Surface treatment - 644 entries found
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Electrolytic surface treatment
Traitement électrolytique de surface. [in French]
Collection of 15 detachable information sheets, 2 of which deal with general aspects of electrolytic surface treatment and the other 13 with different treatment processes: aluminium anodisation; cadmium, chromium, copper, tin, indium, brass and nickel plating, leading, galvanising, precious metal plating (metals in the platinum series, silver and gold plating). The aspects covered are: technology, hazards and pathology, and health engineering (in only some of the information sheets).
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 3rd quarter 1980, No.79 (toxicology supplement). 31p.
Bohgard M., Welinder H., Askelsson R.
Release of chromium and nickel aerosols during metal spraying
Krom- och nickelemission vid termisk sprutning [in Swedish]
Various methods were used to analyse the particulate air pollution produced by 5 different metal spraying techniques. The metal fumes showed considerable differences with regard to Cr and Ni content, particle size distribution and valence of Cr according to the metallising technique used. Common features of all techniques were that a large proportion of the aerosols consisted of particles smaller than 1µm, and that the particles contain hexavalent Cr. The possibility of using the urine Cr level as an exposure test has also been investigated and should be confirmed by further research.
Programmet för teknisk hygien, Institutionen för kärnfysik, Sölvegatan 14, 223 62 Lund, Sweden, May 1980. 30p. Illus. 13 ref.
A cohort study of disability pension and death among painters with special regard disabling presenile dementia as an occupational disease.
2601 painters and 1790 bricklayers (not exposed to organic solvents) were followed for 5 years. Compared with the bricklayers and a control group from the general Copenhagen population, painters had a relative risk of approx. 3.5 of being awarded a disability pension due to cryptogenic presenile dementia. There was no excess risk for other neuropsychiatric diseases.
Scandinavian Journal of Social Medicine, 1980, Supplement 16, p.34-43. 15 ref.
Dust control and ventilation in the use of drift tunnellers and during guniting
Staubbekämpfung und Belüftung beim Einsatz von Teilschnittmaschinen und beim Betonspritzen [in German]
Review of the hazards of siliceous dusts and criteria for the evaluation of these hazards, and an analysis of dust levels during mechanical tunnelling (rock type, silica content, fine-dust content). 3 main dust control techniques are defined: control at source; control of airborne dust; prevention of turbulence in deposited dust. Results of dust level measurements during guniting are given in tables and graphs, and the potential for reduction of dust levels is indicated (components of the gunite mix, methods of application, worker education). Summary of the basic principles of effective ventilation.
Tiefbau-Berufsgenossenschaft, July 1980, Vol.92, No.7, p.590-598. Illus.
Acute arsine poisoning during metal bronzing in small-scale workshops
Intoxications aigües par l'hydrogène arsénié survenues dans des entreprises artisanales au cours d'opérations de bronzage des métaux. [in French]
MD Thesis. A general introduction and review of arsine toxicology (physical and chemical properties, toxic mechanisms and doses, lesions producted by arsine, dectection in air and in biological materials) are followed by clinical reports on 3 cases which are compared with the findings of other authors. Conclusions are drawn for group and personal safety and health measures. French legislation on safety and health in work with arsine and compensation practice for arsine poisoning in France are reviewed.
Université de Paris VII, Faculté de médecine Laborisière - Saint-Louis, France, 1980. 53p. 27 ref.
Atmospheric lead concentrations in a plant for the surface protection of steel wire
Olovo u radnoj atmosferi pogona za površinsku zaštitu čelične žice [in Serbocroatian]
Atmospheric lead concentrations were determined in a drawing shop where wire passed through a bath of molten lead, followed by a bath of Pb-Sn-Sb alloy. The results, obtained by atomic-absorption spectrometry, were compared with blood lead levels of the exposed workers. Recommendation: workplace air monitoring should be supplemented by laboratory analysis of blood and urine samples.
Sigurnost, 1980, Vol.22, No.1, p.21-27. Illus. 6 ref.
Federation of Industrial Mutual Accident Insurance Associations (Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften)
Guidelines for galvanising
Richtlinien für das Feuerverzinken [in German]
These directives contain specifications for: construction of galvanising baths (guard rails to prevent falls into the bath); protection against burns (screens, personal protective equipment, precautions in galvanising hollow bodies).
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Gereonstrasse 18-32, 5000 Köln 1, Federal Republic of Germany, Oct. 1980. 6p. Price: DM.0.60.
