Surface treatment - 644 entries found
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da Silva C.S.
Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego
Critical study of the health of electroplating workers based on relationships between ambient measurements, biological measurements and ENT examinations
Um estudo crítico sobre a saúde dos trabalhadores de galvânicas por meio das relações entre as avaliações ambientais, biológicas e otorrinolaringológicas [in Portuguese]
Second edition of the study analyzed under CIS 01-847. The objective of this thesis work was to examine the working environment and health of electroplating workers, and to establish relationships between the concentration in air of various chemicals, their urinary concentrations and observed nasal injuries. 461 workers employed at 22 electroplating plants using various coating processes were studied. Ambient concentrations of acid vapours as well as of chromium, zinc and nickel were measured, together with the urinary concentrations of these metals among exposed workers. Although the ambient levels were far below the threshold values accepted in Brazil, rhinoscopic examination revealed that 35.5% of workers showed moderate or serious injury of the upper respiratory tract (ischaemia, ulcerations or perforations of the nasal septum) and 40.1% showed signs of initial phases of injury or non-specific injury. These results show that the accepted limits in Brazil are insufficient to ensure adequate protection of workers' health.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 06409-002, Brazil, 2nd ed., 2010. 167p. Illus. 127 ref.
Food and metalworking industries: Antislip flooring
Agroalimentaire et industries métallurgiques: revêtement des sols antidérapants [in French]
Fall accidents caused by slips represent approximately 10% of all occupational accidents, which confirms the importance of suitable flooring. This article reviews the main points to consider when selecting flooring, particularly in the food and metalworking industries, two sectors which are strongly affected by slips: standards and regulations; studies on slip resistance; factors influencing floor slipperiness; factors influencing the risk of falls; flooring selection. A table summarizing the properties of various types of flooring for use in the food and metalworking industries is included.
Prevent Focus, Mar. 2010, p.14-17. Illus.
Mingomataj E.Ç., Gjata E., Xhixha F., Hyso E.
A case of isocyanate-induced asthma possibly complicated by food allergy after peanut consumption: A case report
A 50-year male worker employed as vehicle body painter for eight years complained about breathlessness, wheezing, sneezing, nasal obstruction and excessive production of mucus during the use of an acrylic enamel paint. Symptoms occurred 15-20 minutes after workplace exposure and usually persisted until evening, or at times, up to two consecutive days. The symptoms were associated with a decrease in lung function. The use of inhaled adrenergic bronchio-dilatators and steroids relieved the symptoms. Three years earlier, the patient had developed an anaphylactic reaction due to peanut consumption, experiencing urticaria, angioedema and airway obstruction. Both cases gave rise to IgE-mediated symptoms, suggesting an induced Th2 profile.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, Nov. 2008, Vol.3, No.29, 4p. 21 ref.
http://www.occup-med.com/content/pdf/1745-6673-3-29.pdf [in English]
Gerdes A., Oehmischen D., Süssmuth J., Raunitschke D.
New strategies for the development of preventive surface protection measures
Neue Strategien für die Entwicklung präventiver Oberflächeschutzmassnahmen [in German]
Following a historical review of protective coatings in construction from ancient times until today, new systems, based on nanotechnology, which create a hydrophobic barrier on concrete are presented. Such coatings, mainly based on silanes, prevent pollutants from penetrating the concrete and attacking its surface.
Tiefbau, Oct. 2008, Vol.120, No.10, p.621-630. Illus. 22 ref.
Occupational allergic respiratory diseases among painters
Affections respiratoires professionnelles allergiques chez les peintres [in French]
Occupational allergic respiratory diseases observed among painters essentially consist of rhinitis and asthma. Products likely to cause respiratory allergies include constituents of polyurethane, amine, phenolic and epoxy resins, inorganic (chromates, cobalt) and organic (azo) pigments, formaldehyde, and additives such as aromatic amines and polyfunctional aziridines. Dust levels found in the work environment can also be a causal factor. This article also discusses physiopathological mechanisms, diagnosis, prevention (limitation of exposure) and rules applying to the compensation of these diseases in France.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, June 2008, No.114, p.273-284. Illus. 39 ref.
http://www.dmt-prevention.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/TR%2043/$File/TR43.pdf [in French]
Ramanakumar A.V., Nadon L., Siemiatycki J.
Exposures in painting related occupations and risk of selected cancers: Results from a case-control study in Montreal
The objective of this study was to evaluate risk of cancers other than lung cancer in painting-related professions. A large population based case-control study was carried out during 1979-1986 in Montreal including several types of cancer and their relationship with occupational exposures. Data on lifetime job histories were obtained from interviews and evaluated by a team of industrial hygienists to assign exposure. Seven types of cancer were analysed: oesophagus, stomach, colorectal, prostate, bladder, kidney and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. For each cancer type, a pooled control group was constituted from 533 population controls and 533 cancer patients selected from other types of cancer. Odds ratios were estimated for each of the paint-related agents and each of the seven cancer types, adjusting for several potential confounders, including smoking. Painting was not associated with risk of any of the cancers under study. Other findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 2008, Vol.51, No.6, p.419-427. 28 ref.
Kaukainen A., Martikainen R., Riala R., Reijula K., Tammilehto L.
