Metalworking industry - 770 entries found
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Kennedy A., Dornan J.D., King R.
Fatal myocardial disease associated with industrial exposure to cobalt.
A case report of a man who went into cardiac shock during an operation for duodenal ulcer is presented. At necropsy he had changes resembling those seen in cobalt cardiomyopathy and his myocardial Co level was grossly abnormal. His work had involved handling powdered Co in the manufacture of hard-metal cutting bits.
Lancet, 21 Feb. 1981, Vol.I, No.8217, p.412-414. Illus. 10 ref.
Think of your health when you work with cutting fluids
Tenk på helsa når du jobber med skjærevæsker [in Norwegian]
This information booklet for workers exposed to cutting fluids covers: possible sources of exposure, principal health hazards, precautions, personal hygiene, personal protection and first aid for exposed persons; developments in the 4 principal types of fluids (oil-based, emulsions, synthetics, organic solvent-based) and their properties. Alphabetical list of trade names with indications of their categories and their contents of certain additives.
Arbeidstilsynet, Norway, no date. 16p. Illus.
Safe work on metalcutting machine tools
Siguran rad na strojevima za obradu metala skidanjem strugotina [in Serbocroatian]
Sections of this safety training manual for machinists deal with: basic safety principles for work on machine tools (guarding of rotating machine elements, controls, swarf and harmful dust, coolants and cutting fluids, electrical safety, noise and vibration, lighting, personal protective equipment, working space around machines, preventive maintenance, fire protection); safe work on specific machine tools (lathes, drilling and boring machines, milling machines, grinding machines, shaping and planing machines, metalcutting circular saws). Questions for checking the knowledge acquired by workers are appended.
Zavod za nakladničku djelatnost iz sigurnosti na radu, Kroflinova 34, Zagreb, Yugoslavia, 1980. 56p. Illus.
Metalworking machine tools and plastics machinery
This standard, adopted as an American National Standard 28 July 1980, gives detailed information on the application of safe electrical apparatus to machine tools and plastics machinery, and applies to all electrical/electronic equipment, apparatus, systems, and wiring of a machine tool or plastics machinery, operating from a supply voltage of < 600V. Sections cover: diagrams, instruction, and nameplates; supply circuit disconnecting means; circuit protection; control circuits, equipment, enclosures and compartments; location and mounting of control equipment; operator's control stations and equipment; accessories and lighting; conductors; wiring methods and practices; raceways, junction and pull boxes; motors and motor compartments; earthed circuits and equipment earthing. Appendices: glossary, references to other Codes and standards, list of plastics machinery covered by the standard (injection moulding, extrusion, blow moulding, thermoset moulding).
National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02269, USA, 1980. 58p.
Code of practice - Safeguarding horizontal boring machines
This code of practice identifies and describes methods of safeguarding horizontal boring machines (including horizontal boring, drilling and milling machines). Sections are devoted to: definitions; design requirements for safeguards; work-holding devices; power systems; coolant and swarf; mist, fumes and dust; lubrication systems; noise; work-area lighting; other general considerations; installation, operation and maintenance instructions; responsibility; safeguarding measures for table-type, planer-type and floor-type horizontal boring machines (machine elements, spindle transmission, feed drives, accessories, etc.); work-area guarding; guarding of automatic tool-changing machines and large horizontal boring machines. Appendices cover: mounting of limit switches; recommended dimensions for platforms and steps; ergonomic data.
Machine Tool Trades Association, 62 Bayswater Road, London W2 3PH, United Kingdom, 1980. 32p. Illus. 31 ref.
Kauko O., Larjovuori J.
Hazards of metal-cutting machine tools and their prevention
Eräiden työstökoneiden turvallisuudesta ja turvallistamiskeinoista [in Finnish]
Report of a study on the hazards of metal-cutting machine tools (drilling, boring, milling, planing and sawing machines), and recommendations for effective guarding, based on the analysis of data from accident statistics and accident reports to insurance companies during 1976, and on the theoretical analysis of risks encountered in the field during the study. The recommendations cover both engineering approaches to the design and construction of safe and effective guards and ergonomic approaches to safe working procedures. Labour standards on the safety of metal-cutting machine tools in Finland and other countries are reviewed.
Työsuojeluhallitus, Tampere, Finland, 1980. 109p. Illus. 31 ref.
Miller R.K., Montone W.V., Oviatt M.D.
Noise control solutions for the metal products industry
Engineering approaches to the general types of noise problems found in metal fabrication plants, steel mills and foundries are described. Equipment covered includes: presses; pneumatic tools; gas furnaces; electric arc furnaces; cold headers; screw machines; grinding; air carbon arc gouging; vibrators and conveyors; hoppers; shot blasting; saws; air noise; gear noise; riveting; fans; metal-to-metal noise.
