Metalworking industry - 770 entries found
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Safety guides for the use of machine tools
Guías de seguridad para el uso y operación de las máquinas herramientas [in Spanish]
A manual in the form of 10 booklets, each presenting the safety measures to be observed in the use of a specific metal-working machine tool. Each guide includes an introduction, a definition and a classification of the given class of machines, their use, the specific dangers presented by the machines, accident causes, basic safety rules and recommendations, and a bibliography. Machines dealt with: drills, planers and shapers, lathes, saws, shears, bending rolls, presses, grinders, milling machines. The last guide deals with personal protective equipment and safety devices built into machine tools.
Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Paseo de la Reforma 476, 06698 México DF, Mexico. 10 booklets, 313p. Illus. Bibl.
Tönshoff H.K., Bernhardt U.
Low-noise design VII - Design of sheet-metal structural components
Lärmarm konstruieren VII - Gestaltung dünnwandiger Blechbauteile [in German]
In this research report, a classification of sheet-metal structural components and their acoustic behaviour is followed by a review of the methods by which that behaviour is determined. Ways of reducing the noise transmitted by sheet metal (especially damping) are discussed. Low-noise components made of several layers of metal joined at points can be made without internal vibration-damping material. Design rules and practical examples are given.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz, Postfach 170202, 4600 Dortmund 17, Federal Republic of Germany, 1982. 151p. Illus. 41 ref. Price: DM.23.00.
Rules for the prevention of accidents and poisoning during the heat treatment of metals
Rčgles pour la prévention des accidents et intoxications lors du traitement thermique des métaux [in French]
These rules apply to the construction, use and maintenance of installations for the heat treatment of metals and for the production of gases for protection or treatment of the metals. Definitions of the field of application and technical terms are followed by provisions for the documents required for inspection of such installations, instructions for use, ventilation, maintenance, instruction of personnel, individual protection, technical aspects of the operation of installations which use protective gases and those using vacuum, technical conditions for the operation of oil and salt baths. A list of pertinent regulations, commentaries on the rules and examples are appended.
Caisse nationale suisse d'assurance en cas d'accidents, Luzern, Switzerland, Mar. 1982. 14p.
State of the biliary tract in workers in hot shops
Sostojanie želčevyvodjaščih putej u rabočih gorjačih cehov [in Russian]
Duodenal probing and x-ray studies were applied to 145 workers (95 men and 50 women) from hot workplaces (for example, in metallurgical plants) and to 35 controls from other places in the same enterprises. 57 (39.3%) of the heat-exposed group showed neither functional nor organic disorders of the biliary tract, although the motor activity of their gall bladders was lower than that of the controls. 45 (31.1%) of the heat-exposed group showed some functional disorder of the biliary tract, most commonly hypomotor-hypotonic dyskinesia. 43 (29.6%) of the heat-exposed group showed organic disorders, most frequently latent chronic cholecystitis.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Feb. 1982, No.2, p.24-27. 11 ref.
Foŕ V., Peruzzo G.F.
Health hazards and injuries in the electroplating industry
Rischi e danni nell'industria galvanica [in Italian]
Report of a continuing-education seminar held in Milano, Italy (20 March-15 May 1980). Contents: general principles of electroplating; cycles of operations in electroplating shops; problems of biological monitoring; health hazards in nickel and chrome plating (damage to skin, digestive tract and upper respiratory tract); clinical and functional aspects of upper respiratory tract disorders; immunological aspects; epidemiological data on dermatitis among electroplaters; investigation of working conditions in several shops; results of air analyses in shops; sampling methods; problems of analysis; control of atmospheric pollutants in electroplating shops; protection of the environment against liquid effluents.
Istituto di Medicina del lavoro, "Clinica del lavoro L. Devoto", Via S. Barnaba 8, Milano, Italy, 1982. 314p. Illus. Bibl.
Saarela K.L., Häkkinen S., Saari J., Lahtela J.
Ergonomic safety analysis - development of a method for the metal industry
Ergonominen turvallisuusanalyysi - menetelmän kehittely metalliteollisuudelle [in Finnish]
A theoretical approach to the problem of accident investigation and prevention in the workplace. It involves: an analysis of the workplace as a system of interrelating parts; the breakdown of each job into its smallest elements; the development of accident probability indices for each of the elements. The method was tested by analysing jobs on a production lines in the metal industry. The material thus collected formed the basis for improved safety measures. The method is best suited for an analysis of piece work on production lines.
Työterveyslaitos, Julkaisutoimisto, Laajaniityntie 1, 01620 Vantaa 62, Finland, 1982. 82p. Illus. 66 ref. Price: Fmk.30.00.
