Metalworking industry - 770 entries found
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Berry J.P., Berruchon J., Fournier M., Touaty E., Teyssier L., Pariente R.
Pulmonary fibrosis associated with work with cemented carbides
Fibrose pulmonaire liée au travail des métaux durs. [in French]
The case of a 59-year-old worker employed in boring cemented tungsten carbide workpieces, suffering from pulmonary fibrosis, is reported. In addition to the classic signs observable by light microscope, investigation of a lung biopsy specimen by electro microprobe indicated the characteristic tungsten mark. This case is typical for disease caused by cemented carbide dust. Given the incidence and characteristics of hard metal fibrosis, it should be included in the list of occupational diseases in France.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, Nov. 1979, Vol.40, No.11, p.997-1002. 24 ref.
Accidents in the metalworking sector
Metalliteollisuuden tapaturmat [in Finnish]
Olycksfall i metallindustrin [in Swedish]
Statistical data on frequency and severity rates, fatalities and disablement (1974-1978); breakdown of industrial accidents, commuting accidents and occupational diseases, types of accidents and site of injury (most common injuries involved the fingers: 29.5%). First among reported occupational diseases was noise-induced hearing loss (73.1%), followed by eczema (19.6%). Considerations on preventive measures.
Teollisuusvakuutus - Industriförsäkring, 1979, No.5, p.17-19. Illus.
Vertical boring mills.
Hazards guarding of exposed power-transmission elements; safe working methods; emergency stop buttons; oerator training, housekeeping.
Data Sheet 1-347-79, Revised 1979, National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA, 1979. 3p. Illus. 9 ref.
Huygen P.L.M., Van den Broek P., Fischer A.J.E.M.
Nasopharyngeal cancer and occupation
Kanker van de nasopharynx en beroep [in Dutch]
67% of 63 patients with this type of tumour were found to be men under age 40 employed in metal machining where they were exposed to cutting oil mist. Breakdown of cases by age, sex, histological category of tumour, occupation. Discussion of carcinogenic role of some components of synthetic cutting fluids (nitrosamines) and of ferric oxide(III).
Tijdschrift voor sociale geneeskunde, 7 Nov. 1979, Vol.57, No.22, p.733-736. 32 ref.
Bjelle A., Hagberg M., Michaelsson G.
Ergonomic and medical factors in shoulder-arm syndromes in the engineering industry
Ergonomiska och medicinska faktorer vid skulder-nack besvär hos arbetare i verkstadsmekanisk industri [in Swedish]
Of 20 cases of pain in the scapular and cervical region occurring in mechanics consulting the works physician, 13 were not of rheumatic origin. Comparative movement studies showed these men to be employed in tasks in which their arms were raised much more frequently and for longer periods than controls. The results were confirmed electromyographically. Ergonomic measures are proposed to improve work posture: optimum height of work, introduction of short breaks.
Undersökningsrapport 1979:13, Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1979. 34p. Illus. 6 ref. Price: Swe-cr.10.00.
Thomsen E., Stern R.M.
A simple analytical technique for the determination of hexavalent chromium in welding fumes and other complex matrices.
The s-diphenylcarbazide method proposed by NIOSH permits less than 1% recovery of chromium(VI) from synthetic welding fumes of known composition. In the carbonate leaching technique presented, recovery of soluble and insoluble chromium(VI) is better than 80%. It is used as part of a general method for determination of the total chemical composition as distributed among sample fractions of different solubility. It is specifically designed for analysis of small samples and routine monitoring of the working environment.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1979, Vol.5, No.4, p.386-403. 26 ref.
Advanced Raynaud's phenomenon in a tube beveller.
Case study of a fitter aged 48 who had worked on a bevelling machine for 10 years. The process involved use of a vibratory tool to chamfer the outer edge of metal tubes ends for welding. White finger and cold sensation developed progressively, commencing with the right hand ring finger, then the middle finger, subsequently spreading to the fingers of the left hand, with radiant pain in the arms. Other cases in bevellers are considered. A vibration frequency analysis was carried out, with measurement parameters indicating acceptable and unacceptable levels for cumulative daily exposure (150-400 min). Discussion of Raynaud's phenomenon: symptoms, causes, role of intermittent contraction of peripheral blood vessels, finger chilling, effects on grip, role of X-ray in diagnosis, early diagnosis by Okada Yamashita index (rise in blood pressure after hands are immersed in cold water)
Occupational Health, Aug. 1979, Vol.31, No.8, p.405-412. Illus. 45 ref.
Overview of legal aspects and United Kingdom legislation, listing some regulations; types of accident; body contact with rotating grinding wheel (62%), fragments from burst wheels (12%), eye accidents (26%); safety hints (a badly adjusted workrest allows for a gap to develop between rest and wheel, in which the workplace can get jammed, possibly trapping the operator's hand or causing the wheel to burst); other reasons why wheels burst; fire risk from sparks (housekeeping); electrical safety (worn cables); personal protective equipment; health hazards (dust and its evaluation, wearing of respirators; projected particles and fragments; skin abrasions; noise and vibration).