Southeast Acoustics Institute, P.O. Box 590, Madison, GA 30650, USA, 1980. 147p. Illus. 79 ref. Price: US$45.00.
Federation of Industrial Mutual Accident Insurance Associations (Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften)
Safety rules for vehicle maintenance
Sicherheitsregeln für die Fahrzeug-Instandhaltung [in German]
These safety rules apply to the maintenance and alteration of motorised land vehicles and aircraft (including trailers, agricultural machinery, rail vehicles, excavators, etc.). Sections are devoted to: layout and equipment of premises (exits, windows, doors, traffic aisles), inspection pits and underground plant, electrical plant and equipment; protection against fires, explosions and harmful substances (ventilation, flammable liquids, cleaning and good housekeeping, work with open flames); preventing the unintentional movement of vehicles; vehicle inspection lifts and work on raised vehicles; tyre inflation, wheel balancing; brake test benches; gasoline filling; vehicle driving. List of related regulations in the Federal Republic of Germany.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Gereonstrasse 18-32, 5000 Köln 1, Federal Republic of Germany, Oct. 1980. 32p. Price: DM.3.50.
Ministry of Heavy Machinery and Plant Construction (Ministerium für Schwermaschinen und Anlagenbau)
Machine tools for forming and shearing - straightening and levelling machines [German Democratic Republic]
Werkzeugmaschinen zum Umformen und Zerteilen - Richtmaschinen [in German]
This standard lays down safety specifications for these machines (control instruments, fire protection, pit covering, machine guarding, controls, roller conveyors) and safety rules for their operation (cleaning, adjustment, lubrication).
Staatsverlag der DDR, Bereich Standardversand, Postfach 1068, 7010 Leipzig, German Democratic Republic, Apr. 1980. 3p.
Beaumont J.J., Weiss N.S.
Mortality of welders, shipfitters, and other metal trades workers in Boilermakers Local No.104, AFL-CIO
This historical prospective method was used to evaluate the mortality experience of 8,679 members of a metal trades union, employed in shipyards, metal fabrication shops, small boat yards, and field construction from 1950 to 1976. Relative to rates for U.S. men of comparable age and race, the risk of death from all causes combined was 0.99. Excesses of 40% and 60% occurred for malignant and non-malignant respiratory disease deaths, respectively, beginning 20 years after first employment. These excesses increased with increasing interval from first employment and the non-malignant respiratory disease excess was also related to cumulative exposure. Causes of death that occurred at significantly greater than expected rates in specific job classifications included pneumonia in welders, accidents and suicide in shipfitters, and emphysema in burners.
American Journal of Epidemiology, 1980, Vol.112, No.6, p.775-776. 20 ref.
USSR State Standards Committee (Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po standartam)
Obrabotka metallov rezaniem - Trebovanija bezopasnosti [in Russian]
This standard (entry into force: 1 July 1982) covers: general provisions; requirements to be met by machining processes (prevention of fires and explosions of flammable metal dusts, elimination of harmful dusts, automatic work feed and ejection); ventilation and lighting of premises; composition of coolants; location of machine tools and workplace layout; rules for the storage and handling of materials, blanks, cutting fluids, machine parts, swarf and tools; qualifications, medical supervision and responsibilities of workers; personal protection; labour inspection. An appendix contains a list of recommended coolants and examples of coolant nozzles.
Izdatel'stvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per.3, 127 557 Moskva, USSR, 11 Dec. 1980. 16p. Illus. Price: Rbl.0.05.
Noise sources and examples of noise reduction in industry
Lärmquellen und Geräuschminderung anhand von Beispielen aus der Industrie [in German]
The author reviews categories of industrial noise classified by the difficulty of instituting suitable preventive measures: work organisation measures, secondary measures, modifying existing machinery and plant, new working methods, measures at the design stage. Practical examples of industrial noise control (with sketches and sound pressure level diagrams): drum fettling, pneumatic nailing, pneumatic press-feed device, transfer of cylindrical sheet-steel components from one machine to another, outfeed collector in nut and bolt manufacture, ejection and separation of sheet-steel parts after blanking, grinding the folded seams of sheet-steel containers, a compressed air cleaning gun.
Sicher ist Sicher, Oct. 1980, Vol.31, No.10, p.612-618. Illus. 9 ref.
Method for testing resistance to alkalis
Zur Methodik der Alkaliresistenzprüfung [in German]
Comparison of several methodological parameters in unprepared workers (exposure to solvents and to cutting fluids) and in prepared controls free from any skin disorder (256 subjects in all): variations of the method, as used by different authors (test site, duration, criteria for stopping the test, evaluation). Evaluation of the results emphasised mainly: criteria for stopping the test, reproducibility from one subject to another, influence of pipette used, test site, previous washing, right or left hand. The influence of occupational exposure and skin hardening (desensitisation) on the results was studied in the light of existing literature.
