CIS 00-1062 Kim Y., Lee N.R., Sakai T., Kim K.S., Yang J.S., Park S., Lee C.R., Cheong H.K., Moon Y.
Evaluation of exposure to ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetates and their possible haematological effects on shipyard painters
The aim of this study was to evaluate exposure to mixed solvents containing ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate (EGEEA) in shipyard painters in order to determine if EGEEA is toxic to the bone marrow. The mean exposure concentration to EGEEA in the high and low exposure groups were 3.03ppm and 1.76ppm, respectively. The concentrations of methyl hippuric acid and ethoxyacetic acid in the high exposure group were significantly higher than those in the control group. The mean white blood cell counts in the high exposure group were significantly lower than in the control group, and a significant proportion, six of the 57 painters, were leucopenic; none of the controls were affected. The high rate of possible haematological effects among shipyard painters and a hygienic evaluation of their working environment in the present study suggests that EGEEA might be toxic to bone marrow.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 1999, Vol.56, No.6, p.378-382. 19 ref.

CIS 00-1049 Williams N.R., Jones K., Cocker J.
Biological monitoring to assess exposure from use of isocyanates in motor vehicle repair
A method for the measurement of a metabolite of hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) was developed and used to assess the exposure of sprayers employed in motor vehicle repair shops. Urine samples were taken from sprayers wearing personal protective equipment and spraying in booths or with local exhaust ventilation, from bystanders, and from unexposed subjects. Samples were analysed for a metabolite of HDI, hexamethylene diamine (HDA), by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). HDA was detected in four sprayers and one bystander out of 22 workers. No HDA was detected in the urine of unexposed subjects. Exposure to isocyanates still occurs despite the use of personal protective equipment and the use of a booth or extracted space. Health surveillance is likely to be required to provide feedback on the adequacy of controls even if such precautions are used and to identify cases of early asthma. Biological monitoring can provide a useful additional tool to assess exposure and the adequacy of controls in this group of exposed workers.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 1999, Vol.56, No.9, p.598-601. 18 ref.

CIS 00-725 Steenland K., Palu S.
Cohort mortality study of 57 000 painters and other union members: A 15 year update
To study mortality patterns in the largest existing cohort of painters, 15 years of follow-up were added to a study of 42,170 painters and 14,316 non-painters based on union records. There were 23,458 deaths, compared with 5,313 in the earlier follow up. Comparisons with the United States population showed significantly increased rates in painters for lung cancer, bladder cancer, liver cancer and stomach cancer. However, in direct comparisons with non-painters only the excesses for lung cancer and bladder cancer were confirmed. Some confounding by smoking may affect these two outcomes, particularly with external referents. Cirrhosis of the liver was increased for both painters and non-painters, possibly indicating high alcohol consumption. Suicide and homicide were increased for painters but not for non-painters; neuropsychiatric diseases have been associated with painters in earlier studies. The results suggest modest occupational risks for lung and bladder cancer. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified painting as an occupation definitely associated with cancer.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 1999, Vol.56, No.5, p.315-321. 25 ref.

CIS 00-317
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
Final Rule of 1999: Dipping and coating operations [USA]
Revision of OSHA's standards for the protection of workers from fires, explosions and other hazards during dipping and coating operations.
Federal Register, 23 Mar. 1999, Vol.64, No.55, p.13897-13912.

CIS 00-186 González Ferradás E., Miñaza Aznar A., Baeza Caracena A., Morales Mateo F., Marzal Martínez F.J.
Influence of the length of surface coating baths on the efficiency of ventilation systems
Influencia de la longitud de los baños de tratamiento de superficies en la eficacia de los sistemas de ventilación [in Spanish]
Topics: applied research; electroplating; exhaust ventilation; surface coating; ventilation design; ventilation systems; wet dust collectors.
Mapfre seguridad, 2nd Quarter 1999, Vol.19, No.74, p.15-21. Illus. 6 ref.

1998

CIS 09-897
Health and Safety Executive
The spraying of flammable liquids
Aimed at managers and supervisors who control spray painting operations, this booklet provides guidance on the prevention of hazards of spraying with flammable liquids. It describes preventive and protective measures to reduce the risk of fire and explosion. Contents: introduction; hazards; legal requirements; risk assessment; control measures; spray methods; spray areas; handling and storage; inspection and maintenance; information and training; fire precautions and emergency procedures.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2nd ed., Mar. 1998. iv, 56p. Illus. 68 ref. Price: GBP 9.50.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/priced/hsg178.pdf [in English]

CIS 01-1117 Michels P.E.
Nickel and chromium (VI) aerosols in workplace air in electroplating workshops
Nickel- und Chrom(VI)-Aerosole in der Luft am Arbeitsplatz galvanotechnischer Betriebe [in German]
Topics: aerosols; air sampling; nickel; chromic acid; chromium and compounds; description of technique; determination in air; electroplating; exposure evaluation; personal sampling; plating solutions; threshold limit values.
Die BG, July 1998, No.7, p.400-406. Illus.