Health and Safety at Work, Nov. 1979, Vol.2, No.3, p.50-51. Illus. 1 ref.
Peltier A., Demange M., Carton B.
Hazards of inhaling cemented carbide dust
Risques liés ā l'inhalation de poussičres de métaux durs. [in French]
This note gives definitions, describes the manufacture and uses of "hard metals" (cemented carbides) and presents a state-of-the-art review of the toxicology of the alloying constituents (tungsten, nickel, cobalt, tantalum, titanium, and niobium), and dust sampling and analysis techniques. The results of 300 analyses made in French plants are given in commented tables corresponding to different production stages. Concentrations, particularly of cobalt, were often found to exceed TLVs. Considerations on health engineering techniques to improve working conditions, preventive medicine and compensation.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygične du travail, 4th quarter 1979, No.97, Note No.1215-97-79, p.565-575. 16 ref.
Safety of metalworking press control systems
Sichere Steuerungen an Pressen der Metallbearbeitung [in German]
Part 1 reviews safety engineering measures on power presses (hand protection, control systems, contact-free guards), and especially fail-safe systems (relay with contacts interlocked in the event of accidental sticking) and safeguarding against external factors (vibration, foreign bodies, power cuts). Part 2 deals with the characteristics required of electropneumatic valves designed to eliminate the hazards of brake or clutch failure. The possibilities of using inductive proximity sensors to interrupt the stroke at the upper dead point and the likelihood of their failure are examined. Design of hydraulic controls to prevent untoward starting is discussed in part 3, which contains considerations on pneumatic controls, reversal of rotation direction, precautions for presses requiring 2 operators, and precautions for press-tool setting.
Die BG, Aug. 1979, No.8, p.434-438, Sep. 1979, No.9, p.486-489, Oct. 1979, No.10, p.550-555. Illus.
Sieswerda D., Dekker J.C., Reyneveld J.
Deceptive safety in control of noise at the source
Schijnzekerheden bij de bestrijding van lawaai aan en om de bron [in Dutch]
A noise control programme in blanking press workshops with recurrent noise levels of 90-100dB is described: information of exposed workers, inventory of noise sources, periodic audiometric examinations, recording and analysis of results, technical and medical prevention methods proposed. Phases of the programme described are: introduction of ear protectors at a workshop; soundproofing of a new workshop by acoustic treatment of the floor and walls; grinding of the cutting edges of the press tools to replace the stamping by a shearing effect; slight reduction of stroke frequency; creation of empty spaces above the presses; fitting of suspended ceilings above the operators.
Tijdschrift voor sociale geneeskunde, 12 Sep. 1979, Vol.57, No.18, p.582-588. Illus. 9 ref.
Manning D.P., Shannon H.S.
Injuries to the lumbosacral region in a gearbox factory.
An accident model distinguishing between events, personal movements, and objects or substances was used to discover the causes of these injuries and their anatomical distribution. There were a total of 99 injuries, 54 with absence from work, among 2,000 men. Slipping accounted for 33 injuries, lifting, straining or stooping for 39. Generally, lumbosacral injuries occurring whilst walking were about as common as those occurring whilst lifting.
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, 4 Oct. 1979, Vol.29, No.4, p.144-148. 12 ref.
Allergic skin reactions in metal machining shops
Allergische Hautschäden bei der Metallbearbeitung [in German]
Considerations on problems involved in the choice of additives for cutting fluids (conflict between allergic effects and advantages of these additives from the engineering viewpoint) and a review of new additives with known or presumed allergic effects: antioxidants and anticorrosives (hydrazine, p-tert-butylphenol, p-tert-butylbenzoic acid, N-phenyl-2-naphthylamine, chromium, nickel, and molybdenum and its compounds), scents (essence of pine, Peru balsam), miscellaneous (colophony, dimethylaminoazobenzene, ethylenediamine, triethanolamine, sulfur epoxy compounds), bactericides (formaldehyde, mercaptobenzothiazole, thiadiazinone, benzoisothiazolinone).
Dermatosen in Beruf und Umwelt, 1979, Vol.27, No.3, p.71-74. Illus. 28 ref.
Fire protection for combustible metals.
Only the more common metals that are easily ignitable and able to support combustion are covered, not all burnable metals and alloys. Self-igniting (pyrophoric) alkali and reactor fuel metals (plutonium, thorium, uranium) and non-self igniting commercial structural (magnesium, titanium) and reactor metals (zirconium, hafnium) are included. General recommendations (fire and explosion prevention, handling and working massive and powdered metals, waste disposal); specific recommendations (alkali metals, sodium-potassium alloys, reactor fuel metals, non-pyrophoric metals); methods and techniques of extinguishment (extinguishing agents, personal hazards) are discussed.
National Safety News, Data Sheet 1-567-79 Revised 1979, National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago. Chicago, USA, June 1979, Vol.119, No.6, p.75-82. Illus. 4 ref.