Dermatosen in Beruf und Umwelt, 1980, Vol.28, No.4, p.104-109. 63 ref.
Hazards of work with grinding wheels, and safe working methods
Opasnost i zaštita pri brušenju [in Serbocroatian]
Handbook illustrated with humorous drawings, intended for all those who use grinding wheels for sharpening and grinding. Contents: types of grinding wheels and their composition; peripheral speed (limits, calculation); hazard of wheel bursting; wheel guards; ring test; correct mounting of wheels; protection against flying particles (dust exhaust); safe working methods; storage and transport of grinding wheels; portable grinders. Appended: synoptic table for choice of wheels and wheel speed depending on the material to be ground.
Institut za dokumentaciju zaštite na radu, Višegradska bb, Niš, Yugoslavia, 1981. 56p. Illus.
Drezgić M., Janković Z.
Metal reheating furnaces and occupational safety
Peći za zagrevanje metala i bezbedan rad sa njima [in Serbocroatian]
Chapter headings: reverberating furnaces and electric furnaces; reheating technology and metallurgical aspects; fuels used; types of furnace; choice of type of heating; furnace operation; safety measures (liquid and gaseous fuels, explosion prevention, hydraulic seals, improvement of working conditions, protection against radiant heat, mechanisation of furnace charging and discharging).
Institut za dokumentaciju zaštite na radu, Višegradska bb, Niš, Yugoslavia, 1980. 44p. Illus. 12 ref.
Järvholm B., Thiringer G.
Medical supervision of personnel exposed to oil mist
Hälsokontroll av oljedim-exponerad personal [in Swedish]
Results of medical examinations of 164 exposed workers (60 lathe opertors, 82 precision grinders, 22 quenching bath operators) and 159 controls. Average duration of exposure: 16.2 years. Levels of exposure: 2mg/m3 at lathes; 3.2mg/m3 at precision grinding machines (>5mg/m3 before 1965); 8mg/m3 at quenching vats. Differences observed as compared to controls: increase in immunoglobulin (IgM) levels; decrease in lung volume in some exposed workers. The study was used as a basis for organising a surveillance programme for workers exposed to these aerosols: questionnaire, spirometry, measurement of arterial blood pressure, determination of haemoglobin levels, urine analysis; medical examination every 3-5 years.
Yrkesmedicinska enheten, Sahlgrenska sjukhuset, 413 45 Göteborg, Sweden, 1980. 32p. Illus.
Better working environment
This manual is designed to be used, with an audiovisual and discussion programme, to introduce workers to general occupational safety and health topics. Sections cover: working environment education; environment; people, the working environment and technical equipment (risks in the workplace); ergonomics and lighting; noise; chemical risks to health; daily occupational safety and health work; model national legislation; checklists for work safety routine inspection. Spanish and Portuguese-language versions of the manual exist.
International Metalworkers' Federation, 54 bis route des Acacias, 1227 Geneva, Switzerland, 1980. 186p. Illus.
Hazards and safety aspects of work at lathes
Opasnost i zaštita pri radu na strugu [in Serbocroatian]
Pocket handbook illustrated with humorous drawings, intended for lathe operators. Contents: statistical aspects of lathe accidents in Yugoslavian metalworking shops; accident causes (distraction, lack of care; loose clothing; overhanging bars; slowing down of chuck by hand); guarding devices; swarf and correct ways of removal; importance of geometry of cutting edges of tools; mounting and removal of chuck; manual filing of work; workplace layout and lighting; noise control; local exhaust ventilation.
Institut za dokumentaciju zaštite na radu, Višegradska bb, Niš, Yugoslavia, 1980. 52p. Illus. 15 ref.
Work postures and movements in maintenance work on agricultural machinery
Työasennot ja -liikkeet maatalouskoneiden kunnossapitotöissä [in Finnish]
Report on a preliminary study of the work postures and movements of mechanics servicing and repairing agricultural machines. The Ovako work posture analysis system was employed and observations were taken every 30sec. A total of 2,300 observations were made. During this work a mechanic's back was in upright position less than half the time. The back was bent during 32% of working time (in work at a workbench the back was bent even more often). Either one or both of a mechanic's hands were raised to shoulder level for at least 20% of the time. A worker's own weight plus the weight of a load causes great strain on the legs when one or both legs are bent. Bent leg positions occurred 8% of the working time. Mechanics often had to crawl, climb or sit on the floor. Conclusion: the position of back, legs and arms caused strain during 40% of the working time.
