Metalworking industry - 770 entries found
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Die casting machines
Pressgjutmaskiner [in Swedish]
This directive (effective 1 Jan. 1988) covers machines for die casting of metal and their furnaces. Contents: definitions; construction and safety; operation (controls); guards; switches and circuit breakers; marking; workplace layout; operating and maintenance instructions; safe operation; conformity testing and periodic checks. Detailed commentary and practical guidelines.
LiberDistribution, 162 89 Stockholm, Sweden, 13 Dec. 1984. 22p. Illus.
Health and Safety Executive
Practical advice on the design, safeguarding, maintenance and safe use of press brakes. Detailed contents: legal requirements in the United Kingdom; mechanical press brakes (general clutch and brake design considerations, failsafe stopping capability, overrun detection, stopping performance monitoring, brake conversion); hydraulic press brakes; electrical controls; methods of safeguarding and special considerations; tool design and use; safe working methods; maintenance and inspection; training of operators, toolsetters and supervisors; details of photoelectric safety systems.
HM Stationery Office, 49 High Holborn, London WC1V 6HB, United Kingdom, 1984. 31p. Illus. 13 ref. Price: £3.20.
Magni C., Rizzardo R., De Leo D., Salmi A.
Adverse environmental factors, peptic ulcer and chronic gastritis in a metalworking industry
This study included 917 men doing bluecollar jobs in an Italian metalworking plant in 1981. 60 of the workers had peptic ulcer and 26 had chronic gastritis. There was a correlation between the presence of these diseases and certain environmental factors (noise, temperature, vibration, shiftwork, workload and work departments).
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1984, Vol.75, No.3, p.215-220. 22 ref.
Chiesura P., Trevisan A., Gori G.P., Buzzo A., Calzavara V.
On the risk of cadmium poisoning in brazing operations
Sul rischio di intossicazione da cadmio nella saldobrasatura [in Italian]
4 small workshops were investigated where special-steel cutting tools are repaired by brazing with metal alloys with a high cadmium content. Environmental cadmium concentrations were high (0.15-1.16mg/m3). The TLV for cadmium was exceeded for other jobs in the same area. There was good correlation between length and intensity of exposure in the 16 exposed workers and cadmium concentration in blood and urine. 1 case of clinical cadmium nephropathy was found. 2 other subjects showed high urinary β2 microglobulin levels. In most other workers urinary excretion of enzymes of tubular origin, particularly angiotensin converting enzyme, was above normal levels. Use of local exhaust ventilation and of full-face respirators are recommended for better prevention.
Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1984, Vol.75, No.4, p.300-305. 7 ref.
Waldron H.A., Waterhouse J.A.H., Tessema N.
Scrotal cancer in the West Midlands 1936-76
An analysis of the 344 cases of scrotal cancer registered in the West Midlands region of the United Kingdom between 1936 and 1976. A significantly high proportion of victims had been professionally exposed to mineral oils (25.9% toolsetters and toolfitters, 14.2% machine operators, 14.5% labourers and workers in other oily jobs, 7.9% workers with pitch and tar).
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1984, Vol.41, No.4, p.437-444. Illus. 20 ref.
Levy B.S., Hoffman L., Gottsegen S.
Severe respiratory tract irritation occurred in at least 74 of 100 boilermakers after exposure to high levels of vanadium pentoxide welding fumes during oil-to-coal conversion of a power plant in Massachussetts (USA). Most frequent symptoms were productive cough, sore throat, dyspnoea on exertion and chest pain or discomfort. Exposure was caused mainly by carrying out welding work in unventilated confined spaces. Vanadium fume exposure levels varied from 0.05 to 5.3mg/m3. The OSHA exposure limit for V2O5 is 0.05mg/m3.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1984, Vol.26, No.8, p.567-570. 9 ref.
Gevers D., Jacques P.
Dermatological problems caused by cutting fluids
Huidproblemen door snijvloeistoffen [in Dutch]
Analysis of skin diseases caused by cutting fluids classified from a dermatological point of view according to their water content; pure mineral oils rarely cause eczema - instead, they cause oil acne and skin tumours; cutting fluids with high water content (soluble oils, semi-synthetic and synthetic liquids) cause skin problems such as (commonly) irritant contact dermatitis, and (less commonly) allergic contact dermatitis. Preventive measures can be applied at the level of the liquid, the machines or the workers. Some of these measures are described.
Cahiers de médecine du travail - Cahiers voor arbeidsgeneeskunde, Sep. 1984, Vol.21, No.2, p.81-86. 28 ref.