Saari J., Lahtela J.
Working conditions and accidents in the metalworking and printing industries
Arbetsförhållanden och olycksfall i metallprodukt- och grafisk industri [in Swedish]
Report of a study undertaken to develop an accident theory for determining a theoretical basis for preventive measures. The study, which was designed especially to determine the interferences occurring in the information exchange between the worker and his environment, was carried out in 7 metalworking plants and 10 printing shops. All reported accidents and workplace situations were analysed over a 6-month period. During this time 130 accidents occurred in the metalworking plants and 54 in the printing shops. From all of these plants every sixth job was selected for job analysis. The development of new methods for evaluating the information exchange at the workplace requires further study of the working environment.
Report 9, Tampere University of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Labor Protection, Tampere, Finland, 1979. 19p. 5 ref.
Health and safety guide for manufacturers of woodworking machinery.
Safe practices and some of the more frequently encountered violations of standards are described to encourage compliance with United States legislation. Contents: introduction to the guidelines (occupational safety and health programmes, workers' education, main features of machine-tool guarding, job safety analysis); health hazard control techniques; frequently violated regulations (walking and working surfaces, ladders, exits and markings, machine guarding, hand and portable powered tools, compressed air, fire protection, materials handling and storage, industrial trucks, electrical safety, environmental control, personal protective equipment, welding and cutting, medical and first aid); recordkeeping requirements; check list; information sources.
DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No.79-131, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Mar. 1979. 112p. Illus.
McEntire R.H., Somers W.K.
Artificial cutting-fluid smoke generation: effect of pressure.
Tests are described indicating that pressure between tool and workpiece in a metalcutting operation has no influence on the chemical composition of the smoke generated from the cutting fluid. Gas chromatographic response was the same for smoke generated with and without pressure. In artificial smoke generator design for toxicological research, the cutting fluid would simply need to contact a hot surface.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1979, Vol.40, No.7, p.562-566. Illus. 6 ref.
Ducos P., Limasset J.C., Maire C., Lafontaine M., Truy S., Hesbert A., Lemonnier M., Cavelier M.C.
N-Nitrosodiethanolamine in synthetic cutting fluids - Hazard evaluation - Possible preventive measure
N-nitrosodiéthanolamine dans les fluides de coupe synthétiques - Evaluation du risque - Mesure envisageable. [in French]
General considerations on training, industrial uses and toxicology of N-nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA) are followed by a literature survey of recent investigations outside France which show that NDELA can be formed by substances contained in synthetic cutting fluids. The results reported, considered with the authors' own results of analysis of samples from cutting fluids marketed in France, showed that aqueous fluids used in French industry may contain NDELA levels varying between a few ppm and several hundred ppm. Experimental research has demonstrated the carcinogenicity of NDELA in 2 animal species, and tests performed by the authors using the Ames technique tend to confirm the mutagenicity of this substance.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygične du travail, 2nd quarter 1979, No.95, Note No.1180-95-79, p.249-257. Illus. 28 ref.
Cutting fluids and prevention of occupational diseases
SOŽ i profilaktika zabolevaemosti na proizvodstve [in Russian]
This article lists the recommended measures to reduce health hazards of machine-tool operators exposed to oil mist decomposed by heat due to machining: compliance with TLVs (5mg/m3 for mineral oils); changing the cutting fluid after machining chromium and nickel-alloy steels, to prevent skin allergies; limitation of the concentration of certain harmful additives; local exhaust ventilation and screens to eliminate aerosols given off by the fluids from the air breathed by the operator; wearing of protective clothing with special finishing; personal hygiene rules; medical supervision; protection of the skin by barrier creams and use of special cleansers; periodic changing of the cutting fluids and disinfection of the coolant dispensing system.
Mašinostroitel', Jan.1979, No.1, p.20-21.
Einarsson Ö., Eriksson E., Lindstedt G., Wahlberg J.E.
Dissolution of cobalt from hard metal alloys by cutting fluids.
The dissolution of cobalt during grinding of cemented carbides containing cobalt was studied with 9 cutting fluids. After one day, a large part of the cobalt liberated from the metal is found in solution. The percentage decreases as grinding continues with the same fluid, the bulk being found in the storage tank. The final concentration of cobalt found in some fluids may represent a skin health hazard.
Contact Dermatitis, May 1979, Vol.5, No.3, p.129-132. 2 ref.
Charman J.C., McNulty G.J.
A study on noise emitted from power hacksaw machines.
This article considers variations in noise emission from a power hacksaw against varying parameters such as cutting force and wear. Aspects considered are: types of power hacksaw machines (2 types of hydraulic machine were used in the present study), thrust force between blade and workpiece, nature of noise source, cutting force measurement, effect of blade wear on noise levels; factors influencing noise frequency (forcing frequency, natural frequency of blade during cut, workpiece dimensions and material), factors influencing noise levels (blade force and pitch, workpiece and blade damping, screening, cutting speed, wear). Conclusions on each of these factors are drawn for reduction of machine noise.
