Surface treatment - 644 entries found
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Knecht A., Kreisler R.
Fire and explosion protection in electrostatic hand spray powder coating with powders containing aluminium
Zündsicherheit und Explosionsschutz beim elektrostatischen Handaufsprühen aluminiumhaltiger Pulverlacke [in German]
Consideration of the problem and description of experiments, the results of which show that these coating powders do not involve any hazard if the proportion of aluminium powder pigment does not exceed 4% in weight, and if precautions are taken to prevent the accumulation of aluminium pigment in the installation for excess coating powder recovery. Criteria for safety rules for electrostatic powder coating.
Farbe und Lack, 1976, Vol.82, No.12, p.1124-1127.
Department of Labour and Industry, Sydney.
Factories (Health and Safety - Dipping in Flammable Solutions) Regulations 1976 - Regulation No.369 of 1976.
These Regulations, dated 22 Oct. 1976 (entry into force: 1 Jan. 1977) are made under the Factories, Shops and Industries Act 1962. They apply to all industrial processes involving the coating of articles by dipping in a flammable solution, including draining and drying of the articles. Sections are devoted to: employers' obligations; provision of local exhaust ventilation at rim of tank or vat for fume removal; liquid level in tank; inspection openings and cleaning holes in exhaust ducts; suppression of sparking in fans and belts; no smoking or naked lights; storage of flammable solutions; maintenance of exhaust system; powers and duties of factory inspectors.
New South Wales Government Gazette, No.148, 19 Nov. 1976, p.5125-5128.
Painting and varnishing
Maler- und Lackierarbeiten [in German]
A series of articles on the various phases of painting work and hazardous situations and workposts where painting is carried out; safe working methods; ladders and scaffolding; substances employed; painting techniques; personal protective equipment; painting work in industry, on pylons and bridges; electrical hazards; painting booths, painting shops, etc.; case studies of accidents; use of liquefied petroleum gas in cylinders.
Mitteilungsblatt der Bau-Berufsgenossenschaft Wuppertal, Dec. 1976, No.4, p.151-171.Illus.
Bobev G., Koen E.
Evaluation and prevention of health hazards in curtain coating departments of furniture works
Sanitarno-himična ocenka i borba s vrednostite v lakozalivnite cehove na mebelnata promišlenost [in Bulgarian]
The authors have concluded, from their observations and theoretical calculations, that vapours emanating from freshly coated surfaces constitute the principal source of workplace styrene and toluene pollution. Reproduction of 3 formulae to determine the quantity of volatile components. The curtain dip coating machines themselves are not the main source of pollution, which is concentrated principally in the vicinity of the trolleys on which the coated elements are placed. The article recommends that coated surfaces should be dried in separate premises or in special drying rooms. This would reduce exposure to solvent vapours and improve working conditions.
Problemi na higienata, Dec. 1976, No.2, p.63-70. Illus. 5 ref.
Notification No.28/1976 concerning health hazards in gas cutting, welding and reheating (oxyacetylene and similar processes)
Meddelelse nr. 28/1976 om sundhedsfare ved gassvejsning, flammeskæring, flammeretning m.v. (autogene processer) [in Danish]
These directives apply to gas cutting and welding, flame cleaning, straightening after preheating, and metallising. They spell out the health hazards involved (fume, aerosols, gases; infrared radiation; noise) and indicate the harmful products given off when the workpiece is coated with oil, paints, plastics, metals, etc. Recommended occupational health and hygiene measures: reduction of air pollution (cleaning of workpiece surface before the operation); elimination of pollutants (general ventilation, local exhaust ventilation; description of local exhaust ventilation devices for gas cutting (oxyacetylene, etc.) workposts, for welding sets and for metallising enclosures); eye protection (filter lenses: tables for choosing degree of absorption according to quantities of oxygen and acetylene consumed).
Directorate of Labour Inspection (Direktoratet for arbejdstilsynet), Rosenvængets Allé 16-18, 2400 København, Denmark, 16 Dec. 1976. 12p. Illus. Gratis.
Stumphius J., Stokvis H.C.
Asbestosis case study - A clinical demonstration
Een patiënt met asbestose - Klinische demonstratie [in Dutch]
This article reviews the pathogenesis of asbestosis and its diagnosis by chest X-ray and lung function tests and describes the clinical picture of a case of asbestosis in a shipyard worker exposed to asbestos dust during 20 years' employment in heat insulation work. Symptoms: chronic cough, asbestos bodies in sputum, cyanosis, clubbing of fingers, rales, premature aging. Considerations on physiotherapy (massage with tapotement percussion, respiratory calisthenics) as administered in this particular case.
Tijdschrift voor sociale geneeskunde, 22 Dec. 1976, Vol.54, No.25, p.889-892. Illus. 1 ref.
Recommended practices for testing open hoods and booths.
