Metalworking industry - 770 entries found
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Menter P., Harrison W., Woodin W.G.
Patch testing of coolant fractions.
A brief review of the contents of coolant flume systems, of the relations between the oils and skin reactions, and of patch testing, is followed by a description of 10-month patch-test studies with 13 suspensions combining: a coolant base (sodium and potassium fatty acid soaps, amine soaps, petroleum sulfonates, polyglycols, mineral oil, fatty oil derivatives and chlorinated paraffins); biocides (an amine-type product and an amine-iodine complex); sassafras oil; tramp oil and a coolant as received from a hard grind flume system and without metal fragments; coolant as received and without metal fragments, autoclaved; metal fragments. Bacterial content ranged from 0 to 60.107/ml. Of the 206 employees tested, some had had no contact and some had past or present contact with coolants. No positive tests whatsoever were recorded.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1975, Vol.17, No.9, p.565-568. 12 ref.
A guide to choosing press feeds.
Recommendations for the choice of coil cradles and reels, straighteners and levelers, roll or slide feeds, lubricators, edge conditioners, sheet and blank feeds (dial feeds, reciprocating bolsters, pick-and-place feeds, transfer-die systems, transfer presses), press-unloading systems, all from the viewpoints of systematic integration into the production line and personnel protection.
American Machinist, Oct. 1975, Vol.119, No.19, p.117-132. Illus. Reprint price: US-$1.00.
Processing and finishing of aluminium.
This standard is intended to hep reduce fires and explosions in processing aluminium or its alloys when metallic dust or powder is liberated or handled. Discussed are dust collection and disposal during processing of the metal, fire safety practices, handling and storage of aluminium powder and paste, and fire protection. An appendix covers work clothing, fire extinguishing equipment, explosibility parameters, and non-sparking materials.
NFPA No.65-1975, National Fire Protection Association, 470 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02210, USA, 1975. 14p. 12 ref.
This data sheet covers: characteristics of magnesium; storage; control and disposal of fine scrap; handling molten metal; machining; grinding, buffing, and wire brushing; welding; heat treating; chemical treatment; fire protection; first aid; respiratory protection; and spot tests for magnesium.
Data Sheet 426, Revision A, National Safety Council, 425 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA, 1975. 8p. Illus. 1 ref.
Machine guarding - Assessment of need.
Report giving research and survey data on accidents with machine tools (woodworking and metalworking machines), with or without guards. Analysis of statistical data obtained in the USA shows that a major proportion of these accidents (especially laceration of the fingers) is due to unguarded or poorly guarded machines. The report also discloses a lack of a sufficient number of standards concerning the guarding of machine tools. Some 40 machines (circular saws, spindle moulding machines, engine lathes, hydraulic presses, etc.) are considered, together with their hazards and their need for guarding. A method of ranking the relative priority of each machine as regards this need is proposed, using variables such as: accident frequency and severity rate, machine population, percentage unguarded, compensation paid, etc.
HEW Publication No.(NIOSH)75-173, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Post Office Building, Cincinnati, Ohio 45202, USA, June 1975. 201p. Illus. 32 ref.
Clothing protecting the front of the body against liquids
Ubranie chroniące przód ciała przed działaniem płynów [in Polish]
Protective clothing for workers performing grinding with coolants must be made of light, smooth, flexible, impermeable material resistant to the action of physical agents. The author presents a model satisfying these demands, a 2-piece suit (trousers and jacket) the front of which is of impermeable fabric of polyamide fibres dip-coated with polyvinyl chloride and the remainder in waterproof duck. The resistance of these fabrics to physical agents, mineral oils, water and acids being very good, the garment can also be used at other workplaces. Instructions for use, maintenance and conservation are appended.
Bezpieczeństwo pracy, Jan. 1975, No.1, p.19-21. Illus.
Thony C., Thony J., Lafontaine M., Limasset J.C., Boulanger M., Gosgnach C.
Concentrations of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in some mineral oils - Study of the corresponding hazard
Concentrations en hydrocarbures polycycliques aromatiques cancérogènes de quelques huiles minérales - Etude du risque correspondant. [in French]
From 1954 onwards the number of cases of skin cancer assumed epidemic proportions in a French industrial region specialising in small-scale manufacture using automatic lathes. 2 investigations were carried out: one, clinical and epidemiological, covering a period of 15 years, revealed 133 cases of spinocellular epithelioma, often located on the scrotum; the incidence of the disease was 25 per 100,000 for the population of the region (i.e. 36 times greater than the incidence for France as a whole); the other investigation concerned the chemical aspects of the problem and showed (a) that most new cutting oils contained, on delivery at the plant, 0.5 to 150µg/l benzo(a)pyrene; and (b) that in used cutting oils the concentration of carcinogenic hydrocarbons tended to rise. The benzo(a)pyrene content of 25 cutting oils are tabulated. Preventive action should concentrate on more effective refining of industrial oils, enabling metalworking plants to work with cutting fluids involving no carcinogenic hazard.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, Jan.-Feb. 1975, Vol.36, No.1-2, p.37-52. Illus. 14 ref.