Noise Control - Vibration and Insulation, Feb. 1979, p.58-64. Illus.
Thiringer G., Johannisson B., Lillienberg L., Sällsten G., Järvholm B.
Carcinogenic hazard of oil mists
Oljedimma - Undersökning av cancerrisk [in Swedish]
This epidemiological study of cancer morbidity in machine-tool operators exposed to cutting fluids (oil mists and nitrites) showed oil concentrations of 1.0-7.3mg/m3 and sodium nitrite concentrations of 0.02-0.26mg/m3 at surface grinders, and 0.3-2.3 and 0mg/m3 respectively near automatic lathes. Technical improvements which have helped reduce exposure in the past decade are reviewed. The incidence of tumours in 561 grinders and 249 turners was not statistically significant. Oils used in cutting fluids contain less aromatic hydrocarbons than in the past.
Yrkesmedicinsk centrum, Sahlgrenska sjukhuset, 413 45 Göteborg, Sweden, 1978. 48p. Illus. 16 ref.
Measures to increase safety in gripping with jaw chucks
Massnahmen zu höherer Sicherheit beim Spannen mit Backenfuttern [in German]
Modern lathes such as N.C. machines can only be utilised to the full with chucks that hold the workpiece firmly and the jaws of which are not ejected at high speed. Measures taken in design are described: chucking the work by rack-type jaws or jaws retained by the chuck shell; retaining devices for interchangeable jaws in chucks with several gripping ranges; non-return valves to maintain the grip in the event of failure of the pneumatic or hydraulic circuit; sensors monitoring the jaw plunger position. Lathe controls should be electrically interlocked so long as the work is not fully chucked. Advice is given for preventive maintenance, and design of chucks for very high speeds are presented, together with technical limitations.
Zeitschrift für industrielle Fertigung, 1978, No.10, p.611-615. Illus. 3 ref.
Ministry of Heavy Engineering (Ministerstvo tjaželogo i transportnogo maŋinostroenija), 22 Dec. 1975.
Instructions for design of soundproofing of buildings and machinery in the heavy engineering industry
Instrukcija po rasčetu i proektirovaniju šumoglušenija stroitel'no-akustičeskimi metodami na predprijatijah tjaželogo i transportnogo mašinostroenija [in Russian]
Contents: typical noise levels at workplaces; classification of workshops by noise level; prediction of noise levels at workplaces; design of soundproofing measures (planned siting of machinery, silencers for turbines and compressors, porous panels, soundproofed shelters, enclosures and partitions, vibration-damping materials), with examples. Annexes: check list for noisy workshops, sound characteristics of machine tools, data on silencer efficiency, sound frequencies characteristic of construction materials and other data.
Vsesojuznyj central'nyj naučno-issledovatel'skij institut ohrany truda VCSPS, Obolenskij per. 10, Moskva, USSR, 1978. 116p. Illus. 23 ref. Price: Rbl.0.90.
International Social Security Association (ISSA), Genčve, Suisse.
Inaugural Meeting and First Colloquy of the International Section for the Prevention of Occupational Accidents and Diseases in the Iron and Metal Manufacturing Industry.
Réunion constituante et premier colloque du Comité international pour la prévention des risques professionnels dans l'industrie métallurgique. [in French]
The meeting (Vienna, Austria, 10-14 Oct. 1976) included a session on the creation of the section and administrative matters followed by the colloguy: technical protection of labour in the foundry (safety techniques and ergonomics, in-plant transport); personal protection (equipment, training, education); research (accident causes); summary.
Allgemeine Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Unfallverhütungsdienst, Adalbert-Stifter-Str. 65, A-1200 Wien, Austria, 1978. 207p.
Vibration absorbers for noise reduction in boilermaking
Lärmminderung im Behälterbau durch Schwingungsabsorber [in German]
The design and mode of operation of vibration absorbers are described. These consist in a plstic-encased tapering aluminium bar wound into a spiral or folded into a block, which is fixed onto the object to be soundproofed. The principle of operation is similar to that of an electric resistance and is governed by Ohm's law. The application of the device to noise reduction during assembly of refinery towers (length 10m, diameter 2-3m), mode of fixture (chains of absorbers on the outside wall of the towers), noise measurement, optimum positioning, and assembly time, are dealt with. Noise levels were reduced by 5-7dB(A).
Forschungsbericht Nr. 192, Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Unfallforschung, Postfach 170202, 4600 Dortmund 17, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 1978. 23p. Illus. 3 ref. Price: DM.6.50.
Gustavsson P., Lidums V., Swensson A., Alexandersson R.
