Foundries, metalcasting and forging operations - 469 entries found
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Rosner D., Markowitz G.
Deadly dust. Silicosis and the politics of occupational disease in twentieth-century America
The history of silicosis in America from its recognition in the early years of the 20th century is reviewed. The increasing severity of the sand dust problem in foundries as a result of changes in work methods, technology and organization is described along with the impact on workers' health. The broader social conditions that contributed to the emergence of silicosis as a national crisis and attempts by government, industry and insurance to resolve it are discussed. Finally, the waning interest in this condition on the part of business, health professionals and the labour unions is reviewed.
Princeton University Press, 41 William Street, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA, 1991. xiii, 229p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: USD 15.95, GBP 13.95.
Sherson D., Svane O., Lynge E.
Cancer incidence among foundry workers in Denmark
Cancer incidence was studied among 6,144 male foundry workers who participated in either of two Danish national silicosis surveys conducted during 1967-1969 and 1972-1974. Cancer incidence was followed through to the end of 1985 by computerized linkage to the Danish Cancer Registry, and standardized morbidity ratios (SMRs) were calculated based on incidence rates for the Danish population. For the entire cohort, significantly elevated SMRs were seen for all cancers (SMR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.01-1.18) and lung cancer (SMR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.12-1.51) and SMRs were at the borderline of statistical significance for bladder cancer (SMR, 1.24; 95% CI, 0.97-1.59). Excess lung and bladder cancer risk was confined to workers who had worked in foundries for at least 20yrs. There was a positive correlation between silicosis prevalence in employees at the foundries at the time of the X-ray examinations and lung cancer incidence during the follow-up period. Squamous cell carcinomas, anaplastic carcinomas, and other lung cancers accounted for the excess lung cancer risk, whereas there was not an excess risk among the foundry workers for adenocarcinomas of the lung.
Archives of Environmental Health, Mar.-Apr. 1991, Vol.46, No.2, p.75-81. 34 ref.
Lundh T., Ståhlbom B., Åkesson B.
Dimethylamine in mould core manufacturing: Exposure, metabolism and biological monitoring
Exposure to dimethylethylamine (DMEA) and metabolism of the substance were studied in 12 mould core makers in four foundries that use the Ashland cold box technique. The mean time weighted average (TWA) full work shift DMEA exposure concentration was 3.7mg/m3. Inhaled DMEA was excreted into urine as the original amine and as its metabolite dimethylethylamine-N-oxide (DMEAO). This metabolite made up a median of 87 (range 18-93)% of the sum of DMEA and DMEAO concentrations excreted into the urine. Occupational exposure did not significantly increase the urinary excretion of dimethylamine or methylethylamine. The data indicate half lives after the end of exposure for DMEA in urine of 1.5h and DMEAO of 3h. Postshift summed concentration of DMEA and DMEAO in plasma and urine is a good indicator of the TWA concentration in air during the workday, and might thus be used for biological monitoring. An air concentration of 10mg/m3 corresponds to a urinary excretion of the summed amount of DMEA and DMEAO of 135 mmol/mol creatinine.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 2791, Vol.48, No.3, p.203-207. 27 ref. Illus.
Wennberg A., Iregren A., Struwe G., Cizinsky G., Hagman M., Johansson L.
Manganese exposure in steel smelters - A health hazard for the nervous system
Study of the effects of low-level exposure to manganese (0.19-1.39mg/m3 for 1-45 years) on 30 men (aged 20-64 years) from two steel smelting works and 60 unexposed referents (aged 22-65 years). The investigation covered: a general health inquiry, electroencephalography (EEG), brain-stem and cerebral auditory evoked potentials, diadochokinesometry, simple and complex reaction time, finger tapping, digit span, mental arithmetic, vocabulary, a coding task, manual dexterity, diagnostic interview scheme, dynamic rating scale for neurasthenic syndrome, and a comprehensive psychopathological rating scale. No group differences were found concerning health, the EEG or the psychiatric examinations. However, the diadochokinesis was slower, the P-300 latency and reaction time were increased, and finger-tapping and digit-span performance were impaired in the exposed group. The effects are interpreted as early (subclinical) signs of disturbances of the same type as parkinsonism. (A longer version of this article was published as a Swedish-language monograph in 1990, see CIS 91-949).
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 1991, Vol.17, No.4, p.255-262. Illus. 22 ref.
Crippa M., Apostoli P., Quarta C., Alessio L.
Risk of metal exposure in production and processing of copper alloys
Rischio espositivo a metalli nella produzione e lavorazione di cuproleghe [in Italian]
Preliminary investigation of exposure to metals was conducted in three copper alloy industries (one foundry for scrap and two other foundries). Biological and environmental monitoring showed that lead (Pb) exposure levels were distinctly higher than those of all other metals in the three industries. The risk of "microdose" exposures to the other metals, i.e. exposure to doses well below exposure limits, merits further research, however. The metals investigated were: Cu, Zn, Be, Sb, Mn, Ni and Cr.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1991, Vol.82, No.3, p.261-269. 21 ref.