Work tasks, chemical exposure and respiratory health in construction painting
This case-control study on chemical exposure and respiratory health was carried out by means of a questionnaire addressed to 1000 construction painters and 1000 carpenters in Finland, all males (response rates 60.6% and 60.4%, respectively). Multivariate logistic regression models were adjusted for age, smoking and atopy. Compared to carpentry work, outdoor painting, more than indoor painting, was associated with asthma-like symptoms (odds ratios (OR) 2.7-6.5), rhinitis (OR 2.4), asthma (OR 4.7) and chronic bronchitis (OR 2.9). Risk factors for respiratory symptoms and chronic bronchitis were the use of epoxy and urethane paints, putties and plasters, as well as the use of glues or traditional paints. Water-based paints were not a common cause of symptoms, and their use should be further encouraged.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 2008, Vol.51, no.2, p.1-8. 38 ref.
Got everything covered?
This poster provides practical tips to protect workers from the hazards of isocyanate exposure during spray-on truck bedliner applications. These tips include wearing a supplied-air respirator, using shields with peel-off visors, wearing chemical resistant protective clothing and gloves, ensuring that the ventilation system is operating correctly, washing hands and face after each spraying and consulting a doctor in case of shortness of breath or skin irritation.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Jan. 2008. 1p. Illus.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2008-109/pdfs/2008-109.pdf [in English]
Bello D., Sparer J., Redlich C.A., Ibrahim K., Stowe M.H., Liu Y.
Slow curing of aliphatic polyisocyanate paints in automotive refinishing: A potential source for skin exposure
Polyurethane paints containing aliphatic isocyanates used in automobile body spray painting can cause asthma, and skin exposure may be an important route of sensitization. Automobile body workers are frequently in contact with recently painted and dried auto parts. It is not known how fast the newly-painted car surfaces are fully cured. To address this question, sections of auto bodies were painted and dried by automobile body shop painters following regular practice. It was found that unbound isocyanate species remained present on the majority of painted surfaces for up to 120 hours for typical paint formulations and for one month in some cases. Such surfaces are an under-recognized potential source of skin exposure to automobile body workers.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, June 2007, Vol.4, No.6, p.406-411. Illus. 26 ref.
Ramos A., Silva Filho J.F., Jardim S.R.
Sociodemographic data and working conditions of painters exposed to solvents at a public university in Rio de Janeiro
Dados sociodemográficos e condições de trabalho de pintores expostos a solventes em uma universidade pública da cidade do Rio de Janeiro [in Portuguese]
This cross-sectional study presents the socio-demographic profile and working conditions of painters exposed to solvents. Data on demographic factors and working conditions were collected from 55 painters employed by a public university in Rio de Janeiro by means of interviews. It was found that 58.2% of the painters reported never wearing individual protection equipment; 52.73% were unaware of the internal occupational accident prevention committee; 92.73% performed some kind of repetitive movement; 60% had another source of income (mostly as freelancers); 87.3% rated relationships at work as being good and 45.45% had already worked as painters before being hired by their present employers. Other findings are discussed.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, July-Dec. 2007, Vol.32, No.116, p.38-49. Illus. 60 ref.
http://www.fundacentro.gov.br/rbso/BancoAnexos/RBSO%20116%20Dados%20sóciodemograficos.pdf [in Portuguese]
Kalahasthi R.B., Rajmohan H.R., Rajan B.K., Karuna Kumar M.
Urinary N-acetyl-beta -D-glucosaminidase and its isoenzymes A and B in workers exposed to cadmium at cadmium plating
This case-control study was carried out to determine the effect of cadmium exposure on urinary N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) and its isoenzymes A and B among cadmium plating workers. It involved 100 workers of a telephone manufacturing plant in India, including 50 cadmium plating workers and an equal number of age and sex matched unexposed administrative staff. A significant increase of urinary total NAG and its isoenzymes A and B were noted in exposed group compared to controls. The levels of urinary NAG and its isoenzymes A and B were significantly correlated with cadmium levels in urine. Other findings are discussed. It is concluded that urinary NAG could be used as a biomarker for exposure to cadmium.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, July 2007, Vol.2, No.5, 7p. 28 ref.
Hedley D., Pritchard D.K., Eaton G.T.
Health and Safety Executive
Assessment of fire and explosion risks in coating mixing operations
The Dangerous Substances and Explosive Atmospheres Regulations 2002 (DSEAR, see CIS 03-1035) require a re-assessment of the fire and explosion risks arising from the formation of explosive atmospheres in and around mixing vessels used for the formulation of coatings (inks and paints). Vapour concentration measurements were made during site visits in and around mixing vessels, and ignition tests were carried out in the laboratory on sample coating formulations. The findings are to be used to define HSE's DSEAR Enforcement Policy on coatings mixing operations.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. vi, 22p. Illus. 1 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr526.pdf [in English]
Preventing worker deaths and injuries from contacting overhead power lines with metal ladders
This leaflet presents recommendations to prevent injuries and deaths from electrocution while working with metal ladders around energized, overhead power lines. Contents: description of exposure; measures and precautions to be taken by employers, workers, contractors and ladder manufacturers; short descriptions of two fatal accidents among painters.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Sep. 2007. 4p. Illus. 5 ref.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2007-155/pdfs/2007-155.pdf [in English]
Painting - Working in workshops and in booths
Peinture - Les travaux en atelier et en cabine [in French]
This article addresses the question of limiting exposures in paint shops. In order to eliminate or control risks at the source, it is preferable to use products that have low toxicity for the workers, such as the less dangerous water-based paints instead of solvent-based paints. Similarly, exposure phases should be minimized by using automated painting booths. Next, collective protection measures should be implemented, in particular the ventilation of the workshop to eliminate polluted air. Finally, as a last resort, workers should be equipped with personal protective equipment.