Airless paint spraying techniques
La pulvérisation sans air/airless - Techniques d'utilisation. [in French]
The airless spray gun painting method makes use of a high-pressure pump to spray paint under great pressure through a small-diameter orifice in the spray-gun nozzle. Principles of the method and technical data on the electric and pneumatic systems involved. Part 1: safety rules - avoidance of high pressure injection of paint deep into the tissues of the hand or other parts of the body; spark discharge (static electricity); rules for manipulation and dismantling of spray guns, electric flex and contacts, operating pressures, precautions before commencing maintenance work on the installation, earthing. Part 2: spray painting technique.
Journal de la construction de la Suisse romande, 15 July 1980, Vol.54, No.14, p.36-37 and Aug. 1980, No.16, p.29-30. Illus.
Horiguchi S., Harai I., Inaba E., Miyajima K.
Industrial chromium poisoning in small- and medium-sized electroplating factories (Supplements 1 and 2).
Health examinations were performed on 3 occasions between 1956 and 1960 in 140, 172 and 114 workers, respectively, at chromium electroplating factories manufacturing bicycle parts. Skin changes including ulcer were found in 87, 76 and 85%, nasal septum perforations in 11, 6 and 10%, and nasal mucous membrane changes including nasal septum perforation in 61, 83 and 97% respectively. There were no radiological indications of lung cancer except exaggeration of lung markings. Twenty years after the first studies, a visit to one of the factories showed that automation of the plating process and changes in working methods had reduced workers' exposure to chromic acid and dust.
Sumitomo Bulletin of Industrial Health, 30 Sep. 1980, Vol.16, No.16, p.33-40. Illus. 4 ref.
Zawadzki S., Mánkowska W., Kijeńska D.
Prediction of concentrations of solvent vapours emitted during painting and varnishing work
Metoda prognozowania wskaźników emisji w procesach malarskich i lakierniczych [in Polish]
Empirical formulae are presented permitting prediction of solvent concentrations at the design stage of painting and varnishing processes. The regression equations are based on experimental data from correlation analysis between the emission and the time, temperature, airflow rate and thickness of the paint layer applied, and on 2 constants: 1.5g/dm2 for the layer and 15min for the duration of emanation. The formulae can be used to determine the maximum quantities of solvent liable to be released from 1dm2 painted or varnished surface, as a function of temperature and airflow. Prior classification of paints and varnishes into 3 categories according to the nature of the solvent they contain enhances reproducibility of the formulae.
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1980, Vol.30, No.105, p.99-108. Illus. 4 ref.
Elofsson S.A., Gamberale F., Hindmarsh T., Iregren A., Isaksson A., Johnsson I., Knave B., Lydahl E., Mindus P., Persson H.E., Philipson B., Steby M., Struwe G., Söderman E., Wennberg A., Widén L.
Exposure to organic solvents - A cross-sectional epidemiologic investigation on occupationally exposed car and industrial spray painters with special reference to the nervous system.
80 spray painters with long-term low-level exposure were compared with 2 reference groups of 80 controls. Studies included psychiatric interviews, psychometric tests, neurological, neurophysiological and ophthalmological examination, and computed tomography of the brain. There were statistically significant differences between exposed workers and controls for psychiatric items relating to neurathenic syndrome and psychometric tests (reaction time, manual dexterity, perceptual speed, short-term memory). Most neurophysiological parameters measuring peripheral functions showed significant differences. Some differences were found in the results of ophthalmological examination and computed tomography. Exposure levels were well below Swedish exposure limits.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1980, Vol.6, No.4, p.239-273. Illus. 86 ref.
Chiazze L., Ference L.D., Wolf P.H.
Mortality among automobile assembly workers - I. Spray painters.
Records of 4,215 decedents at 10 assembly plants were analysed. Among workers with spray-painting experience there was no statistically significant excess in mortality for lung cancer. A case-control study also showed no excess risk.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1980, Vol.22, No.8, p.520-526. 16 ref.
High up on tanks
Du haut de ces réservoirs.... [in French]
A protection device against falls recommended for protecting painters working on storage tanks is described: a surrounding railing is combined with a rail to which suspended scaffolds or aerial baskets can be hooked in place.
Travail et sécurité, Oct. 1980, No.10, p.550-556. Illus.
Travaux de peinture. [in French]
This fact sheet gives a summary of basic information: general data (application, drying); table showing hazards and corresponding safety measures (poisoning, fires, explosions, electrocution, injection injuries, irradiation); principal French regulations on the subject.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th quarter 1980, No.101, Note No.1283-101-80, p.505-510.
