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Metalworking industry - 770 entries found

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2007

CIS 10-0244 Kiesswetter E., Schäper M., Buchta M., Schaller K.H., Rossbach B., Scherhag H., Zschiesche W., Letzel S.
Longitudinal study on potential neurotoxic effects of aluminium: I. Assessment of exposure and neurobehavioural performance of Al welders in the train and truck construction industry over 4 years
This study examined the reliability of aluminium biomonitoring as indicator of individual long-term exposure, together with long-term changes of neurobehavioural performance among aluminium welders in relation to exposure. Data on aluminium exposure neurological behaviour were obtained over a period of four years from a group of aluminium welders and an unexposed age-matched control group. The measurements of exposure included total dust in air as well as aluminium in pre-shift and post-shift plasma and urine samples. Neurobehavioural methods comprised symptoms, verbal intelligence, logic thinking, psychomotor behaviour, memory and attention. Computer-aided tests from the Motor Performance Series (MLS) and the European Neurobehavioural Evaluation System (EURO-NES) were used. Data were examined with regression analysis. The aluminium welders who had been working in this profession for an average of 15 years showed no significantly increased symptom levels compared with the control group. Statistical analyses revealed neither a correlation between biomonitoring and performance variables nor a significant difference between exposed and control groups.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 2007, Vol.81, No.1, p.41-67. Illus. 57 ref.

CIS 09-118 Madl A.K., Unice K., Brown J.L., Kolanz M.E., Kent M.S.
Exposure-response analysis for beryllium sensitization and chronic beryllium disease among workers in a beryllium metal machining plant
The objective of this study was to evaluate historic exposures to beryllium among workers of a beryllium machining facility in the United States, and to relate these exposure evaluations to cases of chronic beryllium disease (CBD) and beryllium sensitization (BeS). Data included 3831 personal samples and 616 general area samples, together with health surveillance data. Results showed that beryllium-sensitized and CBD workers were exposed to beryllium concentrations greater than 0.2µg/m3; among these workers, 90% were exposed to concentrations greater than 0.4µg/m3 within a given year of their work history. Based on this analysis, it was concluded that BeS and CBD generally occurred as a result of exposures greater than 0.4µg/m3 and maintaining exposures below 0.2µg/m3 95% of the time should prevent the occurrence of these occupational diseases.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, June 2007, Vol.4, No.6, p.448-466. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 09-156 Heitbrink W.A., Evans D.E., Peters T.M., Slavin T.J.
Characterization and mapping of very fine particles in an engine machining and assembly facility
Very fine particle number and mass concentrations were mapped in an engine machining and assembly facility. A condensation particle counter (CPC) was used to measure particle number concentrations in the 0.01µm to 1µm range, and an optical particle counter (OPC) was used to measure particle number concentrations in 15 channels between 0.3µm and 20µm. The OPC measurements were used to estimate the respirable fraction. Very fine particle number concentrations were estimated by subtracting the OPC particle number concentrations from 0.3µm to 1µm from the CPC number concentrations. Findings are discussed. Elevated very fine particle number concentrations were associated with machining operations with poor enclosures.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, May 2007, Vol.4, No.5, p.341-351. Illus. 44 ref.

CIS 08-1435 Hewitt S., Heaton R., Shanks E., Mole M.
Health and Safety Executive
Correlation between vibration emission and vibration during real use: Polishers and sanders
This report describes the programme of experimental work carried out on exposure to vibration among polishers and sanders in the woodworking, plastics and metalworking industries. The objectives were to assess the BS EN ISO 8662 (non-electric tools) and the BS EN 60745 (electric tools) emission tests for usability and repeatability, to compare test results with manufacturers' declared vibration emission values, to compare declared vibration emission values with vibration magnitudes measured under real operating conditions and to assess vibration emission data as an indicator of vibration hazard. Findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. v, 40p. Illus. 8 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr590.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-1474 Oliveira F.
The persistence of the notion of the unsafe act and the construction of blame: narratives on work accidents in a metalworking plant
A persistência da noção de ato inseguro e a construção da culpa: os discursos sobre os acidentes de trabalho em uma indústria metalúrgica [in Portuguese]
Various conceptions based on personal or psychological factors have been developed to explain occupational accidents. This study was an attempt to investigate these conceptions in the workers' discursive practices. It was based on observations, informal conversations, document evaluations and interviews with twenty workers in a metalworking shop. A pervasive presence of Heinrich's domino theory was observed in the patterns of understanding occupational accidents. Unsafe acts are mainly explained by naturalization of risks and by institutionalized transmission practices. Other findings are discussed.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, Jan.-June 2007, Vol.32, No.115, p.19-27. 21 ref.
http://www.fundacentro.gov.br/rbso/BancoAnexos/RBSO%20115%20Persistencia%20da%20noção%20de%20ato%20inseguro.pdf [in Portuguese]