Prévention BTP, June 2007, No.97, p.32-33. Illus.
Lesage J., Stanley J., Karoly W.J., Lichtenberg F.W.
Airborne methlyene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) concentrations associated with the application of polyurethane spray foam in residential construction
The objective of this study was to evaluate the exposure to airborne methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) among spray polyurethane foam applicators. It was conducted during foam application inside five single family homes under construction in the United States and Canada. Spray foam applicators and assistants may be exposed to airborne MDI concentrations above the OSHA permissible exposure limit of 0.20mg/m3, ceiling. At these concentrations, OSHA recommends appropriate respiratory protection. Airborne MDI concentrations decrease rapidly after foam application ceases. The majority of the airborne MDI samples collected in the breathing zones of the spray foam applicators exceeded the OSHA PEL-C. The highest airborne concentrations measured after 15 and 45min were 0.019mg/m3 and 0.003mg/m3, respectively. Other findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Feb. 2007, Vol.4, No.2, p.145-155. Illus. 14 ref.
Pisati G., Baruffini A., Bernabeo F., Cerri S., Mangili A.
Rechallenging subjects with occupational asthma due to toluene diisocyanate (TDI), after long-term removal from exposure
The aims of this study were to determine whether toluene diisocyanate (TDI) bronchial hyperresponsiveness persists in subjects with occupational asthma after long cessation of exposure and whether evolution of specific bronchial TDI sensitization and symptoms and functional abnormalities of asthma were coincident, and to define the determinants at the time of diagnosis of patients' outcome. Twenty-five non-atopic spray painters with occupational asthma due to TDI were re-examined approximately five years after removal from exposure. Tests included spirometry, methacholine challenge and TDI-specific IgE. Seven subjects were still TDI-reactors while 18 had lost reactivity to the substance, among whom however eight still retained some asthma features. This study demonstrates that airway sensitization to TDI and symptoms and functional airway abnormalities of asthma can persist for years after cessation of exposure.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Feb. 2007, Vol.80, No.4, p.298-305. Illus. 21 ref.
White J., Coldwell M., Davies T., Helps J., Piney M., Rimmer D., Saunders J., Wake D.
Health and Safety Executive
Isocyanate exposure, emission and control in small motor vehicle repair premises using spray rooms: Phase 1
A mock up spray room was constructed within the Health and Safety Laboratory with dimensions, ventilation conditions and extraction rates set to represent typical car body spray room conditions. A robotic sprayer was used to simulate paint spraying of car parts under a range of conditions; including spray orientation relative to the extraction duct, spray gun type, ventilation set up and extraction rates. Real-time monitors were used in conjunction with standard methods for airborne isocyanate (NCO) concentration monitoring. The main findings were: high NCO levels are present in spray rooms during spraying; airborne NCO levels were homogeneous throughout the spray room; factors affecting the amount of airborne NCO include gun type, gun condition, spray pattern and NCO formulation; airborne NCO took a significant time to clear the spray room. Other findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2006. x, 111p. Illus. 29 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr496.pdf [in English]
Pronk A., Yu F., Vlaanderen J., Tielemans E., Preller L., Bobeldijk I., Deddens J.A., Latza U., Baur X., Heederik D.
Dermal, inhalation and internal exposure to 1,6-HDI and its oligomers in car body repair shop workers and industrial spray painters
The objective of this study was to evaluate exposure to hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) and its oligomers among car body repair shop workers and industrial spray painters. A total of 95 personal samples were collected from six car body repair shops and five industrial paint shops and analysed using impingers with di-n-butylamine (DBA) in toluene. In parallel, dermal exposure was assessed using nitrile rubber gloves submerged into a solution of DBA in toluene after sampling. Analysis for HDI and its oligomers was performed by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Urine samples collected from 55 workers were analysed for hexamethylene diamine (HDA) by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Findings are discussed. HDA was detected in urine of 25% of the spray painters. In addition, HDA was detected in urine of a large proportion of non-spray painters in car body repair shops. Although painting with lacquers containing isocyanates results in the highest external exposures to HDI and oligomers, workers that do not perform paint related tasks are significantly exposed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2006, Vol.63, No.9, p.624-631. Illus. 37 ref.
Rømyhr O., Nyfors A., Leira H.L., Smedbold H.T.
Allergic contact dermatitis caused by epoxy resin systems in industrial painters
A group of 2236 industrial painters employed in six companies of the Norwegian oil industry was followed between 1997 and 2001 to assess the incidence of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) caused by exposure to epoxy resin systems. Commercially-available patch test series were supplemented with a series based on known or suspected sensitizers present at the workplaces. Of 57 patch-tested workers, 23 with ACD caused by epoxy resin systems were found, indicating an incidence rate of 4.5/1000 person years. Positive patch tests to 2,4,6-tris-(dimethylaminomethyl)phenol (tris-DMP) and m-xylene-α,α'-diamine (XAD) were seen in seven and eight workers, respectively, indicating that both chemicals are important sensitizers in industrial painters. They are, however, not classified as skin sensitizers according to the European regulations on the classification and labelling of dangerous chemicals.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 2006, Vol.55, No.3, p.167-172. 22 ref.