Wall L.M., Calnan C.D.
Occupational nickel dermatitis in the electroforming industry.
A major outbreak of nickel dermatitis in men working in an electroforming plant where complete automation is difficult to achieve is reported. Patch tests confirmed nickel allergy in 13 of 27 workers. Nickel chloride was a more reliable patch test allergen than the sulfate or sulfamate. There was an immediate decrease in the incidence of dermatitis when measures to reduce exposure were implemented: removal of workers from the electroforming process until their skin was clear; use of long-sleeved overalls and PVC gloves; washing of skin contaminated with process chemicals; wearing of safety glasses; patch testing of recruits; limitation of the duration of continuous shifts at the parting station to 4h.
Contact Dermatitis, Oct. 1980, Vol.6, No.6, p.414-420. 19 ref.
Hazards of spray painting
La peinture au pistolet et ses risques. [in French]
Considerations on the following points: poisoning and occupational disease due to solvents and thinners, pigments, binders, and other additives, and preventive measures; fire and explosion hazards (various paint-spraying techniques); construction and maintenance of spray booths; ventilation and filtration; electrical equipment; fire protection; mechanical and electrical hazards.
Prévention, Oct. 1980, Vol.15, No.7, p.3-12. Illus. 10 ref.
Use of shotcreting machines
Einsatz von Spritzbetonmaschinen [in German]
The hazards of dry shotcreting equipment and installations and their safety features are dealt with. The chief problem is exposure to cement dust and caustic additives, which cause irritation and a reduction in visibility, with an attendant accident hazard. Methods of wetting the dry mixture are presented. A common cause of accidents is rebounding of mixture particles from the wall: personal protective equipment cannot always be relied on here. Technical solutions to problems of prevention are reviewed, including a remote-controlled system for the spray nozzle. Determination of the initial strength of the concrete is also dealt with.
Tiefbau-Berufsgenossenschaft, Feb. 1980, Vol.92, No.2, p.86-92. Illus.
Control of particulate matter in spray booths - Analysis of the problem - Design of a ventilation system
Control de materia particulada en cabinas de pintura - Análisis de la problemática - Diseño de sistema de ventilación [in Spanish]
Report of a pluridisciplinary study (aerodynamics and occupational hygiene) of 3 spray booths. Important factors: type of paint, paint spraying technique, air renewal rate at different points in the booth, air flow rate, pollutant concentrations, push-pull ventilation system. Description of a booth providing optimal conditions, with a ventilation system providing >0.25/s air renewal.
Salud y trabajo, June 1980, No.25, p.15-27. Illus. 4 ref.
But-2-yne-1,4-diol, primary gloss improver and contact sensitizer in a nickel plating bath.
A case of dermatitis in a worker employed in the storeroom of a nickel electroplating department is reported. Brief details of the chemical structure and uses of the substance are given.
Contact Dermatitis, June 1980, Vol.6, No.4, p.286-287. 2 ref.
Husman K., Karli P.
Clinical neurological findings among car painters exposed to a mixture of organic solvents.
Full neurological examinations were administered in 102 car painters and 102 control subjects. Psycho-organic syndrome, decrease in tactile and pain sensitivity, and increased vibration threshold were significantly more frequent in the exposed group. Vibration sense of the lower extremities was affected in 65 car painters and 25 controls.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Mar. 1980, Vol.6, No.1, p.33-39. 33 ref.
Symptoms of car painters with long-term exposure to a mixture of organic solvents.
Early symptoms of the effects of low-level exposure were studied by symptom questionnaire in 102 car painters and 102 controls. Exposure was about one-third of the Finnish TLV. Fatigue and memory and vigilance disturbances occurred significantly more often in the exposed workers. Acute irritation and "prenarcotic" symptoms during the workshift were significantly more common. Health had been an important reason for having left the trade in 124 men who had changed employment in the 5 years before the study; the study subjects may therefore have undergone some degree of health selection. The questionnaire study is a useful method of detecting early effects of exposure to organic solvents.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Mar. 1980, Vol.6, No.1, p.19-32. 27 ref.
Paint spray tests for respirators: Aerosol characteristics.