CIS 08-1323 Semple S., Graham M., Cowie H., Cherrie J.W.
Health and Safety Executive
The causative factors of dermatitis among workers exposed to metalworking fluids
Exposure to metalworking fluids (MWFs) is known to cause irritant contact dermatitis. In a first phase, the MWF parameters linked with skin irritation were investigated in laboratory trials. These studies suggested that MWFs are only mildly irritating over short time periods. It was concluded that improvements in the management of MWF concentration, pH, metal fines and bacteriological contamination were unlikely to have much impact on dermatitis risk and that the main effort should be placed on reducing exposure. A second phase consisted of a questionnaire survey among workers in six engineering plants concerning their skin condition and the existence, within their enterprise, of guidance on working with MWFs and on reducing dermatitis risk. This survey was followed by site visits. Findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. vi, 69p. Illus. 48 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr577.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-1434 Shanks E.
Health and Safety Executive
Correlation between vibration emission and vibration during real use: Nibblers and shears
The aims of this study were to assess the BS EN ISO 8662-10 (pneumatic tools) and the BS EN 60745-2-8 (electric tools) vibration emission tests for usability and reliability by comparing vibration magnitudes measured under real operating conditions with manufacturers' declared vibration emission values, and to assess whether vibration emission values are a reliable indicator of vibration hazards for various power-driven hand tools used in metalworking industries. Findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. vi, 38p. Illus. 16 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr576.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-1209 Cyprowski M., Piotrowska M., Żakowska Z., Szadkowska-Stańczyk I.
Microbial and endotoxin contamination of water-soluble metalworking fluids
The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of microbial contamination of metalworking fluids as a potential source of harmful biological agents in three metalworking plants in Poland. Ten samples of fluids, including four fresh fluids, were analyzed. The analysis showed total bacterial counts ranging from 1.0x101 to 3.2x107 CFU/mL, 60% to 100% of which were Gram-negative bacteria capable of producing endotoxins. The predominant species of bacteria was Shewanella putrefaciens present in 60% of the samples. As for moulds, the predominant species was Acremonium butyric. The average concentration of bacterial endotoxins was 773 EU/mL in used fluids and 285 EU/mL in fresh fluids. A correlation was found between endotoxin concentration and the number of Gram-negative bacteria detected in the fluids. Other findings are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 4th Quarter 2007, Vol.20, No.4, p.365-371. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 08-889 Automobile body shop worker
Le carrossier [in French]
Contents of this occupational information sheet on the job of automobile body shop worker: related occupations; description; place of work; work organization; tasks; tools and equipment; products, materials and persons concerned; work clothing; work and health. It is concluded that this occupation results in the exposures of workers to high physical strain with cardiac cost, to work postures and repetitive tasks that can lead to musculoskeletal diseases, to paints and solvents that can cause respiratory problems, and to noise and carbon monoxide.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 1st Quarter 2007, Vol.47, 2p. Insert.

CIS 08-603 Bonneterre V., Maître A., Liaudy S., Perdrix A.
Respiratory diseases due to the exposure to hard metal dust
Affections respiratoires liées à l'exposition aux poussières de métaux durs [in French]
Hard metals, essentially based on tungsten carbide (CW) and cobalt (Co), are generally produced using powder metallurgy processes such as hot isostatic pressing, more rarely by melting. Many groups of subjects are exposed to these metals during their production, machining, welding and brazing. Co alone can cause immunoallergies such as asthma or non-respiratory impairments; when linked to CW, sometimes together with other metal carbides, it can cause pulmonary fibrosis and bronchopulmonary cancers. Contents of this review article on respiratory diseases caused by exposure to hard metal dust: hard metal production processes; metabolism and monitoring of occupational exposure; pathological effects on the human organism; collective prevention measures; medical supervision; current procedures for obtaining occupational disease compensation in France.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 2nd Quarter 2007, No.155, 8p. 77 ref.

CIS 08-374 Diébold F.
Cutting fluid aerosol metrology
Métrologie des aérosols des fluides de coupe [in French]
Cutting fluids used in the machining of metals are known to cause skin pathologies including dermatitis and cancer, as well as respiratory diseases. These risks justify the adoption of preventive measures. The complex nature of these fluids and the large diversity of the resulting pollutant emissions considerably complicate the task of occupational hygienists responsible for evaluating the exposure of workers to these products. This article describes the methods used in France, the United States, Germany and Great Britain for the quantitative analysis of aerosols in cutting oils.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, June 2007, No.207, p.7-11. 11 ref.
http://www.hst.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/ND%202267/$File/ND2267.pdf [in French]

CIS 08-160 Suuronen K., Jolanki R., Luukkonen R., Alanko K., Susitaival P.
Self-reported skin symptoms in metal workers
The objectives of this case-control study were to find out the frequency of skin symptoms in machinists and machine maintenance operators. A total of 726 exposed workers and 84 unexposed controls, all male, answered a structured telephone questionnaire on their work, atopy, skin symptoms and various personal factors. Data were subjected to logistic regression analysis. Of the metal workers, 20% reported recurring or prolonged dermatitis on their hands or forearms during the past 12 months. The dermatitis affected mostly the metal workers' mood and their activities at work. Recurring dermatitis elsewhere than in the hands and in connection with work was reported by 10% of the exposed workers. The risks of hand dermatitis were about double the risk of dermatitis on other parts of the body and about fourfold compared with those of the controls.
Contact Dermatitis, Oct. 2007, Vol.57, No.4, p.259-264. 28 ref.

CIS 08-204 Brosseau L.M., Parker D., Samant Y., Pan W.
Mapping safety interventions in metalworking shops
This article discusses the selection of intervention activities designed to lower machine-related hazards and amputations in small metal fabrication businesses. Methods included an advisory board, employee discussions and pilot tests. A stepwise intervention mapping process was used to identify performance objectives, behavioural determinants and change objectives for two target populations (business owners and employees). Intervention activities for owners were designed to increase knowledge about machine safety, encourage adoption of safety procedures, and motivate improvements in machine guarding. Intervention activities aimed at employees focused on building knowledge and skills of health and safety committee members. The intervention mapping approach led to important insights about programme goals and intervention activities.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2007, Vol.49, No.3, p.338-345. 42 ref.

