Metalworking industry - 770 entries found
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Retention strength of magnetic lifting devices and limitations of their use from the occupational safety viewpoint
Sulla presa degli artigli magnetici e sulle limitazioni all'impiego per le esigenze della sicurezza del lavoro [in Italian]
This study was undertaken following several accidents due to falls of objects being lifted by lifting magnets (permanent magnet and direct current-operated). Contents: characteristics of magnetic action; forces acting on the object to be lifted; position of object (equilibrium); adherence force (slipping, safety factors for slipping, non-uniformity of contact pressures, oil on surfaces); effects of force of attraction (shape of lifted object, contact surfaces, sudden movements, knocks); safety rules (choice of magnets capable of lifting 3 times the weight of the object; use of magnets with a sufficiently large contact surface, etc.).
Securitas, May-June 1976, Vol.61, No.5-6, p.221-232. Illus.
This data sheet considers: hazards (crushing, falling, flying chips, sharp edges, etc.); precautions and safeguards (area around the machine should be free of obstructions which might cause stumbling; electrical safety; guarding of motor couplings, belts, pulleys; chip guard); safe methods of setting up work on the planer; safe use of cranes or hoists; care in using clamps, etc.
Data Sheet 383, Revision A, National Safety Council, 425 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA, 1976. 2p. Illus. 4 ref.
Judin E.Ja., Baratov A.N., Barbinov F.A., Dolin P.A., Dronov V.I., Kozjakov A.F., Kuz'min A.P., Pereezdčikov I.V., Pyškina Ė.P., Smirnov S.G., Terehin A.S., Jakovleva L.F.
Safety and health in mechanical engineering
Ohrana truda v mašinostroenii [in Russian]
Contents of this manual: legal aspects and occupational safety and health organisation (liability, accident investigations, etc.); air conditioning, ventilation, local exhaust ventilation, dust control; lighting; protection against vibration, noise and ultrasound; protection against electromagnetic fields and ionising radiation; electrical safety; safe work with pressure systems; fire protection; built-in safety in machine design; design and layout of industrial premises for protection of the workplace environment and neighbourhood.
Izdatel'stvo "Mašinostroenie", 1-j Basmannyj per. 3, 107885 Moskva B-78, USSR, 1976. 335p. Illus. 97 ref. Price: Rbl.1.07.
Medved' R.A., Kuzina V.F., Krigman B.I.
Evaluation, from the health viewpoint, of new cutting fluids used to replace Sulfofrezol in cold machining of metals
K voprosu sanitarno-gigieničeskoj ocenki novyh smazočno-ohladajuščih židkostej, vnedrjaemyh vmesto sul'fofrezola pri holodnoj obrabotke metallov rezaniem [in Russian]
In the Soviet metalworking industry, the cutting fluid Sulfofrezol (a mixture of petroleum bitumen and spindle oil, with adjunction of 1.7% sulfur) was replaced by 3 cutting fluids considered less harmful to the skin and to the general health. An occupational health study was made of these 3 new multiple-component cutting fluids - which have chlorinated and phosphorus-containing additives - and of their thermal decomposition products found in workplace air; these, together with the oil mist, were analysed and compared with those produced when using Sulfofrezol. The results of nearly 4,000 samples taken in the vicinity of machine tools show the levels of harmful substances contained in the oil mist and demonstrate the advantages of one of the 3 cutting fluids. It is recommended that the 2 other fluids should be used only on machines with local exhaust ventilation.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, June 1976, No.6, p.1-5. 6 ref.
Trouble in the auto repair shop.
The illness and injury rate in these shops is 9.0 per 100 workers; there are about 2 million workers in the U.S. The main safety hazards are improper use of the unsafe tools. Other hazards (slips and falls, asbestos, lead, exhaust gases, solvents, lifting and carrying, noise, vibration, welding fumes and flash) and means of avoiding them are described. Plans of industry, government and workers for improvement of the record are discussed.
Job Safety and Health, Dec. 1976, Vol.4, No.12, p.21-28. Illus.
Ergonomic work analysis in a press workshop with a view to the transfer of certain presses to a new projected workshop
Analyse ergonomique du travail dans un atelier de presses en vue du transfert de certaines presses dans un nouvel atelier à construire. [in French]
This study deals with the various work operations at single-stroke presses (feeding the strip into the press, positioning, engaging the ram stroke, removal and storage of the blank), continuous stroke presses (preparation of strip, guiding of strip, ejection of scrap) and transfer presses (starting, use of controls, supervision of automatic operation). It was completed by environmental studies (noise, lighting, thermal environment). The findings led to conclusions for the construction, layout and organisation of the new workshop. Definition of the working spaces necessary, and the arrangements to be made.
Agence nationale pour l'amélioration des conditions de travail, 16-20 rue Barbès, 92120 Montrouge, France, Undated. 92p. Illus. 12 ref.
Sentjakov B.A., Šel'pjakov A.N.