Työterveyslaitos, Laajaniityntie 1, 01620 Vantaa 62, Finland, 1980. 37p. Illus. 11 ref. Price: Fmk.10.00.
Reducing noise radiation from a hollow steel section by means of a noise-damping material
Verminderung der Schallabstrahlung eines Hohlprofilstahls durch Bedämpfung [in German]
Description of the technique used to measure the sound power level in a hollow steel section used for constructing a machine frame; the inside of this section has been treated with noise damping materials (polyurethane foam, mineral wool, an anti-vibration coating, bitumen, sand, concrete). The reduction in noise radiation depended on the mass and the adherence of the damping materials. The polyurethane foam treatment seemed to give the best results in practice.
Maschinenbautechnik, Dec. 1980, Vol.29, No.12, p.564-565. Illus. 4 ref.
Hazards in the manufacture of abrasives
La fabrication d'abrasifs et ses risques. [in French]
Communication presented to the Technical Joint Regional Committee for the Chemical Industries (Comité technique régional des industries chimiques), Lille, France. Review of the composition of the principal abrasives and binders used in the manufacture of grinding discs and wheels. Study of non-localised hazards: dust in eyes, cluttering up of floor, handling, storage; localised hazards: mixers, presses (crushing hazard), furnaces (electrical hazards, exposure hazards), final machining operations. Analysis of hazardous agents and substances: phenol, phenophosphate dusts, formaldehyde, alumina. Principal hazards of various stages of manufacture of coated abrasives for use in industry (discs, sheets, rolls, endless belts). Hazards of rotary trimmers, press-type cutting machines with advancing head and glueing presses.
Caisse régionale d'assurance maladie du Nord de la France, 11 boulevard Vauban, B.P. 3008, 59024 Lille Cedex, France, 14 Oct. 1980. 32p. Illus.
Use of hand tools (other than electrically powered)
L'utilisation d'outils à mains non électriques. [in French]
Communication presented to the Regional Joint Technical Committee for the Metalworking Industry (Comité technique régional de la métallurgie), Lille, France. Statistical tables of hand injuries sustained in occupational accidents (incidence rates are alarmingly constant, with no tendency to decline). Analysis of hazard source for different types of hand tool used in metalworking: hammers, sledgehammers; spanners; knives, chisels; screwdrivers. Spanish translation published in "Notas y documentos sobre prevención de riesgos profesionales", 148, 4° trimestre 1984, p.59-64.
Caisse régionale d'assurance maladie du Nord de la France, 11 boulevard Vauban, B.P. 3008, 59024 Lille Cedex, France, 15 Oct. 1980. 18p. Illus. 15 ref.
Environmental improvements in forging shops
Miljöförbättringar inom smidesindustrin [in Swedish]
Description of a project carried out in a Swedish plant to identify harmful factors at work and to devising measures to control them: acoustic enclosure of billet shears; noise reduction in large gearwheels; sound absorption on reheating-furnace burners; water cooling of furnace walls; aluminium screen against radiant heat; local exhaust of furnace gases; materials handling aids; automatic lubricating and air-jet cleaning system for drop-forging hammer; air curtain against oil vapours and mist; vibration damping and noise reduction on drop-hammer tup; insulation of floor vibration; improvements in deburring shops.
Arbetarskyddsfonden, Sveavägen 166, 113 46 Stockholm, Sweden, no date. 30p. Illus.
Federation of Industrial Mutual Accident Insurance Associations (Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften)
Safety rules for contactless safety devices for metalworking power presses
Sicherheitsregeln für berührungslos wirkende Schutzeinrichtungen an kraftbetriebenen Pressen der Metallbearbeitung [in German]
These rules prescribe the minimum conditions to be met in the design, construction, use and testing of electronic guards. Contents: definitions of technical terms; general provisions concerning these guards (marking, operation, optical control, procedure for putting out of action, external interferences, self-monitoring guard systems); mandatory requirements for presses with this type of guard (controls, testing, safe distances, inertial stroke); instructions for use of these guards; assembly and mounting; tests. Appended: full text of the 1971 principles applicable to electronic guards mounted on metalworking presses (CIS 71-1658).
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Geresonstrasse 18-32, 5000 Köln 1, Federal Republic of Germany, Apr. 1980. 31p. Illus. Price: DM.2.10.
Federation of Industrial Mutual Accident Insurance Associations (Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften)
Guidelines for galvanising
Richtlinien für das Feuerverzinken [in German]
These directives contain specifications for: construction of galvanising baths (guard rails to prevent falls into the bath); protection against burns (screens, personal protective equipment, precautions in galvanising hollow bodies).
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Gereonstrasse 18-32, 5000 Köln 1, Federal Republic of Germany, Oct. 1980. 6p. Price: DM.0.60.