Periodic testing is necessary to determine if hoods and booths are operating efficiently and according to regulations. The choice of anemometer is discussed and tools needed for the tests are listed. The area around a booth should be checked for proper airflow before testing. Techniques for measuring and calculating airflow in booths and hoods are described.
Plant Engineering, 16 Sep. 1976, Vol.30, No.19, p.138-139.
Il'ickaja A.V., Blohin V.S., Mel'nikov E.V.
Noise produced by plasma spray coating, and hygiene measures to improve the technique
Šum pri plazmennom napylenii i gigieničeskoe obosnovanie optimal'nyh tehnologičeskih režimov [in Russian]
Results of these studies: gas flow rate and composition and the nozzle diameter of the torch have a determining influence on the noise level and spectrum. Reduction of the spraying rate, inversely proportional to the cross-sectional area of the nozzle, markedly reduces the noise level. Other noise control measures: use of plasma torches in which the powder to be sprayed is introduced before reaching the anode; increasing the proportion of argon in the gas mixture; acoustic enclosure of spray-coating booths.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Apr. 1976, No.4, p.50-52. Illus.
Perforation of the nasal septum during chromium plating - Report on 7 cases
Perforation de la cloison nasale au cours du chromage électrolytique - A propos de 7 cas. [in French]
MD thesis. Brief history of the industrial applications of chromium and related occupational diseases. Anatomy, histology and physiology of the nasal septum. Technical note on electrolytic chromium-plating. Clinical aspects, pathogenesis and treatment of nasal septum lesions in chromium-plating workers. Prevention is based on worker protection (protective layer of a liquid or of plastic beads floating on the surface of the electrolyte solution, local exhaust ventilation integrated in a recovery process of the toxic vapours and spent rinsing water and plating solution, general ventilation) and on early detection of hexavalent chromium poisoning. Medicolegal considerations. The general study is complemented by 7 case histories recorded in 1974 in a plant where no collective preventive measures were taken.
Université de Bordeaux II, Unité d'enseignement et de recherche des sciences médicales, Bordeaux, France, 1976. 53p. 36 ref.
Hänninen H., Eskelinen L., Husman K., Nurminen M.
Behavioral effects of long-term exposure to a mixture of organic solvents
Tests for intelligence, memory, psychomotor performance and personality were made on 100 car painters and a control group. Impairments in visual and verbal intelligence, verbal memory and a reduction of emotional reactivity were ascribed to the solvent exposure. Two discriminant function analyses were also made; the sensitivity of the psychological test method was high, but the specificity was low with regard to exposure. The possible role of a potentiating effect of the solvents in the development of these disturbances is discussed.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1976, Vol.2, No.4, p.240-255. 38 ref.
Notification No.26/1976 concerning safe working methods in airless spray painting installations
Meddelelse nr.26/1976 om sikkerhedsforanstaltninger ved anlæg til luftløs sprøjtemaling (hydraulisk sprøjtemaling, "airless spray") [in Danish]
These directives (entry into force: 1 July 1977) concern airless (hydraulic pressure) paint spraying, with particular reference to injection injuries, and prevention of electrostatic discharge or bursting of hose. Contents: general rules (giving reference to pertinent Danish regulations); marking (maximum operational pressures indicated in indelible print); service and maintenance code; design and manufacture (materials: resistance to all stresses and loads during normal use of the pump set, hose, valves, fittings and spray gun; overpressure protection; pressure gauge; static electricity elimination; non-locking trigger; shrouded nozzle to prevent accidental contact); operational precautions.
M 26/1976, Directorate of Labour Inspection (Direktoratet for Arbejdstilsynet), Rosenvængets Allé 16-18, 2100 København, Denmark, 12 Oct. 1976. 6p. Gratis.
Spray painting - Good practices for employees.
This little, well-illustrated booklet is intended to alert workers to health, fire or explosion hazards. Contents: management and supervisor actions; safe working methods; spraying method descriptions; fire and explosion hazards and their control; spray booths and rooms; fire prevention; respirators; eye protection; safety inspections; personal hygiene; emergency measures.
HEW Publication No.(NIOSH)76-178, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Apr. 1976. 22p. Illus.
Fiberglass layup and sprayup - Good practices for employees.
This little, well-illustrated booklet is addressed to workers in the reinforced plastics industry. Contents: definitions; polyester and epoxy resins; solvents and styrene; hazards; handling, storage and disposal of organic peroxides; dusts and ventilation; spray booths; health effects; respirators; personal protection; first aid.
HEW Publication No.(NIOSH)76-158, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Apr. 1976. 32p. Illus.
Health hazards in the use of solvents.
