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Metalworking industry - 770 entries found

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CIS 03-1511 Decree No.150 of 26 Nov. 2003 of the Ministry of Labour and Social Protection to approve sector-specific standards for the free provision of personal protective equipment to workers in the mechanical engineering and metallurgy sector [Belarus]
Tipovye otraslevye normy besplatnoj vydači sredstv individual'noj zaščity rabotnikam, zanjatym v mašinostroenii i metalloobrabatyvajuščih proizvodstvah [in Russian]
This decree gives legal recognition to a standard listing personal protective equipment (PPE) to be provided free of charge to workers in various professions in the mechanical engineering and metallurgy sector.
Nacional'nyj Reestr Pravovyh Aktov, 9 Jan. 2004, No.1, p.57-136.

CIS 03-1355 Hidri A., Soltani C., Kahouach L.
Evaluation of the thermal environment in a metallic construction enterprise
Evaluation de l'ambiance thermique dans une entreprise du secteur de la construction métallique [in French]
The objective of this study was to evaluate the thermal environment in a Tunisian enterprise and to recommend measures for improving working conditions. The study was conducted at a manufacturer of aluminium tubes, where the heat sources were the annealing and polymerization ovens. Thermal environment parameters were measured and heat stress was evaluated for the various workplaces within the production area. The following recommendations were made: reduction of time of exposure; installing a refrigerated water fountain at the place of work; information of workers on the hazards related to heat stress and preventive measures; lowering of average radiant heat temperatures by replacing the gas annealing oven by an electric oven; installing an air conditioning system; mechanizing manual handling tasks.
SST - Santé et Sécurité au Travail, Oct. 2003, No.27, p.8-13. 5 ref.

CIS 03-1436 Duchaine C., Veillette M., Cormier Y., Lavoie J., Desjardins F., Bouzid H.
Microbiological analysis of metal cutting fluids - Exploratory study
Analyse microbiologique des fluides de coupe de métaux - Etude exploratoire [in French]
The objective of this study was to establish the physical and chemical properties of soluble cutting fluids used in three metalworking enterprises in Quebec, and to evaluate their levels of microbial contamination. The respiratory health of the workers at one of the three enterprises was also determined. Novel analytical methods were employed, including colouring techniques involving fluorescent molecules as well as molecular biology techniques allowing the detection of specifically-targeted mycobacteria. High levels of bacterial contamination were found in these fluids. However, the majority of the strains identified are unlikely to account for the respiratory symptoms observed among the workers (allergic alveolitis).
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, Aug. 2003. iii, 33p. Illus. 22 ref. Price: CAD 5.35. [in French]

CIS 03-1331
Health and Safety Executive
Safe use of solvent degreasing plant
This information sheet summarizes the main precautions required when carrying out solvent degreasing. It is intended to assist enterprises using organic solvents (including trichloroethylene) as well as those using replacement solvents in the same equipment or having made modifications to the equipment that previously used trichloroethylene.The emphasis is on open, manually-operated degreasing tanks, which have the greatest potential for causing over-exposure. Contents: COSHH regulations 2002 (see CIS 03-1023); environmental legislation, including the Solvent Emissions Directive (see CIS 03-1028); substitution of trichloroethylene; good operational practices; solvent management; measurement of emission and exposure; frequency of sampling.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Mar. 2003. 6p. Illus. 10 ref. [in English]

CIS 03-1297 Whittaker S.G.
Lead exposure in radiator repair workers: A survey of Washington State radiator repair shops and review of occupational lead exposure registry data
The goals of this study were to determine the number of radiator repair workers potentially exposed to lead in the state of Washington, estimate the extent of blood lead data underreporting, describe current safety and health practices in radiator repair shops and determine appropriate intervention strategies to reduce exposure and increase employer and worker awareness. Lead exposure in Washington radiator repair workers was assessed by reviewing data from the state's official blood lead reporting registry and by conducting a statewide survey of radiator repair businesses. This study revealed that 226 workers in Washington (including owner-operators and all employees) conduct repair activities that could potentially result in excessive exposures to lead. Only 26% of radiator repair workers with elevated blood lead levels (≥25µg/dL) reported to the state's Registry. This study also revealed a lack of awareness of the health effects of lead, appropriate industrial hygiene controls and the requirements of the Lead Standard.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2003, Vol.45, No.7, p.724-733. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 03-774 Gruvberger B., Isaksson M., Frick M., Pontén A.N.N., Bruze M.
Occupational dermatoses in a metalworking plant
Among workers of a plant producing components for engines and drivelines, a survey of occupational dermatoses was conducted using questionnaires, clinical examinations and patch testing with standard series and a series of samples from the working environment. The questionnaire was given to all employees, of whom 382 responded. A total of 214 reported having had or having suspected work-related skin manifestations. Of the workers, 183 (164 metal workers, 19 office staff) participated in the clinical investigation and skin tests. Occupational dermatoses were diagnosed in 23 metal workers (14.1%) and one office worker (5.3%). Irritant contact dermatitis was diagnosed in 12 metal workers, occupational allergic contact dermatitis in 11 (10 metal workers and 1 office clerk) and folliculitis in one metal worker. Among the 11 workers, four cases were due to neat oils, three were due to a water-based cutting and four were due to various biocides.
Contact Dermatitis, Feb. 2003, Vol.48, No.2, p.80-86. 17 ref.