CIS 07-1476 Wang H., Reponen T., Lee S.A., White E., Grinshpun S.A.
Size distribution of airborne mist and endotoxin-containing particles in metalworking fluid environments
The objective of this study was to investigate size-selective concentrations of airborne particles and endotoxin in metalworking fluid (MWF) environments. MWFs collected in the field were aerosolized in a laboratory. Samples of MWFs aerosolized during routine field operations were also collected and analysed. All experiments included size-selective measurement of airborne concentrations of particles and endotoxins by particle size, using a low-pressure impactor. Airborne particle concentrations were highest in the fine particle size ranges in the areas affected by MWFs. Relatively high concentrations of endotoxin were mesaures at particle sizes below 0.39µm, which is smaller than the size of intact bacterial cells. It was concluded that MWF sites can be contaminated with high concentrations of fine particles which may contain microbial components such as endotoxins.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Mar. 2007, Vol.4, No.3, p.157-165. Illus. 32 ref.

2006

CIS 08-84 Geier J., Lessmann H., Becker D., Bruze M., Frosch P.J., Fuchs T., Jappe U., Koch P., Pföhler C., Skudlik C.
Patch testing with components of water-based metalworking fluids: Results of a multicentre study with a second series
This study investigated sensitization to ten frequently-used metalworking fluid (MWF) components, which are not part of the established MWF test series, in metalworkers with suspected occupational dermatitis due to MWF. Seven patients reacted positively to 4,4'-methylene bis morpholine, including six who also reacted to formaldehyde and/or other formaldehyde releasers. Four patients reacted positively to myristyl alcohol. Additionally, 20 doubtful or irritant reactions occurred. One patient each reacted positively to oleyl alcohol, monoisopropanolamine and 2-amino-2-ethyl- 1,3-propanediol. None of the other substances tested elicited any clear-cut positive reaction. Patch testing with well-known MWF allergens showed proportions of positive reactions, which were comparable to those from other studies, e.g. 11 % to monoethanolamine, 8% to colophony and 3-5% to various preservatives.
Contact Dermatitis, Dec. 2006, Vol.55, No.6, p.322-329. 33 ref.

CIS 07-1381 Cohen H., White E.M.
Metalworking fluid mist occupational exposure limits: A discussion of alternative methods
Industrial users of metalworking fluids (MWFs) need to have guidance, such as an occupational exposure limit, to determine when either engineering or administrative controls must be implemented, or whether employees require personal protective equipment. The purpose of this article is to explore various approaches that might be taken to result either in a single or in multiple limits for exposures to MWFs and their components. Approaches such as control banding are discussed in terms of an alternative to the use of an occupational exposure limit (OEL). Since MWFs vary in composition and no single OEL is likely to be appropriate for all such fluids, control banding places all MWF operations into a single band using similar (if not identical) controls. OSHA has published a best practice manual on this topic, which incorporates information from the 1998 NIOSH MWF criteria document.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Sep. 2006, Vol.3, No.9, p.501-507. 32 ref.

CIS 07-649 Madan V., Beck M.H.
Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from N,N-methylene-bis-5-methyl-oxazolidine in coolant oils
Contact with metal working fluids (MWF) is an important factor in the development of occupational hand dermatitis in patients working in the metal processing industry. Biocides are added to MWF as preservatives and are known sensitizers. This study analysed 318 patch test reactions to N,N-methylene-bis-5-methyl-oxazolidine 1% in petrolatum present in coolant oils in patients exposed to MWF and with suspected occupational dermatitis. Positive allergic reactions were noted in 15 cases. In seven cases, it was possible to confirm the presence of N,N-methylene-bis-5-methyl-oxazolidine in the oils used by the patients. Positive reactions to formaldehyde were seen in 11 patients. Sensitization to N,N-methylene-bis-5-methyl-oxazolidine and/or formaldehyde allergy was considered likely to have contributed to the workers' dermatitis.
Contact Dermatitis, July 2006, Vol.55, No.1, p.39-41. 10 ref.

CIS 07-694 Herrault J., Donati P.
Resistance welding - Magnetic field mapping and risk prevention
Soudage par résistance - Cartographie du champ magnétique et prévention [in French]
Metalworking shops are often equipped with several resistance welding machines. In this study, the distribution of the magnetic field around several resistance welding machines was analysed with a view to applying prevention measures if necessary. The results of the measurements confirmed that the emitted levels could exceed those recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) beyond which health risks could exist. In addition to the field mapping, this article describes the principle of resistance welding, reviews the health risks linked to exposure to this type of magnetic field, presents current French and European regulations and offers guidance on prevention measures.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, Sep. 2006, No.204, p.21-31. Illus. 15 ref.
http://www.hst.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/ND%202252/$File/ND2252.pdf [in French]

CIS 07-422 Boust C., Brugnot C., Gendre J.C., Goliro M., Lecler M., Quang X.L., Osternaud J.C.
Degreasing machines
Machines à dégraisser [in French]
Degreasing procedures are subject to increasingly-stringent regulations, often making the selection of equipment difficult. The purpose of this guide is to help enterprises select the technologies most suited to their needs from the standpoints of safety, hygiene and environmental protection. Contents: analysis of needs and constraints; degreasing techniques and products; risk analysis; risk prevention; machine design and safety measures; installation, use and maintenance of equipment.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, July 2006. 40p. Illus. 9 ref. Index. Price: EUR 8.20. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.inrs.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_search_view/9D1241C92E61A807C12571DB002479D2/$File/ed964.pdf [in French]

CIS 07-371 Methner M.M., Achutan C.
Case study - Airborne hexamethylene diisocyanate and particulate matter exposures during fire/rescue ladder finishing operations
In 2004, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) received a request from the management of a steel ladder fabrication plant to evaluate employee exposures to hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) during spray painting operations. Management representatives were also concerned about exposures to particulate matter and crystalline silica during spray painting and sanding operations. Personal breathing zone and general area samples were collected and analysed. Findings are discussed. All samples were within the NIOSH and ACGIH threshold limit values, although some exceeded the United Kingdom HSE limit values. Particulate matter was well within limits and crystalline silica was not detected. Recommendations were made for further reduction of exposures to HDI.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Mar. 2006, Vol.3, No.3, p.D28-D32. 11 ref.

