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Factories (Health and Safety - Spray Painting) Regulations, 1977.
These regulations (effective 1 July 1978) issue rules concerning: employers' and workers' obligations; minimum age (18 years); spray painting booths (requirements and approved types, dimensions, painting operations which must be carried out in booths, exhaust systems, safe methods), electrostatic spray painting with fixed equipment and with hand-held equipment (warning notices for high voltage and fire hazards), storage and use of flammable or hazardous materials, sources of ignition, respiratory protective equipment, medical examinations, maintenance and inspection of equipment, health recordkeeping, penalties.
New South Wales Government Gazette, 1978-No.207, No.73, 23 June 1978, 13p.
Fink J.N., Schlueter D.P.
Bathtubs refinisher's lung: An unusual response to toluene diisocyanate.
Immunologic and inhalation challenge studies were performed on a 45 year-old patient engaged in bathtub refinishing who developed systemic and respiratory symptoms (cough, dyspnoea, myalgia, fever to 40°C) suggestive of hypersensitivity pneumonitis related to his occupation (the refinishing process involved the use of a catalyst containing tolylene diisocyanate). All clinical features of the disorder were reproduced by challenge. No immunologic mechanism could be identified. A change of occupation resulted in complete relief of symptoms. The patient had worn a mask when spraying the activated paint, but the premises were inadequately ventilated.
American Review of Respiratory Disease, Nov. 1978, Vol.118, No.5, p.955-959. Illus. 24 ref.
Health and safety guide for masonry, stonework, tilesetting, insulation, and plastering contractors.
Safe practices are described to encourage compliance with US legislation. Contents: hazards in the special construction trades (common hazards, hazards to each special trade); job hazard analysis; health and safety programmes; employee training; environmental control; frequently violated regulations; safety training; housekeeping; medical services; sanitation; noise exposure; atmospheric pollution; personal protective equipment; warning notices; materials storage and handling; hand and portable powered tools; electrical safety; ladders and scaffolds; recordkeeping; check lists; information sources.
DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No.78-208, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Oct. 1978. 150p. Illus.
Liot F., Philbert M., Dessanges J.F., Hadengue P., Briotet A., Seitz B., Lemaigre D.
Respiratory allergy to polyurethanes - Usefulness of provocation tests - A case study
Allergie respiratoire aux polyuréthanes - Intérêt des tests de provocation - A propos d'une observation. [in French]
Case study of allergic asthma, finally diagnosed after much trial and error, in a subject indirectly exposed to a diisocyanate (Desmodur T), his office being adjacent to a motor car painting shop. The author makes use of this case study to stress the usefulness of provocation tests, which enabled the diagnosis to be made, and to recommend the examination and interviewing of the patient on the work site itself. Medico-legal aspects are considered.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, Dec. 1978, Vol.39, No.12, p.713-719. Illus. 14 ref.
Needed: A closer look at arts and crafts.
This article reviews the occupational health (OH) problems of arts and craft workers in the USA, a growing body of workers totalling some 780,000 painters and sculptors, photolithography workers, art teachers, silk screen painters, commercial artists, stained glass window creators, etc. These are usually home workers, unorganised and uninformed about health precautions, and work very long hours (46% for more than 40h a week), often exposing themselves and their dependants to chemicals. Local exhaust ventilation is expensive for individual artists. An Art Hazards Information Center has been set up in the USA. Aspects covered include: benzene aplastic anaemia hazard in photolithography; toxic art materials used in silkscreening; lead, zinc chloride flux and silver nitrate hazards for stained glass window artists; woodworking hazards; suggested guidelines; information on personal protective equipment; insufficient warning on labels; role of OSHA Office of Toxic Substances; need for legislation requiring labelling describing specific health effects, toxicity rating, precautions and first aid instructions (materials at present sold without warning labels include asbestos, lead, uranium oxide, benzidine-type dyes, cadmium compounds and materials containing silica).
Job Safety and Health, Dec. 1978, Vol.6, No.8, p.20-23. Illus.
Flat convection currents at the surface of open high-temperature baths for industrial treatment
Płaskie strumienie konwekcyjne nad odkrytymi powierzchniami gorących kąpieli technologicznych [in Polish]
Aerodynamic measurements taken on the basis of formulae proposed in the literature, to determine the air velocity distribution in convection currents formed on the surface of baths at temperatures well above that of the ambient air, are described in an attempt to obtain data for ventilation design. The results confirmed the practical value of the formulae used and demonstrated the need to extract a greater volume of air from the centre than from the edges of the bath. The air volume extracted should be proportional to the distribution of air velocities in the convection current. Local exhaust systems should thus provide for air flow regulation the whole length of the baths.
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1978, Vol.28, No.99, p.373-388. Illus. 9 ref.
