Metalworking industry - 770 entries found
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Tenkate T.D., Collins M.J.
Personal ultraviolet radiation exposure of workers in a welding environment
The personal ultraviolet exposure levels of a group of welders and nearby workers at a metal fabrication workshop were estimated using photosensitive polymer film badges. The badges were attached to the workers' eye protection and clothing, and also placed throughout the work area. The estimated ocular and body exposures for both welders and nonwelders were considerably higher than the maximum possible exposure (MPE) limit. The ambient ultraviolet radiation levels in the factory exceeded the MPE by an average of 5.5 times, even in nonwelding areas. Welders require additional ocular protection to supplement conventional welding helmets, and exposed areas of skin of workers in this environment should also be protected.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1997, Vol.58, No.1, p.33-38. Illus. 28 ref.
Technical and organizational measures to reduce diesel engine emissions
Technische und organisatorische Massnahmen zur Reduzierung von Dieselmotoremissionen [in German]
Topics: compliance with exposure limits; diesel engines; excavators; exhaust gases; Germany; machinery industry; motor fuel; ventilation.
G+S - Gesund und Sicher, Aug. 1996, No.8, p.226-228.
Tosal Suárez J.M., Espeso Santiago J.A., Fernández Urgellés J.R., Fernández Zapico F.
Gantry cranes: Status
Puentes grúa: informe de situación [in Spanish]
Topics: cranes; metalworking industry; portal cranes; preventive maintenance; safety checks; Spain; statistical evaluation.
Salud y trabajo, 1996, No.116, p.20-24. Illus. 3 ref.
Occupational risk factors and control measures - Foundries and related metal industries
Repertorio de factores de riesgo ocupacional y medidas de control - Sectores de fundición e industrias metálicas afines [in Spanish]
Topics: basic metal industries; biological hazards; chemical safety; electrical safety; ergonomics; explosion protection; fire protection; foundries; hazard evaluation; job-exposure relation; lighting; manufacturing processes; mechanical hazards; medical supervision; metalworking industry; noise control; radiation protection; risk factors; safety and health committees; safety and health engineering; safety devices; safety guides; safety programmes; social aspects; temperature control; vibration control.
Seguro Social, Protección Laboral, Administradora de Riesgos Profesionales, Santafé de Bogotá, Colombia, 2nd ed., 1996. 69p. Illus. 12 ref.
Frieling E., Pfitzmann J., Pfaus H.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Work organisation and working hours in the field of research and development - An empirical analysis of mechanical and electrical engineering
Arbeitsorganisation und Arbeitszeitsregelungen im F&E-Bereich - Eine empirische Analyse in der Metall- und Elektrobranche [in German]
Topics: computer aided design; electronics industry; flexible working time; Germany; machinery industry; part-time employment; questionnaire survey; statistical aspects; work organization; work time schedules.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Verlag für neue Wissenschaft GmbH, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1996. xi, 240p. Illus. 113 ref.
Heudorfer W., Gebhardt H., Bulheller S.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Cutting resistance of protective gloves
Schnittfestigkeit von Schutzhandschuhen [in German]
Topics: cutting resistance; description of technique; experimental determination; hand and arm protection; materials testing; metalworking industry; protective gloves.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 101110, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1996. 151p. Illus. 23 ref. Price: DEM 29.00.
Atelier de métallerie [in French]
Topics: doors; electrical safety; fire protection; France; indoor communication ways; legislation; lighting; materials handling; metalworking industry; premises and workplaces; safety by design; thermal environment; training manuals; training material; welfare facilities; workplace design.
Organisme Professionnel de Prévention du Bâtiment et des Travaux Publics (OPPBTP), 204, rond-point du Pont-de Sèvres, Tour Amboise, 92516 Boulogne-Billancourt, France, 1996. 40p. Illus. 29 ref. Price: FRF 50.00 (subscribers), FRF 62.50 (non-subscribers).
Popendorf W., Miller E.R., Sprince N.L., Selim M.S., Thorne P.S., Davis C.S., Jones M.L.
The utility of preliminary surveys to detect the cause of acute metalworking fluid hazards
Topics: coolants; cutting fluids; dermatitis; epidemiologic study; metalworking industry; respiratory impairment; smoking; USA.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 1996, Vol.30, No.6, p.744-749. 16 ref.
Hands D., et al.