This lecture given at the International Metal Workers' Federation World Conference on health and safety in the metal industry (Oslo, Norway, 16-19 Aug. 1976) covered: basic mechanism of solvent action (on nerves); history; current problems (chronic effects, threshold limit value (TLV) recommendations, diagnosis); investigation methods (neurological examination, neurophysiological and psychological methods, interviews); investigations in Scandinavia (house and car painters, jet-fuel workers); are the TLVs of today correct?; future prospects.
Report AMMF 112/76, National Board of Occupational Safety and Health, Fack, S-110 26 Stockholm, Sweden, 1976. 17p. Illus. 13 ref.
Health and safety guide for sign and advertising display manufacturers.
Illustrated by humorous drawings and instructive sketches, this booklet aims to assist in providing safe and healthy workplaces by describing safe practices and encouraging compliance with U.S. health and safety regulations. Chief contents: health and safety guidelines (general, reducing unsafe acts, machine guarding, housekeeping, power tools, automatic sprinklers); frequently violated regulations (walking and working surfaces, ladders, railings, scaffolding, boatswain's chairs, aerial lifts, safety belts, exits, environmental control (air contaminants, noise), hazardous materials, personal protective equipment, first aid, fire protection, compressed air equipment, materials handling and storage, hand and portable power tools, welding, cutting and brazing, electrical regulations); recordkeeping; checklists; information sources; manual lifting; hand signals.
DHEW Publication No.(NIOSH)76-126, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Apr. 1976. 99p. Illus.
Allergic eczema due to epoxy resins in particular working conditions: Clinical and allergological study
Eczema allergico da resina epossidica in particolari condizioni lavorative: Osservazioni cliniche ed allergologiche [in Italian]
A brief review of the chief plastics in use and of the applications and toxicity of epoxy resins is followed by a description of studies in some 35 workers employing them. 18 heavily exposed workers were engaged in preparing glass fibre and resin panels in a railway tunnel and installing them by spraying the resin. 12 had mild to moderate eczematous dermatitis (sometimes occurring within days of exposure). Description of type and duration of symptoms. Patch tests showed a positive reaction to the resins in a large proportion of cases, as well as to triethylenetetramine. Critical appraisal of the working conditions (spraying of epoxy resins in closed conditions; infrequent changing of work clothes). Exposed workers in the open air had no allergic symptoms.
Rivista degli infortuni e delle malattie professionali, Mar.-Apr. 1976, No.2, p.211-222. 19 ref.
Roberts R.E., Roberts J.B.
Reducing solvent emissions in automotive spray painting.
Solvent emissions from paint spray booths and drying ovens often exceed the permissible limit in the USA. The authors describe a modification of conventional spray painting practices together with the use of finishes with a higher solids content that can substantially reduce the quantities of exhaust air requiring treatment and result in a considerable reduction in energy consumption.
Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association, Apr. 1976, Vol.26, No.4, p.353-358. Illus.
Axelson O., Hane M., Hogstedt C.
Case studies of chronic psychosomatic syndrome in housepainters
Fallbeskrivningar av kroniskt psyko-organiskt syndrom hos byggnadsmålare [in Swedish]
Data on 10 cases of psychosomatic syndrome (memory loss, personality changes of an asthenic or depressive-agressive type, lassitude) and detailed description of 5 cases of this syndrome observed in housepainters exposed for many years to solvents (mixtures of hydrocarbons and alcohols). In 6 out of 10 cases pathological EEG changes were observed; psychometric tests confirmed a diagnosis of brain damage. There was no question of alcoholism in any of these cases.
Läkartidningen, 1976, Vol.73, No.5, p.317-318. 9 ref.
Verfverwerking [in Dutch]
Introductory remarks on the composition and use of paints are followed by chapters on the following aspects: fire, explosion and health hazards (inhalation, TLVs for some 50 solvents and thinners; ingestion, cutaneous absorption and sensitisation; preventive measures); definitions; storage of paints, solvents and thinners (fire and explosion prevention, special precautions for storage and use of organic peroxides); packing and handling; premises for preparation of and work with paints (layout, equipment, electrical installations, heating, etc.); ventilation of painting booths and workposts; fire extinguishing; safety rules (no smoking, good housekeeping, periodic inspections, hygiene, first aid); labour law and labour inspection.
P no 139, Labour Inspectorate, General Directorate of Labour (Arbeidsinspectie, Directoraat-Generaal van de Arbeid), Voorburg, Netherlands, 1976. 28p. Illus. 21 ref. Price: Glds.0.50.
Seemann J., Wölcke U.