Effects of exposure to cobalt - 5. Uptake, distribution and elimination in the rat after intratracheal administration of a cobalt suspension - 6. Exposure, absorption and pulmonary effects in the cemented-carbide industry
Undersökningar över effekter av exposition för kobolt - 5. Upptag, distribution och elimination efter intratracheal engångstillförsel av koboltsuspension på råtta - 6. Exposition, upptag och lungpåverkan av kobolt i hårdmetallindustri [in Swedish]
For Parts 1 and 2, and 3 and 4, see CIS 79-1287 and 79-1288. Part 5 reports that a suspension of cobalt in distilled water was injected intratracheally to rats. After 4h the Co content of the blood, liver and kidneys was greater than in the controls, then decreased continuously. Excretion in faeces was high for 2 days, in urine for 4 days, then decreased. The lung concentration decreased continuously. In Part 6, matched groups of workers were studied by spirometry and single breath nitrogen washout. There appeared to be a dose related effect in some of the less exposed groups. There was a positive correlation between the concentration of Co in urine and blood and exposure. Concentration in urine is a better short-term exposure indicator. English summaries.
Arbete och hälsa - Vetenskaplig skriftserie 1979:9, 1979:10, Arbetarskyddsverket, Fack, 100 26 Stockholm, Sweden, 2 booklets, Dec. 1978. 13 and 24p. 17 and 18 ref.
Alexandersson R., Hedenstierna G., Lidums V.
Effects of exposure to cobalt - 3. Ventilatory capacity, distribution of inhaled gases and ventilatory obstruction during and after exposure - 4. Cobalt in blood and urine as exposure indicators
Undersökningar över effekter av exposition för kobolt - 3. Ventilationsförmåga, distribution av inandningsgas och luftvägsavstängning under pågående arbete och efter expositionsuppehåll - 4. Koboltkoncentrationen i blod och urin som expositionsindikator [in Swedish]
For Parts 1 and 2, see CIS 79-1287. In Part 3, lung function effects were studied in 155 workers and 74 controls. The workers were divided into exposure groups and examined by spirometry and single-breath nitrogen washout. Pulmonary function was impaired during the week in moderately and highly exposed workers; the function returned to normal in low-exposed subjects after a weekend. Exposures below the Swedish threshold limit value (0.1mg/m3) resulted in acute but subsiding airway obstruction. Part 4 describes the methods developed for the measure of cobalt in blood and urine. Cobalt (Co) was rapidly excreted in urine for high exposure; for low exposures, the excretion was relatively constant. Variations in blood concentrations were smaller, but followed exposure. The blood-urine concentration correlation on Friday afternoon was 0.82. When the average Co exposure for the whole week was compared with the concentration in urine, the correlation coefficient on Friday afternoon was 0.79 and for Monday morning 0.81; for blood, the respective correlations were 0.87 and 0.76. English summaries.
Arbete och hälsa - Vetenskaplig skriftserie 1979:7, 1979:8, Arbetarskyddsverket, Fack, 100 26 Stockholm, Sweden, 2 booklets, Nov. and Dec. 1978. 25 and 23p. Illus. 30 and 33 ref.
Alexandersson R., Bergman K.
Effects of exposure to cobalt - 1. Conditions of exposure in the cemented-carbide industry - 2. Respiratory system reactions to different exposures in the cemented-carbide industry
Undersökningar över effekter av exposition för kobolt - 1. Undersökning över expositionsförhållandena i hårdmetallindustrin - 2. Reaktioner i andningsorganen vid olika grad av exposition i hårdmetallindustri [in Swedish]
In Part 1, cobalt (Co) exposure in cemented tungsten carbide plants was studied. The order of Co exposure was powder handlers (highest); press operators; shapers; dry, wet and flat grinders; and inspection personnel; the last 2 groups had very low exposures. The airborne Co concentration was generally below the Swedish threshold limit value (0.1mg/m3), but powder handlers may have had excessive exposure. In Part 2, 6 workers were matched with controls to study the irritating effects of Co on the respiratory system. Average exposure to 0.06mg/m3 produces a reaction, mainly obstruction. The reaction decreases with time when there is no exposure, but it does not disappear completely. The reactions were most pronounced in Co-exposed smokers. English summaries.
Arbete och hälsa - Vetenskaplig skriftserie 1978:20, 1979:2, Arbetarskyddsverket, Fack, 100 26 Stockholm, Sweden, 2 booklets, Sep. and Nov. 1978. 25 and 34p. Illus. 31 and 40 ref.
Safety of boring and turning mills
Sicherheitsmassnahmen an Karusselldrehmaschinen [in German]
The safety of boring and turning mills is based on guarding the revolving table, and fitting of appropriate access ladders and platforms for the operator. A first measure is to replace provisional ladders by those of special design, equipped with guardrails. Examples are given of guardrails fixed directly onto the machine, swivel platforms fixed to the machine, platforms on rollers moving around the machine, platforms independent of the machine, and independent platforms with radial and vertical movement, with incorporated control panel.
Sicher ist Sicher, Oct. 1978, Vol.29, No.10, p.526-532. Illus.
Lövsund P., Hansson Mild K.