USSR State Standards Committee (Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po standartam)
Metalworking machine tools - General safety rules
Stanki metalloobrabatyvajuščie - Obščie trebovanija bezopasnosti [in Russian]
Contents of this standard (effective 1 Jan. 1981): general rules applicable to all machine tools (guarding and locking devices, control elements, transfer mechanisms, work-holding and tool-holding devices, lubrication, hydraulic and pneumatic systems, swarf removal, local exhaust devices, noise limitation, work platforms); electrical equipment and local lighting; special rules for lathes and drilling, boring, milling, planing, shaping, broaching, gear-cutting, sawing, grinding and transfer machines, and erosion machining equipment. Annex: examples of local exhaust devices for dust removal.
Izdatel'stvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per.3, 123557 Moskva, USSR, 4 June 1980. 61p. Illus. Price: Rbl.0.20.
Soluble oil dermatitis.
The skin condition caused by soluble oils (oil-in-water emulsions used to cool the metal workpiece during machining) is compared with eczema and contact dermatitis. Criteria are proposed on which to determine whether the dermatitis is due to irritation or allergic sensitisation. The evolution is discussed, together with measures designed to facilitate recovery (treatment, removal from the cause).
Tijdschrift voor sociale geneeskunde, 12 Nov. 1980, Vol.58, No.21-22, p.765-767. 8 ref.
Hemminki K., Niemi M.L., Koskinen K., Vainio H.
Spontaneous abortions among women employed in the metal industry in Finland.
From union files and hospital discharge records, spontaneous abortions were analysed among Finnish metal workers between 1973 and 1976 (35.000 women). Among these, 195 spontaneous abortions were recorded. The ratio was significantly higher than the corresponding ratio for all Finnish women. A particularly high-risk industry appeared to be the production of radios, television sets, and their components. Exposure to solder fumes (from colophony flux) was suggested to explain the increased risk.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 1980, Vol.47, No.1, p.53-60. Illus. 16 ref.
Occupational safety and health in working with magnesium alloys
Tehnika bezopasnosti i proizdostvennaja sanitarija pri rabote s magnievymi splavami [in Russian]
Contents: physical and chemical properties of Mg and its alloys; general accident prevention and fire protection problems; OSH organisation in plants producing Mg alloy parts; occupational hygiene, personal protection and first aid; accidents and fire prevention in melting, moulding and coremaking, casting, fettling, grinding, heat and chemical treatment of pieces, painting, machining and forming; storage of raw materials, residues, waste, and finished products made of Mg alloys.
Izdatel'stvo "Mašinostroenie", 1-j Basmannyj per.3, 107885 Moskva, USSR, 1980. 198p. Illus. 38 ref. Price: Rbl.0.75.
Knjazevskij B.A., Revjakin A.I., Čekalin N.A., Trunkovskij L.E.
Electrical safety in mechanical engineering
Ėlektrobezopasnost' v mašinostroenii [in Russian]
Contents: Soviet regulations and standards on this subject, safety organisation; effects of electric current on the human body; analysis of electrical hazards; safety measures to be observed in electrical installations; equipment for "live" work and protective devices; safety rules for installation and repair work on electrical equipment, work on switchgear, use of industrial electrical equipment, measuring electrical values and electrical testing; protection against hazardous radiation and electrostatic discharge.
Izdatel'stvo "Mašinostroenie", Stromynskij per.4, 107076 Moskva, USSR, 1980. 240p. Illus. 35 ref. Price: Rbl.1.10.
Horiguchi S., Harai I., Inaba E., Miyajima K.
Industrial chromium poisoning in small- and medium-sized electroplating factories (Supplements 1 and 2).
Health examinations were performed on 3 occasions between 1956 and 1960 in 140, 172 and 114 workers, respectively, at chromium electroplating factories manufacturing bicycle parts. Skin changes including ulcer were found in 87, 76 and 85%, nasal septum perforations in 11, 6 and 10%, and nasal mucous membrane changes including nasal septum perforation in 61, 83 and 97% respectively. There were no radiological indications of lung cancer except exaggeration of lung markings. Twenty years after the first studies, a visit to one of the factories showed that automation of the plating process and changes in working methods had reduced workers' exposure to chromic acid and dust.
Sumitomo Bulletin of Industrial Health, 30 Sep. 1980, Vol.16, No.16, p.33-40. Illus. 4 ref.