Formation of toxic isocyanate vapours on thermal decomposition of polyurethane paints and their polyfunctional hardeners
Über die Bildung toxischer Isocyanatdämpfe bei der thermischen Zersetzung von Polyurethanlacken und ihren polyfunktionellen Härtern [in German]
A series of accidents prompted investigation of the toxicity of polyurethane (PUR) pyrolysis vapours. The chemistry of PUR paints and avoidance of poisoning by the use of diisocyanates with low vapour pressure (Desmodur), and the known facts on pyrolysis of PUR resins are first dealt with. The conditions (pyrolysis temperature of 400-600°C) and results of studies with commercial hardeners and paints are reported. In all cases diisocyanates were detected, the extent of the reformation varying considerably. The values were however considerably higher for polyisocyanates than for PUR varnishes. In the presence of PUR paints, the possibility of a hazard from thermal decomposition products should therefore always be borne in mind.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Prophylaxe, Jan. 1976, Vol.26, No.1, p.2-9. 22 ref.
Avions à peindre. [in French]
News report on an ultramodern paint shop of a large French aeroplane manufacturer. The shop has an automatic air conditioning system permitting work in healthy and comfortable conditions: air temperature 15-25°C, humidity 55-70%, rapid workshop air renewal. The system, which includes equipment for filtration, humidification, warming, distribution of fresh air and evacuation of polluted air, is described in detail with diagrams.
Travail et sécurité, Apr. 1976, No.4, p.154-161. Illus.
Hot-dip galvanising shops - concentration of harmful substances - safety engineering
Feuerverzinkereien - Schadstoffsituation - Technische Prophylaxe [in German]
Introduction to the galvanising process. Pickling, immersion and galvanisation of parts release hydrochloric acid, zinc and ammonium chlorides as well as zinc and cadmium oxides in the workshop atmosphere. Description of surveys of 5 typical workshops: technical data on the workshops, analysis methods, results obtained in the pickling and galvanising workshops. Safety measures: modification of galvanisation techniques, exhaust of harmful substances and general ventilation. The hygienic conditions can be improved by using fumeless fluxes and by a bilaterial exhaust system for the baths, combined wth forced ventilation. Formulas for the calculation of the airflow required for collecting the harmful substances are given.
STF Report Nr.1-76, Staubforschungsinstitut des Hauptverbandes der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften, Langwartweg 103, 5300 Bonn 1, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 1976. 27p. Illus. 15 ref.
Axelson O., Hane M., Hogstedt C.
A case-referent study on neuropsychiatric disorders among workers exposed to solvents.
Published reports give justification for the belief that long-term exposure to solvents might induce chronic but non-specific neuropsychiatric conditions (disturbances in memory, emotional disorders, etc.). This case-referent study of data from a regional Swedish pension fund register indicated a risk ratio of 1.8 in regard to non-specific neuropsychiatric disorders among workers such as painters, varnishers and carpetlayers who are exposed to various solvents (turpentine and mixtures of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons) as compared to workers not so exposed. Moreover a dose-response relation seems to exist between exposure in terms of years in occupation and neuropsychiatric conditions, the exposure to various solvents possibly playing an aetiological role.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Mar. 1976, Vol.2, No.1, p.14-20. 17 ref.
Ministry of Engineering (Ministerstwo przemysłu maszynowego), Warszawa.
Order of 25 March 1975 concerning occupational safety and health in electrolytic surface treatment
Rozporządzenie z dnia 25 marca 1975 r. w sprawie bezpieczeństwa i higieny pracy przy elektrolitycznej obróbce powierzchni [in Polish]
This Order (entry into force: 1 May 1975) applies to electroplating shops including workshops undertaking electrolytic cleaning, cleaning of metal surfaces and removal of metal coatings. It specifies requirements for the premises and equipment (choice of site, interior layout, arrangement of vats, operating pressures for which the steam or superheated water jackets must be designed, local exhaust ventilation above vats emitting harmful vapours, etc.), the air renewal rate (natural or mechanical ventilation), neutralisation of harmful effluents, storage requirements for toxic chemicals, and hygiene and welfare installations (washbasins close to workplaces, first-aid kits, etc.).
Dziennik Ustaw, 14 Apr. 1975, No.11, p.113-116.
Trahtenberg I.M., Kucenok B.I., Koršun M.N., Gil'man C.I.
Evaluation of the absorbency and permeability of chemically stable lining materials with respect to vapours of mercury and organomercury compounds
Gigieničeskaja ocenka sorbcionnyh svojstv i pronicaemosti himičeski stojkih materialov (pokrytij) k param rtuti i ee organičeskim soedinenijam [in Russian]
Results of tests showed that mercury-proof plastics are not all suitable to protect the surfaces of industrial buildings against pollution by organomercury compounds. Application of epoxy- and furane-resin-based plastic linings provides the best protection for the concrete floors of premises in which organomercury compounds are produced, processed or stored. For protection of the vertical surfaces of such premises application of 5 coats of a paint based on chlorinated polyvinyl chloride and epoxides to the rough casting is recommended.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Nov. 1975, No.11, p.8-12. 6 ref.