The Swedish-German seminar on metalworking fluids in work environment
The Swedish-German seminar on metalworking fluids in work environment [in German]
The 15 papers presented at this seminar (15-16 June 1983, Stockholm, Sweden) are reproduced. Topics covered: applications of metalworking fluids; oils, cutting fluids and skin; toxicology and carcinogenicity; risk evaluation; separation of vapours and mists in air recirculation systems; reduction of burdens due to metalworking fluids; measures on machine tools; decomposition of components; air pollution from coolants; lubricants and their compounds; handling; improvement of the working environment.
Arbetarskyddsfonden, Tunnelgatan 31, Box 1122, 111 81 Stockholm, Sweden, 1984. 147p. Illus. Bibl.
Press brakes. Laser for safety
Presses plieuses. Le laser au service de la sécurité [in French]
Description of laser-beam operated safety devices installed on press brakes in 2 plants: in the first case, the beam (helium-neon type) is directed parallel to the rotation axis on the metal sheet being folded, and very close to it; in the second case (bending of very long and narrow panel elements), the press brake is equipped with a two-beam device, the first beam providing a safeguard between the tool and the sheet, and the second beam between the tool and the bottom die, between the operator and the bending zone. Another safety device is described: it consists of a push button that serves as a 2-hand control permitting the elimination of the risk of fingers getting trapped during the adjustment of the work-piece.
Travail et sécurité, Mar. 1984, No.3, p.171-177. Illus.
Mougeot B., Pierson G.
Laser for press brakes. Laser-beam safety device for press brakes
Laser pour presses plieuses. Dispositif de protection par faisceau laser pour presses plieuses [in French]
Review of the main hazards connected with press brakes, and of the traditional safety devices used (2-hand controls, electronic guards, distance protection, barrier protection). The principle of light-beam protection is presented, and a test device developed by INRS (the French OSH research institute) is described: a laser beam, whose emitter and detector are on 2 sides of the tool, permits the passage of the workpiece while preventing all hazardous movement of the machine when fingers are inserted.
Travail et sécurité, Mar. 1984, No.3, p.130-132 and 169-170. Illus.
Metalworking fluids - Description and analysis of research needs from viewpoint of work environment problems
Report by the Swedish Work Environment Fund's programme committee for research and development concerning work environment problems in connection with the use of lubricants and coolants in metalworking. Contents: analysis of needs and proposals for research and development (product choice and risk evaluation, technical measures preventing exposure, maintenance, handling and control methods); information material and its dissemination; establishment of priorities, time-schedules and follow-up. Appended are a list of the Fund's projects concerning lubricants and coolants, an estimate of the number of workers exposed to lubricants and coolants, and a report on the current situation in this field.
The Swedish Work Environment Fund, Box 1122, 111 81 Stockholm, Sweden, May 1983. 35p.
Van Ketel W.G., Kisch L.S.
The problem of sensitizing capacity of some Grotans used as bacteriocides in cooling oils
This study was performed in connection with 4 cases of hand dermatitis in workers machining cast-iron workpieces. The skin disorders had started after some new bactericides (Grotan OX and TK) were added to the coolants. The 4 cases and the results of patch tests are described. Most references from the literature on skin disorders due to biocides in coolants are concerned with formaldehyde releasers like Grotan BK, but there is a remarkable confusion about their sensitising capacity. The continuous contact with wet workpieces and soluble oils used over longer periods is supposed to be an irritant factor, sensitisation by formaldehyde or Grotans being perhaps a secondary phenomenon. From a bacteriological viewpoint, zinc-EDTA seems to be a good non-sensitising biocide.
Dermatosen in Beruf und Umwelt, 1983, Vol.31, No.4, p.118-121. 18 ref.
Notifiable injury statistics in factories - federated industry 1983
1983 Workplace injury statistics provided by the Engineering Employers' Federation in the United Kingdom. The data are broken down by region, cause, location and result of injury.
Engineering Employers' Federation, Broadway House, Tothill Street, London SW1H 9NO, United Kingdom, 1983. 4p.
Iron, copper and manganese metabolism in workers performing heavy physical work
Obmen železa, medi i marganca v organizme rabočih pri tjaželom fizičeskom trude [in Russian]
Examinations of 19 forging-shop workers showed that plasma iron levels were maximal in autumn and winter and minimal in spring and summer. The lowest levels of iron in the blood constituents were also found in the summer. Copper and manganese levels remained constant throughout the year. Iron in both blood fractions and copper in the plasma were lower after a work shift than before; manganese remained unchanged. Measurements of dietary intake and excretion of the 3 elements showed that the workers were in negative iron and manganese balance in winter and especially in summer. This probably reflects an excessive proportion of iron and manganese-poor vegetables in the diet and can be corrected by changes in, or suplements to, the diet.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Sep. 1983, No.9, p.21-24. 8 ref.