CIS 07-162 Stanton M.L., Henneberger P.K., Kent M.S., Deubner D.C., Kreiss K., Schuler C.R.
Sensitization and chronic beryllium disease among workers in copper-beryllium distribution centers
Little is known about the risk of sensitization and chronic beryllium disease among workers performing limited processing of copper-beryllium alloys downstream of the primary beryllium industry. In this study, a cross-sectional survey of employees was performed at three copper-beryllium alloy distribution centres. A total of 100 workers were tested for beryllium sensitization using the beryllium blood lymphocyte proliferation test. Available data on beryllium concentrations in air were used to characterize airborne exposure. One participant, who also had exposure to other forms of beryllium, was found to be sensitized and to have chronic beryllium disease, resulting in a prevalence of sensitization of 1% for all tested. This prevalence is lower than for workers in primary beryllium production facilities.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2006, Vol.48, No.2, p.204-211. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 07-205 Samant Y., Parker D., Brosseau L., Pan W., Xi M., Haugan D.
Profile of machine safety in small metal fabrication businesses
This study evaluates the effectiveness of interventions designed to reduce the risk of amputation among workers in small metalworking businesses in the state of Minnesota. Forty businesses participated. Checklists were developed to quantify machine-guarding practices. Up to 25 randomly-selected machines were evaluated in each facility. Overall, only 55% of items addressing machine guarding were present. No single machine complied with all critical safety requirements. Shops with safety committees tended to have better scores than did shops without safety committees. Thirty-five percent of all businesses had established machine guarding procedures and 17% provided training in machine guarding to their employees. These findings indicate that machine guarding and related safety programmes in small metal fabrication businesses are inadequate. They also suggest that safety committees are an important component in improving machine safety and related programmes in small businesses.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 2006, Vol.49, No.5, p.352-359. Illus. 30 ref.

2005

CIS 07-1074 Kowalewski W.
Occupational safety and health during heat treatment operations for metals and their alloys
Instrukcja bezpieczeństwa i higieny pracy podczas zabiegów obróbki cieplnej, którym poddawane są metale i ich stopy [in Polish]
The basic principles and definitions of heat treatment operations for the hardening of metals are presented and essential safety measures to be undertaken by each employee before, during and after the work are detailed. Prohibited activities during heat treatment operations are also indicated.
Przyjaciel przy Pracy, 2005, No.12, p.21-23.

CIS 07-651 Ferrite S., Santana V.
Joint effects of smoking, noise exposure and age on hearing loss
This cross-sectional study was carried out to examine whether smoking, noise and age jointly affect hearing acuity. It involved 535 male workers of a metal processing factory. Pure-tone audiometric tests were used to assess hearing loss. and noise exposure assessment was based on a job-exposure matrix. Data on socio-demographic, life-style, occupational and health-related factors were collected by questionnaire. Results indicated that age and occupational noise exposures were separately and positively associated with hearing loss. For all the factors combined, the estimated effect on hearing loss was higher than the sum of the effects from each isolated variable. It is concluded that the synergistic effect of smoking, noise exposure and age on hearing loss is consistent with the biological interaction.
Occupational Medicine, Jan. 2005, Vol.55, No.1, p.48-53. 32 ref.

CIS 06-1463 Escalup V.
Safety of press brakes
Sécurité des presses plieuses [in French]
This report presents the results of a study on the feasibility and impact of installing electronic guards on press brakes. The study involved: a literature survey of the hazards of press brakes and safety devices currently available; enterprise visits to observe the conditions of use of press brakes in different industries; and practical trials to investigate the impact of different safety devices on production time and on conditions of work. It was concluded that no one safety device was able to satisfy all safety requirements and that each pressing operation required a separate evaluation of the risks involved.
Centre technique des industries mécaniques (CETIM), avenue Félix-Louat 52, BP 80067, 60304 Senlis cedex, France, 2005. 175p. Illus. 13 ref. Price: EUR 25.00.