Buser S., Nicole C., Droz P.O.
Exposure to tertiary amines in iron foundries
Exposition aux amines tertiaires dans les fonderies [in French]
Tertiary amines, mainly N,N-dimethylethylamine (DMEA), are widely used in iron foundries for the manufacture of cores by the cold box or Ashland process. DMEA is known for its irritating effects and its effect on vision. Exposure standards in Switzerland, Germany and the USA do not seem to offer sufficient protection for workers. Instead of the present 25ppm limit, based on an 8-h average, 5ppm would be more justified after a review of the available toxicological information. The objective of the present study was to characterise the present situation regarding DMEA in some foundries, and to investigate if a 5ppm average concentration was technically feasible. Personal exposures to DMEA by 24 operators working on 15 machines in 3 foundries were measured. Based on the available toxicological information for DMEA and on the exposure levels found in the present study, the following recommendations can be made: decrease the TWA limit from 25 to 5ppm; establish a STEL limit of 25ppm for a 30 minutes period; use ventilation hoods with at least 0.5m/s face velocity. Finally, special care should be given to the maintenance of the core making machines and the moulds to avoid excessive and uncontrollable leaks.
Travail et santé, Winter 1991, Vol.7, No.4, p.S.33-S.37. Illus. 14 ref.
Practical guide to safety and health - Aluminium smelting plants - Analysis and prevention of hazards connected with casting machines - Vertical semi-continuous casting
Guide pratique de prévention dans les fonderies d'aluminium - Analyse et prévention des risques liés aux machines de coulée - Coulée semi-continue verticale [in French]
This guide lists the operations performed by different kinds of equipment that are involved in the casting of aluminium using a vertical semi-continuous casting machine. Equipment malfunction or failure can be a source of hazards during these different operations. For each operation and equipment unit, the hazards and appropriate preventive methods are outlined.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd Quarter 1991, No.144, Note No.1836-144-91, p.353-369. Illus. 23 ref.
Pfeiffer W., Willert G.
Technical measures to reduce dust exposure in the fettling workshops of foundries
Putzereien in der Giessereiindustrie - Technische Massnahmen zur Staubminderung [in German]
Manufacturing techniques and spatial conditions must be taken into account when developing technical measures to reduce dust exposure during fettling operations in foundries. Since there are numerous ways of implementing such technical measures, it is difficult to define generally applicable rules. Experience with already implemented measures and with advisory participation in the planning of technical measures to be realised at different workplaces may be helpful for designing new dust-reducing installations or modifying existing ones. This report deals with a number of examples of such experience. In accordance with the hierarchy of protective measures specified in the Ordinance on hazardous substances (CIS 89-1079), generally observable rules are referred to. In the second part of the report, concrete examples of installations and technical equipment are used to describe dust-reducing measures and to assess their efficiency. Summaries in German, English, French and Spanish.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften (HVBG), Alte Heerstrasse 111, Postfach 20 52, D-W-5205 Sankt Augustin 2, Germany, Sep. 1991. 75p. Illus. 46 ref.
Noise in foundries: The selection of new machines and equipment
Training booklet suggesting purchasing criteria to be used by enterprises buying low-noise equipment for foundries. Contents: action to reduce noise from foundry equipment; legal requirements; a checklist of noise information; performance specifications. In annex: a specimen report.
Health and Safety Executive Enquiry Point, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, 1991. 7p. + insert. Illus. 6 ref.
Practical guide to safety and health - Aluminium smelting plants - General analysis of risks
Guide pratique de prévention dans les fonderies d'aluminium - Analyse générale des risques [in French]
This information note, first of a series on aluminium foundries, provides general instroduction to the hazards present in these workplaces. Some case studies of explosions of aluminium powder are also presented.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd Quarter 1991, No.143, Note No.1825-143-91, p.203-209. Illus. 21 ref.
Health and Safety Commission
COSHH - Its application in the foundry
Contents of this guidance note: definition of a substance hazardous to health and types of substance found in the foundry environment; requirements of the COSHH Regulations (see CIS 89-1092), and carrying out the risk assessment programme; prevention and control of exposure (enclosure and ventilation systems, respiratory protective equipment); correct use of control measures; maintenance, examination and test of control measures; monitoring exposure; health surveillance; information, instruction and training. An appendix covers requirements for dust control during fettling and control of amine gas during core making.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1991. 18p. 25 ref. Price: GBP 4.00.
Andjelkovich D.A., Mathew R.M., Richardson R.B., Levine R.J.
Mortality of iron foundry workers: I. Overall findings
Report on a retrospective cohort mortality study of 8,147 men and 627 women employed in a Michigan (US) iron foundry for at least six months during 1950-1979. During the 35-year observation period, more than 1,700 deaths occurred among the workers observed. Significantly high Standardised Mortality Ratios (SMRs) occurred among non-white workers for lung cancer (SMR 132) and ischaemic heart disease (SMR 126). These high SMRs, as well as other, non-significant, increases in morality (for other diseases in non-whites, for all such increases in whites) may be attributed to smoking habits. A lack of a trend with length of employment suggests that lung cancer mortality may not be associated with exposure to the foundry environment. For Part II of this study, see CIS 93-160.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, June 1990, Vol.32, No.6, p.529-540. Illus. 68 ref.