Comparison of metalworking fluid mist exposures from machining with different levels of machine enclosure
Personal samples from automotive machining and grinding operations collected over six years were divided into three groups based on the type and extent of control measures: machining equipment with original equipment manufacturer (OEM) total enclosures and local exhaust ventilation; machining equipment with partial or retrofit enclosures and local exhaust ventilation; and equipment with little or no enclosure. Employees operating equipment with OEM enclosures had significantly lower exposures than the other groups. There was no difference between the exposures of operators of equipment with retrofit enclosures compared to operators without enclosures. OEM enclosures provide the most effective control of metalworking fluid mist exposure.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1996, Vol.57, No.12, p.1173-1178. Illus. 16 ref.
Thorne P.S., DeKoster J.A., Subramanian P.
Environmental assessment of aerosols, bioaerosols, and airborne endotoxins in a machining plant
Bioaerosol monitoring was undertaken at eight machining sites and one assembly site in an engine plant. The machining sites represented areas supplied with three different metalworking fluid (MWF) formulations. Bulk in-use MWF samples were collected at the machining sites and compared with air measurements. Gravimetric concentrations of MWF aerosol in the air were all less than 5mg/m3 and were significantly higher on the older engine line with fewer engineering controls. Airborne levels of endotoxin were strongly correlated with the bulk MWF endotoxin concentration and were particularly high when microbial growth in MWF was excessive. Levels of endotoxin in these plants may exceed the thresholds previously identified for acute respiratory health effects.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1996, Vol.57, No.12, p.1163-1167. Illus. 14 ref.
Woskie S.R., et al.
Exposure assessment for a field investigation of the acute respiratory effects of metalworking fluids. I. Summary of findings
Worker exposures to metalworking fluids at an automotive part machining facility were evaluated. Exposures were measured as the inhalable concentrations of the metalworking fluid aerosol, a variety of metals and elements, and endotoxin. The level of culturable bacteria in the aerosol fraction less than 8µm was also measured. The exposed workers had higher inhalable aerosol exposures, higher airborne culturable microbial counts, and higher airborne endotoxin levels than unexposed workers. Elemental concentrations of iron, chlorine and sulfur were also higher among the exposed workers.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1996, Vol.57, No.12, p.1154-1162. Illus. 35 ref.
Wilsey P.W., et al.
Exposures to inhalable and "total" oil mist aerosol by metal machining shop workers
Personal exposures to cutting oil aerosols in a metal machining facility were measured by a new approach based on collection of the inhalable fraction, intended to represent all the particles that are capable of entering through the nose and/or mouth during breathing. Workers wore two personal aerosol samplers, a 37mm type for total aerosol exposure, and the other for inhalable aerosol exposure. Results were consistent with findings in other industries and indicated that exposure to inhalable aerosol was higher than exposure to "total" aerosol. Studies have shown that the 37mm sampler undersamples with respect to true total aerosol and inhalable aerosol. Future exposures will be assessed on the basis of the inhalable fraction.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1996, Vol.57, No.12, p.1149-1153. Illus. 17 ref.
Rossignol M., Seguin P., DeGuire L.
Evaluation of the utility of spirometry in a regional public health screening program for workers exposed to welding fumes
Pulmonary questionnaires and spirometric tests were administered twice at five yearly intervals to 229 welders/cutters from 31 metal manufacturing plants. Results of the first spirometric test suggested that a high lifetime exposure to welding fumes was associated with better lung functions (healthy worker effect). Investigation of the average annual change in spirometric values between the two screenings revealed no association between lung function and exposure to welding fumes. It is recommended that the screening programme should be restricted to administration of the questionnaire, while spirometry should be reserved for diagnostic purposes in workers with reported respiratory problems.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 1996, Vol.38, No.12, p.1259-1263. 29 ref.
Lasfargues G., Lavandier M.
Respiratory disorders induced by exposure to hard metal dust
Affections respiratoires liées à l'exposition aux poussières de métaux durs [in French]
Cemented carbides are alloys produced by processes of powder metallurgy successively combining compression and cementing from tungsten carbide powder using cobalt powder as binder. Exposure to cemented carbide dust causes various respiratory, bronchial or parenchymatous diseases. This data sheet reviews pathologies induced by such exposure: irritative syndrome; asthma; hypersensitivity pneumopathy; diffuse interstitial fibrosis of the lungs; bronchopulmonary cancer; other; compensation and prevention in France; air monitoring and biomonitoring of exposures (ACGIH TLV-TWA for cobalt recently reduced from 50 to 20µ/m3); medical surveillance of workers exposure to cemented carbides dust.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 3rd Quarter 1996, No.112, 7p. Illus. 117 ref.