Statistics on occupational accidents and diseases in the steel industry - 1979
Arbetsskadestatistik för stĺlindustrin 1979 [in Swedish]
Analysis of statistical data collected by the ISA (Swedish Information System on Occupational Accidents and Diseases): presentation of the factors involved in accidents in the iron and steel industry and review of the activities in the course of which the accidents occurred; discussion of dangerous acts, experience, length of service, age of accident victims. Comparative table of accidents involving white-collar and blue-collar workers; summary of fatal accidents. Statistical tables on accidents recorded in iron and steel works, in metalworking establishments, in mechanical engineering, in foundries, etc. (activity, material factors, type of accident, injury location); summary tables and graphs.
Arbetsolycksfallsgruppen, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden, Oct. 1982. 68p. Illus.
Production, processing, handling, and storage of zirconium
This revised standard, with an effective date of 28 June 1982, provides requirements and recommendations for the prevention of fires and explosions associated with the production, processing, handling and storage of zirconium. Sections cover: sponge production and melting; mill operations; machining and fabrication; scrap generation, processing and storage; powder production and use.
National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02269, USA, 8 June 1982. 40p. Illus.
Safe materials handling in mechanical engineering works
Tehnika bezopasnosti pri peremeščenii gruzov na mašinostroitel'nyh predprijatijah [in Russian]
Sections of this manual deal with: general safty rules; materials handling techniques; loads and their packages; load gripping and suspension devices; storage facilities; requirements to be met by materials handling equipment (guards, driver's cabin design, reliability); industrial trucks, especially fork-lift trucks; lift-truck attachments; rail transport equipment; conveyors; goods lifts and monorails; jacks and lift platforms; stacker cranes; auxiliary equipment; manual handling and lifting; electric drivers and electrical safety; pneumatic and hydraulic power; safe layout of communication ways and passages, warning signals and lighting, loading and unloading operations; warning signs and safety colours; personnel training; accident prevention.
Izdatel'stvo "Mašinostroenie", Stromynskij per. 4, 107076 Moskva B-76, USSR, 1982. 239p. Illus. 18 ref. Price: Rbl.0.65.
How to work safely with machines - The engine lathe
Jak bezpečně pracovat se stroji - Univerzální hrotový soustruh [in Czech]
Brief review of lathe accidents and their causes (30% are due to flying chips; serious accidents are caused by finishing rotating work with abrasive cloth, or by getting entangled and being dragged into the machine). Safety advice: protection against flying chips (lathe operators should wear spectacles or face shields; guards (on new lathes) should be kept closed during machining); chip removal (use of tools with chipbreakers; removal of broken chips with brushes, and of coiled chips with chip hooks provided with a hand shield); use of lifting equipment to load and unload heavy workpieces; workholding devices and guards (chuck guard should be closed before starting; appropriate work clothing; guarding of protruding barstock ends; use of abrasive cloth holders; protection of spindle-clutch lever against inadvertent tripping).
Bezpečnost a hygiena práce, Oct. 1982, Vol.32, No.10, p.292-293. Illus. 9 ref.
Szentmiklóssy B., Zács A.
Planning of industrial noise reduction in the Kogepterv company
Az ipari zajcsökkentés tervezése a Kogépterv-ben [in Hungarian]
The Kogepterv company planning activities for the metalworking and mechanical engineering industries in the field of industrial noise control is reviewed. The measures introduced in various plants are described with the results achieved.
Gépgyártástechnológia, Aug. 1982, Vol.22, No.8, p.369-371. Illus.
How to work safely with machines - Twin-wheel pedestal and bench grinders
Jak bezpečně pracovat se stroji - Dvoukotoučové stojanové a stolní brusky [in Czech]
Brief review of accidents to workers using these types of grinding machine (flying particles, getting struck by piece to be ground). Safety advice: provision of wheel guards and correct angular position of guard opening - especially for wheels having diameters >400mm and rotating at speeds >35m/s - and of visors; workers should wear safety spectacles; provision of exhaust devices; use of correctly adjusted work rests. Measures to be taken to prevent wheel breakage: measuring the true wheel speed (revs/min), correct wheel mounting, calculation of peripheral speed, proper storage of wheels, etc. Reference to pertinent Czechoslovak safety standards.
Bezpečnost a hygiena práce, Dec. 1982, Vol.32, No.12, p.363. Illus.
Glove gets entangled - hand is pulled into nip
Handsken fastnade - handen drogs med [in Swedish]
Description of a serious accident to a lathe operator who deburred a tube held in the lathe chuck by pulling a strip of abrasive cloth round the tube. The glove thumb got entangled in the nip formed by the abrasive cloth and tube, and the hand, overall sleeve and arm were pulled into the nip. Lessons tought by the accident: rough surfaces should be filed before they are polished; no gloves; no loose sleeves; strip of abrasive cloth should be long enough; low lathe speed.
Arbetsmiljö, 1982, Vol.13, No.2, p.51. Illus.
Järvholm B., Blake B., Lavenius B., Thiringer G., Vokmann R.