Work load study: degreasing metal with chlorinated solvents
Etude de la charge de travail au poste de dégraissage des métaux par les solvants chlorés. [in French]
MD thesis. Methodology and results of a survey carried out in 34 French automatic turning shops in Cluses, Hte. Savoie, France, by a multidisciplinary team, aimed at improving working conditions and reducing health hazards from solvents (especially trichloroethylene) for the workers and the neighbourhood population. Equipment, methods and solvents used for degreasing processes are studied, and risks of health damage or poisoning in workers degreasing the parts. The investigation covered: physical workload, toxicity, workplace environmental health hazards, mental stress. Technical data and human factors collected were analysed to obtain an overall assessment of the degreasers' working conditions and their adaptation to the job, and to reduce practical applications: use of ergonomic principles to improve workplace conditions, layout and design; pilot workshop; better medical supervision.
Université de Paris VI Pierre et Marie Curie, Faculté de médecine Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, France, 1980. 193p. 66 ref.
Introduction and use of dangerous substances at Caterpillar Belgium
Introduction et utilisation des substances et préparations dangereuses chez Caterpillar Belgium. [in French]
The precautions taken in a large undertaking manufacturing earthmoving equipment are briefly described in the light of the Belgian legislation: purchase or use proposal form for potentially dangerous substances, and analytical data sheet (identification and properties, hazards, instructions in the event of spills, precautions).
Promosafe, Dec. 1980, Vol.7, No.43, p.17-22.
Cutting fluids may be fine for the machines - Are they harmful for the worker?
Bra smörja för maskiner - bara smörja för människor? [in Swedish]
An investigation in Swedish metalworking plants showed that 42% of machine tool operators exposed to cutting fluids had health problems due to this exposure (generally skin disorders such as oil acne or eczema). Attempts were made to reintroduce soap water, but soaps contain resinous acids which are also allergens, and there is a problem of rust on the machines. The introduction of vegetable oils, mainly containing colza oil, caused a sharp drop in the incidence of dermatoses, but the machines became dirty. Furthermore, these oils are favourable to the propagation of bacteria, and have to be renewed frequently. The best solution would seem to be: use of mineral oils, the composition of which should be previously assessed from the occupational hygiene aspect; personal cleanliness; and regular maintenance of the coolant systems.
Arbetsmiljö, 26 Aug. 1980, No.10, p.56-57, 59-60. Illus.
Ėllanskij Ju.G., Kiseleva V.I., Artamonov N.P., Titarenko S.P.
Working conditions for manual grinding of cutting tools
Uslovija truda pri ručnoj zatočke režuščego instrumenta [in Russian]
A work study showed that tool grinding, although not an arduous task, gives rise to vibration, noise, and dust. Disturbances of the peripheral circulation and the sensation threshold increase with length of service. Proposals made to improve conditions of work are: work schedule limiting grinding tasks to 6min and including 30min of vibration-free work; workplace design; personal protection.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Feb. 1980, No.2, p.12-14. Illus.
Roščin A.V., Lutov V.A.
Occupational hygiene in the use of cutting fluids
Gigiena truda pri rabote so smazočno-ohlaždajuščimi židkostjami [in Russian]
Studies on working conditions and the health of operators of machine tools with coolant systems, and animal experiments, have shown not only that cutting oils produce folliculitis and dermatoses, but that their areosols (oil mists and pyrolysis products) have toxic effects on the respiratory system. Chronic respiratory diseases, functional and biochemical changes, and a reduction in immunobiological resistance have been observed in cases of prolonged exposure. Preventive measures proposed are: automation of machining tasks, enclosure of the machining zone, periodical cleaning of the coolant system, personal hygiene, medical supervision.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Feb. 1980, No.2, p.7-11. 7 ref.
Formation and presence of carcinogenic nitroso amines in cutting fluids used in metalworking
Bildung und Vorkommen von krebserzeugenden Nitrosaminen in Kühlschmierstoffen für die Metallverarbeitung [in German]
Amines and nitrites added to cutting fluids as inhibitors may give rise to the carcinogenic nitroso amines found in these fluids in concentrations which may reach 3%. Roundup of the present state of the art concerning the chemical formation of the nitroso amines, their concentration in the cutting fluids and their carcinogenicity. Possibilities of biological evaluation of exposure (urinary excretion) and of formation in the body. Recommendations: periodic checking of cutting fluids, determination of maximum permissible levels, analysis of urine of exposed workers, health engineering (prevention of contact with cutting fluids), prohibition of use of nitrites.
Die Berufsgenossenschaft, Mar. 1980, No.3, p.188-191. Illus. 11 ref.
Chmielewski S., Szczepanik J.
Obrobka cieplna [in Polish]
This booklet, which describes the methods used for heat and thermochemical treatment of metals, the occupational hazards involved and corresponding safety measures, is intended for supervisory staff, safety officers and labour inspectors. Contents: working conditions in heat-treatment shops (buildings and industrial premises; welfare facilities; lighting and colour; ventilation; dust control; heating; protection from radiant heat and high temperatures; methods of heating heat-treatment installations; cooling; thermochemical treatment (case-hardening, carbonitriding, nitriding); surface treatment and finishing (degreasing, cleaning); handling.