Fluidic devices in occupational safety
Strujnye ustrojstva dlja ohrany truda [in Russian]
Description of the operation and reproduction of the logical circuits of 2 groups of fluidic devices developed for the machinery industry: protective devices (travel limiting devices, automatic hand protection for press operators, excess torque detectors serving as load limiters for lifting equipment, etc.), and devices ensuring safe operation (fluidic temperature detectors, light intensity detectors, continuous elements for fluidic monitoring of atmosphere).
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, May 1976, No.5, p.34-36. Illus.
Health and safety guide for the screw machine products industry.
Illustrated by humorous as well as instructive drawings, this booklet aims to assist in providing a safe healthy workplace by describing safe practices and helping to correct some of the more frequently encountered violations of the safety and health standards. Chief contents: general safety and health guidelines; frequently violated regulations (walking and working surfaces, exits, personal protective equipment, sanitation, fire protection, compressd air equipment, materials handling and storage, powered industrial trucks, hoists, machinery and machine guarding, hand and portable powered tools, welding, cutting and brazing, electrical requirements: National Electrical Code); record keeping; checklists; information sources, etc.
HEW Publication No.(NIOSH)76-165, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, July 1976. 82p. Illus.
Korotkaja L.A., Balaban V.N., Abdula G.D., Rudenko V.F.
Hygiene characteristics of modular machine tools
Gigieničeskaja harakteristika uslovij truda rabočih, obsluživajuščih agregatnye stanki [in Russian]
Hygiene study of conditions of work with modular machine tools - in this case drilling and boring machines and drilling and tapping machines of the indexing table or drum type (1-2 machines per operator) - and comparison with work at the universal drilling machine. Physiological data obtained during work on the modular and universal machines showed changes in certain nerve functions (sensorimotor performance, etc.), slight loss of memory and attention and reduction in muscle strength and endurance on static effort, especially towards the end of the shift. Recommendations: rational position of control desk of machines with indexing table, mechanised swarf removal, cleaning of coolant by magnetic separator, etc.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, May 1976, No.5, p.42-43. 3 ref.
Skiba R., Kröger U.
Results of an accident analysis at a drop forging shop
Resultados de un análisis de accidentes de trabajo en un taller de forja por estampación [in Spanish]
Ergebnisse aus der Untersuchung des Unfallgeschehens in einer Gesenkschmiede, July 1976, Vol.96, No.15, p.717-723. Illus. 8 ref. [in German]
This analysis of 354 accidents occurring over 2 years was intended to pinpoint the accident black spots in a medium-sized undertaking. The commonest type of accident (27%) was being struck or crushed by forgings during handling, followed by burns from incandescent particles, slips and falls, being struck by manipulating tongs and by machine parts (each 10%). Prevention measures: automation, protective clothing, training. More detailed analysis brought out the role of inappropriate human behaviour and of design not adapted to man. Influence of temperature, overtime and age on the accident rate.
July 1976, Vol.96, No.15, p.717-723. Illus. 8 ref.
Removal of oil mist
Eliminer les brouillards d'huile. [in French]
This article reviews the hazards and other problems of oil mist in machining shops (respiratory disease, dermatitis, cancer; slippery floor surface; bad lighting due to oil film deposited on lights and windows; fire hazard) and takes stock of ways and means of eliminating oil mist; protection of machine tool operators by screens or exhaust enclosures linked to a local exhaust ventilation system with filter or precipitator air purifying; use of non-pollutant cutting oils; preventive maintenance of machinery to avoid lubricating oil leakages and consequent contamination of cutting oils. In addition to numerous examples, several recently marketed appliances for the suppression of oil mist are described on pp.147-150.
Usine nouvelle, Dec. 1976, p.142-150. Illus.
Health and safety guide - Automotive parts recyclers.
Illustrated by humorous drawings and instructive sketches, this booklet describes safe practices in agreement with the U.S. Health and safety regulations. Contents: health and safety guidelines (health and safety programme; employee training; machine guarding; housekeeping; safety rules for operating power tools; inventory and environmental control; the industry and its hazards; yard wreckers; hydraulic lifts); walking and working surfaces; exits and markings; noise; personal protective equipment; respirators; medical and first aid; fire protection; compressed air equipment; materials handling and storage; welding, cutting and brazing; electrical safety; record keeping; check lists; information sources (serial publications and their publishers in the USA, and addresses of OSHA Regional Offices).
DHEW Publication No.(NIOSH)76-164, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, July 1976. 89p. Illus.
Lutov V.A., Čirkin A.A., Grjadickij Ju.E., Vasilenko N.I.
Effects of mineral oil aerosols and their thermal decomposition and oxidation products on the functional and immunological status of laboratory animals
Vlijanie aėrozolja neftjanyh masel i produktov termookislitel'noj destrukcii na funkcional'noe sostojanie i immunologičeskuju reaktivnost' organizma ėksperimental'nyh životnyh [in Russian]
White rats were exposed for several months to various concentrations of mineral oil aerosols used in cutting fluids for certain machining operations. To reproduce the actual conditions of thermal decomposition during cooling of cutting tools, the fluids were pyrolysed beforehand at 450-500°C. Inhalation of the aerosols gives rise to functional disturbances of the nervous, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, liver and adrenals, and to a decrease in immunological resistance. A synergistic effect of oil mists and pyrolysis fumes was noted.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Feb. 1976, No.2, p.33-37. 5 ref.
