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Foundries, metalcasting and forging operations - 469 entries found

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CIS 99-613 Controlling silica dust from foundry casting-cleaning operations
Topics: cleaning of castings; data sheet; dust control; exhaust ventilation; foundries; local exhaust; respirable dust; silica; USA.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, Dec. 1997. 2p. Illus. 1 ref.

CIS 98-1360 Seldén A.I., Westberg H.B., Axelson O.
Cancer morbidity in workers at aluminium foundries and secondary aluminium smelters
Topics: aluminium industry; bladder tumour; cancer; hexachloroethane; cohort study; foundries; length of exposure; liver cancer; lung cancer; morbidity; nasal cancer; rectal cancer; scrap metal processing; sex-linked differences; smelting plants; Sweden.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1997, Vol.32, No.5, p.467-477. 57 ref.

CIS 98-1241 Harland A., Delzell E., Lally C., Rotimi C., Oestenstad K.
A case-control study of lung cancer at a foundry and two engine plants
Topics: carcinogens; case-control study; dose-response relationship; foundries; iron and steel industry; job-exposure relation; length of service; long-term exposure; lung cancer; machinery industry; mortality; smoking; USA.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 1997, Vol.31, No.4, p.414-421. 23 ref.

CIS 98-1410 Cherry N.M., Niven R.M., Burgess G., Robinson J., Wall S., Woerfel P.
Health and Safety Executive
Chronic bronchitis and lung function abnormalities in foundry workers
Topics: airborne dust; chronic bronchitis; epidemiologic study; exposure evaluation; foundries; job-exposure relation; length of exposure; one-second forced expiratory volume; pulmonary function; report; respiratory impairment; United Kingdom.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1997. 72p. 6 ref. Price: GBP 25.00.

CIS 97-1691 Ballal S.G.
Ocular trauma in an iron forging industry in the Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia
A total of 193 injuries were reported in an iron forging factory in Saudi Arabia in 1991, of which 77 affected the eyes (incident rate 111.8 per 1000 workers). Highest prevalence rates were found in the 33-42 age group and among the least experienced workers. The majority of accidents were associated with welding, use of pneumatic chisels and projectile foreign bodies. More than one-third of the injured were not wearing eye protection, and negligence was a major contributory factor. Recommendations include a safety training programme and replacement of pneumatic chisels.
Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1997, Vol.47, No.2, p.77-80. 21 ref.

CIS 97-1205 Aluminium smelting plants - Analysis and prevention of risks related to furnaces
Fonderies d'aluminium - Analyse et prévention des risques liés aux fours [in French]
This document contains basic information on how to introduce a specific, flexible and participatory strategy for the prevention of risks connected to furnaces in aluminium smelting plants. Contents: terminology; accident statistics and case studies; description of the different types of furnaces; chronology of operations and main related functions; risk prevention approaches. Annexes: physical mechanism of explosions in smelting plants; regulations on machinery and equipment design and use; first aid in the event of burns; procedure sheets; analytical tables.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 1st Quarter 1997, No.166, Note No.2044-166-97, p.109-142. Illus. 40 ref.


CIS 00-1627 Ebert R.
Systematic maintenance - A condition for safe production
Systematische Instandhaltung - Voraussetzung für sichere Fertigung [in German]
Topics: cost-benefit analysis; foundries; Germany; increase in productivity; maintenance and repair; preventive maintenance; safety by design.
Giesserei, Sep. 1996, Vol.83, No.17, p.20-24. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 99-161 Occupational risk factors and control measures - Foundries and related metal industries
Repertorio de factores de riesgo ocupacional y medidas de control - Sectores de fundición e industrias metálicas afines [in Spanish]
Topics: basic metal industries; biological hazards; chemical safety; electrical safety; ergonomics; explosion protection; fire protection; foundries; hazard evaluation; job-exposure relation; lighting; manufacturing processes; mechanical hazards; medical supervision; metalworking industry; noise control; radiation protection; risk factors; safety and health committees; safety and health engineering; safety devices; safety guides; safety programmes; social aspects; temperature control; vibration control.
Seguro Social, Protección Laboral, Administradora de Riesgos Profesionales, Santafé de Bogotá, Colombia, 2nd ed., 1996. 69p. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 97-632
Health and Safety Executive
Hazards associated with foundry processes: Rumbling - Noise hazards. Hand-arm vibration - The current picture. Hand-arm vibration - Symptoms and solutions
The first of these three data sheets describes noise levels associated with rumbling processes and provides guidance on noise reduction measures (elimination, engineering controls, reduction of exposure time, hearing protection). The other two data sheets describe the nature, incidence and cost of hand-arm vibration syndrome, and provide guidance on causes (finger or hand contact with vibrating tools or materials), and control measures (risk assessment, reduction of exposure time, health surveillance, tool selection and care, employee training).
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Sep. 1996. 6p. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 97-113 Laplaiche N.
Silicosis in automobile foundries
Silicoses dans les fonderies automobiles [in French]
In 1989, eight occupational physicians from the largest French automobile foundries decided to organize joint meetings in order to discuss and find solutions to common OSH problems, to uniformize the procedures of medical surveillance in their enterprises and to organize epidemiologic and inter-enterprise studies. One of these study topics was that of silicosis: the physicians collected all relevant data concerning the workers in their enterprises so that they could provide a quantitative evaluation of the extent of the silicosis problem in large French automobile foundries. As a result of this survey, one can arrive at a better understanding of the silicosis hazard in these enterprises, and possibly extrapolate to medium-size foundries.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 1996, No.68, p.323-328. Illus. 10 ref. [in French]