Marraccini P., Giorgi I., Valoti E., Bressan M., Fantinato D., Tettamanti F., Vittadini G.
Evaluation of neuropsychological factors in a group of workers occupationally exposed to radiofrequencies
Valutazione di alcuni parametri neuropsicologici in un gruppo di lavoratori metalmeccanici professionalmente esposti a radiofrequenze [in Italian]
The effects on behaviour of exposure to radiofrequency radiation (magnetic field-strength range: 0.08-2.00A/m) were studied in a group of foundry workers following prolonged exposure to radiofrequencies. The results of behavioural tests revealed significant differences between the exposed and control groups as regards neuropsychological performance. Anxiety and depression tests, however, indicated no pathological alterations, in contrast to previous observations.
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 1990, Vol.81, No.5, p.414-421. Illus. 12 ref.
Sherson D., Sabro P., Sigsgaard T., Johansen F., Autrup H.
Biological monitoring of foundry workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
This investigation describes benzo(a)pyrene (BP) serum protein adduct concentrations in 45 foundry workers and 45 matched non-occupationally exposed controls. High and low BP exposure groups were defined using breathing zone hygienic samples for both quartz and BP exposures. A newly developed enzyme linked immunosorbent assay detected benzo(a)pyrenediolepoxide-I binding to serum protein. Mean BP protein adduct concentrations (SD) for non-smoking and smoking foundry workers were significantly higher than mean values for non-smoking and smoking controls. Foundry workers with high exposures to either quartz or BP had slightly raised mean adduct concentrations compared with foundry workers with low exposure for quartz or BP. Highest mean adduct concentrations were found among a small group of workers with simultaneous high exposures to both quartz and BP suggesting an additive effect. These data support the presence of a possible aetiological connection between an increased risk of lung cancer and BP exposure among foundry workers, and of an additive effect between BP and quartz. Measurement of BP serum protein adduct concentrations appears to be a useful method by which groups exposed to BP may be biologically monitored.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 1990, Vol.47, No.7, p.448-453. Illus. 37 ref.
Lafontaine M., Attenont H., Hubert G., Taiclet A., Truy S.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon fumes in foundries
Emission d'hydrocarbures polycycliques en fonderie [in French]
The purpose of this survey was to determine current levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution in steel-casting and iron foundries. Contents: description of the sources of PAH emissions of foundry processes, sand binders. The relative influence of different parameters, particularly by that of new bonding processes, is also covered.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th Quarter 1990, No.141, Note No.1802-141-90, p.799-807. Illus. 16 ref.
Brandt-Rauf P.W., Smith S., Perera F.P., Niman H.L., Yohannan W., Hemminki K., Santella R.M.
Serum oncogene proteins in foundry workers
Oncogene activation can be detected by immunoblotting for oncogene proteins in serum. This technique has been applied to screen a cohort of foundry workers with well-defined workplace exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon carcinogens. Three of the 18 individuals screened were found to have abnormal expression of the proteins of the ras and fes oncogenes. These three individuals were known to have had medium to high workplace exposures to benzo(a)pyrene and to have correspondingly high levels of benzo(a)pyrene DNA adducts in their peripheral leukocytes. These results suggest the feasibility of using serum oncogene proteins along with DNA-carcinogen adducts as potential molecular epidemiological markers in exposed worker populations.
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Spring 1990, Vol.40, No.1, p.11-14. 22 ref.
Horns H., Wettschureck R.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Catalogue of noise-reducing measures in the manufacturing industries - Metalworking industry
Katalog lärmmindernder Massnahmen in der Fertigung - Metallverarbeitung [in German]
More than 150 examples of noise control in the metal-working industries as well as in foundries, steelworks and the aluminium industry are described. Included are, for example, the noise control measures applied to machines such as rolling mills, rolling machines for metal forming, presses, shears, metalcutting saws, grinding machines, hydraulic pumps, conveyors, hammers and drills.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Verlag für neue Wissenschaft GmbH., Postfach 10 11 10, Am Alten Hafen 113-115, 2850 Bremerhaven 1, Germany, 1989. 391p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: DEM 40.50.
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe Australia)
Foundry health hazards
Safety and health guide to work in ferrous and non-ferrous foundries. Contents: identification of work elements (moulding and pattern making, coremaking, melting and pouring, shakeout or knockout, dressing and cleaning); health hazards (exposure to silica dust, carbon monoxide, metal fumes, various skin irritants and potential carcinogens; noise and vibration; heat; physical injuries); prevention and control measures (evaluation; monitoring; exposure standards; control measures; prevention of physical injuries; minimising exposure to dusts, gases and vapours; minimising the risk of heat illness; noise reduction; personal protective equipment; health assessment; education and training); first aid.