A technique to control aerosol concentrations for testing paint spray respirators is described. Details are given of the liquids used, atomising nozzle, control of liquid flow and dilutent airflow, and concentration measurements. Particle-size distributions of lacquer and enamel were measured. The lacquer distribution was multi-modal. The results of filter performance tests with 2 types of approved filter are given. Filter loading resistance was significantly affected by variations in aerosol concentration. The lacquer and enamel tests are not ideal as standard aerosol test methods. The reliability of these methods can be improved by modifying the current NIOSH criteria to include a description of particle-size distribution, more precise definition of the paint and thinner compositions, and a narrower concentration range.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, May 1980, Vol.41, No.5, p.309-316. Illus. 8 ref.
Surface treatment baths - Ventilation and other means of improving the environment
Ytbehandlingsbad - Om ventilation och andra åtgärder för en bättre miljö [in Swedish]
Contents: responsibilities of management, supervisory staff, safety officer and electroplaters for improving the workplace environment; enclosure of tanks with exhaust; respiratory and skin hazards; practical measures against atmospheric pollutants (replacement of cyanides by less toxic products, reduction in concentration of chemicals, use of low current density, addition of surface-active agent, lowering of roof height); appropriate ventilation systems (enclosure with air locks or negative pressure, air curtains); control of efficacy and maintenance of exhaust equipment; economic aspects; practical solutions.
Arbetarskyddsfonden, Sveavägen 166, 113 46 Stockholm, Sweden, no date. 23p. Illus. 10 ref.
Kaminski R., Geissert K.S., Dacey E.
Mortality analysis of plumbers and pipefitters.
Statistics on 1359 plumbers, 1852 pipefitters/steamfitters, 52 sprinkler-fitters, 96 metal tradesmen, and 8 lead burners studied by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) showed significant excesses of cancer of the oesophagus and respiratory and lymphatic systems. Studies are needed to establish whether these excesses can be related to specific occupational exposures.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Mar. 1980, Vol.22, No.3, p.183-189. 35 ref.
Mortality among workers in the metal polishing and plating industry, 1951-1969.
Polishing, electroplating and coating metals involve hazardous exposure to metals such as chromium, nickel, copper, iron, lead, and zinc, corrosive acid and caustic alkaline solutions, and to solvents such as trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene. Data from death certificates of 1292 white workers from all over the USA were compared with the general white population. There was a high proportion of deaths due to cancer of the oesophagus and liver, especially in workers over 65 years. It appears that metal polishers and platers are subject to carcinogenic exposures.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Mar. 1980, Vol.22, No.3, p.158-162. 24 ref.
Högberg M., Wahlberg J.E.
Health screening for occupational dermatoses in house painters.
373 painters (16.7%) reported the presence of dermatosis in their answers to a questionnaire; occupational dermatosis was diagnosed in 87 of 267 of them. A prevalence of 3.9% was found. Chloroacetamide was an important cause of contact eczema. Solvents are widely used for skin cleansing, and there is a need for information on protective measures. Field studies yield higher figures for occupational dermatosis than data from outpatient clinics.
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 1980, Vol.6, No.2, p.100-106. 6 ref.
Dalager N.A., Mason T.J., Fraumeni J.F., Hoover R., Payne W.W.
Cancer mortality among workers exposed to zinc chromate paints.
250 painters at 2 aircraft maintenance bases were studied since 1959. There was a significant excess of cancer, primarily of the respiratory tract, in the 202 deaths among spray painters, and no excess of cancer in the 48 deaths among electropainters not exposed to chromate. The relative increase of respiratory cancer correlated with estimated exposure time, and was confined to painters whose interval from first employment to death was at least 20 years. The findings are consistent with occupational exposure to chromium compounds, but other factors may be operative.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1980, Vol.22, No.1, p.25-29. 25 ref.
Bobjer O., Andersson I.M., Widholm B.
Ship painting - Exposure to solvents and paint mist
Fartygsmålning - Exposition för lösningsmedel och färgdamm [in Swedish]
Research report on health hazards of painting in the ship-building industry in Sweden. Solvent concentrations of 15-50% are found, and 30% is a normal value; higher concentrations are present in enclosed spaces. Additive effects exceeding the TLV by a factor of 15 have been recorded. Median exposure during 17 man-days of spray painting in a shipyard exceeded the TLV by a factor of 4.5. Considerations on use of respiratory protection. Paper masks sometimes used only collect and store solvent aerosols. 500-2500mg of xylene can be absorbed in one day of spray painting, resulting in reduction of short-time memory and increase in reaction time. Samples of alveolar air were taken, showing concentrations of 150-175mg/m3 xylene in some cases. Physical workloads demand respiration rates of 25-35l/air/min. During a 30h period of spray painting an average exposure rate of 27mg/m3 paint dust was found.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Arbetsmedicinska Avdelingen AMMF, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1979. 135p. Illus. 28 ref. Gratis (one free copy only).