Case study - Comparison of occupational exposures among painters using three alternative blasting abrasives
This article presents the results of a comparison between specular hematite and other commonly-used blasting abrasives used by painters, namely coal slag and steel grit. Worker exposure monitoring was carried out over three consecutive summers on footbridge repainting projects in New Jersey. Personal breathing air samples were taken during blasting operations and analysed. All methods performed well in the removal of paint. All three abrasives created elevated exposures to lead, respirable silica and cadmium. Of particular concern is the presence of beryllium associated with the use of coal slag. Other findings are discussed. Specular hematite was found to be associated with lower concentrations of silica and heavy metals when compared to sand and metal abrasives, respectively. However, engineering controls such as local exhaust ventilation and hygiene measures such as showers are recommended in all cases.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Sep. 2006, Vol.3, No.9, p.D80-D84. 11 ref.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften, Fachausschuss "Metall- und Oberflächenbehandlung" der Berufsgenossenschaftlichen Zentrale für Sicherheit und Gesundheit (BGZ)
Protective measures for spray coating work - lacquer aerosols
Schutzmaßnahmenkonzept für Spritzlackierarbeiten - Lackaerosole [in German]
This code of practice applies to all spray coating work that is performed with spray guns. It does not address the manual application of lacquers and paints. It specifies the requirements to protect workers from the inhalation of lacquer aerosols by installation of a suitable exhaust ventilation system or by the supply of respirators. It provides criteria for deciding which of the two methods of protection is needed in each case.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburger Straße 449, 50939 Köln, Germany, Jan. 2006. 15p. Illus. Price: EUR 2.40.
http://www.hvbg.de/d/bgz/entwicklung/pdf_bild/bgvr03_pdf/bgr_231.pdf [in German]
Vitali M., Ensabella F., Stella D., Guidotti M.
Exposure to organic solvents among handicraft car painters: A pilot study in Italy
This study evaluated exposure to solvents in eight Italian car painting workshops using environmental sampling and personal sampling with charcoal samplers, and urinary determination of unmetabolized solvents. A simple regression analysis was performed to evaluate relationships between the three series of data. The solvents analysed were toluene, ethylbenzene, 1,2-dichloropropane, n-butylacetate, n-amylacetate, xylene isomers, ethylacetate and benzene. Benzene was found in all shops, at levels around or higher than the 8h time-weighted average limit (8h TWA). Other solvents were found at various levels, from 10-2 to 10-1 times the 8h TWA. Air concentrations of toluene, n-butylacetate, xylenes, and benzene were positively correlated with their urinary levels, while a negative correlation was found for ethylbenzene. The health implications of these exposure levels are discussed.
Industrial Health, Apr. 2006, Vol.44, No.2, p.310-317. 49 ref.
http://www.jniosh.go.jp/old/niih/en/indu_hel/2006/pdf/indhealth_44_2_310.pdf [in English]
Hooiveld M., Haveman W., Roskes K., Bretveld R, Burstyn I., Roeleveld N.
Adverse reproductive outcomes among male painters with occupational exposure to organic solvents
The objective of this study was to assess the risk of reproductive disorders and birth defects in offspring of male painters exposed to organic solvents. Information on reproductive outcomes, occupational exposures and lifestyle habits was obtained through self-administered questionnaires filled in by 398 painters exposed in the period of three months before pregnancy and 302 carpenters with little or no exposure to solvents, both groups being selected at random among Dutch unionized construction workers. There was an increased risk of congenital malformations in the offspring of painters (odds ratio 6.2) compared to carpenters. There was a positive exposure-response trend based on estimated exposure to organic solvents and some indication of an increased risk of functional developmental disorders in offspring among painters with intermediate and high predicted exposure. There was also an indication of increased risk of low birth weight among the offspring of painters.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2006, Vol.63, No.8, p.538-544. 31 ref.
Preventing asthma and death from MDI exposure during spray-on truck bed liner and related applications
Contents of these recommendations for preventing asthma and other respiratory diseases during polyurethane spray-on applications: description of the polyurethane spray-on truck bed lining process; spray applications other than truck bed lining; health effects of isocyanates (lung injury, respiratory sensitization, cancer); current exposure limits; workplace exposure assessments; case reports of isocyanate-induced asthma and other respiratory diseases investigated by NIOSH; recommendations aimed at shop owners and suppliers of chemicals; future research. These recommendations are also summarized on a detachable sheet for display on a notice board. Appendices include: properties and chemical structure of isocyanates; spray enclosure and ventilation design considerations; supplied-air respirators and elements of a respiratory protection programme; surveillance guidelines for work-related asthma.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Sep. 2006. 35p. Illus. 57 ref.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2006-149/pdfs/2006-149.pdf [in English]
Methner M.M., Achutan C.
Case study - Airborne hexamethylene diisocyanate and particulate matter exposures during fire/rescue ladder finishing operations
In 2004, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) received a request from the management of a steel ladder fabrication plant to evaluate employee exposures to hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) during spray painting operations. Management representatives were also concerned about exposures to particulate matter and crystalline silica during spray painting and sanding operations. Personal breathing zone and general area samples were collected and analysed. Findings are discussed. All samples were within the NIOSH and ACGIH threshold limit values, although some exceeded the United Kingdom HSE limit values. Particulate matter was well within limits and crystalline silica was not detected. Recommendations were made for further reduction of exposures to HDI.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Mar. 2006, Vol.3, No.3, p.D28-D32. 11 ref.