Use of antimicrobials in cutting fluids
Emploi des germicides dans les huiles de coupe [in French]
This paper, presented at a meeting of the Regional Technical Committee for Metalworking (Nord-Picardie, France), warns against the careless use of antimicrobial agents and describes effective measures for controlling bacterial growth in cutting-fluid tanks. Aspects covered: use of antimicrobials in cutting fluids; mechanism of bacterial contamination and degradation of water-based cutting fluids; role of disinfectants; chemical properties of disinfectants; use of disinfectants. Proposed preventive measures: filtration, controlled aeration of tank, centrifugation, agitation, purging of piping, keeping the equipment and working area clean.
Caisse régionale d'assurance maladie Nord-Picardie, Allée Vauban, 59661 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex, France, 1983. 15p.
Nuger B.K., Karpunin V.B.
Electrical safety of equipment
Ėlektrobezopasnost' oborudovanija [in Russian]
The electrical safety of high-voltage equipment in machine shops depends on the quality of insulation in the equipment and on the overvoltages to which the equipment is subject. Recording equipment attached to representative machines showed that internal overvoltages are due to single-phase grounding, resonance effects and switching. Overvoltages ≤1.7 times the nominal voltage have little effect on insulation, whereas higher overvoltages can produce arcing; switching a transformer when it is not under load and is carrying a heavy current can given overvoltages 6.5 times nominal. Failure of insulation depends not only on the magnitude of overvoltages, but also on their duration and frequency of occurrence. An equation is given to permit calculation of the service life of insulation. Several suggestions for limiting overvoltages are given.
Mašinostroitel', Mar. 1983, No.3, p.16-17.
Gallagher R.P., Threlfall W.J.
Cancer mortality in metal workers
Age-standardised proportional mortality ratios were calculated for 10,036 male metal workers in British Columbia (Canada) with the use of information on cause of death and occupation recorded in death registrations from 1950 to 1978. A significantly increased risk of death from lung cancer was found. Increased risk of death was also found for leukaemia and cancer of the rectum in metal mill workers, Hodgkin's Disease in welders and multiple myeloma in machinists.
Canadian Medical Association Journal, 1 Dec. 1983, Vol.129, p.1191-1194. 24 ref.
(Vsesojuznyj central'nyj naučno-issledovatel'skij institut ohrany truda)
Safety and health in hammer forging, drop forging and pressing shops
Bezopasnost' truda v kuznečno-pressovom proizvodstve [in Russian]
Literature survey of work conditions in forging shops, of associated accidents and their causes, of forging machinery and procedures, of appropriate preventive measures. Main hazards are: fumes and dust released by reheating furnaces, red-hot workpieces and drop-forging emulsions that decompose on contact with hot objects; radiant heat; impact noise; heavy monotonous work. OSH improvement strategy is outlined, and concrete solutions are described (fixed and moving guards, interlocking systems, two-hand controls).
VCNIIOT, VCSPS, Obolenskij per. 10, 119 021 Moskva, USSR, 1983. 52p. Illus. 29 ref.
Cativiela J.L.A., Megías del Rosal J., Ruiz de la Fuente S., Laborda Grima R.
Toxicology of cutting fluids
Toxicología de los fluídos de corte [in Spanish]
This literature survey covers: description of various cutting fluids (mineral oils, lubricating oils; study of additives (for high-pressure applications, emulsifiers, sterilisers, antioxidants and rust inhibitors, anti-foaming agents, dyes); health hazards due to cutting fluids (skin damage, respiratory problems, bacterial infections, cancer risk due to the presence of nitroso amines in lubricants); preventive measures.
Prevención, Apr.-June 1983, No.84, p.7-14. Illus. 15 ref.
Romo R., Mattila M.
Design of a guard for certain machine tools
Eräiden lastuavien työstökoneiden lastunsuojuksen suunnittelu [in Finnish]
Examination of the hazards of metalworking machines: milling machines, drilling machines, slotters, metal saws and broaching machines. The design of a fixed guard is presented, satisfying the requirements of easy reassembly for various metal cutting operations, maintenance and repairs; convenient positioning during normal working conditions; reliability; low cost.