Respiratory symptoms and lung function in oil-mist exposed workers
The prevalence of respiratory symptoms was registered and ventilatory function was determined in 164 men exposed to aerosols from straight oils (turners), emulsions (grinders) and condensation products of evaporated oils (hardeners), and 159 controls. Average exposure time was 16.2 years. The exposed men reported more respiratory symptoms: 14% of the exposed non-smokers v. 2% of the non-smoking controls having cough at least 3 months/year. There were no significant differences between spirometric measurements and chest roentgenograms of the men exposed to oil mist and those of the controls. The lung function of 25 non-smoking exposed workers was studied further using additional lung function tests. The mean values for closing volume, slope of the alveolar plateau, total lung capacity, residual volume, elastic recoil at various lung volumes, and diffusion capacity did not differ significantly from the predicted normal.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, June 1982, Vol.22, No.6, p.473-479. 26 ref.
Peltier A., Demange M., Guillemin C., Elcabache J.M.
Exposure to hard-metal dust
Exposition aux poussičres de métaux durs [in French]
Analytical results of 460 workplace air sampling carried out during the period 1979-1981, to discern a corrective trend due to the combined effect of the recommendations for health engineering and medical prevention and recent French legislation (statutory recognition in 1981 of respiratory disease due to exposure to cemented carbide dust as an occupational disease). Pollution levels decreased in powder workshops between 1979 and 1981, but did not vary in other departments (compacting, machining) where levels were the same in 1981 as in 1979. USA and USSR TLVs are given. Further development of dust control techniques is recommemded.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygične du travail, 3rd quarter 1982, No.108, Note No.1387-108-82, p.359-365. 3 ref.
Scherrer M., Maillard J.M.
Hard-metal lung disease
Hartmetall-Pneumopathien [in German]
Review of cemented carbide production processes, the related risks and safety measures. Survey of lung disease due to cemented carbides and analysis of cases seen by the authors. Definition of diffuse interstitial pneumopathy (= pneumonitis) found primarily in sinter workers and hard-metal asthma encountered mainly in workers grinding cemented-carbide tips (pathology, histology, signs and symptoms, diagnosis). Description of 23 cases of asthma and 7 cases of pneumonitis due to cemented carbides: age, length of exposure, clinical signs and symptoms, chest x-rays, lung function testing, effect of exposure termination, reversibility.
Schweizerische medizinische Wochenschrift - Journal suisse de médecine, 7 Feb. 1982, Vol.112, No.6, p.198-207. Illus. 40 ref.
Production, processing, handling and storage of titanium 1982
This standard, effective as an American National Standard from 29 Dec. 1981, updates and enlarges previous editions (CIS 75-21). It highlights the fire and explosion hazards associated with titanium and lays down recommendations for fire prevention, fire extinguishment and safe working practices. Individual sections are devoted to: properties and hazards of titanium; sponge production; melting; forming, heat treating, pickling and cleaning; machining and welding; scrap processing and storage; powder production and use.
National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02269, USA, 2 Dec. 1981. 40p. Illus. 23 ref. Price: US$.6.50.
The carcinogen NDELA in metal-cutting fluids and in antifreeze mixtures
Kankerverwekkende stof NDELA in metaalbewerkingsvloeistoffen en antivries [in Dutch]
N-Nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA), a carcinogen in animals, may originate from di- or triethanolamine and from nitrite, ingredients in many synthetic cutting fluids and certain antifreeze mixtures. Some cutting fluids contained 0.1-0.4% NDELA. The carcinogen may be inhaled with oil mist or be absorbed through the skin by machine tool operators.
De veiligheid, Apr. 1982, Vol.58, No.4, p.35-36. Illus. 4 ref.
Improved safty in lathe work
Sorvaamisen turvallisuuden parantaminen [in Finnish]
Report of a study of the hazards of work on metalworking lathes, based on occupational accident and disease statistics, lathework accident reports to insurance companies in 1979, and lathework accident reports by labour protection inspectors in 1973-1979. The safety of working practices was studied on 94 lathes; the safety devices and procedures employed are described. Safety measures for metalworking lathes are proposed and the probable costs and savings resulting from the purchase of the related safety equipment are calculated.
Työsuojeluhallitus, Tampere, Finland, 1982. 152p. Illus. 70 ref.
Practical ventilation guide - 2. Ventilation of surface treatment vats and tanks
Guide pratique de ventilation - 2: ventilation des cuves et bains de traitement de surface [in French]
This study is intended as a guide and reference document for the design and monitoring of installations for collecting or diluting the pollutants given off by surface treatment vats and tanks. Field of use: all chemical or electrolytic processes in which the parts to be treated are immersed in liquids (excluding solvent degreasing processes, processes using salt or molten-metal baths and organic coating processes in general). Sections are devoted to: general principles of ventilation; ventilation system design (determination of category and overall level of risk, choice of ventilation configuration, flowrate calculations, effluent treatment); installation inspection and monitoring. Appendices: classification of surface treatment processes and general design data for ventilation systems.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygične du travail, 1st quarter 1982, No.106, Note No.1361-106-82, p.1-21. Illus. 10 ref.