Forging it cleaner with water.
To eliminate smoke, flame and heat during crankshaft forging, a U.S. drop forging company succeeded in replacing oil-base die lubricants by a water-soluble lubricant which keeps the metal from sticking to the dies and assists in the flow of metal as it fills the cavity. The new lubricant has good temperature stability, needs not be preheated and avoids the use of aromatic hydrocarbons and other substances causing toxic vapours.
American Machinist, 1 Jan. 1975, Vol.119, No.1, p.60. Illus.
Protection of grinding machine operators against the harmful effects of oil mists
Zabezpieczenie szlifierzy przed szkodliwym działaniem mgły olejowej [in Polish]
After reviewing the hazards associated with the use of cutting fluids in mist form (skin and respiratory disorders, falls due to slipping), the author reports on the results of measurements made in the vicinity of machines cooled by oil mists. The concentrations measured exceeded the permissible concentration in the German Dem.Rep. (5µg/m3), especially in the proximity of gear grinders and cylindrical grinders. Enumeration of the main cutting fluids employed as mists, and description of the appropriate protective measures (frequent change of clothing, thorough personal hygiene, personal protective equipment, enclosure and automation of machinery, etc.).
Bezpieczeństwo pracy, May 1975, No.5, p.2-5. Illus. 8 ref.
Baudoin J., Jobard P., Moline J., Lavandier M., Roullier A., Homasson J.P.
Diffuse interstitial pulmonary fibrosis - Responsibility of cemented carbides
Fibrose pulmonaire interstitielle diffuse - Responsabilité des métaux durs. [in French]
Employing electron microscopy and examination of lung biopsy material by X-ray diffraction, the authors undertook a very thorough study of the last of 5 cases of "tungstosis" observed in a plant processing tungsten carbide and other hard metals. The greatest exposure occurred in powder mixing, grinding and machining of cemented carbide workpieces. Fibrosis is preceded by an irritative syndrome caused by dust inclusions, without radiological signs, which disappears after the worker has been removed from the hazard. Measurement of CO diffusion by the steady-state method appears to be the essential element in screening and supervising exposed workers.
Nouvelle presse médicale, 1975, Vol.4, No.18, p.1353-1355. 18 ref.
Electrical accident statistics in basic metal industries and metal trades
Unfälle durch elektrischen Strom im Bereich der Eisen- und Metallindustrie [in German]
Analysis of 4,416 electrical accidents occurring over 4.5 years in plants of these 2 industrial sectors in the Federal Republic of Germany. The first part of this work gives the breakdown of accidents by insurance institution, industry and plant, details concerning the injured person and plant concerned, type of accident, type of equipment, type of work and cause of accident. Another part, equally important, is devoted to a systematic evaluation of accident "black spots" and the effects of electric current (electrically-powered tools, lamps, apparatus with electric motors, machinery and plant, equipment and installations). Electrical apparatus (tools, heating applicances, lights) rank first as accident black spot (68%), followed by electrical equipment of production machinery and plant. Improved safety measures are proposed.
Technischer Bericht 1974, Institut zur Erforschung elektrischer Unfälle bei der Berufsgenossenschaft der Feinmechanik und Elektrotechnik, Oberländer Ufer 130, 5 Köln-Bayenthal, Germany (Fed.Rep.). 97p.
Schmidt L., Schmidt A.
Metall [in German]
Loose-leaf collection of all safety regulations in force in the Fed. Rep. of Germany for the design and construction, installation and use of machinery, plant and other production equipment for the metalworking industry, especially the Act on technical equipment and the safety regulations of the Industrial Mutual Accident Insurance Associations. The 2nd supplement (322p.) amends and updates as of July 1974 regulations and directives concerning the following subjects: chlorinated hydrocarbons, chlorine, hot dip galvanising, liquid pressure-jet equipment, electroplating, cold cleaning solvents, injection moulding machines, noise control in the workplace, laser radiation, solvents, magnesium, organic peroxides, polyesters and epoxy resins, powder coating, static electricity.
Band 3, Schriftenreihe Maschinenschutz, Deutscher Fachschriften-Verlag, Felsenstrasse 23, 62 Wiesbaden-Dotzheim, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 2nd supplement, 1975. Vol.3 complete: 950p. Price: DM.75.00.
Kerfoot E.J., Fredrick W.G., Domeier E.
Cobalt metal inhalation studies on miniature swine.