Tampere University of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Labor Protection, P.O. Box 527, 33101 Tampere 10, Finland, 1983. 47p. Illus. 10 ref.
Vineis P., Di Prima S.
Cutting oils and bladder cancer
This letter reviews evidence from studies in the USA, England, Canada, Finland, and Italy indicating that an excess of bladder cancer is occurring amongst machinists and other metal workers exposed to cutting and antirust oils. Aromatic amines used as antioxidants in such oils could be a contributing factor.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Oct. 1983, Vol.9, No.5, p.449-450. 15 ref.
Terrana T., Orsini S., Sesana G., Merluzzi F.
Occupational exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields in 16 undertakings in the metalworking, wood and plastic sectors
Esposizione professionale a campi elettromagnetici a radiofrequenza in 16 aziende dei settori metalmeccanico, legno e plastica [in Italian]
Field strength measurements were made on heaters used for plastic sealing, wood glueing and metal welding and hardening. The exposure of 58 operators was compared with Russian, Polish and Canadian and US standards. Exposure to electric and magnetic fields were above the highest permissible levels in 58 and 31% of workers, respectively.
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 1983, Vol.74, No.5, p.394-403. 14 ref.
Cutting fluids - A safer working environment thanks to their correct use
Skärvätskor - Säkrare arbetsmiljö med rätt hantering [in Swedish]
Publication written for machine-tool operators and containing information on: occupations with exposure to cutting fluids; advantages and disadvantages of cutting fluids; health hazards; fluid categories (oils, emulsions, solutions) and additives; changes in the fluids due to heat, oxidation, bacteria; measures to be taken to eliminate or reduce risks (choice of suitable fluid, exhaust devices, protective screens, personal protective equipment, personal hygiene); the importance of informing the user (list of substances present in these fluids, with their harmful properties); machinery; monitoring of the workplace; checking the bacterial content and the pH level; fluid replacement and equipment cleaning. Further discussions on: role of the safety representative, good working practices, help provided by the plant health services.
Arbetarskyddsfonden, Box 1122, 111 81 Stockholm, Sweden, 1983. 23p. Illus.
Clashing of pipes stopped by "fingers"
Skrammel av rör stoppas av "fingrar" [in Swedish]
Brief description of the solution of a noise problem in a tube and bar straightening shop in which the pieces fed to the straightening machines were rolled down an inclined plane. Instead of letting the tubes fall in bundles into the conveyor, the modified plane has mechanically actuated fingers which let the tubes roll individually for short distances so as to keep them moving slowly. The overall noise level at the operator's station was reduced from 96 to 78dB(A), and impact noise was reduced from 126 to 95dB(A).
Arbetsmiljö, 1983, No.7, p.20-21. Illus.
Sixt R., Bake B., Abrahamsson G., Thiringer G.
Lung function of sheet metal workers exposed to fiber glass
The object of this study was to determine whether new, more sensitive lung function tests could reveal changes in subjects exposed to glass fibre. Out of 532 sheet metal workers sent a questionnaire, 251 responded, and 7 pairs were selected as conforming with the requirements of no history of smoking, pleural plaques or asbestos exposure. No evidence of small airway dysfunction or restrictive or obstructive ventilatory impairment was found, but the elastic recoil pressures of the exposed group was slightly increased. Similar findings were obtained in a further group of 9 exposed workers examined, who also showed a shift to the right of the pressure-volume curve. Glass fibre can conceivably cause a faint and probably harmless fibrous reaction in the lung parenchyma.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1 Feb. 1983, Vol.9, No.1, p.9-14. Illus. 24 ref.
Scansetti G., Lamon S., Botta G.C., Talarico S., Piolatto G.
Evaluation of cobalt exposure in hard metal production with environmental and biological determinations
Valutazione dell'esposizione a cobalto nella produzione di metalli duri con misure ambientali e biologiche [in Italian]
Area and personal air sampling at this small plant showed that airborne cobalt exceeded the TLV-TWA of 0.1mg/m3 in less than 10% of samples. Urinary cobalt levels measured by atomic absorption spectrometry in 10 exposed workers were higher than those of unexposed controls. Hand-press operators, whose work area showed the highest environmental concentrations, had urinary cobalt levels which were more than 200 times those of controls. No precise relation was found between environmental and urinary cobalt values.
Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1983, Vol.74, No.4, p.323-332. Illus. 31 ref.