Keczkes K., Brown P.M.
Hexahydro-1,3,5-tris(2-hydroxyethyl)triazine, a new bacteriocidal agent as a cause of allergic contact dermatitis.
Report on an outbreak of dermatitis occurring among machinists in an engineering workshop. Because of bacterial contamination of the water supply 0.15% hexahydro-1,3,5-tris(2-hydroxyethyl)triazine (Grotan), a formaldehyde liberator, had been added to the coolant mixture since 1972. Of the 19 men suffering from dermatitis and coming into contact with the coolant mixture, 4 showed a strongly positive reaction to Grotan, attributed to true allergic contact sensitivity to this compound.
Contact Dermatitis, Apr. 1976, Vol.2, No.2, p.92-98. 15 ref.
Lahaye D., Roosels D., Viaene J., Eylenbosch W.J.
An epidemic of occupational disease in a metalworking plant
Een epidemie van beroepziekten in een metaalverwerkend bedrijf [in Dutch]
Article describing an outbreak of occupational disease in a Belgian metalworking plant, affecting 265 workers (33% of the total workforce). The symptoms were skin rash and general feeling of unfitness. The aetiology was difficult to ascertain because of the absence of any specific symptomatology, whereas a number of occupational disease hazards were present in the plant. The authors describe various ways and means of tackling the problem, and the limitations imposed on systematic investigation in cases of this kind (basic data; nature of the plant; course taken by the outbreak; inventory of potentially harmful agencies; medical and technical approach to the problem; follow-up; discussion). Socio-economic aspects and adequacy of compensation under the Belgian employment injury insurance scheme (as regards occupational diseases) are discussed.
Tijdschrift voor sociale geneeskunde, 3 Mar. 1976, Vol.54, No.5, p.142-147. Illus. 6 ref.
Health hazards in the use of solvents.
This lecture given at the International Metal Workers' Federation World Conference on health and safety in the metal industry (Oslo, Norway, 16-19 Aug. 1976) covered: basic mechanism of solvent action (on nerves); history; current problems (chronic effects, threshold limit value (TLV) recommendations, diagnosis); investigation methods (neurological examination, neurophysiological and psychological methods, interviews); investigations in Scandinavia (house and car painters, jet-fuel workers); are the TLVs of today correct?; future prospects.
Report AMMF 112/76, National Board of Occupational Safety and Health, Fack, S-110 26 Stockholm, Sweden, 1976. 17p. Illus. 13 ref.
Metal-working and milling machines.
The hazards arising in the operation of milling machines are reviewed and discussed, and advice is given on the guarding of these machines and safe operating procedures.
National Safety News, Data Sheet 364, Revision B(extensive), National Safety Council, 425 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60611, 1976. Chicago, USA, Apr. 1976, Vol.113, No.4, p.83-86. Illus.
Schmidt L., Schmidt A.
Metall [in German]
Loose-leaf collection of all safety regulations in force in the Fed. Rep. of Germany for the design and construction, installation and use of machinery, plant and other production equipment for the metalworking industry, especially the Act respecting technical equipment in industry and the safety regulations of the Industrial Mutual Accident Insurance Associations. This 3rd supplement gives the amended and updated texts of: (a) the Act respecting technical equipment in industry and its schedules A and B (list of safety standards, rules, regulations and directives, directory of testing institutes); (b) the Ordinance concerning electrical installations in premises where there is an explosion hazard, and its subsidiary administrative regulations. This supplement also contains directives concerning plastics-processing machines (not including injection moulding machines).
Band 3, Schriftenreihe Maschinenschutz, Deutscher Fachschriften-Verlag, Felsenstrasse 23, 62 Wiesbaden-Dotzheim, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 3rd supplement, Mar. 1976, Vol.3 complete: 950p. Price: DM.79.00.
Conditions of transport of employees - A national industrial agreement in the metal trades
Conditions de déplacement des salariés - Un accord national professionnel conclu dans la métallurgie. [in French]
Text of Art.V (Safety and Health) of the agreement concluded between the French Union of Mining and Metallurgical Industries (Union française des industries métallurgique et minière (UIMM)) and a number of French workers' unions. The agreement as a whole mainly concerns commuting to work in France, bordering countries and other EEC Member States by workers in the metal trades. Art. V covers the following points: occupational safety and health committees; responsibility of employer or employer's agent; first aid; worker information; medical examinations; undertakings employing less than 50 workers; changing and locker rooms, sanitary facilities.
Travail et sécurité, July-Aug. 1976, No.7-8, p.365-367.
Abrasive metal finishing - Employee health and safety practices.