This study simulated conditions under which workers in the tungsten carbide industry are exposed to cobalt, which is thought to be the causative agent for respiratory disease found in this industry. The pure cobalt metal powder concentrations under study were 0.1mg/m3 (present TLV) and 1.0mg/m3. The results of pulmonary function tests, electrocardiographic and X-ray examinations, blood and urine tests, and histopathological examinations with light and electron microscopy are described. Marked abnormalities in lung compliance evidenced in the respiratory tests correlate with the observation of increased septal collagen by electron microscopy. The study demonstrates that the present TLV of 0.1mg/m3 for cobalt seems to be too high, even with a relatively brief duration of exposure.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1975, Vol.36, No.1, p.17-25. Illus. 18 ref.
Zlotnikov S.L., Kazakevič P.I., Mihajlova V.L.
Occupational safety and health in forging shops and metal working with forging presses
Tehnika bezopasnosti i promyšlennaja sanitarija v kuznečno-pressovyh cehah [in Russian]
Contents: occupational hygiene (microclimate, noise and vibration control, etc.); safe work with reheating furnaces (measures against radiant heat and toxic gases, fire and explosion prevention, etc.); safety criteria for machines and their components and electrical equipment; forging hammers; tongs and other manipulating equipment, hydraulic presses, horizontal forging presses, mechanical presses, ergonomics; protective devices; automation of forging machines and presses; safe toolsetting methods; rational layout of equipment.
Izdatel'stvo "Mašinostroenie", 1-j Basmannyj per. 3, 107885 Moskva B-78, USSR, 1974. 296p. Illus. 9 ref. Price: Rbl.1.06.
Kosova L.V., Geršovič E.M.
Effect of strontium-calcium-bismuth titanate on the body in experimental conditions
O dejstvii stroncij-kal'cij-vismutnogo titanata na organizm v uslovijah ėksperimenta [in Russian]
Animal research was carried out to determine the health hazard involved in exposure to titanate powders used in large quantities for the manufacture of magnetoelectric and piezoelectric ceramic materials. After intratracheal administration, a gradual accumulation of dust was observed in the pulmonary tissue, together with discrete cytotoxic and fibrotic reactions. Titanate dust is therefore considered to be only slightly toxic.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Dec. 1974, No.12, p.56-57. 6 ref.
Safety with presses - Consequences of new safety regulations in the sheet-metal converting industry
Unfallverhütung an Pressen - Auswirkungen der neuen Sicherheitsbestimmungen im Fertigungsbereich [in German]
Examples of safety devices for different presses in a motor car bodywork plant are given, meeting the requirements of new German safety regulations governing presses: cut-out rails, interlocked guards, curtain-of-light guards. Automatic feed devices and periodic inspection of the proper operation of presses and safety devices, to supplement other safety measures, are discussed.
Bänder, Bleche, Rohre, Oct. 1974, No.10, p.390-394. Illus.
This data sheet reviews briefly the main hazards involved in operating engine lathes, and makes recommendations for safe working with this type of equipment: only thoroughly trained and competent workers should be allowed to operate them; adequate illumination should be provided for each task; cutting oils should be purified and filtered; lifting devices should be used where heavy materials or chucks must be handled; fixed splash and chip guards; regular inspection and maintenance; emptying of metal chip pans and regular removal of debris; disposal of oily waste and immediate cleaning up of oil spots on machine shop floor; wearing of approved eye protection, safety shoes and suitable clothing; personal cleanliness.
Data sheet 264, Revision A (extensive), National Safety Council, 425 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA, 1974. 4p. Illus. 3 ref.
Safety requirements for the construction, safeguarding, care and use of P/M presses.
This standard applies to mechanically or hydraulically powered machines that are designed for the compressing of metallic and non-metallic powders. Contents: scope, purpose and application; description (machine types); definitions (machine parts and operations); recommendations on construction and modification of the machines; guarding of the point of operation; design, construction, setting and feeding of tool sets; feeding and part removal; use of the machines. The standard encourages uniform operating controls, avoiding placing of hands at point of operation, proper training, hand guards, and periodic inspections of presses. Drawings show various point-of-operation guards, die enclosures, and typical compacting presses.
MPIF Standard No.47, Metal Powder Industries Federation, P.O. Box 2054, Princeton, New Jersey 08540, USA, 1974. 76p. Illus. Price: US-$10.00.
Von Lüpke A.