Respiratory health effects in car body workshops - Hazards of exposure to spray paint products
Pathologie respiratoire dans les carrosseries automobiles - Evaluation des risques liés à l'exposition aux produits de peinture pulvérisés. [in French]
MS thesis. 111 spray painters and 100 controls in 31 car body workshops were examined. Skin and gastric symptoms were commoner among the painters. "Dynamic" spirometric values were slightly lower in the painters, after correction for smoking and sport. Within the painter group, digestive disorders and respiratory symptoms were more common as overall exposure to paint products increased; this correlation was not seen with respect to spirometric findings.
Juris Druck und Verlag, Zürich, Switzerland, 1979. 75p. 94 ref.
Federation of Industrial Mutual Accident Insurance Associations (Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften).
Guidelines for electrostatic coating with liquid paints
Richtlinien für elektrostatisches Versprühen von flüssigen Anstrichstoffen (elektrostatisches Lackieren) [in German]
These guidelines apply to manual equipment and fixed installations for electrostatic paint spraying. Definitions, general conditions, pertinent electrotechnical standards and regulations, explosion and fire protection, marking, technical data, checking before starting work, access to spray booths, electrical installations, conductivity of flooring, earthing, personal protective equipment.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Gereonstrasse 18-32, 5000 Köln 1, Federal Republic of Germany, 1979. 11p.
Elimination of health hazards associated with hot-dip galvanising and hot-dip coating with tin, lead and aluminium
Åtgärder mot hälsorisker vid varmförzinkning och varmdoppning i tenn, bly och aluminium [in Swedish]
Galvanising is the method most discussed in this report. The most important air pollution is flux fume. Air pollution occurs at different stages of the production process such as dipping the workpieces into the molten metal, dosing of fluxes, centrifuging, and work with flux and drosses. Pollutants are spread by warm air currents. Fume from the zinc bath contains components such as zinc chloride (considered to be the major health hazard). Methods for eliminating or reducing flux fume are considered: adding flux in small quantities; reducing surface area covered by flux; avoid disturbing the flux layer; local exhaust ventilation. Health hazard prevention methods are the same for hot-dip coating with tin and lead. Regular workplace-air sampling and analysis is necessary; the report describes the development and testing of a sampling and analysis method for zinc compounds.
IVF-resultat 79505, Sveriges Mekanförbund, Box 5506, 114 85 Stockholm, Sweden, Aug. 1979. 29p. 19 ref. Price: Swe-cr.15.00.
Elimination of health hazards during zinc and cadmium plating
Åtgärder mot hälsorisker vid elektrolytisk förzinkning och kadmiering [in Swedish]
Problems considered: processes using cyanide zinc plating baths; 3 alternative cyanide-free plating processes (alkaline non-cyanide, neutral, and weak acid); hydrogen cyanide emission from plating baths; handling of cyanide salts; possible inhalation of cyanide dust when adding cyanides to plating baths. Preventive measures: reduction of cyanide content of plating bath; rim exhaust slots; personal protection. As regards cadmium, this health hazardous metal can often be replaced by Zn; use of Cd in surface treatment will probably be prohibited in Sweden in future.
IVF-resultat 79503, Sveriges Mekanförbund, Box 5506, 114 85 Stockholm, Sweden, June 1979. 21p. 17 ref. Price: Swe-cr. 15.00.
Alexandersson R., Kolmodin-Hedman B., Hedenstierna G., Magnusson M.
Diisocyanates - HDI: Lung physiology studies in car painters
Diisocyanater - HDI: Lungfysiologiska undersökningar av billackerare [in Swedish]
The effects of isocyanates, especially hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI), were studied in car painters, sheet-metal workers (exposed to solvents, but not HDI), and car mechanics (no exposures). The results of lung function studies (spirometry and nitrogen washout) on Monday morning were compared with those on Friday afternoon. Closing volume was increased in HDI-exposed workers, and tended to increase over the working week. The nitrogen washout method indicates small airways effects before they are discernible by spirometry.
Arbete och hälsa - Vetenskaplig skriftserie 1980:5, Arbetarskyddsverket, Stockholm, Sweden, 1979. 22p. 37 ref.