Continuous noise and sensorineural hearing loss: a case study
29 audiometric tests undergone by a worker employed over 26 years in a structural maintenance shop at a petrochemical company were analysed. At retirement, he had irreversible sensorineural hearing loss. The relationship between continuous noise (average 90dBA within 1.83m of operating equipment) and sensorineural hearing loss was linear. Auditory capability consistently deteriorated over long periods of exposure to continuous noise.
Human Factors, Aug. 1983, vol.25, No.4, p.425-429. Illus. 14 ref.
Beck H., Jeske A.
Dust explosion hazards in the grinding and polishing of fine-zinc casting alloys and preventive measures
Staubexplosionsgefahren beim Schleifen und Polieren von Feinzink-Gusslegierungen und Massnahmen zu ihrer Vermeidung [in German]
Contents of this research report: determination of flammability and explosibility parameters (sample preparation, flammability testing of deposited dusts, determination of ignition and flameless combustion temperatures, description of apparatus); hazards (explosive air-dust mixtures, such sources of ignition as hot surfaces, flames and hot gases, friction sparks, electric sparks, chemical reactions); explosion prevention during grinding and polishing of alloy castings containing electrolytic zinc (primary measures such as wet grinding, water spraying, wet dust collection and exhausting of deposited dust; elimination of possible ignition sources; explosion protection at the design stage).
Berufsgenossenschaftliches Institut für Arbeitssicherheit, Postfach 2043, 5205 Sankt Augustin 2, Federal Republic of Germany, 1983. 30p. 26 ref.
Incidence of musculoskeletal disorders in a mechanical engineering plant, with emphasis on occupational shoulder injuries
Förekomst av muskel- och skelettsjukdomar i en verkstadsindustri med särskild uppmärksamhet på arbetsbetingade skulderbesvär [in Swedish]
A survey was conducted in a Swedish firm employing approx. 10,000 workers. 47.1% of all long-term sick leaves were due to musculoskeletal diseases. Neck and shoulder problems were as frequent as back problems, and predominated in light manufacturing workshops. A study of 112 long-term absences due to shoulder injury among manual workers (with a high proportion of women and foreign workers) pinpoints some individual factors (anthropometric data, muscular strength, correlations with age, personality, social factors) and factors present at work (height and distance of work surface, load on the arms, effect of work breaks, rhythm and method of work). Thanks to these results, electromyographic measurement of muscle tension in work situations has been introduced, leading to improved working conditions. English translation published in Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, Supplement No.8, 1983, p.1-60.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1983. 79p. Illus. 75 ref.
Kusaka Y., Ichikawa Y., Sugimoto K., Goto S.
Bronchopulmonary diseases due to hard metal dust - Viewpoints of dust exposure measurement
Atmospheric concentrations were measured at a cemented-carbide tool factory. The powder handling room had the highest total dust and cobalt concentrations. The highest personal exposure to cobalt was 1.29mg/m3 (dry grinding using diamond wheels). Cobalt exposure to powder handlers was 0.56, to press operators 0.66, to shapers 0.19, to wet grinders 0.07 and to sintering workers 0.03mg/m3.
Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, 1983, Vol.25, No.3, p.155-160. 21 ref.
Kern U., Lingemann H.F., Schnauber H.
Ergonomic design of tongs for drop forging
Ergonomische Gestaltung von Zangen für die Arbeit in Gesenkschmieden [in German]
Remarks on the development of tongs and on accidents in drop forging are followed by an analysis of the process and of the tongs presently used in it. Biomechanical analysis of the manipulation of objects with the tongs (hand position and effort, in particular) produced suggestions for improved tongs: establishment of criteria for design and operation, modified conventional tongs, design and prototype of a novel gripping tool with a solid handle (jaws on one end are operated by a lever on the other end).
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Unfallforschung, Postfach 170202, 4600 Dortmund 17, Federal Republic of Germany, 1983. 62p. Illus. 29 ref. Price: DM.15.00.
Silence and transparency
Silence et transparence [in French]
Description of a sound-insulating enclosure for large-series metal-component forming machinery requiring constant tending by an operator and free access to mechanical feed and ejection points. The enclosure includes plexiglass doors and interior sound-absorbent lining of all metal and plexiglass casings. Special supports are used to reduce or eliminate the transmission of vibration to the floor.
Travail et sécurité, Dec. 1983, No.12, p.654-657. Illus.