Masset D., Malchaire J., Piette A., Cock N.
Cross-sectional study of low back pain and functional capabilities of the trunk
Lombalgies et capacités fonctionnelles du tronc - Etude transversale [in French]
A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the interest of anthropometric measurements and isometric and dynamic performances of the trunk as discriminators between two groups of subjects with (L.B.P.) or without (N.L.B.P.) low back pain. These groups were composed respectively of 78 steelworkers having reported L.B.P. during the last 12 months and 315 without lumbar history. The protocol included an interview with questions about the lumbar symptoms, a clinical examination, anthropometric measurements and a series of functional tests performed with an isoinertial dynamometer. L.B.P. was significantly more frequent among the workers presenting gait abnormalities, impaired cervical mobility and of the static characteristics of the lower limbs in the frontal plane, while the anthropomorphic differences between the two groups concern solely the mesomorphy and ectomorphy indices of the Heath-Carter somatotype method. The functional performances of the trunk of the L.B.P. workers were almost uniformly reduced, but the differences reached significance only for the angular velocities and, to a lesser extent, for the dynamic torques. However, the discrimination analyses point out the poor interest of the isoinertial tests in the individual follow-up of the workers in occupational medicine.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, July 1996, Vol.57, No.4, p.256-263. 29 ref.
Wang Z., Dong D., Liang X., Qu G., Wu J., Xu X.
Cancer mortality among silicotics in China's metallurgical industry
A retrospective cohort study of lung cancer among silicotics in the Chinese metallurgical industry was conducted on 4372 male subjects. Significant excess lung cancer mortality risk was observed among silicotics in all occupational categories. A more than twofold excess lung cancer risk was reported among both smoking and non-smoking silicotics.
International Journal of Epidemiology, 1996, Vol.25, No.5, p.913-917. 14 ref.
Bangha E., Hinnen U., Elsner P.
Irritancy testing in occupational dermatology: Comparison between two quick tests and the acute irritation induced by sodium lauryl sulphate
This study is a comparison between two quick, non-invasive irritancy tests (using dimethyl sulfoxide and sodium hydroxide) with the time-consuming patch testing relying on sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS). No correlation between the "quick tests" and SLS tests was observed as a result of skin testing in 181 metal worker trainees. It is proposed to use a spectrum of different tests in occupational dermatology for predicting the individual's risk of developing irritant contact dermatitis.
Acta dermato-venereologica, Nov. 1996, Vol.76, No.6, p.450-452. 10 ref.
Aluminium metalworking workshop - Safe working practices
Atelier de métallerie aluminium - Travail en sécurité [in French]
Videotape on safe working practices in a workshop where aluminium window-frames are made.
OPPBTP, Comité national, Service Formation, Tour Amboise, 204, rond-point du Pont-de-Sèvres, 92516 Boulogne-Billancourt Cedex, France, 1996. VHS videotape (length: 8min). Price: FRF 1,000.00 (1,250.00 for non subscribers). ###
Shah M., Lewis F.M., Gawkrodger D.J.
Prognosis of occupational hand dermatitis in metalworkers
Patch testing of 64 metalworkers with hand dermatitis revealed 37 subjects with one or more positive allergic reactions; biocides (used as cutting oil constituents) were the most common group of allergens. Of the 51 subjects who responded to a postal questionnaire between 1 and 5 years after patch testing, 82% still had hand dermatitis; there was no difference in outcome between those who continued to work with metals and oils, and those who had changed their occupation. Hand dermatitis in metalworkers carries a poor prognosis, with most workers remaining symptomatic even after exposure has ceased.
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 1996, Vol.34, No.1, p.27-30. 15 ref.
Kumagai S., Kusaka Y., Goto S.
Cobalt exposure level and variability in the hard metal industry of Japan
Cobalt exposure levels were determined from 935 breathing zone samples from 356 workers in nine job groups at a hard metal factory. Average cobalt exposure levels in the powder preparation, rubber press and shaping groups were higher than the current threshold limit value (50µg/m3), and nearly equal to this value in the steel press and grinding groups. Within worker-variations were considerably higher in certain groups, indicating the need to focus on high-exposure days. The high between-worker component in the grinding group indicated the need to focus on high-exposure workers.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1996, Vol.57, No.4, p.365-369. 22 ref.