CIS 03-927 Linnainmaa M., Kiviranta H., Laitinen J., Laitinen S.
Control of workers' exposure to airborne endotoxins and formaldehyde during use of metalworking fluids
The study evaluated workers' exposure to bacteria, endotoxins and formaldehyde during the use of metalworking fluids (MWFs). Air sampling was used to estimate workers' exposure to endotoxins at workplaces near enclosed and open machines. Concentrations of triazine used as a biocide in MWF and formaldehyde in the air were measured. Recirculating local exhaust ventilation systems were also tested. The endotoxin and bacteria concentrations in MWF rapidly increased when the biocide levels decreased below 500ppm. Airborne concentrations of endotoxins were substantially lower near enclosed machines than near open ones. Concentrations of airborne formaldehyde were below the Finnish occupational exposure limit. The results showed that the triazine levels in MWF should continuously be kept high enough (>500ppm) to prevent workers' exposure to endotoxins and bacteria. Overdosing with triazine, however, should be avoided, so that the levels of airborne formaldehyde remain low.
AIHA Journal, July-Aug. 2003, Vol.64, No.4, p.496-500. Illus. 25 ref.


CIS 06-198 Cold metalworking hydraulic presses: Improving the safety of presses in service and undergoing renovation. Technical specifications for safety specialists and overhaul contractors
Presses hydrauliques pour le travail à froid des métaux. Amélioration de la sécurité sur les presses en service dans le cadre de leur rénovation. Spécifications techniques à l'usage des préventeurs et des rénovateurs [in French]
These technical specifications complement the safety guide intended for safety specialists and users of cold metalworking hydraulic presses (INRS ED 783, see CIS 06-197). They describe the implementation of safety measures selected with the help of the above-mentioned guide. Technical specifications for mechanical presses are dealt with in the INRS guide ED 782 (see CIS 05-220).
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 2002. 56p. Illus. 14 ref. Price: EUR 8.00. Downloadable version free of charge.$FILE/ed882.pdf [in French]

CIS 04-598
Confederação nacional dos metalúrgicos da Central única dos trabalhadores (CNM/CUT)
Collective work agreement - Safety, health and the working environment
Contrato coletivo de trabalho - Saúde, segurança e meio ambiente no trabalho [in Portuguese]
This document consists of a draft national collective agreement proposed by the federation of Brazilian trade unions of the metalworking sector. It is specifically focussed on negotiating aspects of safety, health and the working environment. It presents the possible structure of a collective agreement negotiated at the national level, which includes provisions that take into account regional differences and makes allowance for specific agreements to be negotiated at the enterprise level.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 05409-002, Brazil, 2002. 30p. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 03-863 Morata T.C., Johnson A.C., Nylen P., Svensson E.B., Cheng J., Krieg E.F., Lindblad A.C., Enrstgård L., Franks J.
Audiometric findings in workers exposed to low levels of styrene and noise
This study involved a total of 313 workers potentially exposed to noise and styrene working at fibreglass and metal products manufacturing plants and at a mail distribution terminal. Workers exposed to both noise (measured by audiometry) and styrene had significantly worse pure-tone thresholds at 2, 3, 4 and 6kHz when compared with noise-only-exposed or non-exposed workers. Age, noise exposure and urinary mandelic acid (a biomarker for styrene) were the variables that met the significance level criterion in the multiple logistic regression. The odds ratios for hearing loss were 1.19 for each increment of one year of age, 1.18 for every decibel >85dB(A) of noise exposure, and 2.44 for each mmol of mandelic acid per g of creatinine in urine. The findings suggest that exposure to styrene, even below recommended values, has a toxic effect on the auditory system.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2002, Vol.44, No.9, p.806-814. Illus. 37 ref.

CIS 03-928 Johnson D.L., Phillips M.L.
UV disinfection of soluble oil metalworking fluids
The efficiency of a new high-intensity ultraviolet (UV) lamp for the disinfection of metalworking fluids (MWF) was investigated under laboratory conditions. Three dilutions of MWFs and water controls in a circulating system were injected with suspensions of Pseudomonas fluorescens to an initial concentration of about 107 colony forming units (CFU) per milliliter and irradiated with a submerged UV lamp. Aliquots of the circulating fluid were withdrawn before irradiation and at 10min intervals. The samples were counted after 18-24h incubation. The concentration of CFU decreased by at least two logarithmic scales (>99% reduction in culturability) in all three dilutions of MWFs within 60min. The CFU concentration was stable over time in unirradiated samples. These results demonstrate that disinfection of MWFs by UV irradiation is feasible.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar.-Apr. 2002, Vol.63, No.2, p.178-183. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 03-106
Health and Safety Executive
Working safely with metalworking fluids
Metalworking fluids are used to cool and lubricate the machining activity, prolong the life of the tool, carry away debris and protect the surfaces of the workpieces. Risks to health from these substances can occur in cases of inhalation of excessive mists and vapour, from repeated skin contact or from fluid contamination by bacteria. This guidance was developed in order to help users of metalworking fluids manage the risks to their health from working with these materials. Contents of the good practice manual: metalworking fluids (description, risks to health, legal requirements, planning for health risk management, working with fluid and equipment suppliers) managing the health risks (fluid management, controlling the risk of dermatitis, controlling inhalation exposure, personal protective equipment); monitoring exposure; health surveillance; training. Appendices include a monitoring chart for sump fluid condition and control sheets. The manual is part of a pack which also includes a booklet summarizing guidance of the good practice manual, safety information sheets and a wallchart.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. Pack contains: good practice manual entitled Working safely with metalworking fluids (HSG231, vi, 54p. Illus. 18 ref.); 8 information sheets on working safely with metalworking fluids; booklet entitled Working safety with metalworking fluids - A guide for employees (HSG365, 8p., Illus. 3 ref.); wallchart entitled Working safely with metalworking fluids. Price: GBP 17.50. [in English]