Isocyanate exposure in an autobody repair and collision center
This inspection by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) reports on an overexposure to methylene bisphenyl isocyanate (MDI) during the spray application of a protective coating for truck beds. The inspection was conducted at an automobile body repair shop that also operated a spray-on truck bed coating operation. The investigation was initiated as a complaint inspection and was limited to the complaint allegation. The employee alleged that workers were exposed to harmful vapours during application of the truck bed liner. Site visits and sampling confirmed exposures to MDI in excess of the threshold limit value of 0.20mg/m3. A number of recommendations aimed at lowering the level of exposure were made and successfully implemented by the employer.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Mar. 2006, Vol.3, No.3, p.D24-D27. 3 ref.
Lebreton R., Kolczynski C.
Powder-based paints - Composition, toxicological hazards, safety and health measures
Peintures en poudre - Composition, risques toxicologiques, mesures de prévention [in French]
This guide presents a detailed inventory of the main constituents of powder-based paints, including binders, pigments, fillers and additives, and describes their toxicological and fire and explosion hazards. Safety and health measures during the manufacture and use of powder-based paints are specified: substitution, dust control, fire and explosion prevention, supply of information (labelling, safety data sheets), information of personnel and medical supervision.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Apr. 2005. 12p. 22 ref. Price: EUR 2.50. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.inrs.fr/INRS-PUB/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_search_view_view/EABB6A6CA8043467C125704400301716/$FILE/ed956.pdf [in French]
Domański W., Surgiewicz J.
Technical and organizational measures for occupational safety and health in galvanizing plants: Recommendations
Profilaktyka techniczna i organizacyjna w zakresie bezpieczeństwa i higieny pracy w galwanizerniach: Zalecenia [in Polish]
The galvanizing process for metallic coatings is described and hazards associated with dusts and chemical substances are identified. Recommendations relating to the analysis of working conditions and hazard evaluation are presented.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 2005. 55p. 33 ref.
Kaukiainen A., Riala R., Martikainen R., Estlander T., Susitaival P., Aalto-Korte K.
Chemical exposure and symptoms of hand dermatitis among construction painters
In this study on the prevalence of hand dermatitis in construction painting in Finland, a cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among 1000 male construction painters and 1000 male carpenters (response rates 60.6% and 60.4%, respectively). Two definitions for hand dermatitis symptoms were used: "liberal" (more than two symptoms), and "strict" (more than three symptoms). Responses were subjected to statistical analysis. Painters reported more symptoms of hand dermatitis than carpenters (previous 12-month prevalence with liberal criteria 22.5% and 14.2% respectively; with strict criteria 13.3% and 6.4% respectively). A dose-response relationship was found for reporting symptoms and exposure to several solvent-based and water-based paints. Overall, painters reported a significantly higher prevalence of symptoms of hand dermatitis than carpenters, with putties and plasters emerging as significant risk factors.
Contact Dermatitis, July 2005, Vol.53, No.1, p.14.21. 32 ref.
Kaukiainen A., Riala R., Martikainen R., Reijula K., Riihimäki H., Tammilehto L.
Respiratory symptoms and diseases among construction painters
This study on the self-reported prevalence of respiratory symptoms and diseases among construction painters was carried out to estimate the potential risk for this group compared with a representative group of carpenters sharing the construction work environment but without significant exposure to paint. A questionnaire was addressed to 1,000 male construction painters and 1,000 male carpenters (mean response rate 60.5%). Logistic regression modelling was used to study symptoms and diseases of the respiratory tract in relation to occupation and duration of painting experience. Age, atopy and smoking habits were taken into account. Odds ratios of various respiratory symptoms are presented. The results confirm a higher risk for respiratory symptoms and chronic bronchitis among construction painters than among carpenters.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, July 2005, Vol.78, No.6, p.452-458. 27 ref.
Bonauto D.K., Sumner A.D., Curwick C.C., Whittaker S.G., Lofgren D.J.
Work-related asthma in the spray-on truck bed lining industry
This study examined compensation claims for occupational asthma associated with exposure to methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) among workers involved in spray-on truck bed lining. A descriptive study of workers' compensation claims was conducted. Eight such claims were identified between 1993 and 2002, resulting in a claims incidence rate of 200 per 10,000 full-time equivalent workers employed. This rate is excessive and suggests a need for significant intervention, including improvements in the clinical assessment provided to MDI-exposed workers.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2005, Vol.47, No.5, p.514-517. 12 ref.
Blomqvist A., Düzakin-Nystedt M., Ohlson C.G., Andersson L., Jönsson B., Nielsen J., Welinder H.
Airway symptoms, immunological response and exposure in powder painting
Powder coating is an alternative to solvent-based spray painting. Powder paints may contain organic acid anhydrides (OAAs), which are irritants to the airways and may cause sensitization. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and immunological response among powder coaters and to describe their exposure to OAAs. Participants included 93 exposed and 26 formerly exposed workers, and 86 unexposed workers who completed a questionnaire on working conditions and symptoms and underwent medical examinations. Although the exposure to OAAs was estimated to be low, IgG antibodies to OAA were observed in some subjects. There was a relatively high prevalence of eye and airway symptoms among the powder coaters that were clearly related to exposure. The symptoms were probably caused by the irritating properties of powder paint dust.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Mar. 2005, Vol.78, No.2, p.123-131. Illus. 24 ref.