CIS 97-184 Rosenman K.D., Reilly M.J., Rice C., Hertzberg V., Tseng C.Y., Anderson H.A.
Silicosis among foundry workers: Implication for the need to revise the OSHA standard
The incidence of pneumoconiosis in 1,072 current and retired workers of an American automotive foundry was investigated. Approximately half of these workers had worked at the foundry for 20 or more years. Sixty workers had radiographic evidence of pneumoconiosis. Twenty-eight workers had radiographs consistent with silicosis. The asbestos-related changes were not associated with increasing exposure to silica, but rather with being in the maintenance department. An increased risk of 1.45 was found for having a radiograph consistent with silicosis after 20 years of work at the current US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standard, and an increased risk of 2.10 after 40 years of work. The data show that the current OSHA standard (0.1mg/m3) is not sufficiently low to protect workers against the development of radiologic evidence of silicosis. Exposures at the NIOSH recommended exposure limit of 0.05mg/m3 already result in a lower prevalence (0.3-0.8%) of radiographic evidence of silicosis, suggesting that the OSHA standard is set at too high a value.
American Journal of Epidemiology, Sep. 1996, Vol.144, No.9, p.890-900. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 96-2293
Health and Safety Commission, Foundries Industry Advisory Committee
The selection, use and maintenance of molten metal protective clothing
This guide describes the hazards of molten metal processes and outlines methods for controlling the risk. Detailed guidance is given on the choice of correct protective clothing: garments required (typical minimum requirements); type of material (flame resistance, transmission of heat); garment labelling; and clothing design (style, fit, comfort and reliability). Additional protective equipment is briefly described along with training in its use and maintenance, care of clothing, supervision, and financial costs.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1996. iii, 30p. Illus. 9 ref. Price: GBP 8.50.

CIS 96-852 Myers W.R., Zhuang Z., Nelson T.
Field measurements of half-facepiece respirators - Foundry operations
Workplace protection factors provided by elastomeric and disposable half-facepiece respirators were calculated from the ratio of ambient and in-facepiece concentrations of dust and fume exposures at three foundries. The main components of the airborne exposures were zinc, lead and silicon. The main components of the in-facepiece samples were zinc, chlorine and lead. While significant differences were observed in ambient zinc and lead concentrations among foundries, no significant difference was observed in the in-facepiece concentrations of these elements among foundries. The in-facepiece penetration data clearly indicate that these respirators, when conscientiously used and maintained, and in conjunction with existing controls, provide effective worker protection.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1996, Vol.57, No.2, p.166-174. 13 ref.


CIS 97-1915 Metal and steelworks, foundries, power and thermal power stations
Metal-, stålværker og støberier, el- og varmeværker [in Danish]
A systematic summary of publications and documentation regarding working environment and health factors in Danish metalworking establishments, steelworks, foundries and power stations. There are approx. 5,700 people working in metal, steel and foundry establishments and 14,400 people in power stations. The main working environment problems are accidents, noise and respiratory diseases. Other problems are strain injuries, cancer and thermal strain.
Arbejdstilsynet, At-Salg, Landskronagade 33, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, 1995. 86p. Price: DKK 100.00 + tax.