Occupational safety and health in fixed electrostatic spray painting plants
Schutz der Arbeitnehmer bei Arbeiten in ortsfesten elektrostatischen Nasslackieranlagen [in German]
The electrostatic painting process generally and 2 specific plants are described. Safety measures in respect of ventilation, temperature, electrical installations, and explosion and fire protection are discussed, and the article closes with some hints for maintenance and cleaning of painting plants.
Die Tätigkeit der Arbeitsinspektion im Jahre 1974, Verlag des Zentral-Arbeitsinspektorates, Stubenring 1, Wien I, Austria, 1975, p.113-127. Illus.
High pressure spray guns in the building industry allied trades
Hochdruckspritzgeräte im Baunebengewerbe [in German]
A brief introductory description of the airless gun system (mostly used for spray painting) is followed by considerations on the attendant accident hazards and preventive methods (compliance with manufacturer's instructions, operator's training and skill, periodic overhaul and maintenance of equipment). Most accidents occur when the operator is trying to unclog the nozzle. Recommendations for nozzle replacement, handling and careful stowing of spray guns when not in use. All spray gun injuries involving injection of paint in tissue require urgent medical attention.
Mitteilungsblatt der Bau-Berufsgenossenschaft Wuppertal, 1975, No.4, p.179-181. Illus.
Ventilation during painting work
Ilmanvaihto maalaustöissä [in Finnish]
Ventilationen vid målningsarbeten [in Swedish]
This article reviews Finnish legislation concerning local exhaust and other types of ventilation for painters' workplaces, and considers relevant design principles: spray painting booths (local exhaust ventilation of toxic and flammable mist); design of non-enclosed painters' workplaces; removal of solvent vapours during drying; purifying exhaust air; design of exhaust ventilation ducts and fans (flameproof construction); other painting methods (airless paint spraying, electrostatic paint spraying, manual painting by brush or roller coating, dip coating); precautions when painting the inside of tanks. Rules for calculating hourly volume of air to be exhausted from a painting workplace or booth. CIS has only the Swedish-language version.
Ehkäise tapaturmia - Förebygg olycksfall, 1975, No.6, p.4-8. Illus. 10 ref.
Rough casting and rendering of wall surfaces
Putz- und Stuckarbeiten [in German]
This article delimits the responsibilities of foremen and supervisors, contactors and workers, and examines the typical hazards encountered in this type of work (falls from inside or outside scaffolding, rough casting and rendering of wall surfaces, danger of overpressure in the air receiver of single-piston compressors for plaster-throwing machines, instability of bins containing rendering mixes, electrical hazards). Safety rules.
Mitteilungsblatt der Bau-Berufsgenossenschaft Wuppertal, 1975, No.4, p.170-178. Illus.
Hrubá D., Smolka M.
Evaluation of health hazards in workers operating automatic varnishers exposed to toluene
Příspěvek k hodnocení pracovní problematiky při práci s toluenem u licích automatů [in Czech]
Report on observations made in 6 workers exposed to toluene while varnishing ping-pong tables with varnishing machines and in spraying booths. Toluene concentrations varied according to the type of work and location, but nearly always exceeded the MAC of 400mg/m3, with peaks of 1,020mg/m3 and even 4,328mg/m3 in drying rooms. Time measurements showed that the greatest physical effort was required of the workers in those places where toluene concentrations were highest, resulting in increased inhalation of the substance. The high level of toluene impregnation was evidenced by the equally high level of urinary benzoic acid and by typical subjective symptoms.
Pracovní lékařství, July 1975, Vol.27, No.6, p.204-207. Illus. 8 ref.
Skidmore J.W., Jones J.S.P.
Monitoring an asbestos spray process.
Data on the asbestos hazard were collected during construction of a maternity unit. The spray process (amosite) and dust measurement procedure are described. Percentage fibre length and diameter distributions, and airborne fibre concentrations (1-100µm) at various positions on 3 days are tabulated. Cloud concentrations ranged from 1 to 8 fibres/cm3 during spraying, and there were no other hazards outside the spraying area. Subsequent clean-up operations were however inadequate, and a hazard remained for sweepers and workers moving timber, etc. on which dust had accumulated, during the next phase of building.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Sep. 1975, Vol.18, No.2, p.151-156. Illus. 8 ref.
High-pressure paint spray guns - Dangerous or not ?
Les pistolets à peinture à haute pression - Dangereux ou non ? [in French]
This elementary training article reviews the principal types of accident due to high-pressure paint spray guns and indicates the basic precautions to be observed when using this equipment (safety catch, pressure cutoff, daily cleaning) and forbidden unsafe acts (never point the nozzle towards yourself or towards another person, never pull on the hose, never roll wheeled apparatus across the hose, etc.). Personnel training and discipline are essential for the prevention of accidents with equipment of this kind. A reminder list for workers using paint spray guns is appended (nozzle unclogging attachment; filter on pump outlet; earthing of spray gun; pressure regulating to prevent mist forming, etc.).