Health effects of occupational exposure to organic solvents and paint compounds
This report describes a questionnaire survey of construction painters and carpenters in Finland to assess the effects of past and recent solvent exposure on neurotoxic symptoms and to evaluate the prevalence of work-related respiratory disorders and hand dermatitis among painters. Two clinical experiments were also carried out to evaluate tests for the screening and evaluation of suspected solvent-induced disorders. Significant associations were found between cumulative intensity of long-term solvent exposure and symptoms of memory, concentration and mood. Solvent exposure in painters was also associated with previously diagnosed psychiatric disorders, hypertension and arrhythmia. Painters reported more asthma-like, rhinitis, laryngeal and eye symptoms than the carpenters and they also had more symptoms of hand dermatitis and chronic bronchitis. An approach for the screening and evaluation of solvent-related nervous system disorders is proposed.
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, FIOH-Bookstore, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, 00250 Helsinki, Finland, 2005. 143p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Gallery of Mirrors at Versailles: Renovation of works of art and prevention of hazards
Galerie des glaces à Versailles: restauration des œuvres et prévention des risques [in French]
The renovation of the Gallery of Mirrors in the Versailles palace will take three years, ending in the spring of 2007. Around 60 specialists are involved in restoring old paintings or in regilding the stucco. Hazards include the risk of fire, work at heights, exposure to harmful substances in poorly-ventilated areas and the presence on site of many subcontractors, often crafts enterprises. This article discusses some of the ways in which these hazards are managed on this site.
Travail et sécurité, Mar. 2005, No.649, p.2-9. Illus. 2 ref.
Application of synthetic resins by building and construction enterprises - Prevention of chemical hazards
Application de résines synthétiques par les entreprises du BTP - Prévention des risques chimiques [in French]
The coating of concrete floors or metallic vessels and tanks with synthetic resins is a widespread process in the building and construction industry. The variety of chemicals and the manner in which they are handled represent potential risk factors. This guide describes an approach for identifying these hazards and implementing preventive measures. Contents: hazard evaluation (hazard identification, task observation, fire and explosion hazards); preventive measures on construction sites (product selection, site preparation, work planning). Appendices include: main types of synthetic resins used; properties of selected solvents; exposure evaluation; work in confined spaces; respirator selection; selection of protective gloves.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Mar. 2005. 39p. Illus. 37 ref. Price: EUR 6.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.inrs.fr/INRS-PUB/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_search_view_view/9577AB2740261A83C1256FFC0055962B/$FILE/ed930.pdf [in French]
Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego
Workers' magazine: Galvanizing plants - Exhaust ventilation in galvanizing plants
Revista do trabalhador: Galvânicas - Ventilaçâo exautoras em galvânicas [in Portuguese]
The first of these two videotapes examines the hazards of galvanizing plants and describes measures for their control. The second focuses on the need for local exhaust ventilation to reduce workers' exposure to toxic gases.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 05409-002, Brazil, [ca 2004]. Two videotapes (VHS format), 16min and 12min.
Taylor J.R., O'Shaughnessy P.T., Reynolds S.J.
Estimating personal exposures based on mass balance material usage rates: Validation of a ventilation model in a spray paint booth
This research examined the validity of a model for estimating airborne contaminant concentrations based on the mass rate of change of compounds used during an industrial process. A study of an industrial spray painting operation involved estimation of the effective ventilation rate, sampling for organic compounds and simultaneously measuring the mass usage of these compounds during painting. The results indicated that the model does appear to be a useful additional tool for estimating worker exposures. However, the characteristics of specific ventilation systems must be understood before modelling is conducted.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Apr. 2004, Vol.1, No.4, p.213-221. Illus. 16 ref.
Bråtveit M., Hollund B.E., Moen B.E.
Reduced exposure to organic solvents by use of water-based paint systems in car repair shops
The objective of this study was to determine exposure to organic solvents for spray painters in car repair shops. Air sampling and personal sampling was carried out in eight car repair shops and blood samples were analysed for organic solvents at the beginning and end of the shift. The exposure levels of the organic solvents were well below the Norwegian limit values. Toluene was detected at the highest concentration in air samples when solvent-based paint systems were used (0.8ppm), whereas xylene was found at the highest level when water-based systems were used (0.25ppm). When solvent-based paint systems were used, the additive factor for organic solvent exposure based on Norwegian limit values was three-times higher than when water-based systems were employed. However, at the levels of organic solvents observed, the risk of acute and chronic health effects caused by organic solvents is low.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan. 2004, Vol.77, No.1, p.31-38. Illus. 18 ref.
Kaukiainen A., Riala R., Martikainen R., Akila R., Reijula K., Sainio M.
Solvent-related health effects among construction painters with decreasing exposure
The prevalence of solvent-related symptoms among construction painters is unclear owing to declining exposure. A questionnaire study was conducted on 1000 male Finnish construction painters and 1000 carpenters. Symptom questions were combined with exposure parameters, medical history and health behaviour. Highly significant associations were found between cumulative intensity of long-term solvent exposure and symptoms of memory loss, poor concentration and mood. The cumulative intensity of long-term solvent exposure was a better measure of solvent exposure than the number of years as a painter. Exposure was also associated with diagnosed psychiatric disorders, hypertension and arrhythmia. Recent exposure in the 1990s had no major effect on symptoms. The results confirm earlier findings of a dose-response relationship between exposure and long-term neurotoxic effects. However, no clear association was found between recent exposure and symptoms.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 2004, Vol.46, No.6, p.627-636. 43 ref.
Hassani F.P., Momayez M.