Attempts to reduce the noise emitted by compressed-air nozzles used for ejecting metal sheets
Essais d'atténuation du bruit émis par les buses à air comprimé utilisées pour l'éjection des pièces. [in French]
Translation of: Leisere Druckluftdüsen - Versuche zur Senkung des Schallpegels beim Werkstücktransport. VDI-Nachrichten, Düsseldorf, Germany (Fed.Rep.), Feb. 1970, Vol.24, No.7, p.20. Illus. The tests described in the article showed that attaching insulating tubes, such as used for weak electric currents, to the nozzles used to eject pressed metal sheets, resulted in a noise abatement of 4 to 11dB(A). The more the nozzle outlet was subdivided the greater was the noise abatement. These results were confirmed later in industrial conditions.
Traduction INRS 31 B-74, Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1974. 6p. Illus.
Drasche H., Finzel L., Martschei H., Meyer R.
Occupational medicine survey in personnel exposed to oil mists
Arbeitsmedizinische Erhebungen bei ölnebelexponierten Personen [in German]
Results of a survey on the incidence of respiratory symptoms (cough, expectoration, dyspnoea) in 443 workers with year-long exposure to cutting oil mists (40-150mg/m3) and a control group. A review of the composition of cutting oils and of the published literature on the biological effects of oil mists is followed by a statistical analysis of the results: smokers and non-smokers, age, duration of exposure, frequency of colds. No irritative effect of oil mists was observed, and indeed the possibility that they exert a protective effect on the bronchial system is debated.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin und Arbeitsschutz, Oct. 1974, Vol.24, No.10, p.305-312. 20 ref.
Metal milling machine operators
Frezer metali [in Polish]
Safety and hygiene manual for the use of millers, supervisory staff and safety officers. Contents: qualifications of millers; layout of work post (location of milling machine, earthing and connecting to neutral, lighting, seats, safety devices); posture of operator; operation of machines (starting, oiling, swarf removal, cleaning); advantages and disadvantages of various types of milling machine from the occupational safety standpoint; different types of tools and their mounting; rules for holding and machining the workpiece; personal hygiene; fire prevention; fundamentals of first-aid in case of accident.
Instytut wydawniczy CRZZ, Warszawa, Poland, 1974. 120p. Illus. 11 ref. Price: Zl.12.00.
Rohmert W., Schott R.
Work postures in mechanical engineering, automobile repair shops and mines
Körperstellungen in Fertigungs-, Kfz-Reparatur- und Bergbau-Betrieben [in German]
Considerations on the ergonomic and physiological characteristics of different postures are followed by the results of 3 studies of industrial situations (manufacture of machine tools, automobile repair shop and materials handling in coal mines), in which the frequency of different postures adopted during work was determined by the systematic recording of postures. A table summarises the relative energy expenditures, heart rates and muscular activities of 14 postures. Conclusions are presented concerning the assessment of workload and its reduction by proper work organisation.
Internationales Archiv für Arbeitsmedizin - International Archives of Occupational Health, 4 Jan. 1974, Vol.32, No.3, p.149-165. Illus. 23 ref.
López Cristobal J.A.
Sound-proofing of a motor test bed
Insonorización de un banco de pruebas de motores [in Spanish]
Description of the sound-proofing measures undertaken in a 500m2 workshop comprising 30 repair and assembly benches for powerful electric motors used in mining machinery, in which an extremely noisy test bed, which completely transformed the acoustic microclimate of the workshop, was installed. Measures taken: sound screens, full enclosure, ventilation. Result: the level of noise in the workshop was lower than before installation of the test bed.
Revista Seguridad, Apr.-June 1974, No.53, p.45-48. Illus.
Data for the establishment of the threshold limit value for aerosols of mineral oils without additives used as cutting fluids
Materialy k obosnovaniju predel'no dopustimoj koncentracii aėrozolja neftjanyh masel bez prisadok, primenjaemyh v kačestve smazočno-ohlaždajuščih židkostej [in Russian]
Results of animal experiments. Cutting oil aerosols (concentrations of 60, 30 and 13mg/m3) have toxic effects on the function of various organs and systems and reduce immunological reactivity in animals. Since a concentration of 13mg/m3 produces supraliminal effects, the author recommends the adoption of a threshold limit value of 5mg/m3.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Oct. 1974, No.10, p.49-52. 6 ref.
Latuškina V.B., Rogajlin V.I., Slucker A.S.
Means of improving working conditions in the manufacture of metal-coated diamond tools
Puti ozdorovlenija truda v proizvodstve almazno-gal'vaničeskogo instrumenta [in Russian]
Results of a study of health hazards in the manufacture of electroplated diamond tools. The atmospheric pollutants at the workplace were found to include aerosols and vapours of nickel, acids (sulfuric, hydrochloric and hydrofluoric), alkalis, boron trioxide, fluorine borate, coumarine, and p-toluenesulfamide. Direct contact with aggressive products such as nickel compounds, acids, alkalis, acetone and polishing agents constitutes a further occupational hazard. Brief description of measures liable to improve working conditions: local exhaust systems, mechanisation of the nickel-plating process and of decanting of acids, enclosure, etc.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Oct. 1974, No.10, p.39-40.