CIS 06-885 Rosenberg N.
Pulmonary berylliosis
Bérylliose pulmonaire [in French]
Pulmonary berylliosis is defined by respiratory symptoms following the inhalation of dust or smoke containing beryllium particles. Workers in the beryllium smelting and metalworking industries are most at risk of exposure. Contents of this review article on berylliosis: physiopathology; prevalence and epidemiology; diagnosis of acute and chronic berylliosis; development of the disease; prevention (medical supervision, monitoring of workplace air, ventilation, personal protective equipment); compensation of occupational diseases in France.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 2005, No.104, p.513-521. 77 ref.
http://www.dmt-prevention.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/TR%2036/$File/TR36.pdf [in French]

CIS 06-609 Liu Y., Woodin M.A., Smith T.J., Herrick R.F., Williams P.L., Hauser R., Christiani D.C.
Exposure to fuel-oil ash and welding emissions during the overhaul of an oil-fired boiler
The health effects of exposure to vanadium in fuel-oil ash are not well described at levels ranging from 10 to 500µg/m3. As part of a larger occupational epidemiological study that assessed these effects during the overhaul of a large oil-fired boiler, this study was designed to quantify boilermakers' exposures to fuel-oil ash particles, metals and welding gases, and to identify determinants of these exposures. Personal exposure measurements were conducted on 18 boilermakers and 11 utility workers (controls) before and during a 3-week overhaul. Time-weighted average exposures were significantly higher for boilermakers than for utility workers for ash particles less than 10µm in diameter and for vanadium, nickel and iron. Fuel-oil ash was a major contributor to boilermakers' exposure. Vanadium concentrations sometimes exceeded the 2003 ACGIH threshold limit value.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Sep. 2005, Vol.2, No.9, p.435-443. 22 ref.

CIS 06-447 Webster A.R., Lee J.Y., Deininger R.A.
Rapid assessment of microbial hazards in metalworking fluids
In this study, a filtration-based rapid adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence assay, which takes less than 10min to perform, was evaluated as a test method for estimating total number of bacteria in metalworking fluid. This evaluation used two types of metalworking fluid (soluble and semi-synthetic) that were inoculated using Pseudomonas aeruginosa and spoiled metalworking fluid. Daily parallel testing was completed using the rapid ATP assay and the standard plate count methods. Test results were evaluated by statistical correlation and regression procedures for each fluid type. Study results indicate that the rapid ATP assay is strongly correlated to the standard plate count method for soluble and semi-synthetic fluids.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Apr. 2005, Vol.2, No.4, p.213-218. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 06-413 Nomura K., Nakao M., Yano E.
Hearing loss associated with smoking and occupational noise exposure in a Japanese metal working company
A cross-sectional study of the effects of smoking on hearing loss was conducted among 397 Japanese male workers at a metal factory during their periodical health checkup. Hearing acuity was measured at 4kHz using a pure-tone audiometer in a quiet room. Among the total subjects, 55 (13.9%) were identified as having hearing loss at 4kHz, and 151 (38.0%) were currently exposed to occupational noise. When adjusted for age and occupational noise exposure, odds ratios of hearing loss were 3.16 for past smokers and 3.39 for heavy smokers compared with never-smokers. The association between smoking and hearing loss seems to be masked by atherosclerotic factors. Results suggest that the concurrent impact of smoking and occupational noise exposure on hearing loss require further attention.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 2005, Vol.78, No.3, p.178-184. 30 ref.

CIS 05-638 Krakowiak A., Dudek W., Tarkowski M., Świderska-Kiełbik S., Nieścierenko E., Pałczyński C.
Occupational asthma caused by cobalt chloride in a diamond polisher after cessation of occupational exposure: A case report
Occupational asthma caused by cobalt chloride was diagnosed in a 35-year-old patient, who worked as a diamond paste polishing disc former. He had been suffering for two years from dyspnoea, cough and symptoms of rhinitis. Skin prick tests (SPTs) with common environmental allergens were found to be negative, while SPTs with cobalt chloride were positive for all applied solutions. Provocation with cobalt chloride caused a significant increase in the proportion of eosinophils, basophils and albumin during the late allergic reaction. Positive lymphocyte transformation caused by cobalt was also observed. It is concluded that cobalt salts may induce occupational asthma; the mechanism may be IgE-mediated.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2005, Vol.18, No.2, p.151-158. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 05-648 Martin T.J.
Controlling exposure to metalworking fluids
The smoky haze in machining shops generally consists of metalworking fluid (MWF) mists and vapours and carries the potential for a variety of serious health problems. This article summarizes the most important occupational health issues and preventive measures related to MWFs. Contents: types of MWF most commonly used; health hazards (contact dermatitis, cancer, lung disorders including asthma and hypersensitivity pneumonitis); exposure controls (local exhaust ventilation, use of protective gloves, microbial control and monitoring); NIOSH and OSHA guidelines.
Occupational Hazards, May 2005, Vol.67, No.5, p.48-51. Illus.

2004

CIS 05-423 Aouadi R.
Noise mapping - A useful tool in the fight against noise
La cartographie du bruit - Un outil important pour la lutte contre le bruit [in French]
This study on noise mapping was carried out in a workshop producing leaf springs in Tunisia, at the request of the enterprise. A sonometer capable of recording global noise levels in dB(A) within a range of frequencies between 31.5Hz and 16,000Hz was used. Noise levels recorded in various parts of the workshop sometimes exceeded the levels specified in the French standard 31.084, and many operators were exposed to levels above 85dB(A), a level likely to cause hearing damage. The following recommendations aimed at reducing the exposure to noise were proposed as a result of this intervention: equipping the exhaust fans with silencers; fitting acoustic panels to the walls and ceiling; installing screens in the workshop; supplying workers with hearing protectors; conducting periodical audiometric examinations of the workers; initiating awareness programmes for the workers; progressively replacing machines with less noisy models.
SST - Santé et Sécurité au Travail, Oct. 2004, No.31, p.14-20. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 05-163 Geier J., Uter W., Lessmann H., Frosch P.J.
Patch testing with metalworking fluids from the patient's workplace
This study consisted of a retrospective analysis of patch test data from the dermatology department of a German teaching hospital between 1992 and 2003. 141 metalworkers had been tested because of suspected occupational contact dermatitis due to metalworking fluids (MWFs). 829 patch tests with 306 samples of MWF had been performed on these workers. Positive reactions to water-based MWFs occurred in 27 patients. From the analysis of reaction patterns, it is concluded that most of these reactions indicated true contact allergy.
Contact Dermatitis, Oct. 2004, Vol.51, No.4, p.172-179. 27 ref.