Sauvegarde des chantiers, 1975, No.5, p.4-9. Illus.
High-pressure water and paint spray guns
Pistolets à eau ou à peinture à haute pression. [in French]
Review of measures designed to avoid accidents in using high-pressure water and paint spray guns and general provisions concerning high-pressure water guns issued by the Regional Sickness Fund for the Rhone-Alps Region (Caisse régionale d'assurance maladie Rhône-Alpes), France: entry forbidden into area in which the gun operates; regular checking of equipment. It is compulsory for every spray gun to be equipped with a starting device which always requires human intervention and cannot be triggered off accidentally, as well as a safety device ensuring that the maximum operational pressure cannot be exceeded. Wearing of personal protective equipment, ensuring that these guns are used only by adequately trained personnel, etc.
Cahiers des Comités de prévention du bâtiment et des travaux publics, May-June 1975, No.3, p.143-146. Illus.
Blume J., Hane M., Sundell L., Ydreborg B., Axelson O., Hogstedt C.
Psychic functional changes in housepainters
Psykiska funktionsförändringar hos byggnadsmålare [in Swedish]
Results of psychological tests, sensorimotor performance tests and medical and psychiatric tests carried out in 52 housepainters showing subjective symptoms of fatigue, loss of memory, anorexia, etc. Although overall comparison of these results with tests on a group of non-exposed controls failed to confirm statistically the hypothesis of neuropsychic effect due to the suspected solvents, certain tests (reasoning capacity, sensorimotor co-ordination) showed a significant difference between the exposed workers and the controls.
Läkartidningen, 1975, Vol.72, No.8, p.702-706, and 1976, Vol.73, No.5, p.319-321. Illus. 30 ref.
Technical requirements for spray painting installations
Technische Anforderungen an Spritzlackierereien [in German]
Summary of requirements for spray painting stations satisfying occupational safety and health criteria: fire protection; ventilation; respiratory protection; explosion protection; storage of flammable liquids.
Betriebssicherheit, 1975, No.2, p.4-6. Illus.
El Ghawabi S.H., Gaafar M.A., El-Saharti A.A., Ahmed S.H., Malash K.K., Fares R.
Chronic cyanide exposure: A clinical, radioisotope, and laboratory study.
Controlled study of 36 workers in the electroplating sections of 3 factories. Atmospheric cyanide concentrations, relative incidence of symptoms, thyroid uptake of I-131 after 4 and 24h, plasma-bound I-131 levels after 72h, and haematological findings are tabulated, and urinary thiocyanate excretion is plotted against exposure concentrations. The haemoglobin level, lymphocyte count and incidence of punctate basophilia were significantly higher in the exposed group. The presence of cyanmethamoglobin was considered pathognomonic. 24-h urinary excretion of thiocyanates amounted to 0.65mg per ppm atmospheric cyanide (mean urinary thiocyanate level in controls: 0.11mg). Thyroid enlargement was present in 20 workers, and thyroid I-131 uptakes were significantly increased. The reasons for this effect are discussed.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1975, Vol.32, No.3, p.215-219. 26 ref.
Spraying of paints, varnishes and powders
Application des peintures, vernis et poudres par pulvérisation. [in French]
This brochure is addressed to factory managers, departmental managers, works physicians and safety officers. Contents: definitions; physical characteristics and toxicity of the chief solvents used; health hazards presented by solvents and diluents, pigments, binders, additives, water-soluble paints and powder paints (technical and medical prevention); processes and equipment for compressed air spraying, airless spraying and electrostatic spraying (danger of fire or explosion, electric shock, risk of back-spray of paint); paint spraying plant (design and ventilation of spray booths, filtration of polluted air, electrical equipment, lighting, maintenance of booths, operation); drying (by hot air, infrared, microwave, ultraviolet and beta radiation); storage sites; fire fighting; control of polluted atmospheres; personal protection, occupational diseases, relevant French regulations, labelling.
Edition INRS n°103, Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1975. 96p. Illus. 46 ref.
Guniting in underground worksites
Spritzbetonsicherung im Hohlraumbau [in German]
Detailed account of the principles and methods of consolidating underground tunnels by guniting: background and applications of guniting; statistical data; soil studies; definition of materials; mixtures and methods used for guniting; mention of safety regulations and relevant standards, including specifications for raw materials; properties of fresh concrete and testing; method of spraying concrete; coating combining concrete and reinforcing steel or anchorage. A number of paragraphs are devoted to questions of occupational safety: personal protective equipment, safety measures at the workplace, coniosis hazards and preventive measures. Concluding remarks on development of the technique.
Tiefbau-Berufsgenossenschaft, Feb. 1975, Vol.87, No.2, p.42-71. Illus. 26 ref.