Instytut Wydawniczy CRZZ, Warszawa, Poland, 1980. 110p. Illus. 14 ref. Price: Zl.18.00.
Noise control in a press shop
Lutte contre le bruit dans un atelier de presses. [in French]
Example of the conversion of a press shop with the principal objective of securing an acceptable noise environment. Several stages were required to obtain a satisfactory result. At the construction stage, it was necessary to treat the walls and ceiling accoustically. Computed projections of noise levels showed that a reduction in the amplification of a noise source by the premises by a factor of 7.5dB at 50m from the noise source was possible, but also showed that the noise level in the work place remained unacceptable, resulting in the necessity to enclose the noisiest presses. This work proceeded in 2 stages, reducing the noise level in almost all passages between machines to below 85dB(A).
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd quarter 1980, No.100, Note No.1270-100-80, p.405-413. Illus. 4 ref.
Guilland B., Chomat D.
Statistical study of the health effects of trichloroethylene in 188 workers exposed in the auto-screw machine industry
Etude statistique de la pathologie professionnelle du trichloréthylène chez 188 travailleurs exposés dans l'industrie du décolletage. [in French]
MD thesis. A computerised, multidisciplinary study is reported. The effect of trichloroethylene was confirmed in unspecific subjective manifestations such as a state of intoxication or somnolence at the workplace, headache, insomnia, odour intolerance. In others - irritative cough, gastralgia, nausea and vomiting, vertigo, chest pressure, palpitation - the role of trichloroethylene was less clear. Objective signs found with some frequency were: trigeminal neuralgia, contact dermatitis, conjunctivitis, loss of visual acuity, and dyschromatopsia suggesting optic neuritis. A simplified form was established for an epidemiological study of workers most exposed to trichloroethylene.
Université scientifique et médicale de Grenoble, France, 1980. 184p. 77 ref.
Lagunov L.F., Osipov G.L.
Noise control in the engineering industry
Bor'ba s šumom v mašinostroenii [in Russian]
Contents: standardisation of noise and ultrasound damage risk criteria; noise measurement (noise levels of machine tools and compressors; measuring instruments); noise control measures (at the source or by sound absorption, sound shielding, silencers, vibration isolation); soundproofing for ventilation systems, compressors, and machine tools; hearing protection.
Izdatel'stvo "Masinostroenie", 1-j Basmannyj per.3, 107885 Moskva GSP-6, USSR, 1980. 150p. Illus. 35 ref. Price: Rbl.0.50.
Bonnavoir J.P., Thony C., Sautier C., Faivre-Pierret R., Cuerq A., Ragon R.
Degreasing of metals with chlorinated solvents - Comparative study of machines used for auto-screw machine work
Dégraissage des métaux par les solvants chlorés - Etude comparative des machines utilisées dans le décolletage. [in French]
Characteristics of the 6 common degreasing machines investigated are given. Atmospheric concentrations of trichloroethylene often exceeded permitted levels: urinary trichloroacetic acid was also excessive in exposed workers. Recommendations are made for the selection of a degreasing machine, safe working methods, and additional protection measures.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd quarter 1980, No.99, Note No.1247-99-80, p.223-230. Illus.
André G., Barbry J.L., Burgert J.C.
Reduction of noise of plate shears
Réduction du bruit émis par une cisaille. [in French]
Sound levels of plate shears can reach 95-100dB(A) when cutting sheet iron. Impulsive sound pressure levels produced by the cut section when falling are also very dangerous. The construction and operating principle of plate shears is described, with considerations on the origin and characteristics of the noise emitted; soundproofing measures (damping the noise on the inclined table with soundproofing materials; results (attenuation of 10dB(A)).
Travail et sécurité, Jan. 1980, No.1, p.12-21. Illus.
Precision foundry hazards.
The 9 stages involved in making aircraft engine turbine blades are described, with a list of hazards due to molten wax, metal and steam, refractory material, molten metal and water explosions, dust and flying ceramic silicate chips, cutting blades, electric arc cutting, hydrofluoric acid, caustic solution, ionising radiation, and environmental factors. Precautions taken are: pre-employment examination, safety footwear, machinery guarding, restricted entry to high hazard areas, protective clothing, dust extraction systems, lip extraction on chemical process tanks, barrier creams, face and nose masks, antidotes for dangerous chemicals, eye wash bottles, ventilation, fluids with added salt, hygiene audits, automation of dangerous processes, specialist health and safety training of personnel.