Maintenance workshops and mobile maintenance teams
Les ateliers et chantiers d'entretien. [in French]
Contents: Part 1 (maintenance shops): fire hazards (mechanical engineering and boilermaking, electrical circuits, woodworking, heat and sound insulation, paints and varnishes, etc.); safety engineering at the design, construction and operational stages; firefighting. Part 2 (mobile maintenance teams) deals with elementary preventive measures in setting up a maintenance worksite, the maintenance team in manufacturing units, subcontractor work, and fire (hazards, equipment, staff training). Part 3 contains a list of French acts, decrees, orders, regulations and standards in force.
Collection Prévention et protection incendie, Vol.10. Centre national de prévention et de protection, 5 rue Daunou, 75002 Paris, France, 1974. 55p.
Safety in agricultural suppliers' establishments with annexed repair shops
La sécurité dans les commerces de matériels agricoles avec ateliers de réparations. [in French]
The development of mechanisation in agriculture is not always accompanied by a corresponding modernisation of the repair shops attached to agricultural suppliers' retail stores. A number of rules to be observed in the layout and equipment of these repair shops are quoted as well as rules governing the use of maintenance equipment (hand tools, machine tools, welding sets, compressors) and various operations (work at heights, removal and replacement of wheels, recharging batteries, handling heavy parts).
Regional Sickness Insurance Fund for Northern France (Caisse régionale d'assurance maladie du Nord de la France), 11 boulevard Vauban, 59024 Lille Cedex, France, 1974. 6p. Gratis.
Schneider W., Heim H., Katzmann H.
Development and comparative results of measures to increase safety consciousness in undertakings
Entwicklung und Erfolgsvergleich von Massnahmen zur Beeinflussung des Sicherheitsbewusstseins im Betrieb [in German]
After a review of the literature and information obtained from Mutual Accident Insurance Associations (Berufsgenossenschaften) and undertakings in Germany about the importance attached to safety consciousness, the authors present a pedagogic model the value of which was tested in the particular case of eye protection in lathe operators. The efficacy of programmed learning and audiovisual methods was found to vary considerably (lighting conditions, operators' age). Generally speaking, an increase in the number of operators wearing protective glasses and a decline of 13% in the incidence of eye injuries was achieved.
Forschungsbericht Nr.114, Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Unfallforschung, Martener Strasse 435, 46 Dortmund-Marten, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 1974. 127p. (+40p. appendix) 58 ref. Price: DM.13.50.
Dust - Study of origin and behaviour of dust in a structural steel and mechanical engineering plant
Staub - Eine Untersuchung über Vorkommen und Verhalten von Staub in einem Betrieb des Stahl- und Maschinenbaues [in German]
In the 1st main section aspects of dust measurement are treated: instrumentation and measurement units, procedure for dust sampling, particle counting and measurement. In a 2nd section dust production and dispersal during the operation of oxygen cutting machines are studied. The results of dust analyses in 33 different parts of the factory are described. The importance of preliminary dust studies for the planning of dust control measures is underlined.
Schweizerische technische Zeitschrift, 5 Dec. 1974, Vol.71, No.49, p.969-987. Illus. 8 ref.
Evaluation and abatement of noise in the sheet-metal converting industry
Geräuschbeurteilung und Lärmminderung beim Umformen von Blech [in German]
A short consideration of the relation between the sound power and the noise-producing forces in an operating press is followed by a review of active (design) and passive (protection) measures for noise abatement in sheet-metal converting: modification of gear transmissions, damping of structure-borne noise, reduction of control gear and operating noise; damping and anti-drumming measures in transport tasks; enclosures and use of sandwich sheet metal.
Zeitschrift für industrielle Fertigung, 1974, Vol.64, p.549-553. Illus. 8 ref.
Häussinger K., Fruhmann G., Fuchs G.
Success of a preventive medical examination campaign in industry
Erfolg einer arbeitsmedizinischen Vorsorgeuntersuchung [in German]
A proportion of the staff (1,000 workers out of 3,000) of a metalworking plant underwent preventive medical examinations over a period of 2 1/2 years. 25% of the workers examined showed symptoms of disease (raised arterial blood pressure, ECG showing impairment of cardiac impulse re-polarisation, bronchitis, pneumoconiosis, tuberculosis) requiring medical attention. Check-ups were carried out 2 years later, and the results are presented. No further pathological symptoms were apparent in 48% of the subjects examined. This result is attributed to medical treatment and the organisational measures adopted (vocational rehabilitation, transfer to other work).
Münchener medizinische Wochenschrift, 5 Apr. 1974, Vol.116, No.14, p.723-730. Illus. 9 ref.