How to work safely with machines - Drilling machines
Jak bezpečně pracovat se stroji - Vrtačky [in Czech]
The 3 major sources of injury to operators of drilling machines are: the workpiece (almost 30% of all injuries); the rotating tool (also nearly 30%), and chips thrown off by the tool (10%). The injuries are preventable by the use of reliable work-holding devices and guards and by common-sense safe working methods (several of which are described). Older machines present more hazards (such as exposed drive belts), but these can be corrected. A list of relevant Czechoslovak safety regulations is included.
Bezpečnost a hygiena práce, 1983, No.9, p.293-294. Illus.
Rystedt I., Fischer T.
Relationship between nickel and cobalt sensitization in hard metal workers
Of 853 powder metallurgy workers patch-tested with 20 substances from the work environment, 2 men and 38 women were sensitive to nickel. 40% of these had had severe hand eczema, generally within 6-12 months of starting work. 25% of the nickel-sensitive subjects developed cobalt allergy, compared with 5% in the group at large. Nickel sensitivity and eczema appeared to precede the cobalt allergy. Eczema was more severe in individuals with simultaneous sensitivity to nickel and cobalt than to a single metal. 95% of the women allergic to nickel had pierced ear lobes, and the use of earrings containing nickel after piercing is thought to be a major cause of nickel sensitivity. Individuals with a history of jewellery dermatitis should be patch-tested before employment in the cemented-carbide industry.
Contact Dermatitis, May 1983, Vol.9, No.3, p.195-200. 25 ref.
Information and service from suppliers/manufacturers on lubricants and coolants for metalworking
Information och service från leverantörer/tillverkare på området smörj- och kylmedel för metallbearbetning [in Swedish]
Proceedings of a seminar organised in Stockholm, Sweden (1 Oct. 1981), where the following aspects were discussed: present-day situation in the Swedish coolant and lubricant market (summary of a survey; information given by suppliers and manufacturers on their products); compatibility of technical requirements to be met by cutting fluids with occupational hygiene requirements (information of maintenance workers and machinists); new lubricants and need for changes; requirements to be met by additives (questionable necessity of nitrites; hazards of bactericides); need for a central evaluation service for assessing metalworking lubricants and coolants.
Arbetskyddsfonden, Bos 1122, 111 81 Stockholm, Sweden, Feb. 1983. 52p. Illus.
Alexandersson R., Atterhög J.H.
EKG changes in cobalt-exposed wet grinders before and after vacation
EKG-förändringar hos koboltexponerade våtslipare före och efter arbetsuppehåll [in Swedish]
Comparative study of 24 grinders in a Swedish factory where metal carbide tools are made. The workers are exposed to 0.01mg cobalt per m3 workplace air. Electrocardiograms recorded before and after 4 weeks of vacation showed significant differences, and the electrocardiograms taken after vacation did not differ from those of unexposed controls. Thus, the electrocardiographic alterations produced by cobalt exposure are reversible.
Arbetarskyddsverket, Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1983. 15p. 24 ref.
Biological effects of mineral oil aerosols
Biologische Wirkung von Ölaerosolen [in German]
This report is a review of toxicological and epidemiological literature concerning the effects of oil mists generated from cutting and lubricating oils. Animal experiments have shown that droplet size is as important a determinant of effect as the source and composition of the oil. The epidemiologic data do not support the establishment of a threshold limit value, because they represent such a variety of oils and additives, as well as degradation products and impurities arising during machining of metals. However, the results of the animal experiments suggest 5mg/m3 as a maximum exposure level for pure oils.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz, Postfach 170202, 4600 Dortmund 17, Federal Republic of Germany, 1983. 48p. 68 ref. Price: DM.14.75.
Occupational health problems associated with the use of lubricants and cutting fluids in metalworking
Arbetsmiljöproblem vid användning av smörj- och kylmedel för metallbearbetning [in Swedish]
Report of a seminar organised by the Swedish Foundation for Occupational Safety and Health (Kumla, Sweden, 31 Mar.-1 Apr. 1981), with contributions on: composition of cutting fluids; health hazards they pose (eczema, skin allergies, skin cancer, oil acne, lung diseases); skin allergies (role of added disinfectants); measures of protection against exposure to cutting fluids (determination in air, bacteriologic studies, wearing of protective clothing, gloves and glasses, use of barrier creams); role of the occupational hygienist in large and small companies; choice of appropriate fluid from a technological point of view; effect of published information on the subject. Summary of round table discussions: technical measures for the reduction of direct contact with the fluids; occupational health problems; measurement and control methods; choice of and information on the products; information on the utilisation of cutting fluids.
Arbetarskyddsfonden, Box 1122, 111 81 Stockholm, Sweden, Feb. 1983. 42p.