CIS 03-469 St-Vincent M., Tellier C., Chicoine D., Laberge M., Lortie M., Fernandez J.
Comparison of the implementation of a participatory ergonomics approach and job analysis tools for varied tasks in two enterprises with different conditions
Comparaison de l'implantation d'une démarche d'ergonomie participative et d'outils d'analyse du travail destinés aux tâches variées dans deux entreprises au contexte différent [in French]
This study presents the results of implementing a participatory approach to the ergonomic analysis of various tasks in two enterprises, one having favourable conditions, the other unfavourable. In both enterprises, the ergonomics intervention team consisted of operators and technical specialists. The project had four objectives: reduce musculoskeletal disorders and safety hazards; validate an analytical approach developed for varied tasks having long cycles; analyse the problems encountered by the team members in order to better understand the ergonomics learning process in occupational settings; document trends in how ergonomic intervention team members perceived various factors that had been identified in prior studies as being key for the learning process. Findings were positive for the favourable enterprise but mixed in the case of the other.
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, July 2002. viii, 298p. Illus. 105 ref. Price: CAD 17.12 (paper version). [in French]

CIS 03-288 Brasseur G.
Degreasing: Solvents under threat of substitution
Dégraissage: les solvants à l'épreuve de la substitution [in French]
Organic solvents have long played an important role in eliminating grease and soil from industrial components, and in surface preparation prior to other operations such as adhesive bonding or soldering. They are increasingly under regulatory scrutiny aimed at their elimination or substitution, due in particular to their volatility and the carcinogenicity of their vapours. Contents of this collection of articles on the substitution of organic solvents used for degreasing: replacement possibilities for chlorinated solvents; opinion of a supplier of degreasing equipment; supercritical CO2 degreasing technique; technique involving the biodegradation of oils; use of aqueous detergents in an aluminium machining workshop; substitution of trichloroethylene by hydrocarbons in a powder metallurgy enterprise.
Travail et sécurité, Dec. 2002, No.624, p.26-36. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 03-197 Dangman K.H., Cole S.R., Hodgson M.J., Kuhn C., Metersky M.L., Schenck P., Storey E.
The hypersensitivity pneumonitis diagnostic index: Use of non-invasive testing to diagnose hypersensitivity pneumonitis in metalworkers
Since 1993, several outbreaks of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) have been reported in metalworkers. This article reports on the largest outbreak of HP in metalworkers yet known. It occurred in a Connecticut factory producing precision parts for the aerospace industry. The workers typically presented with systemic and respiratory problems. Data from 16 biopsy-confirmed cases and 14 non-HP patients were compared, and an HP diagnostic index was derived using variables that best discriminated between the two groups. The HP diagnostic index was compared with the Kenosha epidemiological criteria. The HP diagnostic index relies less heavily on symptoms, subjective evaluations, and invasive tests than the Kenosha criteria, but both identified similar subsets of the 61 patients as having HP. The HP diagnostic index could provide a useful tool in future HP outbreaks, which are increasingly being recognized in metalworking facilities.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 2002, Vol.42, No.2, p.150-162. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 03-246 Pearse W.
Club Zero: Implementing OHSMS in small to medium fabricated metal companies
The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of occupational safety and health management systems (OSHMS) in small- to medium-size metal manufacturing companies. The study included the design and implementation of an OSHMS in 17 companies active in this sector. An innovative aspect of the project included the formation of a network of participating companies. The results indicated that for some companies, OSHMS are applicable and improvements can be gained in OHS management. The role and effectiveness of networking was not independently assessed; however, some participants found that it provided a useful form of access to scarce OHS resources. The study provides practical information about how an OSHMS may be improved in small- to medium-size companies.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Aug. 2002, Vol.18, No.4, p.347-356. 21 ref.

CIS 03-412
Health and Safety Executive
Reducing noise from CNC punch presses
CNC punch presses are capable of producing high levels of noise, depending on the type of materials being worked and the operation they are performing. Older machines can expose operators to 95dB(A) during a typical punching cycle on 3mm steel plate. The Supply of Machinery Regulations 1992 (see CIS 96-410) require machinery to be designed and manufactured so that risks from noise are reduced to their lowest level. This has to be achieved, where possible, by using engineering methods of control of the noise at source. This information sheet aims to help machine manufacturers and users reduce employee exposure to noise when using CNC punch presses. Contents: noise problem with CNC punch presses; sources of noise from CNC punch presses; responsibilities of manufacturers and users; common noise control techniques; quiet tooling; maintenance; points to consider when buying new machines; training; short case studies of successful noise reduction measures.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Sep. 2002. 4p. 8 ref. [in English]

CIS 02-1855 Lafontaine M., Delsaut P., Morele Y.
Hazards linked to the use of cutting fluids
Risques liés à l'utilisation des fluides de coupe [in French]
This article summarizes the information collected in the course of a study on hazards due to the use of cutting fluids. It is estimated that 136,000 persons are potentially exposed to these products in France. No relationship between metalworking fluids and bronchopulmonary cancer has been observed. However, despite limited data, aqueous fluids may be responsible for cancers of the oesophagus and the stomach. As far as other pathologies are concerned, very few cases of asthma and chronic bronchitis have been observed; however, there are probably many more skin disorders than those currently recognized as occupational diseases. Most collective or personal preventive measures are already known. They are not always followed, unfortunately, particularly in small enterprises. Indeed, 22% of the enterprises do not monitor the properties of their fluids (concentration, pH, bacteriological content). It is concluded that there is a need for a widely-distributed guide aimed at users of these fluids.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 1st Quarter 2002, No.186, p.29-37. 21 ref.