Safety measures to prevent reaching into the danger area of metalworking presses
Nachgreifsicherheit an Pressen der Metallbearbeitung [in German]
The author defines the limits of the hazard of reaching into the danger area and compares the research carried on up to the present on the velocity of the in-and-out reaching movement of the hand, considered as a safety criterion in this field. Guarding against reaching into the danger area of a press is basically linked to the problem of the inertial stroke of the ram. The author describes a method for measuring the inertia. The value of 1.6m/s laid down as a guideline in the German safety regulations is perfectly justified, in spite of slight differences of opinion. It is nevertheless only a first approximation, and further research is required.
Die Berufsgenossenschaft, June 1974, Vol.26, No.6, p.239-246. Illus. 14 ref.
Self-programmed accident prevention training for apprentices
Selbstprogrammierte Unfallverhütung für Auszubildende [in German]
Considerations on the usefulness of on-the-job safety training consisting in the gradual acquisition of small amounts of information by stages, each stage being followed by test questions to ascertain if the knowledge has been assimilated. List of 15 safety rules to establish a training programme of this type for apprentice lathe operators.
Die Berufsgenossenschaft, Aug. 1974, No.8, p.322-324.
Production, processing, handling and storage of titanium.
This standard points out the fire and explosion hazards associated with titanium and lays down recommendations for fire prevention, fire extinguishment and safe working practices. Individual sections are devoted to: properties and hazards of titanium; sponge production; melting; forming, heat treating, pickling and cleaning; machining and welding; scrap processing and storage; powder production and use.
NFPA No. 481, National Fire Protection Association, 470 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02210, USA, 1974. 40p. Illus. 22 ref. Price: US-$2.50.
Alm S., Dahlstedt S.
Noise control in the manufacturing industry - Examples of noise reduction measures with an outline of acoustic principles
Bullerbekämpning inom verkstadsindustrin - Exempel på bullerreducerande åtgärder jämte en kort presentation av bullertekniska principer [in Swedish]
This report describes numerous examples of noise control solutions in foundries, forging shops, plate stores, shipyards, press shops, metal cutting, materials handling, ventilation systems, compressed air equipment and woodworking machinery. A theoretical section contains chapters on: noise control measures in buildings and premises; acoustic design criteria; definitions of acoustic quantities and phenomena. Numerous tables and diagrams and a catalogue of sound insulating materials are appended.
Undersökningsrapport AMT 101/74, Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Fack, 100 26 Stockholm 34, Sweden, 1974. 400p. Illus. 6 ref. Price: Swe-cr.40.00.
Hačatrjan L.A., Ajrapetjan M.A.
Oil folliculitis among young persons employed in mechanical engineering and metal trades in the Armenian SSR
Masljanye follikulity u podrostkov, rabotajuščih na metalloobrabatyvajuščih predprijatijah Armjanskoj SSR [in Russian]
160 precision-grinding machine operators, turners and milling-machine operators from 14 to 19 years of age were examined. Acne due to contact with cutting fluid was diagnosed in 100 of them. Preventive measures proposed include the installation of screens providing protection against splashes, the wearing of impermeable protective clothing, taking a hot shower after work and applying a barrier cream consisting of levomycetin (2.0%), salicylic acid (2.5%), thymol (1.0%) and alcohol (excipient).
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Mar. 1974, No.3, p.46-47. 3 ref.
Contribution to the study of the carcinogenic action of mineral oils used in industry
Contribution à l'étude de l'action cancérogène des huiles minérales utilisées dans l'industrie. [in French]
MD thesis. History and current status of the problem; conditions of use and chemical constitution of industrial oils, difficulties associated with their analysis. A clinical study of skin epitheliomas due to mineral oils is presented, which emphasizes the particular aspects of these cancers in the metalworking industry where they are localised at the scrotum. Account of and commentary on recent experiments which clearly point to the carcinogenic action of industrial oils on mice. Preventive measures are given. Gaps (illustrated by 6 observations) in French regulations relating to cancers due to mineral oils are pointed out.
Université de Paris V, Faculté de médecine Necker - Enfants malades, Paris, France, 1974. 73p. Illus. 51 ref.
Ramos H., Lucas J.B.
Occupational health case report No.5 - Cutting oil mists.
A report of an investigation carried out by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health at the request of an authorised representative of employees regarding dermatitis from exposure to various cutting and coolant oils at a plant manufacturing woodworking machinery. A list of the oils used is followed by a review of the types of dermatological problem which can result from contact with these compounds. A survey of the facility, which included environmental evaluation and medical investigation of employees, revealed that substantial numbers of dermatitis cases were encountered associated invariably with poor work practices and inadequate personal hygiene. Recommendations to minimise the risk are given.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1974, Vol.16, No.4, p.273-275.