Il'nickaja A.V., Alekseeva I.S., Norkin Ju.I., Cirkova N.L., Šabolina T.A.
Hygienic assessment of working conditions in plasma machining of metals
Gigieničeskaja ocenka uslovij truda pri plazmenno-mehaničeskoj obrabotke metallov [in Russian]
Levels of airborne dust, nitrogen oxides, ozone, noise and light were measured near plasma-mechanical boring and turning machines. High levels of dust were generated (at rates up to 270.0g/h); 96% of the dust particles were >1.7µm in diameter. Sound levels were comparable to or higher than those produced by metal-cutting without plasma, and in some frequency bands exceeded permissible levels. Light output in the ultraviolet, visible and short-wave infrared spectral bands was high. The intensity and spectral composition of the light depended strongly on the particular operation being conducted, on the surface properties of the workpiece and on the tuning of the plasmotron. Most of the hazards presented by the metalworking technique could be prevented or reduced by providing the machinery with appropriate enclosures.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Sep. 1981, No.9, p.12-14. 3 ref.
Conde-Salazar L., Guimaraens D., Romero L.
Contact dermatitis due to benzisothiazolone in metal machinists
Dermatitis de contacto por benzisotiazolona en metalúrgicos maquinistas [in Spanish]
Report on 7 cases of sensitisation to benzisothiazolone used as a biocide in cutting oils. The lesions regressed and disappeared following termination of exposure. Although the recommended biocide content in the cutting oil is only 0.3%, additional benzisothiazolone was often added by workers themselves, and was seldom carefully measured. It is recommended that benzisothiazolone should be included in the battery of skin tests used for machine tool operators.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Oct.-Dec. 1981, Vol.29, No.116, p.169-172. Illus. 5 ref.
Ministry of Machine-tool and Processing Machinery Construction (Ministerium für Werkzeug- und Verarbeitungsmaschinenbau)
Heat treatment of metals [German Democratic Republic]
Wärmebehandlung von Metallen [in German]
Part 1 of this standard gives definitions of technical terminology. Part 2 lays down requirements for safe work (workplace design and layout, design of heat treatment plant). Part 3 lays down general work organisation requirements and plant operating requirements and specifies good working practices for different methods of heat treatment.
Staatsverlag der DDR, Bereich Standardversand, Postfach 1068, 7010 Leipzig, German Democratic Republic, Apr. 1981, 4+5+6p.
Occupational safety in foundries
Sigurnost na radu pri lijevanju metala [in Serbocroatian]
Sections of this training manual for foundry workers deal with: power-driven hand tools; safe operation of sand conditioning machinery; lifting and materials handling equipment; moulding and coremaking; melting and casting; cleaning of castings; dust control and exhaust ventilation. A set of test questions is appended.
Zavod za nakladničku djelatnost iz sigurnosti na radu, Kroflinova 34, 41000 Zagreb, Yugoslavia, 1981. 40p. Illus.
Determination of mineral oils in the workplace atmosphere by means of infrared spectrometry
Stanovení minerálních olejů v dílenském ovzduší metodou infračervené spektometrie [in Czech]
Description of a method of determining mineral oils in which a 400l sample of air is collected on filter paper and the extract obtained is measured, following addition of 10ml CCl4, by infrared spectrometry at 2,934cm-1. Sensitivity is 0.25mg/m3. The method is more reliable than fluorimetry or ultraviolet spectrometry.
Pracovní lékařství, Sep. 1981, Vol.33, No.8, p.275-277. Illus. 4 ref.
Fruchard P., Vigneron J.
De Quervain's radial styloid tenosynovitis in an occupational environment
Les ténosynovites stylo-radiales de J.F. de Quervain en milieu de travail [in French]
Review of the clinical features of the disease and description of 11 cases seen in a plant manufacturing spare parts for the automobile industry. Clinical findings, additional examinations (heamatological, radiological, histological), differential diagnosis, treatment, aetiopathology, legislation: recognition as a compensable occupational disease in certain countries of the Common Market. In France, any case of de Quervain's disease linked to occupational should be declared as a disease of occupational origin so that it can, in future, be classified as an occupational disease.
Revue de médecine du travail, 1981, Vol.9, No.3, p.179-187. 13 réf.
Routhier J.L., Guilland B., Chomat D., Thony C., Mamelle N.