Hjollund N.H.I., Bonde J.P.E., Hansen K.S.
Male-mediated risk of spontaneous abortion with reference to stainless steel welding
Topics: abortion; Denmark; male workers; metalworking industry; parental exposure; questionnaire survey; stainless steel; welding and cutting.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 1995, Vol.21, No.4, p.272-276. Illus. 13 ref.
Abbate C., Giorgianni C., Munaò F., Muraca G.
Occupational hypoacusia. Audiometric follow-up of workers exposed to industrial noise
Ipoacusia professionale. Studio di follow-up audiometrico in metalmeccanici [in Italian]
Topics: audiometric tests; basic metal industries; exposure evaluation; hearing loss; Italy; length of exposure; machinery industry; noise.
Archivio di Scienze del Lavoro, July-Sep. 1995, Vol.11, No.3, p.119-126. Illus. 27 ref.
Sindicato Nacional de Trabajadores de Acerías Paz del Río
A better working environment for all! - Training and prevention for workers of the steel works of Paz del Río
¡Para todos! Un mejor ambiente de trabajo: capacitación y prevención para trabajadores de acerías Paz del Río [in Spanish]
Topics: Colombia; conditions of work; dust; hazard evaluation; health hazards; mechanical hazards; metalworking industry; noise; physical hazards; responsibilities of employees; responsibilities of employers; risk factors; safety and health committees; steelworks; training manuals; training material; work organization.
Seguro Social, Protección Laboral, Administradora de Riesgos Profesionales, Santafé de Bogotá, Colombia, 1995. 48p. Illus.
Metal and steelworks, foundries, power and thermal power stations
Metal-, stålværker og støberier, el- og varmeværker [in Danish]
A systematic summary of publications and documentation regarding working environment and health factors in Danish metalworking establishments, steelworks, foundries and power stations. There are approx. 5,700 people working in metal, steel and foundry establishments and 14,400 people in power stations. The main working environment problems are accidents, noise and respiratory diseases. Other problems are strain injuries, cancer and thermal strain.
Arbejdstilsynet, At-Salg, Landskronagade 33, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, 1995. 86p. Price: DKK 100.00 + tax.
Järvholm B., et al.
Acetic aldehyde and formaldehyde in cutting fluids and their relation to irritant symptoms
Two large cutting fluid systems in an engineering industry were analyzed in order to study the formation of acetic aldehyde and formaldehyde in cutting fluids and its relation to irritation of mucous membranes and the skin. About 50 persons were exposed to each of the cutting fluids. The concentration of the aldehydes varied with time and between the cutting fluids. None of the analyzed parameters could explain the variable concentration of aldehydes. Mucous membrane irritation was much more common in one of the systems. The occurrence of symptoms was slightly associated with the concentration of aldehydes and pH of the fluid varied more in the fluid that caused most symptoms. A few measurements of ammonia indicated a higher concentration of ammonia in the fluid that caused most symptoms. It is concluded that irritation of mucous membranes and the skin may vary considerably between different cutting fluids of similar composition and use but the causal factor could not be determined in this study, however, a variable pH and an increased concentration of ammonia may be indicators in this context. Better markers for the surveillance of cutting fluids need to be developed.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Oct. 1995, Vol.39, No.5. p.591-601. Illus. 16 ref.
Berufsgenossenschaftliches Institut für Arbeitssicherheit
Kühlschmierstoffe [in German]
This report presents a very detailed account of the personal protective measures to be implemented in conjunction with the use of cooling lubricants and provides recommendations for the design of technical protection facilities. Contents: uses of cooling lubricants; types and compositions of cooling lubricants; physical and chemical properties; toxicological and microbiological properties; legal requirements and technical rules; analytical methods applicable to the use of cooling lubricants; composition of water-based cutting fluids; analysis of cooling lubricant concentrates and their alkanolamine contents; results of analysis; reporting and evaluating results; protective measures; disposal. Summaries in English, French, German and Spanish.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften (HVBG), Alte Heerstrasse 111, 53754 Sankt Augustin, Germany, 1995. 212p. Illus. 90 ref. Index.