CIS 02-1851
Health and Safety Executive
Surface cleaning: Solvent update including the reclassification of trichloroethylene
Trichloroethylene has been reclassified to a category 2 carcinogen (may cause cancer) by the European Union in June 2001. This information sheet addresses the implications of the reclassification of trichloroethylene for surface cleaning in the metal industry. Content: background information; substitution (use of alternative solvents and alternative processes); regulations applicable to flammable substances; Existing Substances Regulation (ESR) review of trichloroethylene; current requirements for surface cleaning and activities which will be affected by the Solvent Emission Directive (SED); compliance with the SED; compliance with Groundwater Directive.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Feb. 2002. 4p. 9 ref. [in English]

CIS 02-1636 Cloutier E., Lefebvre S., Ledoux E., Chatigny C., St-Jacques Y.
Occupational safety and health issues associated with knowledge transfer: Case of machinists and cooks
Enjeux de santé et de sécurité au travail dans la transmission des savoirs professionnels: le cas des usineurs et des cuisiniers [in French]
The aim of this study was to develop a better understanding of the occupational safety and health issues related to knowledge transfer in occupational settings. A first phase of the study consisted in taking stock of the current situation of apprenticeship within enterprises with the Quebec employment agency (Emploi-Québec). The study then focused on two high-risk occupations, cooks and machinists. It was conducted within two enterprises and involved discussions with managers, trade union representatives, skilled workers and apprentices. As highlighted by the two case studies, the issue of transmission of knowledge is mutli-faceted and complex. It is important that the assignment of tasks takes into account the age and experience of the workers. Furthermore, numerous organizational and environmental factors influence the way in which knowledge transmission occurs. Proposals for further studies are made, together with recommendations addressed to Emploi-Québec for facilitating apprenticeships in enterprises.
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, Oct. 2002. x, 205p. Illus. 76 ref. [in French]

CIS 02-1159 Handbook of accident case studies in metalworking industry
Booklet containing cases of accidents having occurred in the metalworking industry in Singapore, grouped by main cause: maintenance accidents, burns and hot and cold work accidents, material handling accidents and machinery accidents. Each case includes a description of the accident, causes and contributing factors, and recommendations for the prevention of similar accidents.
Ministry of Manpower, Occupational Health Department, 18 Havelock Road No.05-01, Singapore 059764, Republic of Singapore, no date. 32p. Illus.

CIS 02-1175 Lock-out safety
The inadvertent activation of machinery during inspection, cleaning, repair or maintenance may cause serious injury. Lock-out procedures are a set of procedures aimed at ensuring the disconnection and isolation of equipment and preventing its accidental activation. Contents of this practical safety guide on lock-out procedures aimed at the metalworking industry: lock-out legislation in Singapore; persons who need to know about lock-out procedures (those involved in inspection, cleaning, repair and maintenance); knowledge required by persons involved and not involved in implementing lock-out procedures; energies requiring lock-out (electrical, pneumatic, hydraulic, chemical; thermal), five-step procedure to perform lock-out (announce the shut-down, shut down the machine, disconnect all energy sources, apply lock-out devices, verify the isolation and lock-out); information tags on lock-out devices; steps for restoring the machinery for operation; cases of accidents that could have been prevented by lock-out.
Ministry of Manpower, Occupational Health Department, 18 Havelock Road No.05-01, Singapore 059764, Republic of Singapore, no date. 24p. Illus.


CIS 12-0065 Guidelines on the implementation of safety management system for the metalworking industry
An occupational safety and health management system (OSH-MS) is a systematic process for managing workplace safety and health, providing for goal setting, planning, performance measurements, and clear management commitments and direction. In Singapore, OSH-MSs mandatory for many types of workplaces. Integral to the OSH-MS is risk assessment. All workplaces must conduct risk assessments to identify the source of risks and shall take all reasonably practicable steps to eliminate any foreseeable risk to any person who may be affected by the undertaking in the workplace. Where it is not reasonably practicable to eliminate the risk, other reasonably practicable measures must be taken to minimize the risk. This guide explains how to implement an OSH-MS in the metalworking industry.
Ministry of Manpower, 18 Havelock Road, Singapore 059764, July 2001, 20p.
Guidelines_on_the_implementation_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]

CIS 03-974 Savikko A., Alexanderson K., Hensing G.
Do mental health problems increase sickness absence due to other diseases?
The aim of this study was to analyse the association of mental health problems with sickness absence in general. A total of 1407 women employed as metal workers, medical secretaries and nurses, were included. Sick-leave data were collected through social insurance and employment registers. Data on mental health were collected by means of questionnaires, and enabled the classification of subjects into five broad indicators of mental health. For all indicators, it was found that women with mental health problems had higher levels of sickness absence than women without mental health problems. The association was found for frequency, incidence, length and duration of sickness absence. In all diagnoses, the influence of mental health problems need to be taken into account for sickness absenteeism and rehabilitation.
Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 2001, Vol.36, p.310-316. 28 ref.