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, Dec. 1989. 22p. Illus. 15 ref.
Dreyfors J.M., Jones S.B., Sayed Y.
Hexamethylenetetramine: A review
This review covers the available literature on hexamethylenetetramine (hexamine) with emphasis on its toxicology and epidemiology, its thermal decomposition and regulatory concerns related to its uses. Hexamine has many diverse industrial applications, particularly in the foundry, tyre and rubber, and phenoformaldehyde resins industries. Excessive exposure to solid hexamine or its vapour has been reported to cause dermatitis and respiratory allergies. Pure hexamine has been used as a food preservative and as an internal antiseptic in humans and animals. A WHO study in 1972 listed a temporary acceptance level of 5mg/kg body weight as an acceptable daily intake for man. Most animal studies have shown hexamine to be of very low genetic risk. Many thermal decomposition studies were initiated because of concern over the potential emission of toxic substances when hexamine was subjected to very high temperatures. Studies show that hexamine decomposition can be characterised by an increase in HCN and a decrease in NH3 emissions with increasing temperature, with release of HCN beginning at about 300°C. It is known that hexamine can decompose to form formaldehyde under acidic conditions.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1989, Vol.50, No.11, p.579-585. 51 ref.
Carstensen J.M., Pershagen G., Eklund G.
Time trends in occupational risks of lung cancer among Swedish men from 1961-1979
Using data from the Swedish Cancer-Environment Register, time trends in the standardised incidence ratio (SIR) for lung cancer 1961-1979 were studied in different occupations. After adjustments for differences in the SIR with respect to year of birth, only the decreasing trends for blacksmiths and members of the armed forces as well as increasing trends for foundry workers and construction machine operators were significant (p < 0.05). For bakers and pastry cooks, there was a significant interaction between year of birth and observation period in relation to SIR. Data on smoking habits, obtained from a sample of the population, did not seem to explain the trends.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1989, Vol.15, No.4, p.441-448. Illus. 25 ref.
Zindler G., Staufenbiel R.
Mandatory pollutant monitoring in casting areas in foundries - carbon monoxide as indicator
Überwachungspflicht der Schadstoffsituation an Giessplätzen in Eisengiessereien - Kohlenmonoxid als Leitkomponente [in German]
The carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations at pouring stations in 10 foundries were measured by 4 different methods. In addition, the benzene concentrations in the breathing zone of workers were determined by personal sampling and capillary gas chromatography. It is concluded that CO can be used as an indicator for mandatory monitoring of exposure to carcinogenic substances such as benzene.
Giesserei, Oct. 1989, Vol.76, No.21, p.726-727. Illus.
Ratcliffe J.M., Schrader S.M., Clapp D.E., Halperin W.E., Turner T.W., Hornung R.W.
Semen quality in workers exposed to 2-ethoxyethanol
To evaluate whether long term exposure to 2-ethoxyethanol (2EE) may affect semen quality, a cross sectional study was conducted among men exposed to 2EE used as a binder slurry in a metal castings process. Because of the potential for substantial absorption of 2EE through skin exposure, urine measurements of the metabolite of 2EE, 2-ethoxyacetic acid (2EAA) were conducted showing levels of 2EAA ranging from non-detectable to 163mg 2EAA/g creatinine. The average sperm count per ejaculate among the workers exposed to 2EE was significantly lower than that of the unexposed group after consideration of abstinence, sample age, subjects' age, tobacco, alcohol and caffeine use, urogenital disorders, fever, and other illnesses. The mean sperm concentrations of the exposed and unexposed groups did not significantly differ from each other. No effect of exposure to 2EE on semen volume, sperm viability, motility, velocity, and normal morphology or testicular volume was detected, although some differences in the proportion of abnormal sperm shapes were observed. These data suggest that there may be an effect of 2EE on sperm count among these workers, although the possibility that other factors may be affecting the semen quality in both exposed and unexposed men in this population or that the results reflect bias introduced by the low participation rates cannot be excluded.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 1989, Vol.46, No.6, p.399-406. 34 ref.
Araki S., Aono H.
Effect of water restriction and water loading on daily urinary excretion of heavy metals and organic substances in metal workers
The effects of urinary volume on daily urinary excretion of seven heavy metals and four organic substances were examined in relation to the changes in their plasma and erythrocyte concentrations and urinary creatinine excretion in 19 metal workers. The examination was conducted under the conditions of water restriction and loading for six days. The major findings were as follows: (1) urinary excretion of all heavy meatals and organic substances except mercury, together with creatinine excretion, significantly decreased under conditions of water restriction whereas under conditions of water loading their excretion increased significantly; (2) daily variations in urinary excreton of lead, cadmium, chromium, copper, hippuric acid, δ-aminolaevulinic acid, and coproporphyrin did not differ significantly from the variation in urinary excretion of creatinine. It is suggested that glomerular filtration is the major factor determining renal excretory mechanisms of the substances examined.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 1989, Vol.46, No.6, p.389-392. 18 ref. Illus.