Low-frequency electromagnetic fields around heating inductors
Lågfrekventa elektromagnetiska fält kring några induktionsvärmare [in Swedish]
Results are reported of measurements on induction-heated tools used for brazing, forging and quenching, to determine the intensity of the electric and magnetic fields (frequencies 3,830 and 10,320Hz) around the inductors. A literature survey gives details of the biological effects of low-frequency electromagnetic fields (fatigue, headache, reduced arterial blood pressure and white blood cell counts, magnetophosphenes, etc.). While a limit of exposure to these electromagnetic fields cannot be established, measures must be taken to reduce exposure to a minimum, especially in the case of high-frequency induction current.
Undersökningsrapport 1978:38, Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Fack, 100 26 Stockholm, Sweden, 1978. 21p. Illus. 33 ref.
Health and safety aspects of soldering and brazing.
Items discussed in this guide for workers: preparation of the workplace (remove flammable materials, fireproof the floor); hazards of the equipment and operations (soldering irons, torch and flame heated irons, dip soldering, furnace brazing, induction, resistance, spray gun, infrared and hot air fusion equipment); fire protection; health hazards (cleaners, fluxes, fuel gases); environmental control (ventilation); personal protective equipment (face and eye, skin, respirators); confined spaces; labelling; first aid.
DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No.78-197, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Sep. 1978. 42p. Illus. 4 ref. Price: US-$2.00.
Ministry of Labour and Participation (Ministčre du travail et de la participation), Paris.
Circular DRT 7-78 of 1 September 1978 concerning use of photoelectric cells on presses for cold metalworking
Lettre-circulaire DRT 7-78 du 1er septembre 1978 relative ā l'emploi des cellules photo-électriques sur les presses destinées au travail ā froid des métaux. [in French]
This circular, addressed to officials responsible for labour and employment at regional and departmental level, records the decision taken by the French Minister on the basis of experience and the advice of the Approval Commission, to cease approval of electronic guards ensuring maintenance of the work cycle or direct control of the moving part in addition to their basic protection function. The circular further lists the conditions to be satisfied by photoelectric cells if they are to be considered to provide adequate protection.
Travail et sécurité, Nov. 1978, No.11, p.613. 1 ref.
Safety requirements for machine tools
Sicherheitstechnische Anforderungen an Werkzeugmaschinen [in German]
Protection measures to prevent access to the work area of machine tools are reviewed: engine lathes (interlocked guards) and automatic lathes (interlocked moving guards, designed to compensate for inertia); boring and milling machines (railings, photoelectric guards, precautions for toolsetting); conditions for powered chucks; circular saws (blade guard designed for protection in resting position and during cutting strokes); plate shears (guards permitting a view of the cutting line and the cutting operation); sheet-metal bending rolls and press brakes (guards, dead-man's control, pedal-controlled emergency stop device; transfer machines (railings, separate controls interlocked with the main control system).
Heft 22, Moderne Unfallverhütung, Vulkan-Verlag Dr. W. Classen, Haus der Technik, 4300 Essen, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 1978, p.53-60. Illus.
Toxicology of oil mists
Toxikologische Probleme bei Ölnebelbildung [in German]
Problems resulting from oil mists in the metal trades, where various oils are used for lubrication and cooling of tools, are reviewed. Aspects studied in the light of the literature are: importance of particle size, assessment of toxicity of additives, observations in man and animal experiments following inhalation (inflammation of lung, mortality and risk of cancer, protective effect of the oil film in the lungs, respiratory function changes), recommended exposure limit (5mg/m3, corresponding to the U.S. TLV), skin effects, workplace monitoring and determination methods, technical and medical prevention (limitation of oil mists by local exhaust devices and electrostatic precipitators, protection and treatment of skin, control examinations).
Heft 22, Moderne Unfallverhütung, Vulkan-Verlag Dr. W. Classen, Haus der Technik, 4300 Essen, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 1978, p.37-40. 21 ref.
Schubert H., Czarnecki B.
Type solderers' finger
Der Typenlöterfinger [in German]
Description of fingertip injuries observed in 23 women employed in soldering characters onto typewriters. The women placed on the bars from the keyboard, with 2 fingers, the characters to which active soldering flux had been applied, and then fixed them by tin soldering. The injuries consisted of fine cuts in the skin caused by the metal characters, combined with the action of the hydrochloric acid in the flux. The following conditions were observed: callous hyperkeratosis, desquamation, rhagadia, pyoderma with ulceration. Use of finger stalls or tweezers only complicates this delicate work.
Dermatosen in Beruf und Umwelt, 1978, Vol.26, No.2, p.52-53. Illus. 3 ref.
Skin lesions in the metal trades
Hautschäden in der metallverarbeitenden Industrie [in German]
The author's experience with cutting fluids is presented. Cutting oils and cooling emulsions are described, with their composition and the dermatological problems related to their use, and the weak points of the cooling circuit of machine tools and transfer lines. Pyoderma and microbial eczema are the skin lesions most commonly observed; allergic contact eczema due to preservative agents and degenerative lesions are rare. Conclusions are drawn on cutting fluids (new antimicrobial substances), skin tests with new preparations, concentration of preservative, periodic controls of fluids and cooling circuits, technical prevention of microbial colonisation, elimination of swarf in the circuit, and training of machine-tool operators (individual hygiene and protective measures).