Labour Inspectorate Instructions concerning painting work - Health protection for workers painting buildings
Arbejdstilsynets anvisninger for malearbejde - Foranstaltninger mod sundhedsfare ved bygningsmaling [in Danish]
These directives repeal and replace Publication No.41 of 1973 (CIS 74-1556). Contents: agreement between the Danish painters' trade unions and the Danish paint and varnish industry concerning hazard warnings on tins and cointainers; tables of safety measures to be observed in different types of painting work and in using various products; classicifation of products according to their harmful properties; working methods complying with health protection rules (preparatory work: e.g. chemical removal of old paint, sanding, etc.; spackling, painting with brush or roller; spray painting); workplace ventilation; personal protective equipment (respirators, eye protection, gloves, barrier creams, protective clothing); calculation of TLVs following a code indicated on tins or containers; recommendations for the choice and use of personal protective equipment.
Publikation 77/1978, Directorate of Labour Inspection (Direktoratet for Arbejdstilsynet), Kristineberg 6, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, 1978. 72p. Illus. Gratis.
Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs, Jerusalem, 29 May 1978.
Occupational Safety Order: Regulations restricting the application of asbestos by spraying
The regulations (effective 29 June 1978) prohibit the application of asbestos by spraying unless a special authorisation is obtained from the Inspectorate of Labour. Contents: requests for authorisation; conditions to be satisfied as regards the way in which the authorised spraying is carried out (use of crocidolite prohibited; wet method mandatory for preparation and spraying of asbestos; enclosure of process or dust removal by local exhaust ventilation; removal of deposited dust and waste disposal in hermetically sealed dustproof containers or bags; wearing of protective clothing and dust masks); warning notices placed 20m from the workplace prohibiting access to unauthorised persons.
Labour and National Insurance, Jan. 1979, No.1 (340), p.11.
Bekanntmachung, Federal Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs (Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Sozialordnung), Bonn, 8 Nov. 1978.
Technical rules on flammable liquids
Technische Regeln für brennbare Flüssigkeiten [in German]
Notification and text of Technical Rules (June 1978 edition) TRbF 401 - Guideline concerning corrosion-protective inside coatings of storage tanks for flammable liquids (Group A, Classes I and II; Group B) and TRbF 402 - Guideline concerning inside coatings of storage tanks for flammable liquids (Group A, Class III). These Guidelines cover the following aspects: technical data concerning requirements to be met by coatings, compliance testing, coating methods and procedures, inspection on delivery and periodic checks.
Bundesarbeitsblatt, Apr. 1978, No.4, p.58-94. Illus.
Proceedings of the Symposium on health aspects of chromium containing materials.
The 5 papers included in these proceedings (Baltimore, Maryland, USA, 15 Sep. 1977) discussed production of chromium compounds and measures to minimise exposure to hazards; statistical analysis of epidemiological data (data from 1929-1977, bronchogenic carcinoma incidence); use of chromates in pigments (dust control); high-volume chromium plating procedure design considerations and worker protection.
Industrial Health Foundation, Inc., 5231 Centre Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15232, USA, 1978. 61p. Illus. 7 ref. Price: US-$15.00.
Seppäläinen A.M., Husman K., Mårtenson C.
Neurophysiological effects of long-term exposure to a mixture of organic solvents.
The subjects in this study were 102 car painters and the control was an age-matched group of 102 railroad engineers. The main components of the mixture were toluene, xylene, butyl acetate and white spirit; mean concentration was 31,8% of the Finnish threshold limit value; the ranges of the components were 4-212%. Electroencephalograms (EEGs) were made of all the subjects, but electroneuromyograms of 59 painters and 53 engineers. Motor (MCV) and sensory conduction (SCV) velocities and motor distal latencies (MDL) were recorded from nerves in the upper and lower extremities. Abnormal EEGs occurred in 32 car painters and 37 controls. The frequency in both groups was higher than expected (10%). 26 painters had a complex of 4 common disturbance symptoms in the central nervous system (CNS); but only 12 engineers. 46% of the painters with this symptoms had an abnormal EEG, only 25% of those without the symptoms. Engineers did not show the tendency. Abnormally slow MCVs or SCVs and/or prolonged MDL occurred in 12 of the painters, but in none of the engineers. Objective signs of CNS involvement were minor.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1978, Vol.4, No.4, p.304-314. Illus. 48 ref.
Federation of Industrial Mutual Accident Insurance Associations (Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften), Bonn, Jan. 1978.
Safety rules for shotcreting machines
Sicherheitsregeln für Mörtelspritzmaschinen [in German]
These rules apply to mobile machines, with or without a mixer, used for handling and spraying of concrete. Provisions relate to machine guarding and characteristics of its elements (motor, pump and air receiver, charging hopper, hoses and pipes), conditions of use and testing of the machine, and personal protection. The rules and standards applicable in the Federal Republic of Germany are listed.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Gereonstrasse 18-32, 5000 Köln 1, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 1978. 11p. Price: DM.1.00.
Hinte K.H., Kühnen G.