Tripping devices for radial and heavy vertical drilling machines.
This note describes serious accidents caused by the rotating parts of these machines, refers to the drawbacks of fixed guards in certain operations, and describes some tripping devices: vertical trip-bar devices (braked motor; direct current injection braking); trip-wire devices. Information on the fitting and use of these devices is followed by a list of manufacturers and suppliers.
Technical Data Note 38, H.M. Factory Inspectorate, Department of Employment, London. H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London S.E.1, United Kingdom, no date. 3p. Gratis.
Machining by stock removal
Obróbka skrawaniem [in Polish]
Safety guide for machine tool operators, supervisory staff and safety officers. Contents: workpost design (location of machine, earthing and connection to neutral, lighting); protective screens and safety devices; safety at work with lathes, milling machines, drilling machines, planers, grinders (different types of machines and rules for mounting grinding wheels, rules for fastening and machining workpieces, etc.); removal of swarf; cutting fluids; machining of plastics; personal protective equipment (eye guards, protective and working clothes); maintenance and repair work. The brochure contains numerous explanatory drawings.
Instytut wydawniczy CRZZ, Warszawa, Poland, 1973. 112p. Illus. 7 ref. Price: Zł.16.00.
Schmidt W., Busch G.
Technical noise-control measures in large industrial projects
Mesures techniques de réduction du bruit dans les grands projets de fabrication. [in French]
French translation of: Ingenieurmässige Lärmminderung bei Grossprojekten. Stahl und Eisen, Düsseldorf, Germany (Fed.Rep.) 1971, Vol.91, No.9, p.481-487. Illus. 8 ref. Report on noise-control measures incorporated in 2 large projects at the design stage: a continuous tube-rolling mill and a large tube factory. Suppliers of machinery and cranes were required to ensure that these did not produce noise exceeding a specified level. The difficulties encountered in controlling noise are described with the aid of examples. The authors report on the substitution of a hydraulic fluid for compressed air for controlling transport installations at lower cost and with little noise.
Translation INRS 81 B-73, Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1973. 22p. Illus. 8 ref.
Machines à rectifier. [in French]
This data sheet intended for management, supervisors and foremen deals concisely with the hazards of the workpost and ways of preventing them. Description and characteristics of the equipment, approval, installation, maintenance, use, guards, suggestions for assembly and statutory requirements. The main hazards, their probable source and the corresponding safety measures are tabulated.
Fiche technique de sécurité 4, Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France. Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, Paris, France, 4th quarter 1973, No.73, Note No.862-73-73, p.407-417. Illus.
Local exhaust system for lathes
Aspiracionnoe ustrojstvo dlja tokarnyh stankov [in Russian]
The design of local exhaust systems for lathes is complicated by the problem of air turbulence around the chuck. The author has studied various aerodynamic profiles for the exhaust hood; the best corresponds to a logarithmic spiral.
Vodosnabženie i sanitarnaja tehnika, Oct. 1973, No.10, p.24-26. Illus. 3 ref.
Directives for the control of industrial noise by sound insulation, acoustic absorption and sound screens in establishments under the Ministry of Mechanical Engineering
Ukazanija po sniženiju proizvodstvennogo šuma na predprijatijah Ministerstva tjaželogo, ėnergetičeskogo i transportnogo mašinostroenija metodami zvukoizoljacii, zvukopogloščenija i ėkranirovanija istočnika zvuka [in Russian]
These directives, based on laboratory research and published data, are subdivided as follows: sound pressure expressed in dB; standardisation and measurement of industrial noise (conditions and procedures, measuring instruments); noise abatement by sound absorption (bases for calculation and examples, table of absorption coefficients for various materials, baffles and suspended screens); noise abatement by sound insulation (bases for calculation and examples, noise attenuation parameters of certain materials, recommendations for practical use); noise control by sound shielding; use of earmuffs and earplugs; typical noise levels measured at various workposts (forging shops, deep-drawing and blanking shops, metalworking shops, foundries, welding shops, woodworking, etc.).
All-Union Central Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute (Vsesojuznyj central'nyj naučno-issledovatel'skij institut ohrany truda), Obolenskij per.10, Moskva, USSR, 1973. 72p. 18 ref. Price: Rbl.0.24.
Desoille H., Philbert M., Ripault G., Cavigneaux A., Rossignoli H.