Perbellini L., De Grandis D.
Neuro-arteriopathy probably due to nickel and chromium exposure
Neuro-arteriopatia verosimilmente correlata ad esposizione a nichel e cromo [in Italian]
A case is described of neuropathy and vasculopathy of the upper limbs in a nickel and chromium plating worker. The arms showed scars and a skin ulcer due to splashes of solutions containing high concentrations of the 2 metals. The possible peripheral nervous effects are discussed.
Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1979, Vol.70, No.4, p.318-322. 9 ref.
Yamada Y., Kodo T., Oyama K., Sakamoto M., Nogawa Y., Kobayashi E.
Studies on the health hazards of lead in "Kutani-Yaki" ceramics painters
Studies were done in 181 ceramics painters (105 men and 76 women). The blood lead level (PbB) was 5-50µg/dl and the urinary lead level (PbU) 10-200µg/l. ALAD and free erythrocyte protoporphyrin (FEP) correlated with PbB, but urinary ALA and coproporphyrin did not, nor with PbU. Haemoglobin, red blood cell count, haematocrit and blood specific gravity showed no correlation with PbB or PbU. Women workers with a PbB above 20µg/dl had more subjective complaints, and those with a PbU above 60µg/l had more histories of abortion.
Hokuriku Journal of Public Health - Hokuriku Koshu Eisei Gakkaishi, Oct. 1979, Vol.6, No.1, p.35-46. Illus. 13 ref.
Exposures to man-made mineral fibres in user industries in Scandinavia.
Dust levels were sampled at 24 worksites. Fibre levels were determined during different work situations and not over the long term. Levels varied from <0.05 to >3 fibres/cm3. 50% of all fibres had diameters <1.0µm. The greatest fibre levels were found during insulation of pipes and insulation of existing buildings. The concentration and fibre geometry of coarse fibres was determined.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1979, Vol. 22, No.2, p.153-162. 8 ref.
Artaud A., Salengro B., Catoir J.
Evaluation of work load in multilayer waterproofing by study of the heart rate
Evaluation de la charge de travail en étanchéité multicouche par l'étude de la fréquence cardiaque. [in French]
The work of multilayer waterproofing is studied in detail with economic, social and health aspects, description of the various waterproofing models, the materials used and the different work phases and corresponding work postures. Studies on the heart rate are reported in 18 subjects during different work stages. In spite of the presence of benzene hydrocarbons, lead, asbestos, polyurethane and noise there is no characteristic exposure. The accident hazard is serious, especially burns and materials handling hazards. Proposals are made to reduce handling and the physical load.
Revue de médecine du travail, 1979, Vol.7, No.3, p.153-176. Illus. 11 ref.
Mutual Industrial Insurance Company (Keskinäinen yhtiö Teollisuusvakuutus).
Maalaustyöt [in Finnish]
Målningsarbeten [in Swedish]
Safety instructions based on Finnish legislation covering flammable liquids. Contents: storage and use of flammable paints and catalysts such as organic peroxides in paint spraying or painting by hand; use of water-soluble instead of flammable paints; spontaneous combustion hazards of paints containing binders which oxidise on contact with air; safety measures for powder coating booths (easily cleaned equipment, ventilation providing adequate air renewal to avoid formation of explosive powder concentrations, exhaust ventilation systems of flameproof construction, electrical installations located outside painting booths, earthing of spray guns, avoidance of raising dust when handling powders).
Teollisuusvakuutus - Industriförsäkring, 1979, No.3, p.19-21. Illus. 3 ref.
Safety devices on mortar guns
Sicherheitseinrichtungen an Mörtelspritzmaschinen [in German]
Concrete throwing machines are excluded. Safety measures are related to the design and equipment of these machines: enclosure of moving parts, pressure-limiting devices (air receiver, pressure-limiting valve, automatic air inlet shutoff), device to prevent operation by an unauthorised person, protection against return of mortar to the feed hopper. The manufacturer's instructions should refer to correct use, maintenance and measures in the event of malfunctioning, and limitations of use. Specifications for hoses and hose connections are given.
Mitteilungen der Bau-Berufsgenossenschaft Hamburg, 1979, No.1, p.15-21. Illus.