Paint and grease gun injuries of the hand.
A brief review of the situations in which workers may sustain injuries of this kind is followed by a warning of the dangers of being misled initially by the apparently benign appearance of these lesions. Urgent surgery is imperative, and is described in the article: surgical decompression by midlateral incision; excision of involved fat and fascia; removal of all the grease and paint. Paint thinner or oil solvents should not be used. The wound should be left open.
Journal of the American Medical Association, Mar. 1975, Vol.231, No.9, p.933. 8 ref.
Kawakami M., Sato S., Takishima T.
Pneumoconiosis in painters dealing with tonoko: three cases of "tonoko-lung".
Tonoko (78.5%SiO2, 10%Al2O3), a wood filler widely used in furniture manufacturing in Japan, has not been considered a pneumoconiosis-producing agent. Three cases of pneumoconiosis were discovered in 4 workers engaged in a furniture finishing process who had used the material daily for over ten years. Their working room environment was always dusty and tonoko was probably the main ingredient of the dust. Analysis revealed that tonoko contains about 50% quartz, and the results supported our assumption that their lung condition might be caused by tonoko inhalation.
Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine, Nov. 1974, Vol.114, No.3, p.295-297. Illus. 4 ref.
Milanaccio A., Ricolfi L.
Prototype for a manual for constant detection and prevention of occupational health hazards, in relation to alternative working methods
Prototipo di manuale per la ricerca ed il controllo permanenti dei rischi e dei danni da lavoro, in funzione di una diversa organizzazione del lavoro [in Italian]
Model for occupational hygiene survey reports, based on the example of a survey carried out in the bodywork painting shop of a large motor car manufacturing plant: description of the work cycle, workers' skills, absenteeism; background and trends of work organisation; comments on improving working conditions, work relations and work organisation, on workers' participation, trade union action and workers' welfare. Maps showing harmful factors in a large-scale bodywork painting shop are appended.
Medicina dei lavoratori, Centro Ricerche e Documentazione Rischi e Danni da Lavoro, Via Tolmino 1, Roma, Italy, 1975. 96p. Illus. Price: L.1,000. (Offprint from Roma, 1975, No.1)
Department of Employment, London.
Precautions in the use of asbestos in the construction industry.
This report by the subcommittee of the Joint Advisory Committee on Safety and Health in the Construction Industries, established by the Health and Safety at Work Act, 1974, makes the following recommendations: demolition (asbestos lagging should be removed by properly equipped specialist contractors before actual demolition is allowed to start); information (worker information on medical aspects of asbestos and on typical dust concentrations encountered in construction work; positive identification of lagging by X-ray diffraction analysis before removal; routine monitoring of airborne dust); portable power driven tools (dust control equipment); training; use of less toxic substitute materials instead of asbestos. Addresses of organisations able to provide air monitoring and analytical services, a technical data note (No.42) on probable use of asbestos-cement sheets, pipes and insulation board (information given in tabular form), addresses of suppliers of vacuum cleaning and exhaust equipment for portable power tools are appended.
H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London SE1 9NH, United Kingdom. 10p. 3 ref. Price: £0.17.
Air quality control in painting shops
Luftreinhaltung in der Lackiertechnik [in German]
After an introduction on the efficient use of energy and materials in painting metallic surfaces, the author reproduces extracts of the German (Fed.Rep.) Act on pollution control (Immissionsschutzgesetz) and gives examples of measures to reduce the concentration of harmful substances in painting shops: air cleaning by filtration or water scrubbing, absorption, adsorption or solvent combustion. Advice is given principally on air cleaning in dipping and spraying shops and in drying ovens. Brief review of some painting techniques requiring less material, and thus better suited to the demands of air pollution control.
WT - Werkstattstechnik, May 1974, Vol.64, No.5, p.282-287. Illus.
Technical rules for spray painting and varnishing with flammable liquids
Tekniske forskrifter for sprøjtemaling og lakering under anvendelse af brandfarlige væsker [in Danish]
Rules made under regulations contained in the notice issued on 10 Sep. 1974 by the Ministry of Justice (text appended). General provisions cover: definitions; requirements to be met by premises and workplaces; fire fighting equipment; approval of spray painting and drying equipment; requirements to be met by spray booths and dryers, paint feeding systems, etc. These are followed by rules on: design and construction of spray painting shops; equipment for flammable liquids with flashpoints under 30 and 55°C, electrostatic paint spraying and dip coating; installation of dryers and evaporation chambers; heating and ventilation of premises.
National Fire Inspectorate (Statens Brandinspektion), Bernstorffsvej 159, 2920 Charlottenlund, Denmark, Oct. 1974. 30p. Gratis.