Dust and fibre concentrations during spraying of fibrous insulating materials in building construction
Staub- und Faserkonzentrationen beim Spritzisolieren mit faserhaltigen Massen im Hochbau [in German]
Studies on methods of spraying fibrous materials for fire protection of buildings are described, with results of environmental measurements. Attempts to use asbestos-free materials were made during the study. Tables show concentrations of respirable dust and concentrations of dangerous fibres (i.e. length >5µm, diameter <3µm) for asbestos and artificial fibres. Results are compared with exposure limits for asbestos, and the potential carcinogenicity of glass fibres is considered. As a precautionary measure, the exposure limits adopted for chrysotile and amosite are recommended for artificial fibres.
STF-Report 4-78, Staubforschungsinstitut des Hauptverbandes der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften, Postfach 5040, 5300 Bonn 5, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 1978. 22p. Illus. 16 ref.
AWWA standard for painting steel water-storage tanks.
This standard was approved on 2 May 1978 as an American National Standard. Updating previous editions, it lays down requirements for outside and inside paint systems (selection of paint system, surface preparation, cleaning, paint application, safety precautions, ventilation, outside air supply, non-sparking and explosion-proof ventilation equipment, hazards of flammable and toxic materials in paints, labelling of paints, lighting, protective clothing, grounding of equipment to prevent accumulation of static electricity, testing, etc.).
ANSI/AWWA D102-78, American Water Works Association, 6666 West Quincy Avenue, Denver, Colorado 80235, USA, 1978. 28p. Price: US-$.4.00.
Ahlin G., Strand A.
Elimination of health hazards during chromium and nickel plating
Åtgärder mot hälsorisker vid förkromning och förnickling [in Swedish]
Airborne chromium was determined in 20 plating plants in order to estimate exposure; high concentrations were found mainly in small manual plants. Exposures occurred during manual addition of the chromium salts and stripping in caustic baths. Methods used to reduce exposure included enclosures, automation, wetting agents (reduction 80-90%) and ventilation. Slot extraction required large amounts of exhaust air (3,500-5,000m3/h/m2 of bath area). Alternatives to chromium plating were recommended: chemical nickel plating, deposition of dispersed nickel, flame spraying, use of trivalent chromium, bright nickel and zinc. Low concentrations of nickel were found in nickel plating. Both chromium and nickel plating cause eczema; precautions against skin contact are described. English summary.
IVF-resultat 78503, Sveriges Mekanförbund, Box 5506, 114 85 Stockholm, Sweden, Aug. 1978. 42p. 18 ref. Price: Swe-cr.15.00.
Hygiene evaluation of vacuum cadmium vapour plating and development of health measures
Gigieničeskaja ocenka processa termovakuumnogo kadmirovanija i obosnovanie ozdorovitel'nyh meroprijatij [in Russian]
In this process, the cadmium is melted, sublimated and precipitated on the workpiece in a vacuum chamber. Cadmium aerosols from in the chamber and escape when it is opened, contaminating the workplace. Cadmium concentrations of 0.049 to 0.228mg/m3 were measured during loading and unloading of the chamber. They were moderately toxic (LD50 1,365mg/kg in rats, 815mg/kg in mice). Protective measures proposed: use of thermal evaporation instead of cathode spraying, which is more likely to give rise to cadmium oxide aerosols on account of the lower vacuum used; local exhaust ventilation; centralisation of operations in order to improve mechanisation, etc.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, May 1978, No.5, p.6-8. 10 ref.
Guillemin M.P., Bérode M.
A study of the difference in chromium exposure in workers in two types of electroplating process.
The difference in chromium exposure in 6 hard and 6 bright chromium electroplating workshops was investigated. Hard chromium electroplating presents real and sometimes hazardous exposure, but this is seldom the case in bright electroplating. The latter process gives rise to hazards associated with degreasing tanks, alkali and acid baths, nickel, zinc and cadmium baths, and the presence of trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, cyanides and acids at levels near or above the TLV. Ventilation requirements should be adapted to the type of electroplating and the control measures used.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Aug. 1978, Vol.21, No.2, p.105-112. 20 ref.
Hine C.H., Pasi A., Stephens B.G.
Fatalities following exposure to 2-nitropropane.
After a review of animal studies and observations in humans, 4 fatal case histories with postmortem findings in workers painting or coating in confined spaces without adequate protection are reported. The characteristic lesion was destruction of hepatocytes, and liver failure was the primary cause of death. Survival was 6-10 days. Symptoms usually included nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, headache, dyspnoea, ataxia, and chest and abdominal pain. The inadequacy of warning labels is pointed out.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, May 1978, Vol.20, No.5, p.333-337. 7 ref.
Health and Safety Commission, London.
Asbestos - Work on thermal and acoustic insulation and sprayed coatings.