Dermatosen in Beruf und Umwelt, 1978, Vol.26, No.1, p.25-28. Illus. 23 ref.
Code of practice: Safeguarding broaching machines.
Contents: scope; definitions; design requirements for safeguards; workholding devices; power systems; coolant and swarf; mist, fumes and dust; lubrication systems; noise; work area lighting; installation, operation and maintenance instructions; responsibility; safeguarding broaching machines (BM) (general requirements; horizontal internal BM; horizontal surface or combination BM; vertical internal BM; vertical surface or combination BM; chain BM; tunnel BM). Appendices: recommended dimensions for platforms and steps; mounting of limit switches.
Machine Tool Trades Association, 62 Bayswater Road, London W2 3PH, United Kingdom, 1978. 33p. Illus. 26 ref. Price: Ŗ5.00.
Vásquez González F.
Safety of eccentric presses
Contribuciķn al estudio de la seguridad en el trabajo con prensas excéntricas [in Spanish]
Contents of this article: guarding of the tool and accessory elements (enclosed dies, fixed guards); feeding at a point remote from the danger zone; types of clutch (mechanical, friction, automatic); brakes; defects (immediate or delayed repeat stroke, accidental starting, breakage of key); preventive maintenance; movable guards or grids; sweep guards; pull-back guards; 2-hand controls; devices for feeding and removal of workpieces; breakage of tool. The hazards and technical prevention measures are summarised in a table.
Salud y trabajo, Dec. 1978, No.16, p.32-45. Illus.
Crow K.D., Peachey R.D.G., Adams J.E.
Coolant oil dermatitis due to ethylenediamine.
Two outbreaks of hand dermatitis in light engineering works are reported. In both cases a number of workers were allergic to ethylenediamine, which had either been incorporated into the oil or had been added to it later. It is stressed that patch tests should be carried out with the undiluted oil, as well as solutions, as reactions in sensitised individuals may otherwise not occur.
Contact Dermatitis, Dec. 1978, Vol.4, No.6, 359-361. 11 ref.
Fiche technique de sécurité 19, French National Research and Safety Institute (Institut national de recherche et de sécurité), 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14.
Drilling and tapping machines
Perceuses - Machines ā percer et ā tarauder. [in French]
This technical safety data sheet, which is intended for top and middle management, supervisory staff and foremen, reviews briefly the various hazards at the workplace and ways of avoiding them. General considerations and technical information concerning the installation and use of drilling machines are followed by a review of safety measures: guarding of spindles and tools (enclosure and electrical interlock, various guarding devices on the spindle or tool, 2-hand control, current failure protection); limitation - by emergency stop device - of the hazard of clothing, hair etc. getting wound around the spindle or tool; transmission guards; maintenance and periodic checks. Synoptic table of hazards and principal safety measures.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygične du travail, 4th quarter 1978, No.93, Note No.1139-93-78, p.485-505. Illus. 9 ref.
O'Brien D., Frede J.C.
Control of exposure to metalworking fluids.
This technical report contains guidelines for control of exposure and case histories of the application of the basic principles of control, isolation, substitution and local exhaust ventilation for machining operations (turning, drilling, broaching, sawing, boring, grinding, gear cutting) on 17 types of machine. Levels of mineral oil mist or nitrites (for synthetic fluids) are given for each case. Comments, research needs and recommendations are included.
DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No.78-165, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Feb. 1978. 36p. 17 ref.
Occupational health and safety and fire protection - Safer through transport techniques
Gesundheits-, Arbeits- und Brandschutz - durch Transporttechnologien sicherer [in German]
Report on the application of rules for handling and transport of heavy (0.5-5t) workpieces within a heavy fan manufacturing plant. Transport, handling and storage tasks are analysed. Elaboration of the instructions by a working group together with the workers involved is described. The instruction cover the goods to be transported, the sequence of operations, transport equipment, hazards, personal protective equipment and behaviour of transport workers. The impact of implementing the instructions on the accident rate is presented.
Arbeit und Arbeitsrecht, 1978, Vol. 33, No.5, p.199-202.
Health and safety guide for textile machinery manufacturers.
Safe practices to encourage compliance with U.S. regulations are described. Contents: health and safety programme; compliance; employee training; general information for textile machinery manufacturers; environmental control; workplace hazard analysis, frequently violated regulations (walking and working surfaces, exits and exit markings, toxic substances, hazardous materials, spray painting, personal protective equipment, medical and first aid, fire protection, compressed air equipment, materials handling, machinery and guarding, hand and portable powered tools, welding and cutting, electrical safety); record keeping; check lists; information sources.
DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No.78-146, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Jan. 1978. 108p. Illus. 18 ref.
Safety and health in arc welding and gas welding and cutting.
This guide is intended to help employers and employees learn the safe practices required to comply with legislation in force in the United States. Training techniques are given and the health and safety hazards are described. Contents: a training outline, worksite preparation; equipment check; fire protection; health hazards; environmental control; personal protective equipment; welding techniques; ventilation and respirators; confined spaces; labels, first aid.
DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No.78-138, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Jan. 1978. 52p. Illus. 5 ref.
Meteli-Project - Working conditions, state of health and physical activity of workers in the machine industry - The relationship between leisure time physical activity, physical fitness and health among employees of the machine industry in Finland.
The effects of working conditions and leisure-time physical activity on mental health were studied in 609 men and 293 women. Questionnaires, interviews and medical examinations were used to gather data. It appeared that working conditions and physical fitness rather than the physical activity correlated with mental health. Muscle strength is closely related to psychosomatic and neurovegetative symptoms. The stress mechanism is affected by how the stress situation is perceived and assessed and perhaps more by adaptation and tolerance to stress. A follow-up study is planned.
Yearbook 1977:20, Research Institute of Physical Culture and Health, Uimahallin alue, 40100 Jyväskylä 10, Finland, 1978, p.91-105. 23 ref.
Federation of Industrial Mutual Accident Insurance Associations (Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften), Bonn, Feb. 1978.
Safety rules for control systems for metalworking power presses
Sicherheitsregeln für Steuerungen an kraftbetriebenen Pressen der Metallbearbeitung [in German]
Fail-safe operation of control systems is a must for the use of 2-hand controls and electronic guards. These safety rules, which prescribe minimum criteria for the design and use of these systems, apply only to elements on which the operator's safety depends. Definitions of technical terms are followed by sections devoted to: required conditions for operating this equipment; environmental interfering factors; fail safety; operation changeover switch; controls for single-stroke operation; interlocking controls; device to prevent bypassing the guard; overrun safety; mode of operation for toolsetting. Special rules for pneumatic and hydraulic control systems.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Gereonstrasse 18-32, 5000 Köln 1, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 1978. 20p. Price: DM.0.50.
Federation of Industrial Mutual Accident Insurance Associations (Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften), Bonn, Feb. 1978.
Safety rules for two-hand controls for metalworking power presses
Sicherheitsregeln für Zweihandschaltungen an kraftbetriebenen Pressen der Metallbearbeitung [in German]
Definitions of technical terms are followed by mandatory specifications for these controls (marking; mode of operation; simultaneous operation; design and layout; required conditions for operating this equipment; environmental interfering factors; fail safety), general conditions applying to these presses, safe distance between controls and danger area, compliance tests and periodical checks.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Gereonstrasse 18-32, 5000 Köln 1, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 1978. 14p. Price: DM.0.50.
Occupational safety and health in heat treatment
Protezione ed igiene del lavoro nei trattamenti termici [in Italian]
Brief review of the methods applied in the heat treatment of metals (steel, cast iron, etc.) and the associated hazards (toxic or flammable gases in protective atmospheres, handling of workpieces at high temperature, etc.). Details are given on furnaces and methods of heating them (retort furnaces, bath furnaces, salt baths and toxic ingredients, gas carburising furnaces), protective atmospheres and their poisoning and explosion hazards, and cooling fluids (quenching oils).
Rivista di meccanica, May 1978, Vol.29, No.665, p.49-55. Illus.
Metal presses - Design and equipment of metalworking presses for safety in repair work
Presses ā métaux - Conception et aménagement pour la sécurité des interventions de dépannage. [in French]
Review of the points manufacturers of metalworking presses must consider to ensure safety during maintenance operations: clutch (positive and friction type); elements situated at the top part of the press (electric motor, belts, flywheel); pneumatic equipment; electrical equipment. Conclusions: a friction clutch is to be preferred to the positive type; the top part of a straightside press should be designed to accommodate a work platform, and provided with railings, toeboards and a main switch; the principle of separating power sources from electric circuits must be applied to pneumatic circuits; the location of the various controls must be studied carefully from the ergonomic and mechanical points of view.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygične du travail, 2nd quarter 1978, No.91, Note No.1115-91-78, p.253-271. Illus.
Lappalainen K., Heikkilä P.
Cutting fluids and workplace hygiene problems
Leikuunesteet ja niistä aiheutuvat ongelmat työpaikoilla [in Finnish]
Skärvätskor och arbetshygieniska problem på arbetsplatserna [in Swedish]
Considerations on the use, composition and harmful properties of cutting fluids (oils, emulsions and synthetic fluids) and on occupational hygiene rules and measures to be observed in metalworking and machining shops. Results of a survey carried out in 15 Finnish plants where 23-26% of the exposed workers had skin disorders; bacteriological research on microorganisms which develop in these fluids; and results of measurements of exposure of machine tool operators to oil mist. Recommendations for improved industrial hygiene: enclosure of machines; local exhaust ventilation of oil mist; protective clothing and personal hygiene; elimination of waste oil; superintendence, supply and periodic inspection of cutting fluids. CIS has only the Swedish-language version.
Ehkäise tapaturmia - Förebygg olycksfall, 1978, No.2, p.14-21. Ilus. 17 ref.
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