Illustrated by simple line drawings, this booklet aims to assist in providing a safe and healthy workplace by outlining the health and safety hazards encountered in grinding, polishing, tumbling and abrasive blasting operations, and by describing the measures to be taken to prevent these hazards. Contents include: types of abrasive and their uses; health hazards (lung disease, poisoning, skin disease, hearing loss, vibration illness) and their recognition; respirators, skin, eye and hearing protection, periodic medical examinations; mechanical hazards and unsafe practices; first aid.
HEW Publication No.(NIOSH)76-144, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Mar. 1976. 24p. Illus.
Recommended precautions - Metalworking
Conseils de prudence - Serrurerie. [in French]
This handy pocket-sized booklet, illustrated with humorous drawings, gives advice on safety precautions to be observed in metalworking shops and in structural steel work (storage and handling; hand tools; machine tools (portable and fixed); riveting, welding, cutting; sandblasting, degreasing, painting) and on worksites (materials for assembly work, positioning of construction elements, construction work at ground level and at heights).
Edition OPP BTP 131G76, Organisme professionnel de prévention du bâtiment et des travaux publics, 2bis rue Michelet, 92130 Issy-les-Moulineaux, France. 7th edition, June 1976, 61p. Illus.
Goldsmith A.H., Vorpahl K.W., French K.A., Jordan P.T., Jurinski N.B.
Health hazards from oil, soot and metals at a hot forging operation.
Extensive study in a plant manufacturing large artillery shells. The die lubricant, used in large quantities, consisted of natural graphite, black oil, petroleum residuum and animal oil. The manufacturing process and the sampling and analytical procedures used are described. Total breathing zone particulate levels of up to 65mg/m3 and benzo(a)pyrene levels of up to 2.9µg/m3 were measured. Proposed improvements in engineering controls are detailed. Replacement of oil-based lubricants by water-based compounds appears feasible.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1976, Vol.37, No.4, p.217-226. 53 ref.
Locati G., Vicini A., Cetta F., Ombello F.
Reducing machine heat and noise by a special enclosure.
Noise levels of a machine producing steel cord were reduced from 95dB(A) to 85-86dB(A) by an enclosure. The heat released at the worker's level was reduced by 50% of its original value by the enclosure and by using a pipe system and the machine's rotating parts as a fan.
Applied Ergonomics, Guildford, United Kingdom, June 1976, Vol.7, No.2, p.93-96. Illus. 1 ref.
Granati A., Lenzi R.
Ergonomic design of the working environment and the workplace
Progettazione ergonomica dell'ambiente e del posto di lavoro [in Italian]
Illustrated by 30 full-page photographs and several sound level diagrams, this article describes ergonomic improvements effected at assembly plants (sitting posture in work at various machines); guarding of garment presses, embossing presses; microclimate studies (effects of temperature variations on clothing industry workers); problems of lighting, noise control (garment preses, cutting dies, machinery). The problem of TLVs is discussed, and an example given of symptoms in a worker using methyl 2-cyanoacrylate (air concentration 2mg/m3; U.S. TLV 5mg/m3) and correction by means of an exhaust hood. Reduction of the TLV to 1mg/m3 is proposed. The last point dealt with is work organisation (selection, training, work rhythm). Studies in 2,000 clothing industry workers are briefly reported, involving performance tests, work studies, EEG, etc., and the problem of fatigue resulting from monotonous work is examined.
Medicina del lavoro, Jan.-Feb. 1976, Vol.67, No.1, p.73-120. 7 ref.
Zingmark P.A., Rappe C.
Formation of N-nitrosodiethanolamine from a grinding fluid under simulated gastric conditions.
Nitroso amines are carcinogenic and they can be formed by reaction of amines and nitrites which are used as additives in industrial oils. A grinding fluid containing triethanolamine, sodium nitrite, water and fluorescein dye was kept at 37°C for 1h in buffer solutions at different gastric pH values. At pH 2, 1ml of fluid gave 13mg nitrosodiethanolamine, determined by gas chromatography. This amount is about 1,000 times the amount found in certain foods. The results at pH 3 and 3.5 are inconclusive. Although the compound is a weaker carcinogen than diethylnitrosamine, workers must be protected against mists of oils containing amines and nitrites.
Ambio, 1976, Vol.5, No.2, p.80-81. Illus. 17 ref.
Resolution AP(75)2 on the design and use of metal cutting guillotines.
Résolution AP(75)2 concernant la construction et l'emploi des cisailles à guillotine à métaux. [in French]
This resolution adopted on 11 Apr. 1975 recommends that the Governments of the 7 parties to the Partial Agreement in the Social and Public Health Field (Belgium, France, Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, United Kingdom) and the Government of Austria (which was associated with the work of the Social Committee) should bring their regulations on this question into conformity with the provisions contained in the resolution, and to keep the Secretary General informed every 5 years of the action taken. Chapters are devoted to: prevention of accidents caused by guillotine blades and hold-down clamps (fixed and movable guards, special provisions for mechanical and hydraulic guillotines, protection of control mechanism, etc.); general design and construction of guillotines; marking; compliance with manufacturers' specifications; checks, inspection and testing; repairs and maintenance. A glossary in 5 languages is appended.