CIS 01-1156 Surface treatment tanks
Cuves de traitement de surface [in French]
A working group commissioned by the French National Health Insurance Fund for salaried workers studied the design and control conditions of surface treatment tanks. The concept includes four steps: risk assessment (toxicity index and emissions index, leading to the definition of overall risk levels); selection of the type of exhaust device; calculation of the exhaust rate for each exhaust device; design of the corresponding ventilation system. Examples of industrial installations based on this approach are presented. Appendices provide exposure limit values for chemicals most frequently encountered and the risk classes for the main processes used in surface treatment.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 1st Quarter 1998, No.170, p.57-71. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 01-500 Pringalle C.
Effectiveness and comfort of personal protective equipment: Study conducted in 3 surface treatment firms
Efficacité et confort des équipements de protection individuelle: étude réalisée dans 3 entreprises de traitement de surface [in French]
Although the need for wearing personal protective equipment (PPE) is widely recognized within the surface treatment industry as being important, PPE is not always worn due to alleged lack of comfort by some operators. A study was carried out in three firms in this industry in order to compare the PPE traditionally used by the operators and new devices having improved levels of protection, comfort and useful life. As a result of these tests, the firms noted greater operator awareness of risks and a substantial increase in wearing.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 1998, No.172, Note No.2085-172-98, p.283-298. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 00-800 Sorahan T., Burges D.C.L., Hamilton L., Harrington J.M.
Lung cancer mortality in nickel/chromium platers 1946-95
The mortality experience of a cohort of 1762 chrome workers (812 men, 950 women) from a large electroplating and light engineering plant was investigated for the period 1946-95. All subjects were first employed in chrome work at the plant during the period 1946-75, and had at least six months employment in jobs associated with exposure to chromic acid mist (hexavalent chromium). Based on mortalities for the general population of England and Wales, male workers with some period of chrome bath work had higher lung cancer mortalities than did other male chrome workers. Similar findings were shown for female workers. After adjusting for sex, age, calendar period, year of starting chrome work, period from first chrome work and employment status there was a significant relationship between duration of chrome bath work and risks of mortality for lung cancer. Duration of other chrome work was not a useful predictor of risks of lung cancer. Similar findings for both variables were obtained relative to risk of chrome nasal ulceration. The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that soluble hexavalent chromium compounds are potent human lung carcinogens.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 1998, Vol.55, No.4, p.236-242. 18 ref.

CIS 99-1807 Painters and wall paper hangers
Pintores y empapeladores [in Spanish]
Topics: building industry; check lists; construction work; hazard evaluation; legislation; painting; paper hanging; risk factors; safety analysis; safety guides; small enterprises; Spain; training material.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1998. 33p. Illus.
http://internet.mtas.es/Insht/practice/gap_008.pdf [in Spanish]

CIS 99-1815 Surface treatment workshops - Control of chemical hazards - Health and safety of workers
Ateliers de traitement de surface - Prévention des risques chimiques - Santé et sécurité des personnes [in French]
Topics: caustic substances; chemical burns; chemical hazards; electroplating; explosion hazards; fire hazards; France; health hazards; irritants; limitation of exposure; maintenance; medical supervision; personal protective equipment; pickling; plant safety organization; plating solutions; safety and health training; safety guides; schedule of occupational diseases; surface coating; threshold limit values; training material.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité (INRS), 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Dec. 1998. 60p. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 99-912 Järvholm B., Sandén Å.
Lung cancer and mesothelioma in the pleura and peritoneum among Swedish insulation workers
Cancer morbidity and cause of death was investigated in 248 Swedish insulation workers some years after their exposure to asbestos had stopped. Although exposure to asbestos of all types had almost ended in Sweden in the mid-1970s, these workers still had a highly increased risk of diseases related to asbestos in the 1980s and early 1990s. The attributable risk for death and cancer was about 50%. Results also confirm the previous finding that mesothelioma in insulation workers seems to be situated in the peritoneum more often than in the pleura. Topics: asbestos; cohort study; insulating work; lung cancer; mesothelioma; morbidity; mortality; peritoneal mesothelioma; pleural mesothelioma.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 1998, Vol.55, No.11, p.766-770. 15 ref.

CIS 99-880 Lai J.S., Kwo H.W., Liao F.C., Lien C.H.
Sister chromatid exchange induced by chromium compounds in human lymphocytes
In a study of chromium and nickel-chromium electroplating workers, blood and urine chromium concentrations were highest among chromium workers, next highest among nickel-chromium workers and lowest among a non-exposed control group. After adjustment for smoking, values of sister chromatid exchange (SCE)/cell followed a similar pattern. Among smokers with high levels of chromium exposure, a synergistic effect resulted: percentages of high-frequency cells were higher in this group than in any other. Analysis of SCE in lymphocytes is useful for the evaluation of the biological effects of environmental mutagens. Topics: analysis of chromosome aberrations; nickel; case-control study; chromium and compounds; chromosome changes; determination in blood; determination in urine; electroplating; genetic effects; length of exposure; lymphocytes; mutagens; smoking; synergism.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nov. 1998, Vol.71, No.8, p.550-553. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 99-247
Health and Safety Executive
Control of exposure to triglycidyl isocyanurate (TGIC) in coating powders
Topics: triglycidyl isocyanurate; data sheet; determination in air; exposure evaluation; hazard evaluation; information of personnel; irritants; legislation; limitation of exposure; powder coating; protective clothing; sensitization; United Kingdom.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1998. 4p. 8 ref.

CIS 99-200 Liu C.S., Kuo H.W., Lai J.S., Lin T.I.
Urinary N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase as an indicator of renal dysfunction in electroplating workers
Topics: chromium; cross-sectional study; determination in air; determination in urine; dose-response relationship; electroplating; enzyme activity determination; job-exposure relation; nephrotoxic effects; renal dysfunction; urine monitoring.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, July 1998, Vol.71, No.5, p.348-352. 30 ref.

CIS 98-1330 Estlander T., Kari O., Jolanki R., Kanerva L.
Occupational allergic contact dermatitis and blepharoconjunctivitis caused by gold
Topics: airborne dust; allergens; allergy tests; case study; change of employment; conjunctivitis; dermatitis; eczema; electroplating; Finland; gold and compounds; hypersensitivity; sensitization dermatitis; skin tests.
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 1998, Vol.38, No.1, p.40-41. 25 ref.

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