Les peintures sans solvant. [in French]
After a review of the disadvantages of certain traditional painting processes (toxicity of solvents used, limited field of application, etc.), the author briefly describes 2 recently developed procedures requiring no solvent: water-phase electrophoretic coating (dipping method) and electrostatic spraying of plastic powders. The installations required are relatively costly, but the technical advantages and the benefits in hygiene and safety are incontrovertible.
Prévention et sécurité du travail, 3rd quarter 1974, No.101, p.32-36. Illus.
Latuškina V.B., Rogajlin V.I., Slucker A.S.
Means of improving working conditions in the manufacture of metal-coated diamond tools
Puti ozdorovlenija truda v proizvodstve almazno-gal'vaničeskogo instrumenta [in Russian]
Results of a study of health hazards in the manufacture of electroplated diamond tools. The atmospheric pollutants at the workplace were found to include aerosols and vapours of nickel, acids (sulfuric, hydrochloric and hydrofluoric), alkalis, boron trioxide, fluorine borate, coumarine, and p-toluenesulfamide. Direct contact with aggressive products such as nickel compounds, acids, alkalis, acetone and polishing agents constitutes a further occupational hazard. Brief description of measures liable to improve working conditions: local exhaust systems, mechanisation of the nickel-plating process and of decanting of acids, enclosure, etc.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Oct. 1974, No.10, p.39-40.
Skripkin Ju.K., Somov B.A., Selisskij G.D., Butov Ju.S., Kotova L.P., Krasil'ščikov M.I.
Occupational allergic skin diseases among electroplaters
O professional'nyh allergičeskih dermatozah u gal'vanostegov [in Russian]
Results of dermatological examinations carried out in 225 electroplaters with dermatitis and eczema due to solutions of chromium trioxide, ammonium bichromate and nickel sulfate, and to the chromium oxide contained in a polishing paste. A significant proportion of electroplaters' skin diseases were found to have been caused by the sensitising effects of chrome and nickel compounds and also of gold cyanates. Preventive measures are proposed (mechanisation of all manual operations, local exhaust, skin protection, utilisation of a surface-active agent in baths in order to reduce chromium trioxide evaporation, etc.).
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Mar. 1974, No.3, p.44-46. 7 ref.
High-pressure spray guns
Høytrykks sprøyteutstyr [in Norwegian]
These regulations issued under the Workers' Protection Act of 7 Dec. 1965 entered into force on 15 June 1974. They concern airless high-pressure guns for spraying paint and antirust coatings and cover the duties of supppliers, employers and workers, legal implications, built-in safety features (foolproof operating valve, trigger guard, reinforced flexible tube, earthing of gun to avoid static electricity, etc.) and safe working methods (goggles, safety gloves, minimum age 18 years, etc.).
Verneregler Nr.18, Directorate of Labour Inspection (Direktoratet for arbeidstilsynet), Postboks 8103, Oslo-Dep., Norway, May 1974. 4p. Gratis.
Cohen S.R., Maier A.A.
Occupational health case report No.2 - Toluene diisocyanate.
A report of an investigation carried out by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) regarding exposures to isocyanates, paint sprays, solvents and dust in a plant manufacturing articles made by moulding of plastics. It was concluded that under the present conditions, TDI (tolylene 2,4-diisocyanate) does not constitute a health hazard. However, symptomatic workers on the TDI line appear to be exposed to petroleum naphtha, a known irritant. It was found that the elevated environmental level of the solvent methyl ethyl ketone constitutes a borderline hazard and that no hazard exists in the paint spraying area. Recommendations are made concerning medical monitoring of workers exposed to TDI and the improvement of protective measures at the plant.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1974, Vol.16, No.2, p.114-118. 11 ref.
Cohen S.R., Maier A.A.
Occupational health case report No.4 - Epoxy paint.
A report of an investigation carried out by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) at the request of an authorised representative of employees regarding potentially toxic effects from exposure to epoxy-type paint. The request was made after the majority of a 6-man paint crew experienced episodes of headache, nausea, dizziness and skin eruptions during assignments requiring the use of epoxy-type paint. It was concluded that because of inadequate protective measures, the skin ailments were caused by one or more of the components of the paint and that because of poor ventilation in confined quarters, the other symptoms were due to excessive solvent exposure.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Mar. 1974, Vol.16, No.3, p.201-203. 1 ref.
Cohen S.R., Maier A.A., Flesch J.P.
Occupational health case report No.3 - Ethyl acrylate.
A report of an investigation carried out by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) at the request of an authorised representative of employees concerning exposure to dust of an emulsion containing ethyl acrylate polymer at a facility manufacturing synthetic textile products. It was concluded that this dust cannot be considered inert because of its acidic character and that exposure to it at the concentrations prevailing in the plant in question constitutes a hazard. The institution of engineering improvements to control overspray and a good programme of general housekeeping would significantly reduce the hazard.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Mar. 1974, Vol.16, No.3, p.199-200.
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