Committee of Ministers, Council of Europe, Strasbourg, France, 1975. 6p.
Horizontal metal boring mills.
This data sheet lists the major hazards arising in the operation of horizontal boring mills and provides detailed advice as regards the guarding of these machines and safe operating procedures.
Data Sheet 269, Revision A, National Safety Council, 425 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA, 1975. 3p. Illus. 1 ref. Price: US-$0.50.
American national standard safety requirements for the construction, care and use of single- and multiple-spindle automatic screw/bar and chucking machines.
This standard applies to fully automatic machines in which all tool movements are controlled by the machine itself and where the work is fed and ejected automatically; it does not cover machines the operation of which is not continuous (manually-operated lathes, for instance). Definitions and general descriptions are followed by detailed requirements (with supporting information) on construction, guarding, care and use.
ANSI B11.13-1975, American National Standards Institute, 1430 Broadway, New York, N.Y. 10018, USA. Standard approved on 6 Aug. 1975. 27p. Illus. Price: US-$5.50.
American national standard safety requirements for the construction, care and use of grinding machines.
This standard is applicable to grinding machines for the removal of metal, glass, ceramics, plastics, rubber and similar materials, to the exclusion of portable hand-held guiders, machines using loose abrasives and machines used for cutting concrete. It does not replace the American national standard safety code for the use, care and protection of abrasive wheels (ANSI B7.1-1970, see CIS 474-1972, Htez (203)). Topics dealt with include: definitions, construction (design, guards, flanges, speeds), operational hazards, care and use, point-of-operation guards and controls. There are numerous tables (minimum spindle diameter, minimum thickness of guard materials, minimum flange dimensions, maximum speeds, etc.).
ANSI B11.9-1975, American National Standards Institute, 1430 Broadway, New York, N.Y. 10018, USA. Standard approved on 25 Mar. 1975. 71p. Illus. Price: US-$9.75.
Safety requirements for the construction, care, and use of iron workers.
This standard applies to combination, multipurpose powered machines that punch, shear, notch, cope and form metals or other materials, commonly referred to as "iron workers". Contents: definitions; construction, reconstruction and modification (responsibility, hazards, machine stroke control, electrical, counterbalance systems, etc.); safeguarding the point of operation (punching station, structural shearing station, flat shearing station, coping/notching station); etc.
ANSI B11.5-1975, American National Standards Institute, 1430 Broadway, New York, N.Y. 10018, USA. Standard approved on 18 Sep. 1975. 36p. Illus. Price: US-$6.00.
Safety requirements for the construction, care, and use of lathes.
This standard applies to lathes designed primarily for metal cutting. Contents: definitions; construction, reconstruction and modification (responsibility, inherent hazards, power clamping work-holding devices, spindle braking, cranks and control handwheels, antimotion or counterweights on slide mechanisms, tool retention and changing, etc.), safeguarding (hazards, fixed and moveable guards and devices, awareness barriers and devices, shields), etc.
ANSI B11.6-1975, American National Standards Institute, 1430 Broadway, New York, N.Y. 10018, USA. Standard approved on 17 July 1975. 36p. Illus. Price: US-$6.00.
Hundeiker M., Glossmann V.
Oil keratosis and scrotal cancer, an avoidable occupational disease of lathe operators
Ölkeratosen und Skrotalkarzinom, eine vermeidbare Berufskrankheit des Metalldrehers [in German]
Case report of a 39-year-old lathe operator who had suffered from oil acne 10 years earlier. After the change to a plant with better conditions of occupational hygiene, the disease healed completely in a short time. Some years later multiple carcinoma of the squamous epithelium developed from wart-like changes of the scrotum, which had at first been overlooked. This illustrates the need for periodic examinations and the importance of hygienic conditions in the plant.
Berufs-Dermatosen, Oct. 1975, Vol.23, No.5, p.174-178. Illus. 7 ref.
Šimordová M., Kyslingrová D.
Health problems arising out of the use of cutting fluids and coolants in industry
Hygienická problematika chladidích a řezných kapalin v průmyslu [in Czech]
Results of mycological and bacterial tests carried out on 103 samples of cutting fluids or coolants, before and after use. Results showed that 69% of fluids directly sampled from machine tools were contaminated. Mean concentration of microorganisms in used fluids was 8,483,666/ml. The following species of microorganisms were identified: Escherichia coli, Alcaligenes faecalis, Proteus, Candida krusei, etc. No relation was established between level of contamination and pH. Even the water used for the preparation of emulsions often failed to meet hygienic standards. Remedial measures proposed include improved machine design (easier maintenance), inspection and control of quality and grade of cutting fluids and good housekeeping.
Československá hygiena, May 1975, Vol.20, No.4, p.194-201. 3 ref.