CIS 04-655 Goyer N., Beaudry C., Bégin D., Bouchard M., Carrier G., Gely O., Gérin M., Lefebvre P., Noisel N., Perrault G.
Impacts of the lowering of the permissible exposure value for formaldehyde - Group 3: Other sectors
Impacts d'un abaissement de la valeur d'exposition admissible au formaldéhyde - Groupe 3: Autres secteurs [in French]
The objective of this study was to assess the number of workers in a variety of industries and sectors in Quebec that would be exposed to excessive formaldehyde concentration levels and the cost of compliance per worker as a function of the various possible threshold limit values under consideration. This specific study was carried out within the framework of a large research programme aimed at evaluating the health and socio-economic impacts of lowering the current maximum permissible exposure value for formaldehyde of 2ppm to one of the values of 1.0, 0.75 or 0.3ppm, either as maximum or 8-hr time-weighted average values. (See also CIS 04-642 to 04-651, CIS 04-653 and CIS 04-654).
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2004. 97p. 94 ref. Price: CAD 8.56. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/RA12-386.pdf [in French]

CIS 04-577 Chlebda E., Antonowicz-Juchniewicz J., Andrzejak R.
The effect of occupational exposure to heavy metals and arsenic on the concentration of carotenoids in the serum of copper foundry workers
Wpływ ekspozycji zawodowej na ołów i arsen na stężenie karotenoidów w surowicy u pracowników huty miedzi [in Polish]
Occupational exposure to heavy metals and arsenic in moderate doses may lead to a decrease in the concentration of carotenoids in the serum of people at risk, thus reducing the efficiency of their antioxidative mechanisms.
Medycyna pracy, 2004, Vol.55, No.5, p.389-401. 40 ref.

CIS 04-616 Mercier A., Courtois B.
Shotblasting
Le grenaillage [in French]
Free jet shotblasting is a widespread industrial process used to obtain a specific type of surface. It requires the presence of an operator who needs to be equipped with full set of protective gear against dust and other dangerous flying particles. This information sheet provides an overview of the various hazards encountered during free jet shotblasting, followed by proposed protective measures and threshold limit values for some of the substances encountered in this work environment.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 2004. 4p. Illus. Price: EUR 1.50. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.inrs.fr/INRS-PUB/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_search_view_view/31C89AEF37CE79B4C1256F5E0035106A/$FILE/ed121.pdf [in French]

CIS 04-409 Dangman K.H., Storey E., Schenk P., Hodgson M.J.
Effects of cigarette smoking on diagnostic tests for work-related hypersensitivity pneumonitis: Data from an outbreak of lung disease in metalworkers
Following an earlier outbreak of hypersensitivity pneumonitis among a group of metalworkers, a re-examination of data of the 61 patients seen in connection with the outbreak was carried out to explore possible effects of cigarette smoking on the clinical tests used to diagnose hypersensitivity pneumonitis. It is concluded that cigarette smoking can affect the physical examination findings, spirometry and electron spin resonance spectroscopy changes associated with hypersensitivity pneumonitis, making these tests less sensitive and specific, and potentially obscuring the diagnosis. Such changes may contribute to the apparent "protective" effect of smoking on the development of hypersensitivity pneumonitis.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 2004, Vol.45, No.5, p.455-467. Illus. 68 ref.

CIS 04-212 Giraud L., Massé S., Turcot D., Ait-Hadi D., Tanchoux S., Crampé C.
Modelling the effect of a pneumatic counterweight on the stopping time of friction press slides and a method for their adjustment
Modélisation de l'influence du contrepoids pneumatique sur le temps d'arrêt du coulisseau des presses à friction et méthode d'équilibrage [in French]
Many friction press operators suffer accidents when their hands enter the press's danger zone before the slide has stopped. This is true for operation in both manual and continuous mode. Poor adjustment of the pneumatic counterweight is one of the most common reasons why slides do not stop in time. The aim of this project was to improve slide braking by designing a simple method to adjust the counterweight that takes into account matrix weight. The work involved modelling of the braking of friction presses, modifying a stop-time chronometer previously designed by the IRSST, laboratory and plant trials, and data analysis. The study results were communicated to joint industry associations, who can use these simple tools to reduce the number of accidents involving presses.
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2004. ix, 51p. Illus. 10 ref. Price: CAD 6.42. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-378.pdf [in French]

CIS 03-1627 Xiao G.B., Dempsey P.G., Lei L., Ma Z.H., Liang Y.X.
Study on musculoskeletal disorders in a machinery manufacturing plant
Risk factors of musculoskeletal disorders in the machinery manufacturing sector were investigated using interviews, postural analysis and the revised NIOSH lifting equation. 69 workers involved in manual materials handling (job A) and 51 machinery workers less involved with manual-handling tasks (job B) were studied. The prevalence rates of low back pain (defined as at least one episode lasting for 24 hours or more in previous 12 months) were 63.8% and 37.3% for jobs A and B, respectively. Prevalence rates of low back pain every consecutive day for a week or more attributed to lifting were 26,09% and 5.88% for jobs A and B, respectively. Multiple regression analysis revealed that lifting repetitiveness and work age contributed to low back pain. The combination of object weight and activity repetitiveness had a significant adverse effect on low back pain.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2004, Vol.46, No.4, p.341-346. Illus. 19 ref.