Health and safety measures in shotcreting work
Protection des travailleurs lors de la mise en ¿uvre du béton projeté. [in French]
Description of a shotcreting method used in France for several years to consolidate galeries, especially in hydroelectric schemes. Shotcreting involves hazards of inhaling harmful dust from cement, sand, caustic alkalis in setting agents, skin contact with cement and caustic alkalis; flying particles striking the worker. Personal protective equipment: plastic helmet with hood, facepiece and fitted cap lamp, attached to protective overalls worn over a waterproof suit; sleeve-length gloves. Collective health protection consists of dust removal by exhaust ventilation. There is room for improvement in the available health and safety measures, and for research in intensified mechanisation of shotcreting operations.
Vigilance, 1979, No.59, p.21-23. Illus.
Federation of Industrial Mutual Accident Insurance Associations (Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften), Bonn, Jan. 1979.
Safety rules for shotcreting machines
Sicherheitsregeln für Betonspritzmaschinen (Spritzbetonarbeiten) [in German]
These rules apply to the construction and use of shotcreting guns and operations (feed piping, permissible air pressure, stability, protective roof, electricity, problems of workers moving from one position to another). Supplementary rules cover workplace safety, shotcreting work underground, protection against dust, inspection of machinery, and personal protective equipment. Appendices: lists of regulations and standards in force in the Federal Republic of Germany, and extracts from safety regulations for construction work underground.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Gereonstrasse 18-32, 5000 Köln 1, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 1979. 20p. Price: DM.1.40.
Federation of Industrial Mutual Accident Insurance Associations (Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften), Bonn, 1 Apr. 1979.
Coating with paints and varnishes
Verarbeiten von Anstrichstoffen [in German]
These safety regulations, which concern the preparation, application and drying of paints, contain sections devoted to: design, equipment and layout of work premises (dimensions, protection against fire and explosions, ventilation, construction of exhaust ventilation systems, dip baths, electrical installations); painting operations; workplace (spray booth, etc.), earthing, housekeeping, personal protective equipment. A supplementary booklet contains more detailed rules and commentaries for the application of these regulations.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Gereonstrasse 18-32, 5000 Köln 1, Germany (Fed.Rep.). 9 + 31p. Price: DM.2.60.
Žiharev M.V., Kostrikov V.I.
Neutralisation of gaseous effluents in paint shops
Obezvreživanie ventiljacionnyh vybrosov pokrasočnyh učastkov [in Russian]
Description of some methods for the elimination of organic substances (in particular solvents) contained in these effluents: low-temperature catalytic combustion, high-temperature post-combustion and adsorption on activated carbon, followed by thermal desorption and post-combustion. An economic advantage of post-combustion lies in the fact that existing industrial furnaces can be used.
Mašinostroitel', Mar. 1979, No.3, p.29. Illus.
Steby M., Levin M.
Exposure of paintworkers in the motor car industry to organic solvents, dusts and metals - Comparison with working conditions of other workers
Billackerares exposition för organiska lösningsmedel, damm och metaller - en studie med avseende på tidigare arbetsmiljöförhållanden [in Swedish]
Description and results of an industrial health survey to evaluate present-day exposure of these workers, as compared to conditions found in painting shops in the 1950s. The authors studied working methods, products used, and ventilation conditions. Numerous air samples were taken at different workposts and by monitoring devices on the workers themselves during grinding, masking, puttying, spray painting etc. The results showed that painting methods had changed considerably since the 1950s: use of products based on polyacrylates, epoxy resins and polyesters; more efficient ventilation and sanding systems; use of personal protective equipment and replacement of benzene by less harmful solvents. There is less exposure of painters to metal dust and pigments, but exposure to solvents has remained the same (except for benzene).
Arbete och hälsa - Vetenskaplig skriftserie 1979:3, Arbetarskyddsverket, Fack, 10026 Stockholm, Sweden, 1978. 46p. Illus. 22 ref.
Peltier A., Demange M., Barbier J.
Colour finishing of metals - Poisoning hazards
Coloration des métaux - Risques d'intoxication. [in French]
As a result of a serious case of arsine poisoning in workers employed in dipping metal products in vats containing arsenic and copper salts, to give them finish resembling antique pewter, the French National Research and Safety Institute (INRS) analysed a number of blueing and metal colour-finishing preparations available commercially. The As, Se, Sb, Cu, Hg and Zn content of these preparations is shown in tabular form. This report lists succinctly a number of colour finishing processes, indicating the toxic substances used. Recommendation: the composition and degree of toxicity of the preparation should be clearly indicated on the label and in the instructions for use; the finished product should be coated to prevent the deposited toxic colouring agent from rubbing off; elimination of toxic residues from metal finishing baths.