Oil - A workers' guide to the health hazards and how to fight them.
Addressed to the exposed workers themselves, and for reasons of space and available information concerned mainly with the engineering industry, this booklet deals with: the health hazards of oil (scrotal cancer; table of hazardous jobs; health hazards of pitch, tar and asphalt; cancer of vulva, skin, lung, stomach; dermatitis; accidents); protective measures (attitudes and measures taken by industry, Government and trade unions); preventive measures (safer oils, mist/splash-free machinery, extraction systems, protective clothing, barrier creams); compensation (disablement benefits, claiming compensation); possibilities of action at trade union level.
British Society for Social Responsibility in Science, 9 Poland Street, London W1V 3DG, United Kingdom, Dec. 1975. 93p. Illus. 72 ref. Price: £0.75.
Occupational safety and health in the machining of metals by cutting, shearing and abrasive operations
Hygiène et sécurité du travail de la fabrication mécanique des métaux par coupe, cisaillement, abrasion. [in French]
MD thesis. The author examines the plant layout (buildings, workplace design and layout, equipment) and some workposts considered separately (materials handling, manufacturing process) from the point of view of accident and health hazards, and the preventive measures to be adoped. The latter consist mainy of: removal of dust and oil mists by local exhaust ventilation and other methods, soundproofing, fire and electrical accident prevention, and the prevention of dermatoses due to mineral oils which could, in the author's opinion, be considerably improved). The occupational accident and disease statistics in the French metalworking industry for 1972 are reproduced.
Université de Paris VI, Faculté de médecine Broussais - Hôtel-Dieu, Paris, France, 1975. 63p. 98 ref.
Clothes catching fire - A serious hazard due to non-observance of regulations and incorrect use of oxygen in the metal processing industry
Kleiderbrände mit schwerwiegenden Folgen - eine der Gefahren bei unsachgemässer und vorschriftswidriger Handhabung von Sauerstoff beim Be- und Verarbeiten von Werkstoffen in der gewerblichen Wirtschaft [in German]
Brief description of some fatal accidents showing the danger of using oxygen, especially in confined spaces. These accidents (clothes catching fire) were principally caused by leakage in welding equipment and by an artificial oxygen build-up in the atmosphere. Experiments have shown that the flammability and combustion rate of textile fabrics increases in proportion to the oxygen concentration, and that oily or greasy clothing catches fire more easily than clean clothing. Many safety regulations in force in the Federal Republic of Germany contain provisions for the prevention of such accidents (wearing of clothing treated with flame retardant; use of oxygen prohibited for the ventilation of confined spaces or as a substitute for compressed air in painting work; oxy-acetylene welding or cutting equipment should not be left lying around in confined spaces during breaks; etc.). These safety rules are listed in tabular form.
Schadenprisma, 1975, Vol.4, No.3, p.56-60. Illus. 21 ref.
Latuškina V.B., Kalašnikova Z.S., Molosov N.I., Hažuev B.Š.
Experience in the improvement of occupational health conditions in the manufacture of diamond-tipped drills
Opyt ozdorovlenija uslovij truda v proizvodstve almaznogo burovogo instrumenta [in Russian]
First results of an occupational health survey carried out in a Soviet factory manufacturing diamond-tipped tools, where workers were exposed to metal dust and to vapours from the petroleum spirit used as a solvent for adhesives and in cleaning metal surfaces. The authors observed neurotoxic effects at the end of each shift (visual functional disorders, slowing-down of conditioned reflexes, hand tremor). The measures adopted to improve occupational health conditions (local exhaust ventilation, new work and rest break schedules, rearrangement of shifts) are briefly described and reference is made to measures subsequently recommended (engineering alterations enabling pollution sources to be reduced).
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Dec. 1975, No.12, p.42-44.
Bruskin Z.Z., Demčenko V.G.
External respiratory function and lung gas transfer in workers exposed to lubricating oil aerosols
Vnešnee dyhanie i gazoobmen u rabočih, podvergajuščihsja vozdejstviju aėrozolej smazočnyh masel [in Russian]
A group of 77 machine tool operators exposed to spindle oil mist and cutting oil mist were given spirometric tests, together with unexposed controls. Workers with many years' exposure had suffered respiratory impairment (reduction of vital capacity and of maximal expiratory flow, increase in oxygen intake); this impairment was more pronounced among workers exposed for over 10 years. The authors recommend periodic check-ups for workers exposed to mineral oil aerosols (chest X-ray, lung function tests, determination of the activity of blood catalase).
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Apr. 1975, No.4, p.28-30. 11 ref.
Responsibility of the safety engineer in the design of numerically controlled machine tools
Úkoly bezpečnostní techniky při vývoji číslicově řízených obráběcích strojů [in Czech]
Introduction to the principles of design and operation of numerically controlled machine tools, with special reference to machining centres, followed by a list of the principal hazards and their localisation: tool changers (manual insertion of tools into the magazine, handling of heavy, bulky tools, etc.), tools chucked in the main spindle, rotary table, headstock, cable drag chain, workpiece pallets, etc. Other problems to be borne in mind at the design stage: automatic broken-tool detectors, conveyance of workpiece pallets to the machine and transfer of tools to the tool changer.