Investigation of chronic health damage due to trichloroethylene in the auto-turning industry
Enquęte sur la pathologie chronique due au trichloréthylčne dans l'industrie du décolletage [in French]
Survey (medical examination and questionnaire) of 188 workers in auto-screw-machining shops exposed to different concentrations of trichloroethylene (TCE) by inhalation and percutaneous absorption. The exposed workers, engaged in washing and/or drying metal pieces, were affected by sleep disturbances, headache, chronic cough and asthenia. Workers exposed to concentrations >150ppm showed marked fatigue, signs of drunkeness, vertigo and TCE intolerance. These neurological disturbances could serve as indicators of TCE poisoning.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1982, Vol.43, No.3, p.169-177. 18 ref.
Ivannikova T.F., Fialkovskaja T.A.
Occupational safety and health for painters in mechanical engineering
Bezopasnost' truda pri nanesenii lakokrasočnyh pokrytij v mašinostroenii [in Russian]
Sections cover: Harmful agents and hazards encountered in modern painting processes (toxic substances and solvent vapours); safe handling of paints and varnishes; characteristics of painting equipment and corresponding safety and health measures during its use (pneumatic paint spraying, airless spraying, electrostatic spraying, flow-coat application, electro deposition of paints, polymer powder coating); ventilation systems (general requirements, design of local exhaust hoods and exhaust ventilation systems); personal protective equipment (protective clothing, barrier creams, skin cleansers, gloves, respirators, eye protectors, personal hygiene); first aid; environmental protection.
Izdatel'stvo "Mašinostroenie", Stromynskij per. 4, 107076 Moskva B-76, USSR, 1981. 113p. Illus. 59 ref. Price: Rbl.0.40.
Hadjimichael O.C., Brubaker R.E.
Evaluation of an occupational respiratory exposure to a zirconium-containing dust
Comparison between 32 workers exposed to dust containing zirconium and a group of matched controls. No significant difference in respiratory symptoms was found between the exposed workers and the control group, and chest x-ray findings did not disclose any higher incidence of pneumoconiosis in the exposed workers. Expiratory lung function tests showed slightly lower values in the exposed workers, but these differences were not significant. The number of exposed workers was small, the zirconium levels were low, and time of exposure was relatively short. Systematic epidemiological studies and animal experiments are needed to demonstrate unequivocally if zirconium is harmful or not.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1981, Vol.23, No.8, p.543-547. 20 ref.
Guidelines for safety in heat treatment - Part 1. Use of molten salt baths
This guideline, intended to provide practical information to protect the health and safety of personnel using equipment, processes and material for the heat-treatment of metals, contains detailed sections on: requirements for the storage and handling of salts; hazards from materials used in salt bath heat-treatment; hazards in the use of salt baths; equipment and process safety requirements; operating procedures; regeneration; maintenance and inspection; cleaning of work; disposal of wastes; fire fighting.
Wolfson Heat Treatment Centre, University of Aston, Gosta Green, Birmingham B4 7ET, United Kingdom, 1981. 24p. Illus. 29 ref. Price: Ł13.00.
Altarocca P., Casciani G., Verdel U.
Quartz content of artificial abrasives
Distribuzione del quarzo negli abrasivi artificiali [in Italian]
Report of a study of the free silica content and concentration distribution in 2600 samples of artificial abrasive wheels, sheets, belts, discs and pastes used primarily in the metalworking industry over a 20-year period. The abrasives were mainly corundum (Al2O3) and carborundum (SiC). 50% of abrasive wheels had a free silica content of 0-0.22%, and only 5% contained more than 1.25%. For abrasive sheets, belts and discs, 50% contained <0.02% quartz and only 5% more than 0.65% quartz. The composition of the abrasive pastes varied considerably as did also the quartz content. In one group of pastes, which accounted for 17% of the paste samples, the quartz content ranged from 36.5 to 60.7%. Natural abrasives have now been almost entirely replaced by artificial abrasives in all abrasive tools except in the case of abrasive pastes.
Rivista degli infortuni e delle malattie professionali, July-Aug. 1981, Vol.48, No.4, p.453-458. Illus. 4 ref.
Practical experience on the use of substitutes for asbestos
Praktische Erfahrungen bei der Einführung von Ersatzstoffen für Asbest [in German]
Consideration of organisational questions (prohibition of asbestos, inventory of asbestos products used, discussions between users and commercial suppliers, necessary characteristics of substitute materials), problems of substitution and various practical examples (technical applications, personal protection) encountered in a large manufacturing and boilermaking works.Specifications given by the suppliers have been checked in the laboratory. Dust measurements made during thermal insulation and caulking operations show that the threshold limit values for asbestos are seldom reached.
Sicher ist Sicher, July-Aug. 1981, Vol.32, No.7-8, p.364-375. Illus.