2003

CIS 07-879 Li K., Aghazadeh F., Hatipkarasulu S., Ray T.G.
Health risks from exposure to metal-working fluids in machining and grinding operations
Metalworking fluids (MWFs) are used in machining and grinding operations to cool the tool and workpiece, reduce the friction between the tool and workpiece, improve the surface characteristics of the workpiece and increase tool life and productivity. Health problems have been reported among workers exposed to MWFs, including incidences of respiratory, digestive and skin cancers, and increased rates of cough and phlegm. This article reviews and discusses issues concerning health risks from exposure to MWFs in machining and grinding operations, the various factors that influence the degree of exposure and control methods to reduce exposure.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2003, Vol.9, No.1, p.75-95. 44 ref.

CIS 06-535 Lathes
Le tour [in French]
This leaflet describes the main risks when working with lathes and outlines precautionary measures. The main hazards are related to the revolving parts of the lathes, fitting of workpieces into the lathe, design of workplaces, work practices and the lack of protection.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Dec. 2003. 8p. Illus. Price: EUR 1.50. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.inrs.fr/INRS-PUB/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_search_view_view/542612A22091E75FC1256E1B00591BAF/$FILE/ed912.pdf [in French]

CIS 06-197 Le Roy de Présalé M., Lubineau M., Bert M., Boucard M., Darves-Bornoz M., Gillot M., Hue M., Baudoin M., Bello M., Lupin M.
Cold metalworking presses: Improving the safety of presses in service and undergoing renovation - Guide for users and safety professionals
Presses pour le travail à froid dans les métaux. Amélioration de la sécurité sur les presses en service dans le cadre de leur rénovation. Guide à l'usage des utilisateurs et des préventeurs [in French]
This safety guide describes procedures for assessing and improving the safety of cold metalworking presses while taking into account production constraints. Key-clutch, friction-clutch and hydraulic presses are treated separately. The safety principles and corresponding protection devices applicable to each of these categories are described. Technical specifications for the implementation of the selected safety measures are dealt with in INRS guides ED 782 (CIS 05-229) for mechanical presses and ED 882 (CIS 06-198) for hydraulic presses. This guide replaces the previous edition (CIS 96-1071).
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, rev. ed. 2003. 34p. Illus. 12 ref. Price: EUR 6.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.inrs.fr/INRS-PUB/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_search_view_view/8AF07FF29C3A3528C1256DC2002C7E27/$FILE/ed783.pdf [in French]

CIS 06-146 Stear M.A.
Controlling health risks from workplace exposure to metalworking fluids in the United Kingdom engineering industry
In 2002, the United Kingdom Health and Safety Executive launched new guidance for the engineering industry, aimed at reducing health risks from metalworking fluids (MWFs). This guidance was the culmination of many years of work on the subject. The existing exposure limit for neat mineral oil mists was reviewed, and the development of a new exposure limit for water-mix MWFs was considered. This led to the development of new air-sampling methods, a comprehensive survey and the development of new good practice guidance in the place of statutory exposure limits. The guidance is based on a holistic approach, including ventilation, fluid selection, fluid delivery and fluid management. It demonstrates the business benefits from managing MWFs effectively by reducing the incidence of ill health, reducing fluid and disposal costs, increasing tool life and improving machining performance.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Nov. 2003, Vol.18, No.11, p.877-882. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 06-154 Woskie S.R., Virji M.A., Hallock M., Smith T.J., Hammond S.K.
Summary of the findings from exposure assessments for metalworking fluid mortality and morbidity studies
Since 1985, a number of studies have evaluated the association between worker exposure to metalworking fluids (MWFs) and cancer mortality or respiratory morbidity. The studies have used different methods to measure the MWF aerosol concentration and to evaluate the exposures to the specific components of the MWF aerosol (bacteria, endotoxin, elements, metals, ethanolamines, polyaromatic hydrocarbons). This article summarizes the exposures measured in these epidemiological studies by estimating their thoracic and inhalable MWF particulate levels. In addition, the issues that must be resolved before a universal sampling and analysis method for MWF can be recommended are reviewed. Finally, recommendations for future directions in MWF exposure assessment and control are suggested.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Nov. 2003, Vol.18, No.11, p.855-864. Illus. 65 ref.