Design of a new auscultation device for layers of shotcrete on the walls of underground mines
Conception d'un nouvel appareil d'auscultation des couches de béton projeté sur les parois des galeries de mines souterraines [in French]
Rock falls cause many accidents in underground mines. Sprayed concrete is commonly used to shore up gallery walls, but its application is often uncontrolled and its properties difficult to evaluate. MSR Impact-echo seismic wave analysis technology is capable of non-destructively measuring the thickness, dynamic properties and failures of concrete layers more than 300mm thick. The goal of this project was to adapt this sprayed-concrete testing technique for use with concrete layers of thickness ranging between 25 and 300mm, and to develop a, portable, commercial instrument for the mining sector requiring minimum intervention from users. This fast, accurate and practical method has helped improve mine safety. Applications in the construction sector are being considered.
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2004. ix, 72p. Illus. 51 ref. Price: CAD 7.49. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-389.pdf [in French]
Ulvestad B., Kjærheim K., Martinsen J.I., Mowe G., Andersen A.
Cancer incidence among members of the Norwegian Trade Union of Insulation Workers
Insulation work is considered to be an occupation with high exposure to asbestos. A cohort of 1116 members of the Norwegian Trade Union of Insulation Workers first hired between 1930 and 1975 was established. During 2002, the cohort was linked to the Cancer Registry of Norway. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of pleural mesothelioma was 12.9. Two cases with peritoneal mesothelioma were found (SIR 14.8). The SIR of lung cancer was 3.0. Four cases of lung cancer were observed among cork insulation workers with exposure to cork dust and tar smoke (SIR 5.3), but not to asbestos. The study showed a high risk of mesothelioma and an elevated risk of lung cancer among insulation workers.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2004, Vol.46, No.1, p.84-89. 22 ref.
Truchon G., Vaziri M., Larivière P.
Scope and limits of exposure monitoring data on electroplating industry workers: Knowledge update
Portée et limites des données de surveillance de l'exposition des travailleurs œuvrant dans l'industrie de l'électrodéposition: mise à jour des connaissances [in French]
The electroplating industry represents a complex working environment due to the nature of the processes and products used (including zinc, nickel and chromium). The monitoring of its workers' exposure introduces a problem for industrial physicians due to the lack of biological exposure indices for these metals. A literature survey was conducted to document the relationships between exposure and health effects on one hand, and air concentrations and biological concentrations on the other hand, for the main metals used in electroplating. A critical analysis of the collected data was then carried out, for the purpose of developing a guide for the medical monitoring of this industry's workers. As a result, industrial physicians will be better equipped to assess the scope and limitations of biological monitoring of metals in this activity sector.
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2004. iv, 45p. 77 ref. Price: CAD 5.35. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-373.pdf [in French]
Lazor-Blanchet C., Rusca S., Vernez D., Berry R., Albrecht E., Droz P.O., Boillat M.A.
Acute pulmonary toxicity following exposure to a floor stain protector in the building industry in Switzerland
Waterproofing agents are widely used as stain-repellents on indoor floor and wall tiles. They are applied by spraying, generally by professionals, but sometimes also by consumers themselves. This article describes three cases of acute respiratory injury in healthy adults following occupational inhalation of a new waterproofing formulation containing an acrylate fluoropolymer. Within two hours after exposure, they developed a rapidly progressive dyspnoea; two also showed hypoxaemia and flu-like reactions. All three improved with supportive treatment within a few days. The mechanism of toxicity is still under investigation, but experimental data suggest the role of this new acrylate fluoropolymer. Both workers and consumers should be warned about the risks of spraying floor stain repellents, informed about the importance of proper air circulation within the premises and instructed to avoid concomitant smoking.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, May 2004, Vol.77, No.4, p.244-248. Illus. 26 ref.
TLD-Europe - A paint spray booth that combines safety and flexibility
TLD-Europe - Une cabine de peinture qui allie sécurité et flexibilité [in French]
This article describes a newly-installed paint spray booth in an enterprise manufacturing large aircraft tractors. It consists of a vertically-ventilated closed booth. Because occupational asthma is particularly frequent among spray painters exposed to isocyanate-containing polyurethane paints, the importance of having adequate ventilation and wearing respirators is stressed.
Travail et sécurité, Feb. 2004, No.637, p.39-43. Illus. 3 ref.
Bodenes A., Verhelst C., Dewitte J.D., Choucroun P.
Relationship between muscular diseases and exposures to paints and solvents among building painters
Relation entre les pathologies musculaires et exposition aux peintures et solvants chez les peintres en bâtiment [in French]
Following two cases of myalgia associated with an increase in creatine phosphokinase (CPK) enzymes in two building painters, a survey was carried out to study the possible relationship between exposure to paints and solvents and muscular diseases. A questionnaire survey was carried out among 265 building painters and 267 unexposed controls. They also underwent clinical examinations and blood CPK determinations during their annual medical checks. There was no increase in CPK among painters, but they presented significantly higher frequencies of muscular pain, muscular fatigue and loss of muscular strength. Aetiological investigations did not provide evidence of a clear relationship between these muscular symptoms and specific exposures.
Revue de médecine du travail, Mar.-Apr. 2003, Vol.XXX, No.2, p.60-65. Illus.
de Oliveira M.L., Machado Neto J.G
Occupational safety during pesticide spraying of citrus fruits using hand gun sprayers
Segurança no trabalho de aplicação de agrotóxicos com o pulverizador de pistolas em citros [in Portuguese]
The objectives of this study were to quantify the skin and inhalation exposure of workers during the spraying of pesticides on lemon trees using a hand gun sprayer, to evaluate protective measures and to determine the parts of the body that are the most exposed. Both types of personal protective suits tested were found to be effective for limiting the inhalation and skin exposure of the sprayer and the tractor driver, with the "AZR" suit giving the best results (efficiency of 93.1% for the sprayer and 77.8% for the tractor driver compared to exposures without protection). For the sprayer, the most exposed parts of the body were the hands and feet, while for the tractor driver, they were the hands, thighs, legs and feet.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, 2003, Vol.28, No.105/106, p.83-90. 18 ref.