Gräff B., Hubert K., Zoller H.J.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Study on air velocities and air temperatures in industrial workplaces
Untersuchungen von Luftgeschwindigkeiten und Lufttemperaturen an industriellen Arbeitsplätzen [in German]
Air temperature, air velocity and relative humidity were measured at various locations in 11 industrial plants. The measurements were taken at 0.1, 1.1 and 1.7m above the ground. In all cases the values for air turbulence and air temperatures were in the acceptable range. Industrial plants studied included manufacturers of ventilation and air conditioning systems, a large truck assembly plant, a manufacturer of electronic components, a boiler manufacturer, a company producing punched metal products and chemical plants producing household products.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Verlag für neue Wissenschaft GmbH, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1995. 188p. Illus. 8 ref.
Iron and metal industry
Jern- og metalindustri [in Danish]
A systematic summary of publications and documentation regarding working environment factors and the state of workers' health in the Danish iron and metal industry. The sector is characterized by many different operations, including the processing and assembly of metal and metal articles with large and small machines as well as with hand tools. Many different materials and chemicals are used. Other activities include the handling and transportation of articles and the collecting, monitoring and dissemination of information. Exposure to all well-known working environment factors can be found in this sector. The highest exposures are found in shipbuilding. The principal problems in different parts of the industry are: iron and metal goods industry - strain injuries, noise and accidents (other factors are brain injuries and respiratory diseases); machine processing - noise, strain injuries and accidents (also respiratory diseases); electronics industry - strain injuries and skin diseases (also respiratory diseases); shipbuilding yards - noise, strain injuries and accidents (also brain injuries and cancer); instrument, gold and silver industries - strain injuries and respiratory diseases.
Arbejdstilsynet, At-Salg, Landskronagade 33, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, 1995. 96p. Price: DKK 100.00 + tax.
Protection and promotion of health
Gesundheit schützen und fördern [in German]
A procedure for promoting health and safety in industrial workplaces is proposed. It comprises 7 steps: 1: The top officials of the workers' council takes the initiative and begins with a rough assessment of the health and safety problems in the company. 2: A dialogue is opened with employees about stress factors and safety and health problems. 3: Workplaces where hazards occur are identified. 4: A questionnaire survey is conducted. 5: Health committees are formed. 6: Data are collected on the work requirements, exposure to harmful substances, safety hazards and health problems at all hazardous workplaces. 7: Requirements for improving working conditions are spelled out and acted upon. Examples of questionnaires for determining stress factors, hazards and health problems are provided in the appendix.
Industriegewerkschaft Metall Vorstand, Abteilung Sozialpolitik/Referat Arbeits- und Gesundheitsschutz, Lyoner Str. 32, 60528 Frankfurt/Main, Germany, 1995. 132p. Illus. 27 ref. Price: DEM 25.00.
Mougeot B., Lupin H.
Practical safety data sheet. Safe distances for manually fed plate shears
Fiche pratique de sécurité. Distances de sécurité spécifiques aux cisailles à tôles en service à chargement manuel [in French]
Plate shears are dangerous machines, on which guards cannot be completely enclosed because an opening must be left through which the metal sheet can be fed. French standard NF 294, following European Directive 89/392/EEC, specifies for designers of machinery the safe distances that must be achieved by physical barriers to prevent operators from reaching into danger zones. However, this standard has shortcomings that prevent its application to plate shears, and it states that for certain applications it may be justified not to respect the normal safe distances. This information note offers a table of minimal distances between a guard and the danger zone that depend on the height of the opening left by the guard.
Travail et sécurité, Mar. 1995, No.534. p.205-208. Illus. Also available as an offprint from the INRS.
Gloves for boring operations - An unsolved problem
Handschuhe bei Bohrarbeiten - ein ungelöstes Problem [in German]
In machining of sharp-edged metal sheets with rotating tools such as boring and turning mills, gloves are used to provide protection from cuts. However, the gloves tend to get caught in the machines, causing serious accidents in which fingers or even the hand may be severed. The forces acting on a glove when it gets caught in a boring or turning mill were measured. Gloves made of 14 different materials such as leather or rubber and boring and turning mills with eight different diameters were used in experiments with artificial hands. A total of 667 experiments were conducted using 11 different revolutions per minute. In addition, the forces necessary for tearing off a finger were determined experimentally. The results were used in attempts to develop protective gloves that can be worn without hazard. Results showed that neither the presently available nor the newly developed protective gloves can be used in machining sheet metal without risking the loss of fingers or the hand.
Die BG, Nov. 1995, No.11, p.622-626. Illus.