Scotti P.G., Arossa W., Bugiani M., Nicoli E.
Chronic bronchitis in the iron and steel industry: Prevalence study
A significant increase in the prevalence of functional respiratory impairment and chronic bronchitis among 733 foundry workers, when compared with 1041 controls, was found in this 5-year longitudinal study. Age and smoking were allowed for.
Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 1989, Vol.80, No.2, p.123-131. Illus. 26 ref.
Sitas F., Douglas A.J., Webster E.C.
Respiratory disease mortality patterns among South African iron moulders
To assess the influence of foundry exposure on malignant and non-malignant respiratory disease, the proportional mortality ratio (PMR) was used to compare the cause of death distributions of the 578 dead members of the Iron Moulders Society of South Africa, recipients of the union's death benefit fund between 1961 and 1983. Comparisons were made with the age and period specific white male deaths. For the 419 members where job information was available, the influence of occupation (journeyman, production moulder) was assessed using different techniques - the relative proportional mortality ratio, the mortality odds ratio and the proportional cancer mortality ratio for comparison. Excess PMRs were found for cancer of the trachea, bronchus, and lung for those over 65 and for non-malignant respiratory disease and for injuries and poisonings in those under 65. Reduced PMRs were found for all cancers and all circulatory disease in those under 65. The raised PMRs due to respiratory disease are unlikely to be due to smoking because of a poor association with other causes of death related to smoking. A more likely explanation is that these excess rates for malignant and non-malignant respiratory disease are due to exposure to the foundry environment. Of additional concern are the high PMRs due to injuries and poisonings, which could be related to the high accident rates in the iron and steel industry.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1989, Vol.45, No.5, p.310-315. 28 ref.
Becher H., Jedrychowski W., Flak E., Gomola K., Wahrendorf J.
Lung cancer, smoking, and employment in foundries
A case-referent study on lung cancer was conducted in Cracow, Poland. Men dying of lung cancer within a 6-year period (1980-1985) formed the case group. The reference series was selected from death registers and was frequency-matched with the cases by sex and age. Deaths due to other respiratory diseases were excluded. Information on the occupation, smoking habits, and residency of 901 cases and 875 referents was collected from their next-of-kin. The combined effect of smoking and industrial exposure, in particular employment in steel or iron foundries, was investigated by multivariate analyses and was very well fitted by a multiplicative model. Foundry employment, in particular in the younger age (<70 years) group, occupational exposure to known carcinogens in other industries for more than 20 years, and smoking were found to be risk factors.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Feb. 1989, Vol.15, No.1, p.38-42. 22 ref.
Sorahan T., Cooke M.A.
Cancer mortality in a cohort of United Kingdom steel foundry workers: 1946-85
The mortality experienced by a cohort of 10,491 steel foundry workers in the United Kingdom during the period 1946-85 was investigated. These workers were all male operatives first employed in any one of the 10 participating foundries in 1946-65; all had worked in the inudstry for a minimum period of 1yr. Compared with the general population of England and Wales, statistically significant excesses relating to cancer mortality were found for cancer of the stomach (E = 77.4, O = 106, SMR = 137) and cancer of the lung (E = 229.2, O = 441, SMR = 147). A statistically significant deficit was found for cancer of the brain (E = 19.4, O = 10, SMR = 51). Involvement of occupational exposures was assessed by the method of regression models and life tables (RMLT). The RMLT analyses provided evidence of an occupational involvement in the risk of death from lung cancer from work in the foundry area or fettling shop, and weaker evidence of an occupational involvement in the risk of death from stomach cancer from work in the foundry area.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1989, Vol.46, No.2, p.74-81. 19 ref.
Andjelkovich D.A., Levine R.J.
Identification of an industrial cohort and verification of its completeness using a complicated system of plant records
The published literature on occupational mortality studies seldom describes the manner in which cohorts were assembled and efforts made to ensure that all, or nearly all, eligible persons had been enumerated. Researchers must struggle unassisted through a morass of plant records, often not knowing how to utilise important sources of information to the fullest extent. This paper describes the identification of a cohort of over 8,700 foundry workers and the verification of its completeness using existing plant data sources. By understanding the techniques for manipulating data sources in this investigation, researchers may gain insight into the use of materials available to them.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1988, Vol.13, No.5, p.593-599. Illus. 3 ref.
Wolf C., Pospischil M., Petzi D.H., Petrak R.
Bronchial hyperreactivity in foundry workers
Bronchiale Hyperreaktivität bei Arbeitern einer Graugiesserei [in German]
Lung function tests before and after bronchial provocation were performed on 47 workers of a core shop in a light-metal foundry with 3 years of exposure. Visual disturbances (blue haze) due to exposure to dimethylisopropylamine were reported by 36 workers. Bronchial ractivity was elevated in 20 workers as compared with non-exposed controls.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz, Prophylaxe und Ergonomie, 1988, Vol.38, No.9, p.279-285. Illus. 13 ref.