Labour Inspectorate (Arbeidsinspectie)
Blanking-and-drawing dies - Safety measures to be taken when stamping out articles from metal strip
Snij-trekstempels - Beschutting bij het stampen van voorwerpen uit stroken [in Dutch]
This directive applies to the dies used in presses fed with metal strip. Contents: construction and functioning of a blanking-and-drawing die; maximum dimensions of openings in guards; different types of fixed guards (fixed to the die, fixed to the press, wide-opening guards) and mode of operation of guards; prevention of escape of the drawing-spring rod in case of failure.
Directoraat-Generaal van de Arbeid, Postbus 69, 2270 MA Voorburg, Netherlands, 1983. 10p. Illus.
Failed protection: Barrier creams increased skin absorption
Skyddsförmågan underkänd: Barriärkrämer ökade hudgenomträngning [in Swedish]
Summary of 2 studies of the protection provided by several barrier creams currently used in the metalworking industry. The first study shows that these creams neither protect sufficiently against cobalt chloride (an allergen) nor against sodium lauryl sulfate (an irritant), and that they actually increase the skin absorption of cobalt ions. The other study examined 6 creams and found that none of them protect sufficiently against cutting fluids. Barrier creams make it easier to wash hands after work, but a good skin cleanser combined with a protective cream provides better protection than do barrier creams.
Arbetsmiljö, 1983, No.4, p.50. Illus.
Microbial aspects of health hazards from water based metal working fluids
A review of the identity and properties of microorganisms found in water-based cutting fluids and related systems showed that only Klebsiella, Pseudomonas and Aspergillus are likely to be encountered. As these organisms are only opportunistic pathogens, they present a hazard only to persons with reduced resistance to infection (e.g., workers undergoing treatment with immunosuppressive drugs).
Tribology International, June 1983, Vol.16, No.3, p.136-140. Illus. 28 ref.
Fischer T., Rystedt I.
Skin protection against ionized cobalt and sodium lauryl sulphate with barrier creams
Report of a study on 853 workers with current or past exposure to hard metal who were examined and patch tested with materials from their working environment including metal allergens. Workers with positive reactions to cobalt chloride or sodium lauryl sulfate were retested first with dilutions of the same chemical on bare skin and then on skin prepared with a layer of barrier or emollient cream used for hand care in the workers' factory. The cream gave no protection against either chemical - in fact, it seemed to enhance the penetration of cobalt ions. The value of such creams as protection against metal allergens is questionable.
Contact Dermatitis, Mar. 1983, Vol.9, No.2, p.125-130. 22 ref. Illus.
Fischer T., Rystedt I.
Cobalt allergy in hard metal workers
Report of a study of 853 cemented-carbide workers who were patch tested with substances from their environment. Initial patch tests with 1% cobalt chloride gave 62 positive reactions and secondary serial dilution tests reproduced allergic reactions in 39 workers. A history of hand eczema was found in 36 of the 39 workers with reproducible reactions. The jobs of hand etching and hand grinding had the highest risk of sensitisation. Allergy to cobalt alone was found in 24 of these workers; in the other 15 cases there was simultaneous allergy to nickel and/or chromium which had probably developed before exposure to cobalt. The prerequisites for the development of cobalt allergy are probably an occupation which produces hand trauma (such as etching or grinding) and irritant contact dermatitis and/or a previous contact allergy or atopy.
Contact Dermatitis, Mar. 1983, Vol.9, No.2, p.115-121. 26 ref.
Pulmonary fibrosis due to cemented metal carbides - Report on three cases
Fibrose pulmonaire due aux carbures métalliques frittés. A propos de trois observations [in French]
MD thesis. Three cases of diffuse interstitial fibrosis due to cemented carbides are presented in which cobalt appears to have played a definite part in addition to individual factors. An immunoallergic element may be present in one case. The metallurgy of cemented carbides (composition, manufacture, exposed workplaces) is discussed. The respiratory effects, characterised by a bronchial irritation syndrome and diffuse interstitial fibrosis, are considered from clinical, radiological, functional, histological and aetiopathological standpoints. Evaluation of the occupational hazard; TLV for cobalt (0.05mg/m3) in the USA), dust analysis. Importance of medical and technical prevention. Compensation.
Université de Paris VII, Faculté de médecine Xavier-Bichat, Paris, France, 1983. 71p. 43 ref.
Morel C., Reynier M., Falcy M., Protois J.C.