Lazure L., Abdellaoui H., Lesage J., Charette M.
Evaluation of the confinement of preparation areas during paint spraying
Evaluation du confinement des aires de préparation lors de l'application de peinture [in French]
Automobile body paint shops are a priority target for the prevention of occupational asthma caused by isocyanates. The Occupational Health and Safety Institute of the Canadian Province of Quebec (l'Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail - IRSST) conducted two earlier studies on the evaluation of isocyanate exposure levels and on the efficiency of paint spray booths. For a full understanding of the levels of exposure to isocyanates in automobile body paint shops, it was also necessary to obtain data on the workstations situated outside the spray booths, in particular in the ventilated preparation area often used for certain types of paint preparation work. This report presents the results of evaluations of the potential exposure levels and the efficiency of systems used for eliminating contaminants present in workplace atmospheres of these preparation areas.
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2003. 61p. Illus. 11 ref. Price: CAD 6.42. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-353.pdf [in French]
Valentino M., Rapisarda V., Fenga C.
Hand injuries due to high-pressure injection devices for painting in shipyards: Circumstances, management and outcome in twelve patients
Injuries due to high-pressure injections are frequently underestimated occupational accidents, which may have disabling outcomes. The occupational injuries logbooks of two shipyards were examined. Twelve accidents due to the utilization of high-pressure equipment were reported. Data were obtained by reviewing the employers' logbooks and hospital records. Contaminants were epoxy paint and stucco, paint solvent, hydraulic and industrial oil. The palm was injured in three cases and the fingers in nine. In 91% of cases, the accident occurred in the last two hours of the work shift. Causes were mishandling in nine cases and rupture of the high-pressure equipment in three. Mean time to medical treatment was 42.5hr. Ten workers were permanently disabled. Prompt surgical intervention with debridement and decompression was done in two workers, who healed completely. The ten patients who were not treated immediately eventually experienced a high rate of disability and five of them also suffered amputation.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 2003, Vol.43, No.5, p.539-542. Illus. 16 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Control of exposure to triglycidyl isocyanurate (TGIC) in coating powders
This guidance is aimed at all persons involved with the formulation or use of coating powders which contain TGIC. Contents: applicable legislation; characteristics of TGIC; health effects (R and S phrases); exposure routes; exposure limits (maximum exposure limit 0.1mg/m3 8 hour TWA); precautions that users of coating powders containing TGIC should take; maintenance of control measures; monitoring of exposure; measure of exposure levels; health surveillance; information, instruction and training; accidents, incidents and emergency procedures. Revision of CIS 99-247.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, May 2003. 6p. 10 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/eis15.pdf [in English]
Delgado Cobos P., Porcel Muñoz J., Abril Muñoz I., Torres Prieto N., Terán Rodríguez A., Zugasti Makazaga A.
Dermal exposure to chemical substances - Quantitative study in automobile paint shops
Exposición dérmica a sustancias químicas - Estudio cuantitativo en talleres de pintura de coches [in Spanish]
Following a review of the various forms of dermal exposure and the key factors involved in the skin absorption of chemical substances, this article presents the results of a quantitative study on skin exposure carried out in automobile paint shops. Exposures were determined for the various tasks including filling the spray gun, spraying and spray gun cleaning. Hand exposures are much higher during spray gun filling and cleaning than during spraying (920 and 926mg/h as compared to 159mg/h). Body exposure is higher during spraying than during spray gun cleaning; during both of these tasks, the lower extremities are the most exposed.
Prevención, trabajo y salud, 2003, No.27, p.26-33. Illus. 12 ref.
Grasel S.S., Alves V.A.F., da Silva C.S., Cruz O.L.M.., Almeida E.R., de Oliveira E.
Clinical and histopathological changes of the nasal mucosa induced by occupational exposure to sulphuric acid mists
The aim of this study was to assess potential alterations of the nasal mucosa by clinical and histopathological evaluation of workers exposed to sulfuric acid mists at anodizing plants and to correlate the findings with duration of exposure and sulfuric acid concentrations in the air. A total of 52 workers from five plants underwent a clinical evaluation (standard questionnaire, clinical, and ear, nose and throat examination including nasal endoscopy). For the histopathological study, 20 of the 52 subjects (study group) were randomly selected, as well as 11 unexposed subjects (control group), matched by sex, age and smoking habit. Nasal biopsy specimens were obtained from the anterior septum mucosa. The histopathological study revealed squamous metaplasia in 79% and atypia in 5% of the study group samples. No association was found between exposure duration and the clinical and histopathological variables, but a significant association was found between sulfuric acid concentrations higher than 200µg/m3 and pale mucosal patches and ulcerations in the exposed subjects. Logistic regression analysis showed that the exposed subjects had a fivefold risk of developing atypia compared with the unexposed subjects. The risk for histopathological lesions increased with higher sulfuric acid concentrations in the air, revealing an exposure-response relation.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2003, Vol.60, No.6, p.395-402. Illus. 20 ref.
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