Buharov I.I., Nemcov N.S., Savčenko A.F., Lysenko V.A.
Shot-blasting chamber dust control
Očistka vozduha ot pyli drobestrujnyh kamer [in Russian]
Chemical and particle-size analysis of dust discharged into the atmosphere by a foundry shot-blasting chamber revealed high loads of free silica (92-94%) and respirable particles of less than 5µm (≈72%). Currently used dust collectors (cyclones) proved to be very inefficient, with outlet air dust concentrations averaging 1060mg/m3 for the iron foundry and the steel-casting department, respectively. To correct the situation, a two-stage dust control installation was designed, consisting of a cyclone and a dust capturing device with an adjustable fibrous vibration-cleaned filter packing of lavsan-type textured fibres (description and diagramme presented). Introduction of the collector at a mechanical engineering plant helped to bring outlet dust concentrations down to 10-15mg/m3 and to prevent an annual economic loss of 167,000 roubles. Filtration efficiency was 99.2-99.5% and the time between regenerations 24-25hrs.
Litejnoe proizvodstvo, Aug. 1988, No.8, p.28-29. Illus.
Cleaning of castings in aqueous solutions as an alternative to solvent cleaning
Das Reinigen von Druckguss in wässrigen Lösungen als Alternative zur Reinigung mit Lösemitteln [in German]
Solutions of inorganic and organic salts in water (10 to 50g/L) and surface-active substances as additives are used in the alternative cleaning process described for die casting. Depending on the material of die castings (e.g. aluminium or zinc) acid, neutral, mild or strong alkaline solutions are employed. Compared with solvent cleaning the process using aqueous solutions can be more widely used and requires extensive waste air cleaning but produces waste water that has to undergo purification.
Giesserei, Feb. 1988, Vol.75, No.5, p.110-113. Illus. 3 ref.
Contribution to the safe operation of induction furnaces
Beitrag zur Betriebssicherheit von Induktionsöfen [in German]
Induction furnaces sometimes release molten iron along with cooling water into a pit, which frequently leads to damage by explosion. An explosionproof pit is described, consisting of a 25-30cm layer of granulated slag with a particle diameter of 0.5-3mm, through which the water runs off quickly while molten iron is retained through sintering of the top slag. The slag is kept in place by a perforated sheet of clay-graphite.
Giesserei, Oct. 1988, Vol.75, No.22, p.656-657. Illus.
Carcinogenic substances at workplaces in foundries - Problems of estimating occupational exposure
Kanzerogene Gefahrstoffe an Giessereiarbeitsplätzen? Problematik der Abschätzung berufsbedingter stofflicher Belastung [in German]
Dose-effect relationships for substances with and without response thresholds are shown in graphs. These are used to explain why for carcinogens no limit values for exposure in the workplace can be derived. Epidemiologic findings are reviewed for the major carcinogens occurring at workplaces in foundries, such as benzene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (mainly benzo(a)pyrene), nitrosamines (mainly dimethylnitrosoamine) and nitrosamides.
Giesserei, Sep. 1988, Vol.75, No.19, p.579-584. Illus. 32 ref.
Albrecht W.N., Stephenson R.L.
Health hazards of tertiary amine catalysts
Tertiary amine catalysts are widely employed in foundry and polyurethane foam manufacture operations. These highly reactive amines have been associated with disturbances in vision and systemic health effects. Prominent among the reported effects on vision are mydriasis (dilated pupils), cycloplegia (loss of accommodation), and corneal oedema, which may result in hazy (looking through smoke) or blurry (out of focus) vision and halo perception. Systemic symptoms, possibly due to a release of endogenous histamine, are consistent with pharmacological actions of amines and are also described. These symptoms, as well as the disturbances in vision, are transient. Nevertheless, employees who work with or around machinery, or drive vehicles, may be at an increased risk of accident and injury when experiencing these symptoms.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 1988, Vol.14, No.4, p.209-219. 45 ref.
Haub H.G., Mühlhauser S., Müller F.J., Gardziella A.
Emissions from heat treatment of shell moulding compounds - Interferences at the measurement of formaldehyde
Emissionen beim Aushärten von Maskenformstoffen - Querempfindlichkeiten bei der Bestimmung von Formaldehyd [in German]
Formaldehyde emitted during heat treatment of phenolic resin containing hexamethylenetetramine was measured by colorimetric methods using the following reaction agents: sulfite-pararosaniline, MBHT (3-methyl-2-benzothiazolone-hydrazone-hydrochloride), AHMT (4-amino-3-hydrazino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole) and acetylacetone. The stain tube for formaldehyde was tested as well. Interferences by hexamethylenetetramine occurred with all reagents excepting AHMT.
Giesserei, Mar. 1988, Vol.75, No.6, p.154-159. Illus. 15 ref.
Kraft G., Riedelbauch H.C.