Cold metalworking presses: Improvements in the safety of presses in service undergoing renovation - Technical specifications for safety personnel and renovation workers
Presses pour le travail à froid des métaux: Amélioration de la sécurité sur les presses en service dans le cadre de leur rénovation - Spécifications techniques à l'usage des préventeurs et des rénovateurs [in French]
These technical specifications complement the safety guide on the same subject (INRS ED 783, see CIS 96-1071). Technical solutions to be implemented on presses selected on the basis of the guide are presented. Measures applicable to all cold-metalworking presses, as well as specifically to key-clutch and friction-clutch presses are given.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Apr. 1995. 31p. 18 ref.
Cold metalworking presses: Improvements in the safety of presses in service undergoing renovation - Guide to users and safety personnel
Presses pour le travail à froid des métaux: Amélioration de la sécurité sur les presses en service dans le cadre de leur rénovation - Guide à l'usage des utilisateurs et des préventeurs [in French]
The purpose of this safety guide is to aid users and safety professionals in identifying the hazards associated with cold metalworking presses and in improving the safety of these machines while at the same time not interfering with production. Key-clutch, friction-clutch and hydraulic presses are treated separately. The implementation of the preventive measures proposed in the document is described in the publication Technical specifications for safety personnel and renovation workers (INRS ED 782, see CIS 96-1072).
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Aug. 1995. 37p. Illus. 15 ref.
Welch L.S., Hunting K.L., Kellogg J.
Work-related musculoskeletal symptoms among sheet metal workers
In a survey of 18 disabled sheet metal workers, subjects with rotator cuff injury reported the greatest proportion of time spent hanging duct, an overhead task commonly carried out during field work; carpal tunnel cases reported more hand tool use than did rotator cuff cases. A questionnaire survey of 47 active and retired sheet metal workers showed that the proportion of time spent in a sheet metal shop (as opposed to field work) was associated with hand symptoms; time spent hanging duct was associated with neck and shoulder symptoms. Results highlight construction industry tasks which may increase the risk of musculoskeletal disorders.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 1995, Vol.27, No.6, p.783-791. 30 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Health and safety in engineering workshops
Illustrated training manual aimed at people who manage and work in small engineering workshops that manufacture, maintain and repair plant, machinery and products. Contents: management of health and safety; how most accidents and cases of work-related illness arise; instant action checklist; five steps to risk assessment; general safety in workshops (workplace organization, working conditions, manual handling and lifting, machine operation, vehicles, hazardous substances, electricity, pressurized systems); detailed machine safety (including computer controls, metalworking fluids, noise and vibration, different kinds of machine operation, cleaning and degreasing); welding and flamecutting; radiography; painting and spraying; personal protective equipment; offices; organization of OSH (legislation, accident and emergency handling, first aid). In appendices: lifting and handling assessments; metalworking fluid questionnaires, key British and European standards; fire-resistant materials for spray booths; record of examination and test of local exhaust ventilation plant.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1995. vi, 106p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 9.50.
New materials and the working environment
Papers presented at an interdisciplinary seminar (Lyngby, Denmark, 22-24 August 1994). Titles: new materials and implications for the work environment; production and use of powder metallurgy products; production and use of advanced technical ceramics; fabrication of advanced polymer matrix fibre composites; new methods in surface treatment; particle deposition, retention and toxicity of poorly soluble dusts; toxicity of man-made mineral fibres; formation and emission of tungsten oxide fibres during hard-metal production; occupational hazards during machining of fibre-reinforced plastics; exposure to reactive compounds during production of fibre-reinforced plastics; life-cycle assessment in a historical perspective; integrated environmental and occupational assessment of new materials (in Denmark); the management response to new materials and their growing impact on safety, health and environment.
National Institute of Occupational Health, Lersø Parkallé 105, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, Mar. 1995. 166p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Bruze M., Hradil E., Eriksohn I.L., Gruvberger B., Widström L.
Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from alkanolamineborates in metalworking fluids
Case reports of three workers with contact allergy to alkanolamineborates are presented. Tests revealed two types of reactivity patterns, indicating the existence of at least two separate sensitizers in these substances. Each alkanolamineborate consists of many substances, which differ in part between different alkanolamineborates; the sensitizers in these substances are not known. The study indicates that it is not possible to use just one particular alkanolamineborate for tracing contact allergy to alkanolamineborates in general.
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 1995, Vol.32, No.1, p.24-27. 4 ref.
Fall protection for boilermaker work
Protection contre les chutes durant les travaux de chaudronnerie [in French]
This guidance document is aimed at helping contractors and construction workers in the boilermaker sector reduce fall hazards. Main topics covered: fall protection procedures and equipment (fall protection systems, access structures, fall arrest systems, vertical and horizontal lifelines); tank construction; duct installation; stack construction and repair (ladders, scaffold platforms, suspended platforms). Appendix: description of fall protection systems.