Bezpečná práca, 1975, Vol.6, No.4, p.18-23. Illus. 4 ref.
Dust collection during the grinding and polishing of metal workpieces
Captage des poussières dégagées lors du meulage et du polissage des pièces métalliques. [in French]
Translation of: Entstaubung beim Schleifen und Polieren metallischer Werkstücke. Wasser, Luft und Betrieb, Mainz, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 1971, Vol.15, No.1, p.21-24. Illus. (CIS 539-1972 Gtz Htiy Soz Sph). Following an introductory section, in which he discusses factors to be taken into account when planning dust collection plants (nature and composition of dust, fire and explosion hazards, recovery of materials, capital and running costs), the author gives advice on methods of dust collection during work with powered hand tools and fixed polishing and grinding machines, including swing grinding machines. In conclusion, he gives examples of wet and dry dust collection.
Traduction INRS 61 B-75, Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1975. 11p. Illus.
Safety in the metalworking industry - III. Forming with presses
Arbeitsschutz bei der Metallbearbeitung - III. Umformen mit Pressen und Automaten [in German]
This booklet gives suggestions and hints for prevention of accidents and improvement of working conditions in machining without stock removal. After definition of terms, problems of occupational safety at metal-forming presses are dealt with, in respect of: eccentric presses, friction-screw presses, crank presses (including deep-drawing presses), press brakes, extruding presses, hydraulic presses, hand- or foot-operated presses, automatic upstroke metal-forming presses and automatic multi-stage downstroke metal-forming presses. There follow remarks on the setting of presses and advice for press operators. Finally, the requirements for blanking and forming tools are enumerated.
Verlag Tribüne, Am Treptower Park 28-30, x 1193 , 1975. 32p. Illus. 5 ref. Price: M.0.60.
Safety in the metalworking industry - V. Arc welding
Arbeitsschutz bei der Metallbearbeitung - V. Lichtbogenschweissen [in German]
Inobservance of safety regulations by the arc welder can give rise to hazards from welding current sources, the electric arc, the molten metal pool and the cooled metal. The hazards and safety measures required in the execution of arc welding are described, with reference to the relevant legislative texts. Appendices: legislation concerning examination of welders; welding and cutting permit; use of protective filters (protection factors 0-16) according to operation (including gas welding and cutting and plasma cutting).
Verlag Tribüne, Am Treptower Park 28-30, x 1193 , 1975. 44p. Illus. Price: M.0.80.
Safety in the metalworking industry - IV. Gas welding and cutting
Arbeitsschutz bei der Metallbearbeitung - IV. Gasschweissen und Brennschneiden [in German]
The hazards resulting from inobservance of the safety regulations by gas welders and cutters during use of acetylene generating equipment, flashback arresters and gas cylinders and during the welding and cutting processes themselves are described. These hazards constitute the basis of the statutory measures for prevention of accidents in the German Dem.Rep. Appendices: legislation concerning examination of welders; welding and cutting permit; use of protective filters (protection factors 0-16) according to operation (including arc welding and plasma cutting).
Verlag Tribüne, Am Treptower Park 28-30, x 1193 , 1975. 60p. Illus. Price: M.1.00.
Baudoin J., Jobard P., Moline J., Lavandier M., Roullier A., Homasson J.P., Dezile G., Tasseau M.H.
Pulmonary disorders observed in the cemented carbides industry
Les troubles pulmonaires observés chez les ouvriers de l'industrie des métaux durs. [in French]
An irritative bronchial syndrome followed, in 5 cases, by diffuse interstitial fibrosis, was detected in 16 workers at a factory (total staff 250 persons) where workers were exposed to the dust of hard metals (tungsten, cobalt, titanium, niobium and tantalum). The most exposed workposts are those in which the powders are mixed and sieved, and the sintered pieces ground and machined. In the powder mixing workshop, in particular, the concentration of tungsten carbide exceeded the known maximum permissible concentration (5mg/m3) at 3 of the 8 workplaces investigated. Results of function tests and immunological and post-mortem studies, and of chemical analysis of lung fragments obtained by biopsy. The medicolegal aspects of this fibrosis, which in the view of some authors should be included in the list of occupational diseases in France, as it is in other countries, is briefly discussed.
Revue française des maladies respiratoires, Apr. 1975, Vol.3, No.4, p.343-362. Illus. 28 ref.
Committee of Ministers (Partial Agreement), Council of Europe, Strasbourg, France, 1975. 6p.
Resolution AP(75)2 on the design and use of metal cutting guillotines.