French National Research and Safety Institute (Institut national de recherche et de sécurité)
Hydrogène phosphoré [in French]
Synonyms, uses, industrial operations likely to set free phosphine, physical and chemical properties, methods of detection and determination in air, fire hazards (highly flammable gas), pathology and toxicology (experimental toxicity in rats, toxicity for humans: massive inhalation of the gas may provoke neurological and respiratory problems; symptoms caused by inhalation of lower concentrations; American TLV (ACIGH): 0.3ppm). Information on French regulations concerning health and safety at work and on French and international regulations concerning transport. Technical and medical recommendations.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st quarter 1983, No.110, p.137-140. 16 ref.
Rystedt I., Fischer T., Lagerholm B.
Patch testing with sodium tungstate
Report on the study of 853 persons who have worked or are still working in the manufacture of cemented carbides, in which sodium tungstate was included in a patch test with a panel of substances from the workers' environment. No allergic reactions to tungstate were found. However, irritant pustular reactions appeared in 2% of the patch tests; these pustular reactions were often reproducible.
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 1983, Vol.9, No.1, p.69-73. 15 ref.
(SENAI (Confederação nacional da indústria))
Analysis of occupational risks - Automobile repair
Análise de riscos do trabalho - Mecânica de automóveis [in Portuguese]
This illustrated manual uses a very convenient tabular format to provide risk analysis of automobile repair work. The work of the automobile mechanic is broken down into 51 different tasks, each accompanied by a detailed description of the operation, the accompanying risks and the preventive measures to be applied.
Fundacentro, C.P. 11484, CEP 05499 São Paulo, SP, Brazil, 1982. 120p. Illus.
Safety and health in the metalworking industry - Regulations
Sécurité et hygiène dans l'industrie du métal - Dispositions réglementaires [in French]
A guide to the main safety and health measures prescribed in Belgium for the metalworking industries.
Commissariat général à la promotion du travail, 53 rue Belliard, 1040 Bruxelles, Belgium, 1982. 36p.
Kyttälä I., Nykänen H.
Control of impact noise in sheet-metal work
Iskumelun torjunta raskaslevytöissä [in Finnish]
Report on a study of noise reduction in sheet-metal work, where impact noise levels of 130-150dB(A) can occur. The manufacture of tempered-steel plate elements for mobile telescope-jib cranes was chosen as an example. The main source of impact noise was the "boat-effect", result of press-brake beam deflections. Other causes were variations in the thickness and strength of the plate, unevenly worn tools, and sometimes the strong friction existing between the bottom tool and the plate. New mathematical models of plate behaviour during press-brake bending are presented. A new type of press brake is described, which produces significantly less noise. Noise reduction measures in welding and other steps of the manufacturing process are also presented.
Tampere University of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Labor Protection, P.O. Box 527, 33101 Tampere 10, Finland, 1982. 249p. Illus. 105 ref.
Nečaeva E.N., Berliner E.G., Dubejkovskaja L.S., Kuz'minskaja G.N., Frolova A.D., Černyh L.V.
Toxicological and hygienic characteristics of barium-based ceramics used in the radio industry
Toksikologo-gigieničeskaja harakteristika radiokeramičeskih materialov na osnove barija [in Russian]
Industrial hygiene surveys showed that workplace air in factories manufacturing barium-based ceramics for the electonics industry was contaminated with dust containing barium at levels above the MAC. Toxicological experiments showed that the biological activity of the ceramics was equivalent to the activity of mechanical mixtures of their components, and was determined by their barium content. The effect of the barium was not affected by the presence of other metals. An MAC of 0.5mg/m3 (as barium) is recommended for barium titanate, barium titanate-zirconate, barium tetratitanate, barium-calcium titanate and barium-aluminium titanate. The safety of working conditions would be improved by mechanisation of operations which are now performed manually during the servicing of crushing and grinding equipment.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Sep. 1982, No.9, p.10-14. 7 ref.
Safety guides for the use of machine tools
Guías de seguridad para el uso y operación de las máquinas herramientas [in Spanish]
A manual in the form of 10 booklets, each presenting the safety measures to be observed in the use of a specific metal-working machine tool. Each guide includes an introduction, a definition and a classification of the given class of machines, their use, the specific dangers presented by the machines, accident causes, basic safety rules and recommendations, and a bibliography. Machines dealt with: drills, planers and shapers, lathes, saws, shears, bending rolls, presses, grinders, milling machines. The last guide deals with personal protective equipment and safety devices built into machine tools.
Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Paseo de la Reforma 476, 06698 México DF, Mexico. 10 booklets, 313p. Illus. Bibl.
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