CIS 03-555
Health and Safety Executive
Health surveillance programmes for employees exposed to metalworking fluids
Health problems can arise if metalworking fluids are not properly used and controlled. Dermatitis is the most common disease among users of metalworking fluids, followed by respiratory complaints such as asthma among workers exposed to aerosols and mists of these fluids. This booklet provides an overview of health surveillance required under the provisions of the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Regulations 1999 (see CIS 00-620) as they apply to persons exposed to metalworking fluids. Appendices include check lists for the detection of skin or breathing abnormalities.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Sep. 2001. 12p. 8 ref. [in English]

CIS 02-768 Rosenthal F.S., Yeagy B.L.
Characterization of metalworking fluid aerosols in bearing grinding operations
The concentration and size distribution of metalworking fluid aerosols were investigated in grinding operations (face, microcentric, and progressive) in the bearing manufacturing industry. Aerosol mass concentration as measured by open-face filter sampling ranged from 0.34 to 2.43mg/m3. As measured by closed-face sampling the range was 0.14 to 2.01mg/m3. For each grinding process, open-face concentration was significantly higher than the closed-face concentration. Mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) ranged from 3.33 to 6.26µm. The results indicate that (1) closed-face sampling results in a lower aerosol mass concentration, as compared with open-face sampling, and (2) the particle size distribution and concentration of metalworking fluid aerosols may vary with the type of grinding operation sampled.
AIHA Journal, May-June 2001, Vol.62, No.3, p.379-382. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 02-767 Piacitelli G.M., Sieber W.K., O'Brien D.M., Hughes R.T., Glaser R.A., Catalano J.D.
Metalworking fluid exposures in small machine shops: An overview
In 79 small machine shops in the US, airborne exposure to metalworking fluids (MWF) was compared to data from the literature and to exposure limit criteria currently recommended by NIOSH and OSHA. The results of 62% of 942 personal samples were below the recommended exposure limit (REL) of 0.50mg/m3 for total particulates. However, at least one sample exceeded the REL in 61 of the 79 facilities studied; all the samples collected in 10 shops were greater than the REL. Similar trends were found for thoracic particulate exposures. The highest exposures were measured for grinding shops. Particle size distributions of MWF aerosols had an average mass median aerodynamic diameter of 5.3µm. Workers in these small shops may have risks of adverse health effects similar to those in the automotive industry.
AIHA Journal, May-June 2001, Vol.62, No.3, p.356-370. Illus. 57 ref.

CIS 02-766 O'Brien D.M, Piacitelli G.M., Sieber W.K., Hughes R.T., Catalano J.D.
An evaluation of short-term exposures to metalworking fluids in small machine shops
In 23 small machining shops using metalworking fluids (MWF) in the US, real-time air monitoring using an aerosol photometer was performed. The results were compared to those obtained by collocated thoracic and closed face cassette samplers. Depending on the averaging period used, short-term MWF concentrations exceeded 2.0mg/m3 in 13 to 39% of the workshops studied. The aerosol photometer data most closely matched those obtained from the thoracic fraction of the total mass. If field calibration data are not readily available, use of a calibration factor of 0.7 for straight oils or 0.5 for water-based fluids may assist in the interpretation of aerosol photometer measurements.
AIHA Journal, May-June 2001, Vol.62, No.3, p.342-348. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 02-895 Żera J.
Impulse noise in industrial plants: Statistical distribution of levels
Impulse noise generated by industrial machines at the workplace is a cause of substantial hearing loss in workers. This article presents data on workplace impulse noise recorded in drop-forge, punch-press and machinery shops. The survey shows that in the drop-forge shop, over 90% of acoustic impulses generated by hammer strikes exceed permissible levels, while in the punch-press shop, only 10-20% of impulses generated exceed maximum permissible levels. There is a wide variety of impulse types in the machinery shop; in particular, the stamping pistol generated impulses in excess of permissible levels. Many impulses have a rise time shorter than 1ms, which could also be a factor in hearing damage. However, this area requires further study.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, Apr.-June 2001, Vol.14, No.2, p.127-133. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 02-188 Hodgson M.J., Bracker A., Yang C., Storey E., Jarvis B.J., Milton D., Lummus Z., Bernstein D., Cole S.
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis in a metal-working environment
Following an outbreak of lung disease among workers in a metal-working plant, a study was conducted involving the clinical examination of patients, a cross-sectional questionnaire survey of the outbreak plant and two control plant areas (with and without metal-working fluids (MWF) exposures), an industrial hygiene survey with laboratory characterization of microbial flora, and immunological investigations. 39 (79.6%) patients described symptoms consistent with work-related lung disease, and 8 received other diagnoses. Sixteen had hypersensitivity pneumonitis confirmed on biopsy. Mean decrements in lung forced expiratory volume in 1s and forced vital capacity from before to after work were similar in the 16 biopsy-confirmed cases of hypersensitivity pneumonitis and the 19 symptomatic patients without biopsies. Three sources of water-based aerosols were identified that grew similar microbial flora, but antibody testing did not identify a specific single organism. Endotoxin levels were similar in the outbreak and the MWF control plant.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 2001, Vol.39, No.6, p.616-628. 53 ref.

CIS 02-401 Bianchi N., Marasi G., Bagaglio A.
Evaluation of the risk of occupational exposure to non-ionizing radiation in the metallurgical working environment
Valutazione del rischio per esposizione professionale a radiazioni non ionizzanti nell'ambiente lavorativo di una azienda metalmeccanica [in Italian]
In the metal engineering industry there are risks related to non-ionizing radiation emitted by various pieces of work equipment. It is essential to measure and record personal doses of exposure. Information and training of personnel and the specific observation of critical groups of workers are also of fundamental importance. The following kinds of exposure are treated in detail: static electromagnetic fields; extremely low-frequency radiation; radiofrequency and microwave radiation.
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 2001, Vol.92, No.5, p.338-344. 11 ref.