Occupational eczema due to cutting oils
Les eczémas professionnels dus aux huiles de coupe [in French]
This medical thesis covers: general data on cutting oils (role, composition, exposure conditions); contact dermatitis (irritant dermatitis, allergic dermatitis, allergy testing, histology of patch testing); allergens in oils; clinical and allergological tests in mechanical engineering works, including the allergological tests which showed the role of triethanolamine (4 positive tests) and formaldehyde (2 positive tests); management of eczema due to cutting oils; prevention.
Université de Paris VII, Faculté de Saint-Louis-Lariboisičre, Paris, France, 1981. 84p. 77 ref.
Federation of Industrial Mutual Accident Insurance Associations (Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften)
Safety rules for bending work on power bending presses (press brakes) in the metalworking industry
Sicherheitsregeln für Biegearbeiten auf kraftbetriebenen Gesenkbiegepressen (Abkantpressen) der Metallbearbeitung [in German]
These safety rules supplement or amend the hand-protection measures laid down in safety rules for presses. Sections cover: definition of technical terms: review of available safety measures (danger of injury by moving tool or workpiece, special hazards on machines attended by more than one worker); technical specifications for safety devices (light barriers, two-hand controls, combined controls, limitation of ram stroke, remote control systems); specifications for press brakes (adjustable blank holders, guarding of side and rear access to tool, safety rules on press controls). Appendix: diagrams of safety devices.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Gereonstrasse 18-32, 5000 Köln 1, Federal Republic of Germany, Apr. 1981. 15p. Illus. Price: DM.1.00.
Federation of Industrial Mutual Accident Insurance Associations (Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften)
Production and processing of aluminium powder
Herstellen und Bearbeiten von Aluminiumpulver [in German]
These safety regulations apply to the production of aluminium flake (maximum size 2mm) and its subsequent processing (separation, screening, polishing, degreasing, storage and transportation). Following definitions, the regulations cover: production shop and storage depot design and layout; processing (fire protection, waste incineration, restrictions on use, instructions) and inspection and testing. A supplement contains: instructions for the implementation of these regulations and a commentary. French translation may be obtained from INRS, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Gereonstrasse 18-32, 5000 Köln 1, Federal Republic of Germany, 1 Oct. 1981. 12 + 8p.
Weck M., Melder W., Brey W., Klöcker M.
Noise reduction on metalcutting machine tools
Lärmminderung an spanenden Werkzeugmaschinen [in German]
A review of basic data on noise emission from machine tools (determining factors, noise measurement standard, current status of technology, noise emission under various operating conditions, effects of production processes and environment) and noise-reduction measures (causes of noise, principles of noise reduction, noise reduction methods) is followed by a catalogue, illustrated by diagrams, of specific noise reduction measures applicable to certain machine parts or units.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Unfallforschung, Postfach 170202, 4600 Dortmund 17, Federal Republic of Germany, 1981. 107p. 11 ref.
Weck M., Melder W., Brey W., Klöcker M., Wiedeking W.
Noise generated by metalcutting machine tools
Geräuschemission spanender Werkzeugmaschinen [in German]
Report on the results of compound-noise studies on gear hobbing machines, circular saws, grinding machines and drilling machines (a total of 116 machines). Sections deal with: description of the principles of noise analysis to DIN 45635; technical data and operating conditions of the machines in relation to the noise levels they produce; determination of representative values and noise threshold limit values. In view of the large number of machine types and the wide range of machine performance, it is not justifiable to lay down an overall noise limit value. Technical specifications must be known if achievable noise limits are to be laid down. Sound power produced by machines depends, in particular, on machine performance and not on machine type.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Unfallforschung, Postfach 170202, 4600 Dortmund 17, Federal Republic of Germany, 1981. 112p. Illus. 13 ref. Price: DM.19.50.
Report on cutting oils by the General Labour Confederation (Sweden)
LOs rapport on skäroljor [in Swedish]
Report of a survey of the occupational health hazards of cutting fluids: historical review; machining; type of cutting fluids (cutting oils, emulsions, additives, solvent-based fluids, assessment of information supplied with products); impurities in fluids, and degradation during use; health hazards (skin effects - oil acne, boils, abscesses, eczema, irritation, skin cancer; other effects; combined effects - nitrosamination, heavy-metal saponification); new products (soapy water, vegetable oils); ongoing and recently completed research; action programme (development of new harmless products, better product information, standard test methods, techniques for eliminating harmful substances that form in fluids, new machining techniques, toxicological research).
Landsorganisationen, Stockholm, Sweden, no date. 51p.
USSR State Standards Committee (Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po standartam)
Foundry work - Safety rules
Raboty litejnye - Trebovanija bezopasnosti [in Russian]
This standard (effective 1 July 1982) applies to the production of ferrous and non-ferrous metal castings. Sections cover: general requirements (cross-reference to standards on harmful agents and factors, noise and vibration, threshold limit values, etc.; requirements to be met by workplaces); preparation of furnace charges and moulding sand; preparation of mould and core mixtures; pattern making; preparing moulds for casting; melting metals in cupola, reverberating and electric furnaces; casting; knocking-out and fettling; special jobs (pressure diecasting, centrifugal casting, etc.); storage of raw materials; worker selection; job knowledge; personal protection; labour inspection.