First report of the Advisory Committee on Asbestos, set up in the United Kingdom by the Health and Safety Commission in 1976, establishing recommendations on work on coatings containing asbestos. In an introduction, the health risk and the structure of the thermal insulation industry are reviewed. A survey is given of the problems encountered with current measures of control, followed by proposals for new controls, e.g. prohibition of asbestos in insulation and sprayed coatings, issue of licences, issue of a code of practice providing advice on the precautions to be observed in asbestos insulation work, advance notification of work with asbestos.
H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London SE1 9NH, United Kingdom, 1978. 15p. 9 ref. Price: £0.50.
Electrostatic powder coating
Elektrostatisk pulversprutning [in Swedish]
These directives (entry into force: 1 July 1979) contain safety rules for powder coating booths (design for easy cleaning, exhaust ventilation rate calculated so that the lower explosive limit of the powder/air mixture cannot be reached, flameproof construction of exhaust fan, etc.), workplace premises (conductive flooring to facilitate cleaning and eliminate static electricity, adequate ventilation, etc.), electrical equipment (construction for personnel safety and explosion prevention), earthing (handle of spray gun, workshoes with conductive soles, etc.), protection against fires and maintenance of electrostatic coating equipment (skilled personnel, handling of powders without raising dust cloud, etc.). Reproduction of 2 warning notices for workplace display.
Anvisningar nr 12:2, National Board for Occupational Safety and Health (Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen), Fack, 100 26 Stockholm, Sweden, Apr. 1978. 11p.
Occupational exposure to coal tar pitch volatiles at pipeline protective coating operations.
In studies conducted at 8 hot-applied coal tar enamel pipeline protective coating plants mean exposure to coal tar pitch volatiles was 1.89mg/m3 (TLV: 0.2mg/m3). Aerosols produced during coating applications consist of a high proportion of respirable particulates containing significant concentrations of low-molecular-weight polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and benzo(a)pyrene. Interim control measures including respiratory equipment, full body protective clothing, barrier creams and changing rooms are recommended to reduce worker exposure until engineering controls can be installed.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1978, Vol.39, No.3, p.250-255. Illus. 11 ref.
DIN 57 745, Teil 1 und 2, VDE 0745, Teil 1 und 2, German Electrotechnical Commission (Deutsche Elektrotechnische Kommission), Berlin (West), Oct. 1977.
VDE Regulations concerning hand spraying equipment for electrostatic coating
VDE-Bestimmung für elektrostatische Handsprüheinrichtungen [in German]
This document is both a DIN Standard and Regulations of the Association of German Electrical Engineers (Verband Deutscher Elektrotechniker - VDE), and as such forms part of the VDE Code. Part 1 contains general specifications for testing, permissible voltages, classification according to degree of protection, marking and rules for use of this equipment, measures for protection against direct and indirect contact voltages, mode of operation, overvoltages, protection against humidity, insulation resistance, mechanical resistance, wiring, conductor protection, earthing, and other technical data. Part 2 prescribes additional rules for use of this equipment in areas or locations where there is an explosion hazard.
Beuth Verlag GmbH, Burggrafenstrasse 4-7, D-1000 Berlin 30. 68p. Price: DM.38.70.
Elmes P.C., Simpson M.J.C.
Insulation workers in Belfast - A further study of mortality due to asbestos exposure (1940-75).
This is a follow-up to a series of studies (CIS 312-1972, Fse Gtz Hyup Mrz Nyt: sl (627)). At the end of 1975 there were 40 survivors instead of an expected 108. Until 1965 there was an overall excess of deaths due to asbestosis with or without tuberculosis, alimentary cancer, bronchial carcinoma and mesothelioma. The death rate among survivors from 1965 on is lower, but there is still a marked excess from bronchial cancer and mesothelioma.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1977, Vol.34, No.3, p.174-180. Illus. 6 ref.
Hess H., Liere H.
Safety in electrostatic powder coating
Sicherheit beim EPS-Verfahren [in German]
The types of powder used are generally flammable when mixed with air in certain concentrations, and these always occur in the neighbourhood of the spray guns and powder recovery equipment. Ignition can be produced by electrostatic discharges with an energy of at least 5mWs. Conditions leading to spark production between the gun and the workpiece in the booth are examined. Primary safety measures against hazardous accumulation of electrostatic charges on the workpiece are described: control of the insulation resistance of the workpiece (maximum 1 megaohm) before it enters the booth; electrostatic earthing, interlocked with the equipment. Secondary measures: automatic fire detectors interlocked with the booth equipment; automatic extinguishing system; flame arrester in the pipework between the recovery equipment and the spray booth; shut-off valve actuated by the explosion shock wave; explosion vents in the recovery plant; explosion suppression by extinguishers. Recommendations are made for cleaning the booth.
Industrie-Lackier-Betrieb, 1977, No.4, p.133-136. Illus.
Occupational health hazards in the painting trades.