CIS 01-1766 Lafontaine M.
Survey on occupational exposure to cutting fluids
Une grande enquête sur les fluides de coupe [in French]
A questionnaire was addressed in 1999 to approximately 3,000 French companies considered likely to be using cutting fluids. Topics covered in the questionnaire included ventilation systems, use of personal protective equipment, regular chemical and bacteriological analysis of the cutting fluids, the nature of metalworking activity carried out and the types of fluids used. 1,500 responses were received. Results indicate that 22% of the respondents did not have any ventilation; 9% of the companies surveyed admitted to not using personal protective equipment, and 22% did not monitor the properties of the cutting fluids. The tonnages of cutting fluids consumed and the number of workers exposed are provided for various industrial sectors.
Travail et sécurité, May 2001, No.607, p.36-40. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 01-885
Health and Safety Executive
Hygienic design of machinery in the food and drink industries
This information sheet is aimed at manufacturers, suppliers and importers of food processing machinery into the United Kingdom. It covers legal requirements for minimizing microbiological and chemical risks to food consumers through hygienic design. The guidance will also be relevant to the food industry for the selection of suitable machinery when making purchases. Contents include: approaches to hygienic design; hygienic design priorities; design "do's" and "don'ts"; instructions for users; verifications; safety considerations.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Mar. 2001. 4p. 10 ref.

CIS 01-887 Björkstén M.G., Boquist B., Talbäck M., Edling C.
Reported neck and shoulder problems in female industrial workers: The importance of factors at work and at home
To determine how exposure to physical and psychosocial factors at work and at home influences self-reported musculoskeletal problems of the neck, shoulders and thoracic spine, a group of 173 Swedish female blue-collar workers, aged 20-45 with monotonous work tasks in the metal and food industries completed questionnaires relating to health status and demographic factors, exposure factors (work-related, domestic, lifestyle and leisure factors) and outcome (musculoskeletal problems). Results showed that an increased risk of suffering from musculoskeletal problems of the neck and shoulder region was related to working in a monotonous fixed position, working with the hands and arms lifted and unsupported, and having a high decision latitude. Single women without children below the age of 13 reported fewer problems than women with a partner, children below the age of 13 or both.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Mar. 2001, Vol.27, No.3, p.159-170. 42 ref.


CIS 04-129 Wieczorek Z., Augustyńska D., Drygała M., Pośniak M.
Occupational safety and health in small business - Occupational safety and health in electromechanical repair workshops - OSH check list; Employers' guide
Bezpieczeństwo i higiena pracy w małych przedsiębiorstwach - Bezpieczeństwo i higiena pracy w zakładach naprawy sprzętu elektromechanicznego - Lista kontrolna bhp; Poradnik pracodawcy [in Polish]
The check list for the evaluation of occupational safety and health in electromechanical repair workshops is designed for use in conjunction with the corresponding employer's guide. It lists the potential hazards that may be found in these workplaces and provides suggestions for their control or elimination. It also contains a list of relevant Polish legislation and technical standards.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 2000. 28+41p. 68 ref.

CIS 04-128 Wojucki J., Augustyńska D., Drygała M., Pośniak M.
Occupational safety and health in small business - Occupational safety and health in electroplating plants - OSH check list; Employers' guide
Bezpieczeństwo i higiena pracy w małych przedsiębiorstwach - Bezpieczeństwo i higiena pracy w zakładach galwanizerskich - Lista kontrolna bhp; Poradnik pracodawcy [in Polish]
The check list for the evaluation of occupational safety and health in electroplating plants is designed for use in conjunction with the corresponding employer's guide. It lists the potential hazards that may be found in these workplaces and provides suggestions for their control or elimination. It also contains a list of relevant Polish legislation and technical standards.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 2000. 27+45p. 67 ref.

CIS 04-127 Kowalik K., Augustyńska D., Drygała M., Pośniak M.
Occupational safety and health in small business - Occupational safety and health in electrical and gas welding workshops - OSH check list; Employers' guide
Bezpieczeństwo i higiena pracy w małych przedsiębiorstwach - Bezpieczeństwo i higiena pracy w zakładach spawalnictwa elektrycznego i gazowego - Lista kontrolna bhp; Poradnik pracodawcy [in Polish]
The check list for the evaluation of occupational safety and health in electrical and gas welding workshops is designed for use in conjunction with the corresponding employer's guide. It lists the potential hazards that may be found in these workplaces and provides suggestions for their control or elimination. It also contains a list of relevant Polish legislation and technical standards.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 2000. 26+38p. 70 ref.

CIS 04-83 Tan K.L, Lee H.S., Poh W.T., Ren M.Q., Watt F., Tang S.M., Eng P.
Hard metal lung disease - The first case in Singapore
A 38-year-old machinist in a tool manufacturing enterprise presented with exertional dyspnoea and cough. Chest X-rays revealed bilateral reticulonodular infiltrates with honeycombing. High-resolution computed tomography scan of the thorax confirmed the presence of interstitial fibrosis. Open biopsy of the lung showed features of pneumoconiosis. Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis, a relatively new elemental analysis technique, performed on the lung biopsy specimen confirmed the presence of tungsten and titanium, leading to a diagnosis of hard metal pneumoconiosis. Microbiologic, serologic and histological investigations excluded infective causes. Preventive measures and permanent transfer to work not involving hard metal exposure were instituted.
Annals of the Academy of Medicine - Singapore, July 2000, Vol.29, No.4, p.521-527. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 03-917 Lupin H., Bertel M., Brouillet M, Schall M., Tillement M.
High-speed machining centres
Centres d'usinage à grande vitesse (Centres UGV) [in French]
This document sets out the minimum safety requirements to be taken into account when designing and operating high-speed machining centres to prevent mechanical risks. Contents: scope and definitions, regulations and standards; design of fixed and movable guards; design of the control circuit (general rules, rules concerning safety functions, emergency stops, selection of operating modes); rules concerning machining and access to the machining zone (in automatic. manual or block-by-block mode); rules concerning the workpiece loading zone and that of the tool magazine, rules concerning the operator zone (and beyond), training, information, advice relative to the instruction manual supplied by manufacturer. An appendix covers the rules applicable to large-size machines.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 2000, No.181, p.41-53. Illus. 20 ref. [in French]