CIS 97-154 Ostiguy G., Vaillancourt C., Bégin R.
Respiratory health of workers exposed to metal dusts and foundry fumes in a copper refinery
Cross-sectional and longitudinal (7 years) survey of 494 long-term workers in a copper refinery, carried out from medical questionnaires, chest radiographs and forced spirometry, to assess respiratory health hazards in these workers. The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) and small airway disfunction (SAD) was 5% and 7%, which did not differ from the control population. The COPD and SAD were associated with cumulative smoking index. The mean reduction of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was 20(7)mL in non-smokers, 26(4)mL in smokers and 26(5)mL in ex-smokers. In the smokers and ex-smokers with COPD, the loss of FEV1 was 53(10). The prevalence of pleural plaques was 11% in older workers with known exposure to asbestos. The data suggest that low level long-term exposure to metal dusts, gases and foundry fumes does not necessarily cause respiratory dysfunction, circumscribed pleural plaques with low grades of width and extent do not reduce forced vital capacity (FVC) significantly and, finally, exposure to asbestos dust that produced pleural plaques does not necessarily produce airway dysfunction.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 1995, Vol.52, No.3, p.204-210. 51 ref.

CIS 97-185 Maizlish N.A., Parra G., Feo O.
Neurobehavioural evaluation of Venezuelan workers exposed to inorganic lead
To assess neurobehavioural effects of low exposure to lead, 43 workers from a lead smelter and 45 workers from a glass factory were evaluated with the World Health Organization neurobehavioural core test battery (NCTB) in a cross-sectional study. Historical blood lead concentrations were used to classify exposure based on current, peak and time-weighted average. Although the exposed workers performed less well than the non-exposed in 10 of 14 response variables, only profile of mood states tension-anxiety, hostility and depression mood scales showed a significantly poorer dose-response relation with blood lead concentration in multiple linear regression models that included age, education and alcohol intake as covariates. The frequency of symptoms of anger, depression, fatigue and joint pain were also significantly increased in the exposed group. This study is consistent with the larger body of neurobehavioural research of low occupational exposure to lead.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 1995, Vol.52, p.408-414. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 97-198 Reilly M.J., Rosenman K.D., Abrams J.H., Zhu Z., Tseng C., Hertzberg V., Rice C.
Ocular effects of exposure to triethylamine in the sand core cold box of a foundry
The acute and chronic ophthalmological effects of triethylamine exposure among foundry workers in the sand core cold box were assessed. A corneal examination, a visual acuity test and a questionnaire to assess vision symptoms in exposed workers were performed. Personal air measurements for triethylamine were also obtained. Despite low concentrations of triethylamine and no corneal oedema, exposed workers reported vision symptoms. Further research is needed to elucidate the mechanism for the reported vision symptoms, which occurred below the current United States standard. The current recommended ACGIH threshold of 4.1mg/m3 seems more appropriate.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 1995, Vol.52, p.337-343. 10 ref.

CIS 96-1027
Health and Safety Executive
Hazards associated with foundry processes - Noise hazards: Foundry moulding machines; Fettling
These two information sheets provide guidance on compliance with the Noise at Work Regulations 1989 (see CIS 90-21) as they apply to foundry moulding machines and fettling. Contents: noise hazards on moulding machines and noise reduction methods (silencers, fitting of rotary instead of piston-type vibrators, enclosures, hearing protection); other noise sources; noise levels during fettling; hierarchy of noise reduction methods (elimination, engineering controls, hearing protection).
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1995. 4p. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 96-355 Practical guide to safety and health - Aluminium smelting plants - Analysis and prevention of risks linked to handling
Guide pratique de prévention dans les fonderies d'aluminium - Analyse et prévention des risques liés aux manutentions [in French]
The handling of materials and objects involves the equipment and operations listed in this guide. Equipment malfunctions or breakdowns can produce hazards. The guide provides basic information, including a review of risks for each type of function, handling equipment and product, useful in implementing specific, evolutive and participatory approaches to risk prevention in handling operations.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 1995, No.160, Note No.2000-160-95, p.399-414. Illus. 28 ref.