Izdatel'stvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per.3, 123557 Moskva, USSR, 21 May 1981. 17p. Price: Rbl.0.05.
Pester G., Grube M.R.
Possibilities of vocational rehabilitation in mechanical engineering
Über Einsatzmöglichkeiten von Rehabilitanden in der metallverarbeitenden Industrie [in German]
A concise summary of auxiliary technical facilities for the employment of physically and visually handicapped workers. Examples are given of metalworking shops (lathes and production methods specially adapted for handicapped workers, use of power chucks). The incidence of accidents among handicapped workers in such workshops is lower than the general average.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, 1981, Vol.27, No.2, p.141-144. Illus. 6 ref.
Mineral oils: Studies on health effects in the engineering industry
The findings of 4 studies are presented. The cancer morbidity and mortality was studied for 792 men exposed to mineral oil mist in an engineering company for ≥5 years. 43 cases of cancer were found compared to 53 expected. Lung cancer incidence was below expected levels. Amongst turners and grinders there was evidence of increased scrotal and stomach cancer, respectively. Mortality from all causes was lower than expected. The ventilatory function was not impaired among 164 men exposed to mineral oil mist for ≥3 years. No impairment attributable to mineral oil mist was found in 25 non-smoking exposed men. The 164 exposed men had more respiratory symptoms than the 159 controls and the difference was largest for non-smokers. The cancer incidence among women in a packaging department using an anti-rust oil containing N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine was increased, probably due to the additive, and sodium nitrite corrosion inhibitor in the packaging paper.
Departments of Occupational Medicine, Sahlgrenska Sjukhuset, University of Göteborg, 413 45 Göteborg, Sweden, 1981. 31p. 118 ref.
Ministry of Labour (Ministčre du Travail)
Decree No.81-938 of 13 Oct. 1981 to prescribe safety and health requirements for cold metalworking power presses and plate shears, and guards for these machines
Décret n°81-938 du 13 oct. 1981 définissant les conditions d'hygične et de sécurité auxquelles doivent satisfaire les presses et les cisailles-guillotines pour le travail des métaux ŕ froid, ainsi que les dispositifs protecteurs construits pour ces machines [in French]
Aspects covered by this Decree (effective 1 July 1982): prevention of contact with machine parts (fixed or moving guards, electronic guards, two-hand controls); provisions concerning controls; supplementary provisions for certain machines (friction-clutch-operated machines, press brakes, screw presses, tables of plate shears, machines on which toolsetting, adjustment or maintenance work is carried out >3m above floor level). Miscellaneous provisions: marking (machine and guards), rules for operation.
Journal officiel de la République française, 18 Oct. 1981, No.245, p.2840-2842.
USSR State Standards Committee (Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po standartam)
Hammer and drop forging - Safety rules
Raboty kuznečno-pressovye - Trebovanija bezopasnosti [in Russian]
This standard (effective: 1 July 1982) lays down requirements for workshop design and layout, equipment design (built-in safety, safety devices) and safe working (cold drop forging, heating blanks, hammer forging, hot drop forging, bending, shearing, tool handling). It also deals with ventilation and lighting of premises, machine installation, layout of workplaces, storage and handling of dies, blanks and finished parts, physical fitness and training of workers, use of protective clothing and personal protective equipment.
Izdatel'stvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per.3, 123557 Moskva, USSR, 25 Mar. 1981. 13p. Price: Rbl.0.05.
Koponen M., Gustafsson T., Kalliomäki P.L., Kalliomäki K., Moilanen M.
Grinding dusts of alloyed steel and hard metal
Total elemental composition, water solubility, acid solubility and physical and magnetic characteristics of alloyed steel and cemented carbide grinding dusts were determined and measurements of magnetic lung concentration and urinary chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) were made in 21 stainless steel grinders. A concentration of 7-18% total Cr was found in high-alloy steel grinding dust. Total Ni concentration varied between 1.5 and 6% in different types of grinding dust. Total Ni concentration varied between 1.5 and 6% in different types of grinding dust. Dust particles had the same metallic structure as the ground stainless steel piece. Concentrations of up to 20 and 25% tungsten and cobalt (Co), respectively, were found in cemented-carbide grinding dusts, representing an enrichment of Co in dust compared with the base material. All the grinding dusts examined showed magnetic moments sufficiently high for the in-vivo measurement of lung retained dust. The average lung retention of metallic particles in stainless steel grinders was 200mg. Urinary Cr and Ni values were below the detection limit.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1981, Vol.24, No.2, p.191-204. Illus. 16 ref.