Controlled hexachloroethane decay during degassing of aluminium melts
Gesteuerte Hexachlorethanzersetzung bei der Entgasung von Aluminiumschmelzen [in German]
During degassing of aluminium melts with hexachloroethane in foundries hexachlorebenzene is formed. The influence of reducing and oxidising conditions on hexachlorobenzene formation during degassing with hexachloroethane was studied in laboratory experiments. Under oxidising conditions 95% less hexachlorobenzene was formed than under reducing conditions and degassing was more effective.
Giesserei, Mar. 1988, Vol.75, No.6, p.152-154. Illus. 5 ref.
Haering H.U., Polthier K.
Noise emission and reduction by drop forging shops
Geräuschemission und Lärmminderung von Gesenkschmieden [in German]
Sound pressure levels in drop forging shops with one or more drop hammers and different extents of sound insulation (walls, doors, ceilings, ventilation ducts) were determined. The data were used to calculate noise levels inside and outside the drop forging shops. A distance of 25m is required for the noise emitted by small and new forges with extensive sound insulation to drop to 46dB(A). For large forges a distance of 50m is necessary.
Stahl und Eisen, Feb. 1988, Vol.108, No.4, p.179-184. Illus. 8 ref.
Gressel M.G., O'Brien D.M., Tenaglia R.D.
Emissions from the evaporative casting process
The emissions generated during the pouring, cooling, and shakeout of a water-pump casting made by the evaporative casting process (ECP) were compared with those from a conventional green sand process. The ECP moulds produced more soot, hydrocarbons (styrene, benzene, toluene, and ethylbenzene) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons than the green sand process. Benzene was a major hazard.
Applied Industrial Hygiene, Jan. 1988, Vol.3, No.1, p.11-17. Illus. 8 ref.
Minko V.A., Kulešov M.I., Plotnikova L.V., Šaptala V.G., Borzenkov A.V., Kaljagin M.F., Podgornyj N.N.
Dust control in the foundries of mechanical engineering plants
Obespylivanie v litejnyh cehah mašinostroitel'nyh predprijatij [in Russian]
This book, written for engineers and technicians concerned with ventilation and environmental protection, covers the following issues: main dust sources in foundries; aspiration arrangements for moulding sand processing operations; characteristics of dust aspirated from loose material processing units; methods and equipment for cleaning ventilation exhausts; aerodynamic principles governing the functioning of centralised dry vacuum dust removal systems; design of centralised dust control systems; general dilution ventilation in foundries; dust control system operation.
Izdatel'stvo Mašinostroenie, Stromynskij per. 4, 107076 Moskva, USSR, 1987. 224p. Illus. 93 ref. Price: SUR 0.70.
Vasin Ju.P., Bortnikov M.M., Krjukova I.V., Gurlev V.G.
Using a modified water-glass binder to improve working conditions of casting knockout workers
Primenenie modificirovannogo židkostekol'nogo svjazujuščego v celjah ulučšenija uslovij truda vybivščikov [in Russian]
The working environment in a casting knockout operation was studied in order to improve the safety and health of workers. The results were computer processed and a mathematical model was developed. By way of improvement it was suggested that the additives ammonium sulfate and sodium sulfite be used, which improve the strength of water-glass (sodium silicate) mixtures and facilitate knocking out. This measure decreases the physical work load of the operation and helps to bring down dust levels in the workplace air.
Litejnoe proizvodstvo, Jan. 1987, No.1, p.29-30. Illus. 5 ref.
Forsberg K., Isacsson M.
Development of protective clothing and devices at continuous casting - Guidelines for selection and use of protective clothing
Utveckling av personlig skyddsutrustning och skyddsanordningar vid stränggjutningsarbete - Riktlinjer för val och användning av skyddsbeklädnad [in Swedish]
Report of an evaluation of 32 types of textile and 5 types of plastic materials used for protection during metal casting operations. A standard test method (ASTM F955), measuring heat flow during steel splash, was used. Two textiles showed the greatest resistance against steel splash and these were evaluated through field testing of approx. 50 garments at 8 steel companies employing continuous casting. The new protective garments were developed in collaboration with steel manufacturers. The material tests showed that it is necessary to have two layers in order to obtain sufficient protection against heavy splashes.
Kungl. Tekniska Högskolan, Institutionen för Arbetsvetenskap, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden, Nov. 1987. 63p. Illus. 4 ref.
Šestakov N.M., Sarankin G.E., Ivanov E.A., Lupačev V.F., Udal'cova N.M., Rečkalova G.M.
Impact of the products of urea-formaldehyde resin break-down on the cardiovascular system of foundry workers
Vlijanie produktov destrukcii karbamidno-formal'degidnyh smol na serdečno-sosudistuju sistemu rabočih litejnogo ceha [in Russian]
The state of the cardiovascular system in 60 foundry workers exposed to urea-formaldehyde resin degradation products was studied. Workers in the control group had no contact with these substances. Medical examinations were repeated annualy during 3 years and included analysis of haemodynamics, electrocardiography and determination of peripheral resistance. The results showed that exposed workers had an overload of the right ventricle. The left heart reacted to prolonged exposure by developing hypokinesia, and an increase in peripheral resistance was observed. Appropriate preventive measures are recommended.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, July 1987, No.7, p.32-35. Illus. 8 ref.