Construction Health and Safety Program, Ministry of Labour, Ontario, Canada, Dec. 1994. 32p. Illus.
Weissbach H.J., Florian M., Illigen E.M., Möll G., Poy A., Weissbach B.
Technological risks stemming from cultural gaps
Technikrisiken als Kulturdefizite [in German]
Subjects addressed in this book: gaps in the understanding of what is a safe and unsafe design of software for computer-integrated manufacturing in medium-size mechanical engineering plants; an innovative method for recognizing risks; identification of the weaknesses in the software for computer-integrated manufacturing which may lead to accidents involving robots and driverless power trucks; better software through better communication.
Edition Sigma, Heimstrasse 14, 10965 Berlin, Germany, 1994. 288p. Illus, 331 ref.
Safety in the handling of explosive dusts
Sicherheit beim Umgang mit explosionsfähigen Stäuben [in German]
Machining of metal parts made of aluminium or magnesium or of alloys of these metals creates highly explosive dusts. Wet dust collectors are recommended for air purification in this case. Filter dust collectors may be used if certain precautions are observed. These include external installation and the avoidance of reentering of cleaned air in the workshop.
Giesserei, Nov. 1994, Vol.81, No.23, p.872-874. Illus. 7 ref.
Hesse J.M., Irle H., Strasser H.
Experimental study of hearing damage by impulse noise
Laborexperimentelle Untersuchung zur Gehörschädlichkeit von Impulsschall [in German]
Ten volunteers aged 23 to 43 years were exposed to six noise events, the energy of which was equivalent to 8h exposure to 85dB(A). They were exposed to 94dB(A) for 1h and to 113dB(A) for 45s. In the following four exposures the 113dB(A) were split up into 180 impulses each lasting 250ms, 450 impulses of 100ms each, 1,800 impulses of 25ms each, and 9,000 impulses of 5ms each. The temporary threshold shift measured 2min after noise exposure was terminated (TTS2) and the required recovery time were significantly better after exposure to 113dB(A) for 45ms than after exposure to 94dB(A) for 1h. TTS2 and recovery time worsened significantly, however, with an increasing number of impulses of decreasing duration.
Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft, Dec. 1994, Vol.48, No.4, p.237-244. Illus. 35 ref.
Cold metalworking: Homologation of presses
Travail à froid des métaux - La mise en conformité des presses [in French]
This technical information note dated 15 April 1994 provides details on the requirements in France for the homologation of cold metalworking presses according to the provisions of articles R.233-15 - R.233-30 of the Labour Code. Main points covered: purpose and scope of the legal provisions; means of protection; access under certain conditions to the danger zone when the press is lifted; characteristics and installation of fixed, moving and electronic guards; characteristics of two-hand controls; control circuitry; modification of protective measures depending on the operating mode; the special case of key-clutch presses.
Travail et sécurité, Dec. 1994, No.531, p.844-851. Illus.
Welch L.S., Michaels D., Zoloth S.R.
The national sheet metal worker asbestos disease screening program: Radiologic findings
This report presents data from a series of asbestos disease screening examinations of 9605 United States sheet metal workers with at least 20 years experience in the trade. The overall prevalence of asbestos-related radiographic changes was 31.1%. Of these, 18.8% had pleural abnormalities alone, 6.6% had parenchymal abnormalities alone, and 5.7% had both. Prevalence of abnormalities increased with years of exposure and years since first exposure. Cigarette smoking was found to increase the risk of abnormalities as was a history of shipyard employment. Efforts were made to inform the sheet metal workers of the sources and effects of asbestos exposure.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1994, Vol.25, No.5, p.635-648. Illus. 35 ref.
Hüner A., Fartasch M., Hornstein O.P., Diepgen T.L.
The irritant effect of different metalworking fluids
A study was carried out to evaluate methods for the measurement of irritant skin responses following single and repeated exposure to three water-based cutting fluids. Tests involved visual examination, measurement of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and skin blood flow. The three cutting fluids showed different skin reactions due to their chemical components. Measurement of changes in TEWL was shown to be a reliable indicator of damage to skin barrier function; an enhanced TEWL could be measured even in visually normal skin. Increase in blood flow was detected only after cumulative exposure.