Risques professionnels dans l'industrie des peintres. [in French]
Proceedings of the international conference held on 23-24 Sep. 1976 in Geneva, Switzerland. Contents: brief record of all business of the conference; resolution adopted by the conference; papers presented: product development in plastic and paint technology; chromate problems; chromates and cancer; toxicology of organic solvents; acute and chronic injuries caused by solvents; chest X-rays in painters; neurological and behavioural effects of organic solvents; experimental approaches to cancer risks; cancer risks for painters; hazards with tape and spackling; lead hazard; silicosis hazard; sandblasting and silica exposure; cancer risk for family members; protective marking of chemical products; discussion, formula, uses, health hazards and TLV of: 39 vehicles and vehicle resins, 33 solvents and thinners, 8 dyes and lakes, 19 heavy metal pigments, 9 organic peroxides, 5 hardeners and driers, 5 plasticisers, 4 stabilisers and inhibitors, 13 accelerators, catalysts and antioxidants, 5 fungicides, 5 herbicides and 7 insecticides, 3 paint removers and strippers, and extenders, fillers and binders.
International Federation of Building and Woodworkers, 29 rue de la Coulouvrenière, Genève, Switzerland, 1977. 212p. 50 ref.
Production of chromic acid and chromates - Main uses
La fabrication de l'acide chromique et des chromates - Emplois principaux. [in French]
Communication to the Regional Joint Technical Committee for the Chemical Industry (Lille, France). Statistical data on occupational diseases due to chromic acid and chromates (1971-1975) and brief review of methods of production and of metallurgy of chromium, applications of chromium and its derivates, and operations liable to produce dermatitis and other conditions. The main hazards to which workers are exposed are dealth with (nasal or skin ulcers, fire and explosions). Preventive measures in chromic acid production and electrolytic chromium plating are treated in some detail: cleanliness and good order of plant; air monitoring; exhaust ventilation around electrolysis vats; use of surfactants or a droplet separator; use of floating balls; personal protective equipment (respiratory equipment, protective clothing and glasses, personal hygiene). Review of relevant French regulations.
Prévention et sécurité du travail, 4th quarter 1977, No.114, p.13-28. Illus. 26 ref.
Nikitenko T.K., Pavlovskaja G.S.
Establishment of a maximum permissible concentration for chromin in workplace air
Obosnovanie predel'no dopustimoj koncentracii hromina v vozduhe rabočej zony [in Russian]
Chromin (perfluoroethylcyclohexanesulfonic acid) is a surfactant added to chromium electroplating baths to reduce chromic anhydride evaporation. Animal experiments have demonstrated its moderate toxicity. Inhalation of dust causes irritation of the upper airways. Chronic exposure damages the central nervous system and the parenchymatous organs. Chromin has very pronounced cumulative properties. The authors recommend a TLV of 5mg/m3.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Oct. 1977, No.10, p.35-39. 3 ref.
Michel-Briand C., Simonin M.
2 case studies of bronchopulmonary cancer in workers employed at the same workpost in a chromium plating shop
Cancers broncho-pulmonaires survenus chez deux salariés occupés à un poste de travail dans le même atelier de chromage électrolytique. [in French]
Case studies of 2 fitters, one exposed for 9 years to chronic acid vapours (differentiated epidermoid cancer, with favourable prognosis following pneumectomy), and the other similarly exposed for 5 years (anaplastic bronchopulmonary carcinoma; fatal outcome). Description of the workpost and changes in workplace environment (CrO3 concentrations varying between 5 and 15µg/m3 air). Discussion: duration of exposure and latency period, anatomical location (left lung), survival time, presence of chromium in the body, effects of smoking.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, Dec. 1977, Vol.38, No.12, p.1001-1013. 22 ref.
Finishing work in the building industry
Ausbauarbeiten [in German]
This booklet deals with aspects of occupational safety and health in masonry (scaffolding, mechanical plastering and rendering, use of hammers and chisels, polystyrene foam, rockwool, builder's hoists, housekeeping, handling of toxic or flammable liquids, use of liquefied petroleum gas for drying, heating or burning purposes), plumbing, roofing, joinery, floor and paint work, roofer's ladders and walkways, laying underground cables. Appendices contain regulations concerning assembly, dismantling and operation of vertical conveying equipment for loads up to 200kp and a list of important regulations in the German Dem.Rep.
Verlag Tribüne, Am Treptower Park 28-30, DDR-1193 Berlin, 1977. 80p. Illus. 8 ref. Price: M.3.00.
Paustovskaja V.V., Krasnjuk E.P., Onikienko F.A., Vasiljuk L.M.
Influence of working conditions on the health status of workers handling corrosion inhibitors
Vlijanie uslovij truda na sostojanie zdorov'ja rabotajuščih s ingibitorami atmosfernoj korrozii metallov [in Russian]
Results of neurological, cardiological, hepatological, haematological and enzymological tests in 454 workers employed in anticorrosion coating with derivatives of cyclohexylamine and of dicyclohexylamine, and ethanoloamine. Functional nervous disorders and alterations of the myocardium were found in the subjects exposed to high concentrations of these substances (1.5-5 times the threshold limit value), who often showed symptoms of chronic hepatitis or chronic cholecystitis. Other health damage observed included dermatoses, haematological alterations, disease of the upper airways and disturbances of serum lactic dehydrogenase activity.