Cavén T., Saari J.
Videotape-based interviews in safety analysis
A method incorporating videotapes of normal work situations and a questionnaire to act as a stimulus for analysis, was evaluated as a means of safety analysis of the work sites by different groups. Videotapes of work at plate clipping machines, welding machines and lathes in 2 metalworking plants were shown to line workers, labour safety professionals and students. The results of their responses to the questionnaire-stimulated safety analysis were compared with accident statistics and results of other safety analyses. The videotape-interview technique reflected real accident development quite closely, and those with formal safety training were best able to assess hazards.
Report 13. Tampere University of Technology, Report 13. Tampere, Finland, 1981. 14p. Illus. 14 ref.
Antimicrobial agents for water-based metalworking fluids
After a review of the microbial problem (anaerobic sulphate-reducing and aerobic bacteria, fungi), in metalworking fluids, the toxicity of biocides (especially alkylamine-formaldehyde condensate biocides), added to control the microbial populations in the fluids, is discussed together with the selection and the use of biocides. Biocides are by definition poisons, the concentrated biocides tend to be highly alkaline and corrosive. But there is continuous exposure to the liquid and aerosol state only after dilution in the metalworking fluid. Approved biocides and their toxicological profiles are listed. Alternative methods for microbial control (heating, radiation) have shortcomings. Although there is no evidence suggesting that exposure to the microorganisms in the metalworking fluid is a hazard, continual exposure should be prevented.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1981, Vol.23, No.4, p.247-254. 31 ref.
Hazards of machining with reciprocating tools, and safe working methods
Opasnosti i zaštita pri obradi metala rendisanjem [in Serbocroatian]
Booklet illustrated with humorous drawings, intended for those operating reciprocating machine tools, especially shaping machines. Contents: types of shaping tools and machines; tool-fixing; hazards of swarf, chip-breakers, screens and swarf removal; hazards of ram in movement; fixed guards on shaping machines and planing machines; correct fixing of workpiece on the bench; safe work with broaching machines and band saws; housekeeping; preventive maintenance.
Institut za dokumentaciju zaštite na radu, Višegradska bb, Niš, Yugoslavia, 1981. 56p. Illus.
Medical problems in the use of cutting fluids
Smörj- och kylmedel vid metallbearbetning - Lägesrapport kring arbetsmiljöproblem [in Swedish]
Sections devoted to: function of fluids used in cutting, drawing, rolling and press-forming of metals; composition (mineral oils, additives - antioxidants, bactericides, EP additives, corrosion inhibitors, emulsifiers) and types of fluids (non-water-miscible oils, emulsions, aqueous solutions); medical problems (animal research, skin absorption and inhalation; dermatitis - eczema and allergic eczema, oil acne, skin cancer; respiratory disease - lung cancer due to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, respiratory function disorders); industrial hygiene (local exhaust ventilation, personal protective equipment, personal hygiene); determination in air; choice of suitable fluids.
Arbetarskyddssfonden, Box 1122, 1181 Stockholm, Sweden, Feb. 1981. 50p. Illus. 45 ref.
Press noise - Reduction at source
Le bruit des presses - Réduction ŕ la source [in French]
Conventional methods of machine noise reduction (enclosures, baffles, cabins for operators) have proved inadequate or too expensive. A more effective but little explored method is to control noise at source. Ways of dealing with noise sources in presses: press components (clutch, ram, frame, ejection device, pressure system, brake, foundations); tooling (blanking, stamping and bending dies; strip or blank holders, feed control, separation of workpiece from strip); materials; peripheral equipment (feed, ejection, and waste cutting equipement).
Agence nationale pour l'amélioration des conditions de travail, 16-20 rue Barbčs, 92120 Montrouge, France, Apr. 1981. Illus. 173p.
Järvholm B., Lillienberg L., Sällsten G., Thiringer G., Axelson O.
Cancer morbidity among men exposed to oil mist in the metal industry.
788 men with at least 5 years' exposure were studied. Average exposure was estimated at 5mg/m3 up to 1965. There were 4 cases of cancer of the scrotum among the turners but none among the grinders; otherwise there were 39 cases of cancer compared to 52.9 expected. Lung cancer cases were less than expected. A non-significant increase in stomach cancer was found among the grinders.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, May 1981, Vol.23, No.5, p.333-337. 21 ref.
Kennedy A., Dornan J.D., King R.
Fatal myocardial disease associated with industrial exposure to cobalt.
A case report of a man who went into cardiac shock during an operation for duodenal ulcer is presented. At necropsy he had changes resembling those seen in cobalt cardiomyopathy and his myocardial Co level was grossly abnormal. His work had involved handling powdered Co in the manufacture of hard-metal cutting bits.
Lancet, 21 Feb. 1981, Vol.I, No.8217, p.412-414. Illus. 10 ref.
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