CIS 03-392 Gauthier F.
Working safely with lasers
L'utilisation en sécurité du laser [in French]
Contents of this review article on safe working methods with lasers: main uses of lasers (metal cutting, cleaning of stones of historical monuments, surgery); experiences of two metal-cutting enterprises; occupational hazards from working in the presence of lasers (skin effects: irritation, burning, cancer risk; eye effects: cornea lesions and ulcerations, thermal cataract, retinal tears; hazards from secondary X-rays; risks to laser equipment maintenance staff; electrical hazards; hazards from liquid nitrogen used as a coolant); machine protection and personal protective equipment; specific training in the use of laser equipment; measures to be taken by employers; characteristics and uses of the main laser types; permissible levels and laser classification.
Travail et sécurité, Nov. 2000, No.601, p.29-39. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 03-295 Fine J.M., Gordon T., Chen L.C., Kinney P., Falcone G., Sparer J., Beckett W.S.
Characterization of clinical tolerance to inhaled zinc oxide in naive subjects and sheet metal workers
The aim of this study was to determine whether clinical tolerance to the acute exposure effects of zinc oxide is accompanied by a reduction in pulmonary inflammation and cytokine responses. Never-exposed subjects inhaled 5mg/m3 zinc oxide for two hours during one or three consecutive days and underwent bronchoalveolar lavage 20 hours after the final exposure. Sheet metal workers inhaled zinc oxide on one day and control furnace gas seven days later. Among never-exposed subjects in whom tolerance was induced, neutrophils and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were significantly decreased compared with subjects who underwent only a single exposure. Sheet metal workers were much less symptomatic, but still experienced a significant increase in plasma IL-6. Clinical tolerance to zinc oxide is accompanied by reduced pulmonary inflammation. These results explain why sheet metal workers are not clinically affected by long-term exposure to zinc oxide fumes at the Occupational Safety and Health Administration permissible exposure limit.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2000, Vol.42, No.11, p.1085-1091 Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 02-1936 Brown M.E., White E.M., Feng A.
Effects of various treatments on the quantitative recovery of endotoxin from water-soluble metalworking fluids
Three extraction methods were compared for their effectiveness in the removal of endotoxin from unused and used water-soluble synthetic and semi-synthetic metalworking fluids (MWF). The three modes of extraction consisted of pyrogen-free water alone; pyrogen-free water with polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate; pyrogen-free water with polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate and sonication. Results suggest that vigorous recovery methods yield higher amounts of endotoxin from MWF samples than mild recovery methods involving pyrogen-free water alone. Additional studies are required for better understanding of the factors that significantly affect endotoxin extraction yields from these fluids.
AIHA Journal, July-Aug. 2000, Vol.61, No.4, p.517-520. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 02-1770 Symanski E., Chang C.C., Chan W.
Long-term trends in exposures to nickel aerosols
A evaluation of the long-term changes in exposure levels to nickel aerosols was conducted using data from 10 nickel-producing and nickel-using industries. Significantly negative linear trends were found for exposures in the mining (-7%/yr), smelting (-9%/yr) and refining (-7%/yr) sectors, while exposures in milling showed a positive trend (+4%/yr). Effects of the work environment, process and nature of the job on exposure trends were evaluated. The decline in exposures was greater in workplaces with no ventilation compared with ventilated workplaces, in workers who performed similar rather than diverse tasks, and in North American workplaces compared with workplaces in Europe and Western Australia. These results could be used in the design of prospective sampling protocols and in future retrospective health-effect studies of workers in the nickel industries.
AIHA Journal, May-June 2000, Vol.61, No.3, p.324-333. Illus. 31 ref.

CIS 02-1898 Brühl P., Grenner J.
Impact noise exposure from sheet-metal presses: Manual versus automated production
Noise exposure was measured in a sheet-metal pressing plant in Sweden with large punch-presses, using individual dosimetry in ten workers during sixteen workdays. A comparison was made between noise doses for workers on a manual production line and on an automated line, with five workers on each line. Although automation increased noise emission, it was found that noise exposures by the workers were significantly reduced on the automated production line. The weighted equivalent noise level was 91.2dB for six hours in the manual production line and 90.0dB in the automated line. However, the most important factor in noise reduction was that the number of noise-exposed workers was reduced from thirteen to six as a consequence of automation.
Acustica, 2000, Vol.86, p.378-380. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 02-1818 Heitbrink W.A., Yacher J.M., Deye G.J., Spencer A.B., Burroughs G.E.
Mist control at a machining center, Part 1: Mist characterization; Part 2: Mist control following installation of air cleaners
The mists generated by a synthetic metalworking fluid (MWF), consisting primarily of water and triethanolamine (TEA), used at a machining centre producing transmission parts were analysed for concentration, particle size and distribution. This information was used to select an air cleaner for controlling the mist, which was installed in more than 25 machining centres. The facility also implemented a maintenance program for the air cleaners that involved regularly scheduled filter changes. Air sampling evaluation showed that area TEA concentrations were reduced from 0.25 to 0.03 mg/m3, and personal air particulate concentrations were reduced from 0.22 to 0.06 mg/m3. These results show the effectiveness of this combination of enclosure, ventilation and filtration in significantly reducing exposure to MWF mist generated in modern machining centres.
AIHA Journal, Mar.-Apr. 2000, Vol.61, No.2, p.275-289. Illus. 43 ref.