Vračebnoe delo, Apr. 1977, No.4, p.121-124. 9 ref.
Airless spray painting.
Data on mechanism and functioning of portable airless spray painting units and guns; hazards (fire; serious hand injuries caused by accidental hypodermic injection of paint); safety device on nozzle; trigger guard to prevent accidental discharge; safe operating practices; fire protection; ventilation; personal protection (respirator if exhaust ventilation is not available).
Data Sheet 548, Revision A, National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA, 1977. 3p. Illus. 9 ref.
Health and safety guide for metal coating and allied services.
Illustrated by humorous drawings and instructive sketches, this booklet describes safe practices, helping to correct some of the more frequently encountered violations of safety and health standards. Chief contents: guidelines (health and safety programme, employee training, environmental pollution, sprinkler systems, housekeeping, the industry and its hazards); frequently violated regulations (walking and working surfaces, exits, environmental control, noise, hazardous materials, personal protective equipment, sanitation, first aid, fire protection, compressed air equipment, materials handling and storage, machine guarding, hand and portable powered tools, welding, cutting and brazing, electrical safety); recordkeeping; check lists; information sources.
DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No.77-187, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, July 1977. 93p. Illus.
Lining tanks and vessels with rubber.
Hazards of work in enclosd spaces (traces of dangerous substances, fire hazard from static electricity in presence of flammable vapours from rubber solvents and cements, etc.); precautions during sand or shot blasting; wearing of breathing apparatus; general precautions (physical examination for fitness; standby employee in charge of operations; permits to work; limitation on quantity of solvent used inside tank at any given time; nonferrous tools; personal protective equipment; warning notices, etc.); work clothing, goggles, conductive soles; electrical precautions (e.g. earthing of tank); lining of railway tank cars; use of carbon disulfide as an activator; rescue and first aid.
Data Sheet 492, Revision B, National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA, 1977. 5p. Illus. 14 ref.
Tandon S.K., Mathur A.K., Gaur J.S.
Urinary excretion of chromium and nickel among electroplaters and pigment industry workers.
These studies were performed in 22 workers and 16 controls. Chromium excretion was very high and nickel excretion quite high in all exposed subjects. Relations with symptoms are shown. While the excretion rates were highest for those with the longest exposure, there was no definite relation between length of exposure and excretion data.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 17 Oct. 1977, Vol.40, No.1, p.71-76. 27 ref.
Bovet P., Lob M., Grandjean M.
Spirometric alterations in workers in the chromium electroplating industry.
Spirometric studies (vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, forced expiratory flow 25-75%) were performed and urinary chromium was measured in 44 workers at 27 plants (hard and soft chromium plating). The dynamic values of spirometry were lower in workers with high urinary chromium. Chromium electroplating workers seem to be at risk in the development of obstructive respiratory syndrome, especially in plants carrying out hard chromium plating.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 17 Oct. 1977, Vol.40, No.1, p.25-32. 18 ref.
Ball D.F., Clark J., Ennis J., Maynard R., Purnell C.J.
Some measurements of air quality in garages specialising in the undersealing of motor vehicles.
Conditions in the undersealing bays of 4 garages where motor vehicles are rustproofed are described. Measurements showed 20-200ppm hydrocarbons in the vicinity of the operator during spraying, not including droplets which may be inhaled if no mask is used, or vapour from droplets on masks. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry were used in the analysis. Toxicity levels for mixed hydrocarbons were not exceeded, but the concentrations were high enough to justify extensive testing in such establishments. Consideration should be given to the ambient temperature, in view of its exponential relation with vapour pressure.
Journal of Occupational Accidents, July 1977, Vol.1, No.3, p.237-244. Illus. 5 ref.
Work with chromium plating vats
Arbete med förkromningsbad m m [in Swedish]
These directives (entry into force: 1 Jan. 1978), intended to protect chromium workers from exposure to irritants and corrosive substances (acid vapours, chromic and sulfuric acid, etc.), prescribe measures to be observed to ensure adequate conditions of occupational hygiene in chromium electroplating shops: workplace ventilation; enclosure of vats and local exhaust ventilation; monitoring of workplace air; limitation of exposure during work in the vicinity of the electroplating vats; personal protective equipment; water-jet eye baths, etc. Appendix: description of a method of sampling and colorimetric analysis for determination of chromic acid in air.
Meddelanden 1977:20, National Board of Occupational Safety and Health (Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen), Stockholm, Sweden, 10 Nov. 1977. 11p. Gratis.
Health hazards to commercial artists.
This article summarises the hazards associated with painting, silk screen reproduction and photography. Metal pigments and photographic chemicals are listed with the symptoms and disorders they can cause. Safety hints are given, with details of how the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration can help to identify chemicals.
Job Safety and Health, Nov. 1977, Vol.5, No.11, p.7-13.