CIS 05-309 Marqués Aparicio E.R., Valks R., Conde-Salazar L.
Most frequent allergens in the metalworking industry
Alergenos más frecuentes en los trabajadores de la industria metalúrgica [in Spanish]
The aim of this study was to identify the allergens that most frequently cause allergic contact eczema in the metalworking industry. It involved 251 workers who had consulted an occupational dermatology service between 1999 and 2002 for cases of suspected contact dermatitis. Standard battery skin tests were carried out. 106 workers (42%) showed a positive reaction to at least one substance. The most frequent positive reactions were observed for chromium, nickel, thimerosal mix, cobalt, thiuram mix and formaldehyde. Among the 69 patients who were also subjected to patch tests with various cutting fluids, 20 (29%) showed a sensitization reaction, mainly for thimerosal mix, formaldehyde and certain biocides. Injuries affected primarily the fingers, hands and arms.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Dec. 2003, Vol.L, No.193, p.7-14. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 04-634 Ellingsen D.G., Haug E., Gaarder P.I., Bast-Pettersen R., Thomassen Y.
Endocrine and immunologic markers in manganese alloy production workers
One hundred randomly-selected male workers exposed to manganese were compared with one hundred unexposed male referents (matched for age) from similar process industries. The geometric mean of the exposed workers' urinary manganese concentration was 0.9 (range 0.1-126.3) nmol/mmol creatinine (Cr) versus 0.4 (range 0.1-13.1) nmol/mmol Cr for the referents. The mean duration of exposure to manganese was 20.0 (range 2.1-41.0) years. The geometric mean of the prolactin serum concentration was higher in the exposed subjects than in the referents (229 versus 197 mIU/L). Serum prolactin was associated with current exposure to soluble inhalable manganese, duration of exposure and smoking habits. The subjects with the longest duration of exposure to manganese or the highest current exposure to soluble inhalable manganese had a statistically significantly higher serum prolactin concentration than the referents, while smokers had a lower serum prolactin concentration than nonsmokers.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 2003, Vol.29, No.3, p.230-238. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 04-466 Thorne P.S., Bartlett K.H., Phipps J., Kulhankova K.
Evaluation of five extraction protocols for quantification of endotoxin in metalworking fluid aerosol
Occupational exposures to endotoxin-contaminated, water-based metalworking fluids (MWFs) are thought to contribute to cases of respiratory illness. The method most commonly used to quantify endotoxin is the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay and this is the basis for the ASTM method E2144-01. In this study, multiple samples with similar mass and endotoxin loading were generated in order to compare four alternative extraction methods with the ASTM method. Aerosols with three concentrations of endotoxins (4.5, 350 and 1141EU/m3) were collected simultaneously on multiple filter samples using an exposure chamber system that provides a uniform distribution of MWF mist. It was found that the ASTM method yielded comparable estimations of MWF endotoxin aerosol concentrations but with higher variability than the four other extraction methods. In particular, extraction into pyrogen-free water at 25°C was more precise and simpler than the ASTM method.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Jan. 2003, Vol.47, No.1, p.31-36. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 04-416 Simpson A.T., Stear M., Groves J.A., Piney M., Bradley S.D., Stagg S., Crook B.
Occupational exposure to metalworking fluid mist and sump fluid contaminants
This paper summarizes the analytical and occupational hygiene findings from a recent survey of occupational exposure to metalworking fluids (MWFs) in the metalworking industry in the United Kingdom. In general, occupational exposure to mineral oil MWF mist was controlled to under 3mg/m3 (8h time-weighted average) and to under 1mg/m3 for water-mix MWF mist. Fluid management was found to be poor, with most sites failing to meet industry good practice or Health and Safety Executive (HSE) standards. High levels of bacteria and endotoxins were found in sumps, and control of other factors, such as water-mix fluid concentration, was often poor. These findings will be used to develop guidance from the HSE on good practices, including indicative limits for MWF mist and sump fluid contaminants, with significant emphasis on sump fluid management (maintenance and monitoring), as well as control issues.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Jan. 2003, Vol.47, No.1, p.17-30. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 04-144 Pagliero D., Kneppert M., Dei-Svaldi D.
Analysis of the safety of integrated safety motion controllers (motion boards, motion controls, etc.)
Analyse du niveau de sécurité d'une commande d'axe à sécurité intégrée (cartes d'axe, commandes d'axes...) [in French]
The use of "integrated safety" motion controllers on numerically-controlled machines and in machining centres allows an improvement in operator safety. However, they do not prevent all hazards, and can sometimes cause new ones. These devices being relatively recent, INRS decided to examine their ability to ensure the safety of operators in conformity with the claims of the manufacturer. This article sets out the concept of integrated safety motion controllers and examines the integration of this specific device within a control circuit. Contents: problems encountered in high-speed machining; the Sinumerik® integrated safety motion controller of the Siemens company; schematic diagram; architecture of this motion controller; safety function management; concept of integrated safety; review of this innovative concept. A box includes key definitions and terminology.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 1st Quarter 2003, No.190, p.33-49. Illus. 18 ref.
http://www.inrs.fr/INRS-PUB/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_search_view_view/4FBA49466E664424C1256D4E0031B215/$FILE/nd2187.pdf [in French]

CIS 03-1832
Health and Safety Executive
Measurement of personal exposure of metalworking machine operators to airborne water-mix metalworking fluid - Elemental marker method using flame atomic absorption spectrometry or inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry
This method for the determination of hazardous substances describes an elemental marker method for measurement of personal exposure of metalworking machine operators to airborne water-mix metalworking fluid, using flame atomic absorption spectrometry or inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. The sampling time for which the method is suitable is dependent on the sensitivity of the analytical technique used for measurement of the marker element, the concentration of the marker element in the machine sump fluid and the fluid dilution. A sampling time in the range of two to eight hours is recommended when boron or potassium is used as marker element, and eight hours is recommended when sodium is used as marker element.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Aug. 2003. 19p. 31 ref. Price: GBP 15.00.

CIS 03-1511 Decree No.150 of 26 Nov. 2003 of the Ministry of Labour and Social Protection to approve sector-specific standards for the free provision of personal protective equipment to workers in the mechanical engineering and metallurgy sector [Belarus]
Tipovye otraslevye normy besplatnoj vydači sredstv individual'noj zaščity rabotnikam, zanjatym v mašinostroenii i metalloobrabatyvajuščih proizvodstvah [in Russian]
This decree gives legal recognition to a standard listing personal protective equipment (PPE) to be provided free of charge to workers in various professions in the mechanical engineering and metallurgy sector.
Nacional'nyj Reestr Pravovyh Aktov, 9 Jan. 2004, No.1, p.57-136.

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