CIS 02-1935 Moore J.S., Christensen M., Wilson R.W., Wallace R.J., Zhang Y., Nash D.R., Shelton B.
Mycobacterial contamination of metalworking fluids: Involvement of a possible new taxon of rapidly growing mycobacteria
Contamination of air and metalworking fluid (MWF) systems by a rapidly growing mycobacterium (RGM) was detected in a manufacturing plant with recent cases of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP). Environmental sampling was performed to determine the extent of the contamination and its variability over time. RGM were present in multiple indoor air samples, central MWF storage tanks, and cutting, drilling, and grinding machines. Contamination was essentially limited to a formulation of semi-synthetic MWF recently introduced in the plant. In general, the mycobacterial counts were stable over time, with the degree of contamination ranging from 102-107 colony forming units/mL. Using molecular techniques, it was found that the mycobacterial isolates consisted of a single strain and represented a previously undescribed taxon closely related to Mycobacterium chelonae/abscessus. The relationship of this mycobacterium to the cases of HP remains unknown.
AIHA Journal, Mar.-Apr. 2000, Vol.61, No.2, p.205-213. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 02-1817 Heitbrink W.A., D'Arcy J.B., Yacher J.M.
Mist generation at a machining center
In this study on metalworking fluid aerosols, particle size and concentration were measured at an enclosed machining centre. The air from this enclosure was exhausted into a duct where aerosol concentration and size distribution were measured using a aerosol spectrometer and a cascade impactor. Aerosol generation during the face milling of a piece of aluminum was studied. Different machining parameters were studied, including coolant flow rate, tool rpm and degree of metal removal. It was found that aerosol concentration increased with increasing tool speed and fluid application velocity. Metal removal did not affect aerosol generation. During a second experiment, the effect of tool speed and diameter on aerosol generation was studied. Concentrations measured were proportional to the square of the tool speed. Size distribution was largely unaffected by the experimental variables.
AIHA Journal, Jan.-Feb. 2000, Vol.61, No.1, p.22-30. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 02-373 Crepy M.N.
Occupational skin diseases caused by cutting fluids
Dermatoses professionnelles aux fluides de coupe [in French]
Cutting fluids are in widespread use for lubrication and cooling during machining operations. The most common occupational skin diseases caused by cutting fluids include dermatitis from contact with aqueous fluids, whose use is growing. Contents of this practical data sheet aimed at occupational physicians: classification; composition; effects on skin; epidemiology; diagnosis at workplace; confirmation of diagnosis in specialised medical institutions; prognosis; prevention and treatment; compensation of occupational diseases caused by exposure to cutting fluids.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 2000, No.83, p.295-304. 61 ref.

CIS 02-458 Ogiński A., Ogińska H., Pokorski J., Kmita W., Goździela R.
Internal and external factors influencing time-related injury risk in continuous shift work
Time-related accident risk in shift work may be attributed to internal factors, such as fatigue, level of performance, sleep propensity, and to some external factors such as the shift system and the physical and social environments. 668 accidents in the metallurgical industry have been analysed in terms of time of day, time on task, consecutive day of the shift block, day of the week, and season. The injury rate was similar on all shifts, but accident severity was higher at night. Somewhat more injuries occurred in the second half of the shift, in the second part of a shift block, and in summer compared with winter. There were fewer injuries at weekends.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2000, Vol.6, No.3, p.405-421. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 02-312 Berndt U., Hinnen U., Iliev D., Elsner P.
Hand eczema in metalworker trainees - An analysis of risk factors
The present study, as part of PROMETES (Swiss Prospective Metal Worker Eczema Study), was performed to examine risk factors for the development of occupational hand dermatitis in metal-worker trainees. Since this disease is very common, a high standard of preventive measures is necessary, especially for persons with an endogenous disposition for the development of eczema. Within the cohort of 201 healthy young men, 47 (23%) showed at least mild signs of hand eczema at within the 2.5 year observation period. Various occupational and domestic exposures, skin protection behaviour, regeneration time, and smoking habits, as well as atopic disposition, were studied with regard to their influence on the skin condition of the metalworker trainees. The important risk factors for the development of hand eczema included atopic disposition, mechanical factors as possible irritants to the epidermal barrier, and an insufficient amount of skin recovery time, supporting a cumulative sub-irritant effect on the skin, possibly leading to irritant contact dermatitis.
Contact Dermatitis, Dec. 2000, Vol.43, No.6, p.327-332. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 01-1545 Mackenzie K., Peters M.
Handedness, hand roles, and hand injuries at work
A first part of this article consists of a literature review discussing the prevalence of hand injuries, and the significance of hand roles and handedness in industrial injuries. A second part studies the roles of the two hands in the metal manufacturing industry. Thirty different work stations in seven plants were surveyed to establish whether there was a significant bias in terms of movement requirements for one or the other hand, leading to a possible differential risk of injury for the left and right hands. Overall, there was no clear bias favouring the right hand in activities assigned to the hands in seven different movement categories. However, the location of emergency controls favoured the right hand unequivocally. The implications of biases favouring the left/right hand for safety of machine operation are discussed in the light of current findings on left and right hand performance in right- and lefthanders.
Journal of Safety Research, Winter 2000, Vol.31, No.4, p.221-227. 36 ref.

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