Travail et sécurité, Jan. 1979, No.1, p.7-9.
Pagnotto L.D., Elkins H.B., Brugsch H.G.
Benzene exposure in the rubber coating industry - A follow-up.
This paper is a follow-up of a study published in 1961 (CIS 870-1962,Dafb Fum Xjy). 38 workers exposed for 1-24 years to 5-50ppm (peak 140ppm in one case) benzene until 1964 were studied. There was one case of mild benzene poisoning (exposure 40ppm) and a small number of blood changes, but no blood dyscrasias or leukaemia. The current ACGIH threshold limit value of 10ppm appears reasonable.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1979, Vol.40, No.2, p.137-146. 9 ref.
Tola S., Kilpiö J., Virtamo M.
Urinary and plasma concentrations of nickel as indicators of exposure to nickel in an electroplating shop.
Urinary and plasma nickel concentrations were monitored for a week in 4 workers, along with nickel concentrations in the environmental air. Workroom air concentrations were 0.03-0.16mg/m3 nickel, mostly as soluble nickel sulfate. Urinary and plasma nickel were higher after the workshift than before, and correlated with air nickel concentrations and one another. Plasma and urinary nickel concentrations may be used as biological indicators of exposure to soluble nickel compounds.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Mar. 1979, Vol.21, No.3, p.184-188. 15 ref.
Hazards of spraying with two-pack paints containing isocyanates.
The spray from these paints consists partly of isocyanate in liquid form, and partly of particles of the prepolymer, with isocyanate droplets adhering to them. 6 case histories of paint sprayers allergic to isocyanates are given, illustrating the lack of information provided by manufacturers and of precautions taken. Recommendations made included: spraying only in booths or enclosures with effective exhaust ventilation; use of airline breathing apparatus; exclusion of workers with a history of respiratory allergy; mention of the isocyanate ingredient on the label.
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1979, Vol.29, No.1, p.22-24.
Darby G.H., Dukich A., Hargens C.W., Hill H.G,, Hsiao S.H., Suter D.L., Mason R., Miller L.M.
Information profiles on potential occupational hazards
General overview information, with bibliographies, is provided for the industrial processes: Manufacturing and use of corrosion inhibitors and rosin core solder; manufacturing of explosives and fireworks, plastics and resins, pharmaceuticals, synthetic rubber, tires, paints and related products; firefighting; aluminium reduction; caisson and tunnel work; petrochemical plants; petroleum refining; spray painting; photographic processing; electroplating; sewage treatment; incineration. Information is also provided for the physical agents radiofrequency, microwave and ionising radiation; magnetic fields; impact noise.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Rockville, Maryland 20852, USA. Apr. 1978. 315p. 599 ref.
Institutet för Verkstadsteknisk Forskning.
Health hazards of chemical and electrolytic surface treatment
Hälsorisker vid kemisk och elektrolytisk ytbehandling [in Swedish]
Chemical surface conversion treatment encompasses some 20 methods (phosphating, cromating, blueing); electrolytic surface treatment encompasses some 20 methods including degreasing, pickling, anodizing and electropolishing processes. Hazards: degreasing with solvents containing chlorinated and aromatic hydrocabons; gases and acid mists during pickling (sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, hydrofluoric acid, nitrous fumes); cyanide-containing and chromic-acid mists during electrolytic treatment. Methods for evaluation of hazard potential, and preventive methods: rim ventilation; automation; enclosure; replacement of hazardous chemicals, use of less hazardous methods; use of wetting agents (surfactants) or protective film on surface of the bath; cleanliness and proper chemicals handling, personal protective equipment; worker information.
IVF-resultat 76628, second edition, Sveriges Mekanförbund, Box 5506, 114 85 Stockholm, Sweden, Oct. 1978. 81p. Illus. 21 ref. Price: Swe-cr.30.00.
Factories (Health and Safety - Spray Painting) Regulations, 1977.
These regulations (effective 1 July 1978) issue rules concerning: employers' and workers' obligations; minimum age (18 years); spray painting booths (requirements and approved types, dimensions, painting operations which must be carried out in booths, exhaust systems, safe methods), electrostatic spray painting with fixed equipment and with hand-held equipment (warning notices for high voltage and fire hazards), storage and use of flammable or hazardous materials, sources of ignition, respiratory protective equipment, medical examinations, maintenance and inspection of equipment, health recordkeeping, penalties.
New South Wales Government Gazette, 1978-No.207, No.73, 23 June 1978, 13p.
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