Carcinogenic action of mineral oils used in the metal industries
Action cancérogène des huiles minérales utilisées en métallurgie. [in French]
Numerous cases of skin cancer have been observed over the last 10 years among workers in the metal trades using mineral oils. This article examines the question from the experimental point of view and describes how skin and even lung tumours, often malignant, were obtained in mice by applying cutting fluids and quenching oils. Malignant tumours were observed only on animals treated with used fluids and oils. Analysis brought out the fact that used oils contain more carcinogenic substances. It is advisable to change cutting or quenching fluids frequently and to take precautions against splashes.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, Dec. 1973, Vol.34, No.12, p.669-680. Illus. 26 ref.
Corlett E.N., Morcombe V.J., Chanda B.
Shielding factory noise by work-in-progress storage
Protection contre le bruit industriel par le stockage des en-cours. [in French]
French translation of: Shielding factory noise by work-in-progress storage. Applied Ergonomics, Guildford, United Kingdom, Mar. 1970, Vol.1, No.2, p.73-78. Illus. 4 ref. Studies in machine shops equipped with large numbers of machines indicate that, although any one machine may not be excessively noisy, the combination of many in a reverberating environment causes a "standing peak" of noise at an unacceptable level. Suitably positioned barriers with slight attenuating properties may thus be sufficient to reduce the high noise peaks to tolerable limits. The article describes studies showing the effect of stacks of work-in-progress positioned as barriers to reduce noise levels; it indicates how computer simulation can assist in deciding the layout of machines and the corresponding noise barriers.
Translation INRS 31 B-73, Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1973. 17p. Illus. 4 ref.
A new system for folding presses
Nouveau système pour presses-plieuses. [in French]
French translation of: Nytt system for knekkepresser. Vern og velferd, Oslo, Norway, 1970, Vol.20, No.3, p.38-39. Illus. Brief description with diagrams of a new folding method developed in Norway to eliminate certain risks encountered during sheet-metal folding. In this folding system, the press arrangement, which incorporates a rotating lower die which turns to fit the descending upper die, is so designed that the front edge of the sheet being folded is no longer forced sharply upwards with the risk of injury to operators, but remains practically stationary. The usual guarding of presses of this kind is not affected by this system which offers a time savings of up to 50% over the conventional folding method.
Translation INRS 53 B-73, Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1973, 3p. Illus.
Health status of workers exposed to the aerosols of fluoroethylene polymers
Zdravotní stav pracujících vystavených aerosolu fluóretylénových polymerů [in Czech]
12 workers exposed to fluoroethylene polymers during the production of razor blades with chemically-treated edges were medically examined. After 4.5 years of exposure, there were no observed changes in health connected with the conditions of work. Trichloloroethylene metabolites were found in the workers' urine (14-52 mg of trichloroacetic acid and 19-109 mg of trichloroethanol per litre), but their presence is due to degreasing by using trichloroethylene and not to exposure to fluoroethylene polymers. These findings are due to the precautions in force at the time to exhaust the aerosols during the chemical process and to prevent exceeding the thermal decomposition threshold in heating.
Pracovní lékařství, Apr. 1973, Vol.25, No.4, p.149-152. 13 ref.
Electrical standard for metalworking machine tools.
Individual sections are devoted to: diagrams, instructions and nameplates; means of disconnecting supply circuits; protection; control circuits; control components and equipment; control enclosures and compartments; location and mounting of control equipment; operator's control stations and equipment; accessories and lighting; conductors; wiring methods and practices; raceways, junction and pull boxes; motors and motor compartments; grounded circuits and equipment grounding. Appendices provide a glossary of terms and information on official interpretations of the standard.
NFPA No. 79-1973, National Fire Protection Association, 470 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02210, USA, 1973. 47 p. Illus. 8 ref. Price: US-$1.75.
Standard for the processing and finishing of aluminium.
This standard outlines the measures that are required to reduce the possibility of fires or explosions in industries where aluminium and its alloys are subjected to operations in which fine metallic dust or powder is liberated. Chapters are devoted to: aluminium processing (dust collection, ducts, wet and dry type dust collectors, disposal of sludge, solvent cleaning); fire protection practices (housekeeping, electrical equipment, ignition sources); process handling and storage of aluminium powder and paste; fire protection. An appendix provides information on work clothing; fire extinguishing equipment; explosibility parameters; and nonsparking materials.
NFPA No. 65-1973, National Fire Protection Association, 470 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02210, USA, 1973. 14 p. 8 ref. Price: US-$1.00.
Industrial Safety and Health Division, Ministry of Labour, Tokyo.
Safety handbook for metal shear operators.
The Industrial Safety and Health Law (CIS 1057-73, Z (516) and 1064-73, Z (516)) stipulates that workers operating metal shears must receive appropriate training. This handbook is designed as a training manual, with individual sections devoted to: type and structure of shears; safe working methods; inspection and adjustment of shear blades.
Japanese Industrial Safety Association, 35-1, 5-Chome, Shiba, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan, Mar. 1973. 92p. Illus. Price: Y.250.
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