Borghetti A., Mutti A., Cavatorta A., Falzoi M., Cigala F., Franchini I.
Renal indices of chronic chromium absorption
Indices rénaux d'exposition aiguë et d'imprégnation chronique par le chrome. [in French]
Renal chromium excretion and its concentration in the serum dialysate of 44 chromium-plating workers were determined. Urinary excretion was rapid, and high values were found several months after exposure. Laboratory findings are given for polishers, assemblers, chromium platers and non-exposed workers. The chromium:creatinine ratio in the urine was highest in polishers, who were exposed to dust levels of 34.7mg/m3, containing 4.47mg/m3 metallic chromium. This ratio can be used as a daily exposure test. There was a clear correlation between renal clearance of diffusible chromium and length of service.
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 1977, Vol.68, No.5, p.355-363. Illus. 8 ref.
Technical safety, fire safety and industrial hygiene rules and standards for painting workshops
Pravila i normy tehniki bezopasnosti, požarnoj bezopasnosti i proizvodstvennoj sanitarii dlja okrasočnyh cehov [in Russian]
These rules and standards are intended as a basis for in-plant safety regulations. Contents: buildings and ventilation engineering (exhaust ventilation, air curtains, etc.); paints used and details of their composition; layout of workplaces for grinding, degreasing, painting (exhaust of dust and solvents, etc.); air speed and air flow for exhaust of paint mists; electrical safety; housekeeping; information of personnel in safety matters; personal protection; use of luminescent compounds. Appendix: physical and chemical properties of diluants and hardeners; toxicology of epoxy resins and some solvents; measures in the event of accidents and spills.
Izdatel'stvo "Mašinostroenie", 1-j Basmannyj per. 3, 107885 Moskva B-78, USSR, 1977. 78p. Illus. 20 ref. Price: Rbl.0.22.
Syrovadko O.N., Malyševa Z.V.
Working conditions and their influence on gynaecological parameters in women manufacturing enamel-insulated wire
Uslovija truda i vlijanie ih na nekotorye specifičeskie funkcii ženščin, zanjatyh v proizvodstve ėmaljprovodov [in Russian]
The paints used in enamelling of electric wire often contain polyvinyl acetates or polyesters; solvents are based on chlorobenzene, ethylcellosolve, etc. A controlled study in these workers showed absenteeism due to inflammation of the genital apparatus or menstrual disorders to be considerably higher in the exposed group. These women exhibited hormonal and genital anomalies attributed to the chronic effect of the chemicals used. It is recommended that pregnant and nursing women be transferred to other work.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Apr. 1977, No.4, p.25-28. 4 ref.
High pressure paint gun injuries.
This report illustrates and emphasises the dangers of incorrect management of high pressure paint gun injuries. Two cases are described in which fingers had to be amputated because the necessary measures were not taken immediately. All cases should be treated urgently by an experienced surgeon, since fairly extensive surgery may be required.
British Medical Journal, 19 Nov. 1977, Vol.2, No.6098, p.1333-1335. Illus. 18 ref.
Good work practices for electroplaters
Illustrated by humorous drawings and instructive sketches, this booklet aims to assist in providing a safe and healthy workplace by describing safe work practices. Aspects covered include: precleaning (hazards in use of solvents; tank cleanout); safety considerations in degreasing operations; cold cleaning operations (diphase type); caustic cleaning (tank recharging); electrocleaning; pickling; nickel, copper, chrome, zinc, iron and lead plating; dangerous chemicals (acids, alkalis, cyanide salts, chromic acid); proper storage of chemicals; personal protective equipment.
DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No.77-201, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, June 1977. 32p. Illus.
Clay J.E., Dale I., Cross J.D.
Arsenic absorption in steel bronze workers.
The steel "bronzing" solution consists of arsenic and iron chlorides in strong hydrochloric acid (approx. 10% arsenic). Two cases from the literature and a new case of arsine poisoning due to bronzing of zinc or brass objects are described. Chemical investigations at the workplace and neutron activation analysis of hair and nails of workers provide evidence of the hazard.
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, July 1977, Vol.27, No.3, p.102-104. 10 ref.
Rice D.L., Jenkins D.E., Gray J.M., Greenberg S.D.
Chemical pneumonitis secondary to inhalation of epoxy pipe coating.
Case studies of 2 patients with pulmonary oedema following inhalation of trimellitic anhydride curing agent. Symptoms were cough, haemoptysis, and dyspnoea with diffuse bilateral alveolar infiltrates shortly following the exposure. Pulmonary function studies showed a volume-restrictive defect with severe hypoxaemia, but elevated diffusing capacity. All lung functions returned to normal within 1 month of exposure. Clearing of the infiltrates was followed by radiography.
Archives of Environmental Health, July-Aug. 1977, Vol.32, No.4, p.173-178. Illus. 19 ref.
Guidance Note EH9, Health and Safety Executive, London.
Guidance note: spraying of highly flammable liquids.