Hansén L., Sollenberg J., Hallbert B.O., Uggla C., Wrangskog K.
Determination of dimethylethylamine in air samples from a foundry by isotachophoresis and HPLC
Bestämning av dimetyletylamin i luftprover från ett gjuteri med isotakofores och HPLC [in Swedish]
Stationary sampling of foundry air was performed with sampling pumps and absorbers containing dilute hydrochloric acid. Absorber solution was analysed by isotachophoresis and high-pressure liquid chromatography. Personal sampling was performed with diffusion samplers loaded with sulfuric acid and with filter samplers impregnated with phosphoric acid. Washings from the personal sampler were analysed by ion chromatography. Both stationary methods had a limit of detection of 1.0ng/µL, and gave similar results.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1987. 18p. Illus. 8 ref.
NIOSH Alert - Request for assistance in preventing vision disturbances and acute physical distress due to dimethylethylamine (DMEA) exposure
This Alert concerns moulding and coremaking operations in foundries. Described are: background, case reports of health effects (medical surveys, emergency room records, environmental surveys), regulatory status, conclusions and recommendations.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, 1987. 8p. 8 ref.
Fajn A.I., Vinogradova O.D.
Occupational safety and health for moulders
Bezopasnost' truda formovščika [in Russian]
Contents: dangerous and harmful factors in the workplace; safety requirements pertaining to equipment and premises; safety in the mould-making operation; personal protective equipment; qualifications and safety-conscious behaviour; first aid; monitoring of working conditions.
Izdatel'stvo Mašinostroenie, Stromynskij per. 4, 107076 Moskva, USSR, 1987. 79p. Illus. 5 ref. Price: SUR 0.20.
Cold shearing billets and bars in the forging industry
This date sheet covers: hazards; guarding; general precautions; composition of alloy steels; cold shearing limitations; guard position distances; job instruction; maintenance.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611, USA, 1987. 4p. Illus. 6 ref.
Gjuterier [in Swedish]
These directives (effective 1 Jan. 1990) apply to foundries with an annual production exceeding 10 tonnes of iron, steel or other metals. The environmental problems referred to are: accidents, unsuitable workloads and chemical health hazards. Coverage: general rules concerning the way the work is planned, directed and performed, including a stipulation of written instructions for particularly dangerous tasks; scrap handling; work at furnaces, moulding machines and core machines, teeming, desanding and fettling; personal protective equipment; inspection and supervision of ladles and moulding boxes. Detailed commentaries are appended.
LiberDistribution, 162 89 Stockholm, Sweden, 12 Oct.1987. 21p.
Health and Safety Commission
Safe use of electric induction furnaces
This safety guide describes the hazards associated with the use of induction furnaces and gives practical advice on how to operate all types of induction furnaces safely. The recommendations represent good working practices aimed to help the users to meet their legal obligations under the Health and Safety at Work Act and associated legislation. Contents: how induction furnaces work; training of personnel; supervision of plant; equipment to protect against molten metal splash; maintenance; emergency plans; the acquisition of a new furnace; water cooling systems; construction and protection of electrical plant; guide for foundry staff. A glossary of terms is appended.
HMSO Publications Centre, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1987. 30p. Illus. Price: GBP 9.00.
O'Brien D., Baron P., Willeke K.
Respirable dust control in grinding gray iron castings
The size distribution and concentration of airborne dust were measured in a pilot grinding operation. Increased exhaust ventilation, installation of baffles and/or use of an air jet to deflect the entrained air stream reduced the respirable dust concentration. The combination of these techniques reduced the concentration 20-fold.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1987, Vol.48, No.2, p.181-187. Illus. 11 ref.
Work in foundries
Contents of this occupational hygiene guide: processes and health hazards in foundries; duties and responsibilities of employers and employees; health and safety committes; assessment of hazards; information; instruction and training; measures for controlling hazards; maintenance; monitoring hazards in the environment; health surveillance; keeping records. An assessment check list, a sample assessment sheet, a health questionnaire and an occupational audiometry record are given in the appendix.
Occupational Health and Toxicology Branch, Division of Public Health, Department of Health, Wellington, New Zealand, 1986. 32p.
Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po standartam
Forging presses. General safety requirements [USSR]
Oborudovanie kuznečno-pressovoe. Obščie trebovanija bezopasnosti [in Russian]
This standard (effective 1 Jan. 1987) applies to the design, construction and modernisation of forging presses, except hand-operated presses. It conforms to CMEA standard ST SEV 4849-84. Contents: general requirements covering the structure, controls, guarding, lubrication, drive systems, installations, noise emission, vibration and lighting of forging presses and auxiliary equipment; electrical systems; verification of compliance. Twenty terms used in the standard are defined explicitly in an appendix, with 13 terms defined by reference to other GOST standards.
Izdatel'stvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per.3, 123840 Moskva, USSR, 1986. 39p. Price: Rbl.0.15.
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