Occupational Health, Mar. 1980, Vol.32, No.3, p.123-127. Illus.
Danger zones and protective measures for lathes
Tornos - Zonas peligrosas y dispositivos de protección [in Spanish]
Hazards of metalworking lathes and protective measures are set out: projection of workpiece and flying fragments (enclosure, protective screens, interlocking of guards, checking of chucks and securing of workpiece and tools); large workpieces; untoward starting (interlocks, shutdown, guarding of foot controls); moving pieces and inrunning nips; swarf and chips; changing of chuck; filing by hand.
Prevención, Jan.-Mar. 1980, No.71, p.24-31. Illus.
Health and safety guide for manufacturers of woodworking machinery.
Illustrated by humorous drawings and instructive sketches, this booklet aims to assist in providing a safe and healthy workplace by describing safe practices and encouraging compliance with the U.S. health and safety regulations. Chief contents: health and safety guidelines (programmes; philosophy for health and safety compliance; employee training; job safety analysis); health hazard control techniques; frequently violated regulations (walking and working surfaces; standard guardrails and toeboards; fixed industrial stairs; ladders; exits; machine guarding and processes requiring guards; hand and portable power tools; compressed air use; hazardous materials and operations; fire protection); materials handling and storage (powered industrial trucks); National Electrical Code; occupational health and environmental control; personal protective equipment; welding, cutting and brazing; sanitation; medical and first aid; record keeping; checklist; information sources.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Mar. 1979. 112p. Illus.
Safety requirements for metal chisels.
This standard provides safety requirements for the design, construction, testing, and use of hand-held metalworking chisels. Power-driven chisels are excluded. Details of design, testing, and use of these tools are specified only as they relate to safety. The standard, which is not intended to specify manufacturing details, aims to serve as a guide in selecting and using these tools, and in developing manuals or posters and for training personnel in safe practices.
American National Standards Institute, 1430 Broadway, New York, N.Y. 10018, USA, 29 Aug. 1979. 12p. Illus. 5 ref. Price: US$4.00.
Coordination of the development of a pre-exposure test for monitoring mutagens and carcinogens in the metal working industry.
A technique for determination of mutagenic activity in fresh aerosols using a micro-impinger containing a growing culture of a Salmonella typhimurium strain is described. The possibilities of using the technique for field studies in the metalworking industry are discussed. Specific problems encountered concern the mutagenicity of metals which are suspected carcinognes, especially Ni and Cr, and the need for quantitative mutagenic measurements.
Report 80.08, Svejsecentralen, 345 Park Allé, 2600 Glostrup, Denmark, Dec. 1979. 58p. 134 ref.
Eye accidents and use of eye protectors in the metalworking industry
Silmätapaturmat ja silmiensuojaimien käyttö metalliteollisuudessa [in Finnish]
Aspects covered in this questionnaire survey: estimated risk of an eye accident in various tasks, and reported eye accidents; workers' attitude towards eye protection; prominent defects of eye protectors; non-use of eye protectors, their choice and maintenance. Operations surveyed were: grinding, filing and tool grinding, welding, metalworking, maintenance, painting, foundry work, inspection, transport, cleaning. Non-use of protectors was highest among foundry workers. Reasons: inadequacy of visual perception through protector lenses, perspiration, pressure on temples.
Työolosuhteet 19, Työterveyslaitos, Laajaniityntie 1, 01620 Vantaa 62, Finland, 1979. 53p. 2 ref. Price: Fmk.10.00.
Hillerdal G., Nõu E.
Occupation and bronchial carcinoma.
All newly diagnosed bronchial carcinoma cases (212 men, 61 women) in Uppsala, Sweden, were studied for 5 years. There was a significantly higher proportion of metal and construction workers, while agricultural workers were under-represented. The incidence of pleural plaques was 4 times higher than expected. In certain occupations dust has an additive effect on the carcinogenic effect of smoking.
Scandinavian Journal of Respiratory Diseases, 1979, Vol.60, p.76-82. 34 ref.
Berry J.P., Berruchon J., Fournier M., Touaty E., Teyssier L., Pariente R.
Pulmonary fibrosis associated with work with cemented carbides
Fibrose pulmonaire liée au travail des métaux durs. [in French]
The case of a 59-year-old worker employed in boring cemented tungsten carbide workpieces, suffering from pulmonary fibrosis, is reported. In addition to the classic signs observable by light microscope, investigation of a lung biopsy specimen by electro microprobe indicated the characteristic tungsten mark. This case is typical for disease caused by cemented carbide dust. Given the incidence and characteristics of hard metal fibrosis, it should be included in the list of occupational diseases in France.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, Nov. 1979, Vol.40, No.11, p.997-1002. 24 ref.
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