This guidance note concerns the spray-coating of articles and other surfaces with highly flammable liquid paints, varnishes and lacquers. Reference is made to the requirements of specific United Kingdom regulations, and sections are devoted to: spraying processes (spray guns, airless, mistless, warm air and electrostatic systems); fire and health hazards; toxicity; spraying in unventilated enclosed spaces; flammable residues; ignition dangers in electrostatic spraying; precautions (enclosed spray booths, fire resistant structures, electrostatic spray booths; ventilation, etc.); sources of ignition (electrical equipment; safe areas; workplace heating; stoving ovens); storage and handling of highly flammable liquids; housekeeping; no smoking.
H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London SE1 9NH, United Kingdom, Apr. 1977. 8p. 18 ref.
Mayor J.M., Serrano Pascual E.V.
Study of local exhaust ventilation on enamelling lines in the ceramics industry
Estudio de la aspiración en las líneas de esmaltado de la industria cerámica [in Spanish]
Report on tests to improve ventilation in enamelling shops, where considerable workplace air pollution is encountered. Description, with technical data, of a local exhaust ventilation system developed for the purpose: a variable power fan linked to a wet dust collector. Encouraging results were obtained.
Prevención, Jan.-Mar. 1977, No.59, p.4-9. Illus.
Electrostatic powder coating
Les peintures en poudre - Le procédé d'application électrostatique. [in French]
MD thesis. Technical considerations are followed by a chapter on toxicology and pathology (hazards due to the various chemicals contained in the coating powders; hazards when these products are in powdery state; and hazards arising during coating). The following potential hazards are particularly stressed: thermal decomposition products of polymers used, epoxy resins, polyurethane resins, polyvinyl chloride, lead, some plasticisers (aryl phosphates, chlorinated aromatic compounds) and additives. Powder coating eliminated the use of solvents and their attendant hazards, but there is a considerable fire and explosion hazard. Overview of recommended preventive measures: regular medical check-up, hygiene rules, personal protective equipment and especially safety rules (keeping atmospheric powder concentrations well below permissible limit, particularly by proper adjustment of ventilation, explosion vents); miscellaneous rules concerning industrial premises, powder coating booths, powder feed, recovery of waste powder, stoving ovens, inspection and maintenance of equipment.
Université de Paris VI - Faculté de médecine Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, France, 1977. 79p. 56 ref.
Factories and Industrial Undertakings (Spraying of Flammable Liquids) Regulations [Hong Kong]
Regulations effective 1 July 1976 (updated to 1991) and issued under the authority of the 1955 Factories and Industrial Undertakings Ordinance (see CIS 89-6). They concern safe working methods during the spraying of flammable liquids (i.e. those with a flashpoint > 32°C). The Regulations cover: duties of proprietors (construction of spraying room or spraying area, ventilation, sources of ignition and prohibition of smoking, notices to be displayed in English and Chinese, electrical equipment, provision of fire-extinguishing appliances, storage of flammable liquid, cleanliness, disposal of cotton waste); duties of employees (removal of contaminated material, duty to comply with regulations, duty to report defects); offences and penalties. In the schedule: type and quantity of fire extinguishing appliances, as required by the Regulations.
Government Printer, Hong Kong, 1991. 4p. Price: HKD 10.00.
Bunge W., Ehrlicher H., Kimmerle G.
Medical aspects of spray painting
Arbeitsmedizinische Aspekte der Verarbeitung von Lacksystemen im Spritzverfahren [in German]
Spray painting and varnishing releases into the workplace air aerosols which contain the entire range of components of the paint. Experiments with differently-composed paints gave rise to acute toxicity which cannot be explained only by the solvent or free monomer content. Degree of workplace air pollution during spray painting; mechanism of effect on the respiratory tract; development of polyisocyanates; description of results of tests on rats which had inhaled isocyantes and various paint constituents; results of monitoring isocyanate levels in workpost air and of clinical and lung function (spirometric) tests; interpretation of case studies of bronchial disorders after spray painting work; personal protective equipment (efficacy of masks, use of supplied air respirators); medical prevention.
Verlag für Medizin, Dr. Ewald Fischer GmbH, Blumenthalstrasse 38-40, 6900 Heidelberg, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 1976. 51p. Illus. 21 ref. Price: DM.12.00.
Knecht A., Kreisler R.
Fire and explosion protection in electrostatic hand spray powder coating with powders containing aluminium
Zündsicherheit und Explosionsschutz beim elektrostatischen Handaufsprühen aluminiumhaltiger Pulverlacke [in German]
Consideration of the problem and description of experiments, the results of which show that these coating powders do not involve any hazard if the proportion of aluminium powder pigment does not exceed 4% in weight, and if precautions are taken to prevent the accumulation of aluminium pigment in the installation for excess coating powder recovery. Criteria for safety rules for electrostatic powder coating.
Farbe und Lack, 1976, Vol.82, No.12, p.1124-1127.
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