Résolution AP(75)2 concernant la construction et l'emploi des cisailles à guillotine à métaux. [in French]
This Resolution, adopted 11 April 1975, recommends that the governments of the 7 states Parties to the Partial Agreement in the social and public health field (Belgium, France, Fed.Rep. of Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, United Kingdom), as well as Austria (which participated in these activities) should bring their regulations into conformity with specific provisions, and to keep the Secretary General informed every 5 years of the action taken with regard to these provisions. Contents: definitions and scope; provisions concerning prevention of accidents caused by guillotine blades and hold-down clamps; general design and construction of guillotines; marking; precautions for users; checks, inspection and testing; repairs and maintenance. A 5-language glossary is appended.
Multidimensional analysis of social factors affecting illness in working women
Die mehrdimensionale Analyse sozialer Faktoren beim Krankenstand berufstätiger Frauen [in German]
Statistical study of the relations between social factors and the incidence and duration of illness absenteeism in women workers. Evaluation of 2,200 questionnaires from an office equipment factory showed a clear statistical correlation between working activity and incidence of illness absenteeism. Analysis by diagnosis, on the other hand, shows the occupational factor to play a determinant role only in the 2 groups "digestive system" and "gynaecological disorders".
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, May 1975, Vol.21, No.5, p.397-402. 6 ref.
Health and safety guide for metal stamping operations.
Illustrated by humorous drawings and instructive sketches, this booklet decribes safe practices in agreement with the U.S. health and safety regulations. Contents: health and safety guidelines (general; reducing unsafe acts and practices; machine guarding; occupational health and environmental control; automatic sprinkler systems; good housekeeping; use of compressed air; material handling and storage); frequently violated regulations (walking and working surfaces; exits and exit markings; occupational health and environmental control; hazardous materials; personal protective equipment; general environmental control; medical and first aid; fire protection; compressed air equipment; materials handling and storage; machinery and machine guarding; hand and portable powered tools; welding, cutting, and brazing; national electrical code); recordkeeping; checklists; information sources.
HEW Publication No.(NIOSH)75-174, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, June 1975. 84p. Illus.
The effect of single impulses in the causation of hearing loss in the metalworking industry
Der Einfluss von Einzelimpulsen bei der Entstehung der Lärmschwerhörigkeit in der metallverarbeitenden Industrie [in German]
The noise situation and the mean hearing impairment in the various departments of a wheel-manufacturing plant are reported. No significant correlation was found between the calculated noise rating level at the workplace, the duration of noise exposure and the mean hearing loss. This is attributed to the many single impulses composing the noise, which have very high sound pressure peaks. Special evaluations of these impulses by means of a single-pulse counter apparatus yielded sound pressure peaks of about 140dB. On the basis of the results the question whether it is judicious to use dosimeters at workplaces with impulse noise injurious to hearing is discussed. With the measurement techniques current in noise dosimetry the injurious noise is not measured with enough precision, especially in the metalworking industry.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, Feb. 1975, Vol.21, No.2, p.108-111. Illus. 3 ref.
Taming the noise of a press shop.
This article describes how the noise of heavy blanking operations in a press shop was reduced by some 20dB by grinding an angle of about 5° on the face of the die, as a cheap, rapid and resourceful expedient to overcome an intolerable noise problem. However, making a shear on a tool increases the cost of tool maintenance quite considerably. Other methods of noise reduction are described: sound proof guards (expensive, and reduce noise by only 10%); having each press enclosed in its own housing by panels filled with rock wool (40-50% reduction); earmuffs, the cheapest method. Some earmuffs were provided with receivers with choice of 2 radio programmes, as an incentive to wear them and to combat boredom on repetitive operations.
Industrial Safety, Aug. 1975, Vol.21, No.4, p.12-13. Illus.
Federation of Industrial Mutual Accident Insurance Associations (Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften), Bonn, Jan. 1975.
Safety rules for moving guards on eccentric and similar presses used for metalworking
Sicherheitsregeln für bewegliche Abschirmungen an kraftbetriebenen Exzenter- und verwandten Pressen der Metallbearbeitung [in German]
These rules apply to mobile screens on mechanical presses to prevent injuries occurring during loading and unloading of work: construction and fitting out (mechanical and control elements), testing.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Gereonstrasse 18-32, 5 Köln 1, Germany (Fed.Rep.). 8p. Price: DM.0.50.
Menter P., Harrison W., Woodin W.G.
Patch testing of coolant fractions.
A brief review of the contents of coolant flume systems, of the relations between the oils and skin reactions, and of patch testing, is followed by a description of 10-month patch-test studies with 13 suspensions combining: a coolant base (sodium and potassium fatty acid soaps, amine soaps, petroleum sulfonates, polyglycols, mineral oil, fatty oil derivatives and chlorinated paraffins); biocides (an amine-type product and an amine-iodine complex); sassafras oil; tramp oil and a coolant as received from a hard grind flume system and without metal fragments; coolant as received and without metal fragments, autoclaved; metal fragments. Bacterial content ranged from 0 to 60.107/ml. Of the 206 employees tested, some had had no contact and some had past or present contact with coolants. No positive tests whatsoever were recorded.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1975, Vol.17, No.9, p.565-568. 12 ref.
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