Contact Dermatitis, Oct. 1994, Vol.31, No.4, p.220-225. Illus. 43 ref.
Goh C.L., Gan S.L.
Efficacies of a barrier cream and an afterwork emollient cream against cutting fluid dermatitis in metalworkers: A prospective study
The prevalence of cutting fluid dermatitis and changes in transepidermal water vapour loss (TEWL) were studied in groups of machinists who used either a barrier cream, an afterwork emollient cream or no cream controls at all over a six month period. All machinists handled cutting fluid (neat mineral oil) during their work. Barrier cream and afterwork emollient cream did not appear to have any significant effect against either cutting fluid dermatitis or TEWL changes. However, afterwork emollient cream appeared clinically to help reduce the prevalence of cutting fluid irritation.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 1994, Vol.31, No.3, p.176-180. 16 ref.
Cold-impregnated aluminium. A new source of nickel exposure
A case of work-related allergic contact dermatitis in an engraver with nickel allergy is reported. Investigations revealed that the majority of aluminium sheets he was working with were positive to the dimethylglyoxime test, indicating that nickel was being released. It is concluded that cold-impregnated aluminium is a new source of nickel exposure probably previously unknown to dermatologists.
Contact Dermatitis, July 1994, Vol.31, No.1, p.22-24. 14 ref.
Goh C.L., Gan S.L.
The incidence of cutting fluid dermatitis among metalworkers in a metal fabrication factory: A prospective study
A study was made of 24 new machinists in contact with cutting fluids (neat mineral oils) and a group of non-exposed controls over a six-month period. The incidence of dermatitis among the machinists was high; more than one-third developed irritant contact dermatitis within three weeks of exposure. Most machinists appeared to develop tolerance after six weeks of exposure. Values of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) also increased rapidly initially, but remained fairly stable thereafter. None of the control group developed dermatitis and their TEWL values were lower throughout the study period.
Contact Dermatitis, Aug. 1994, Vol.31, No.2, p.111-115. Illus. 10 ref.
Smith L., Folkard S., Poole C.J.M.
Increased injuries on night shift
An analysis was made of all 4645 injury incidents reported for a year on a rotating three-shift system in a large engineering company where the accident risk appeared to be constant. The relative risk of sustaining an injury was 1.23 higher on the night shift than on the morning shift, which showed the lowest incidence. For self-paced work, the relative risk of more serious injury on the night shift compared with the morning shift was 1.82. An editorial (p.1099) briefly comments on the findings of other studies of the excess risk of accidents and injuries among night workers.
Lancet, 22 Oct. 1994, Vol.344, No.8930, p.1137-1139. Illus. 13 ref.
Occupational diseases in galvanizing and electroplating plants
Berufskrankheiten in der Galvanik [in German]
Of 815 occupational diseases in galvanizing and electroplating plants reported in Germany in the period between 1982 and 1992, 92 were compensated. Almost 50% of the occupational diseases receiving compensation were skin diseases, 15% were noise-induced hearing losses and 14% were diseases caused by chromium and its compounds. It is recommended to reduce the concentrations of harmful substances by installing local exhausts and enclosures or by automation so that exposure limits are complied with. In cases where the biological threshold limits for chromium and its compounds are exceeded, medical surveillance of the exposed employees is necessary.
G+S - Gesund und Sicher, June 1994, No.6, p.185-186. Illus.
Flame cutting under water reduces pollutant emission
Autogenes Brennschneiden unter Wasser reduziert Schadstoffemissionen [in German]
Gas cutting units were modified for use under water. The cutting speed, quality, noise and pollutant emissions of underwater gas cutting were compared with conventional gas cutting units. Several types of sheet metal and metal plate (10-130mm in thickness) were used in the investigations. While the high quality of conventional gas cutting was maintained, the noise emission was reduced by 27% to 64dB(A). The dust emissions were reduced by factors ranging from 150 to 850. The emissions of ozone and nitrogen oxides were lowered to levels below the maximum allowable exposure limits of 0.1 and 5ppm.
Maschinenmarkt, Oct. 1994, No.0, special number "Aufbruch 95", p.64-66, 69. Illus. 5 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Safeguarding of combination metalworking machines
Contents of this data sheet: hazards and risks of combination metalworking machines; general safeguarding and specific requirements for punching, notching, shearing, cropping and bending; emergency stop; operator training.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury CO10 6FS, Suffolk, United Kingdom, Mar. 1994. 4p. Illus. 4 ref.
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