CIS 96-351
Health and Safety Executive
Foundry machine guarding
These four data sheets provide guidance on determining the type and standard of guarding required for various foundry machines and plant. The first sheet provides introductory information on relevant standards, accident statistics, guarding and risk assessment, and training requirements. The remaining three sheets describe the hazards and guarding requirements for mould and core-making machinery, sand handling equipment (belt conveyors), shakeouts, sand mixers and shotblasts.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1995. 10p. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 95-2196 Schneider W.D., Bräunlich A., Lorenz A., Schöneich R., Thürmer H., Wallenstein G.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsmedizin
Dose-effect relationship derived from studies of the exposure of the respiratory tract to irritants (Final report)
Dosis-Wirkungs-Beziehungen bei irritativer Atemtraktbelastung (Schlussbericht) [in German]
Subjects covered in this report: (1) the frequency of chronic respiratory diseases as well as the occupations and irritants involved as it appears from the analyses of records of periodic medical examinations by industrial physicians in Germany between 1982 and 1990; (2) the irritative effects of flyash on workers in power plants burning bituminous coal; (3) the effects of soldering with colophony on the respiratory tract; (4) biological indicators of the inhalation of irritants; (5) dose-effect relationship between the exposure to dust and pulmonary function in foundry workers.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Verlag für neue Wissenschaft GmbH., Postfach 10 11 10, Am Alten Hafen 113-115, 2850 Bremerhaven 1, Germany, 1995. 194p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: DEM 33.00.

CIS 95-1109
Health and Safety Commission, Foundries Industry Advisory Committee
Noise control at foundry shakeouts
This document provides guidance on the control of noise emissions from plant used to break up and remove moulding sand from castings in the foundry industry (shakeout or knockout). Contents: sources of shakeout noise and factors affecting noise levels; noise reduction at new and existing shakeouts; suggested treatments for boxed and boxless moulds, manipulators and ceramic mould removal; practical examples of noise control measures (enclosures, screens, noise refuges, automation, separation of operations, maintenance, replacement/modified shakeout). In an appendix: the noise hazard; principles and methods of noise reduction; a strategy for noise control; legislation and employer's duties.
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1995. v, 58p. Illus. 21 ref. Price: GBP 14.50.


CIS 97-929 Krantz S., et al.
Exposure to refractory ceramic fibres in smelters and foundries
Exponering för keramiska fibrer vid smältverk och gjuterier [in Swedish]
The fibre exposure associated with the use of refractory ceramic fibres (RCF) in smelters and foundries was investigated. Participating employees and contractors were classified into three exposure categories, depending on their distance from the fibre source. The highest concentration of airborne ceramic fibres occurred in category 1, whose members actually handled RCF. The median fibre concentrations in this category varied between 0.26 and 12 fibres/mL for different plants. During certain extreme operations concentrations up to 210f/mL were measured. For exposure categories 2 (work on or near equipment containing RCF) and 3 (work in shops where such equipment was located), the corresponding plant median values were 0.03-0.24f/mL. A dose estimation shows that certain occupational groups may be exposed to an environmental risk. Different methods for controlling fibre emission are discussed.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1994. 36p. Illus. 37 ref.

CIS 97-821 Jones R.D.
Survey of antimony workers: Mortality 1961-1992
The mortality of a census population and a prospective cohort of men employed at an antimony smelter in the north-east of England was followed up from 1961-1992. An increased risk of lung cancer existed in the workers employed before 1961, but it was not possible to attribute this excess to any particular agent. Mortality analyzed by five-year calendar periods of first exposure show a lessening of effect after 1955. Although the power of the study is clearly less for more recent periods of exposure, the absence of any excess in the population after 1960 is encouraging.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 1994, Vol.51, No.11, p.772-776. 7 ref.

CIS 96-981 Hesse J.M., Irle H., Strasser H.
Experimental study of hearing damage by impulse noise
Laborexperimentelle Untersuchung zur Gehörschädlichkeit von Impulsschall [in German]
Ten volunteers aged 23 to 43 years were exposed to six noise events, the energy of which was equivalent to 8h exposure to 85dB(A). They were exposed to 94dB(A) for 1h and to 113dB(A) for 45s. In the following four exposures the 113dB(A) were split up into 180 impulses each lasting 250ms, 450 impulses of 100ms each, 1,800 impulses of 25ms each, and 9,000 impulses of 5ms each. The temporary threshold shift measured 2min after noise exposure was terminated (TTS2) and the required recovery time were significantly better after exposure to 113dB(A) for 45ms than after exposure to 94dB(A) for 1h. TTS2 and recovery time worsened significantly, however, with an increasing number of impulses of decreasing duration.
Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft, Dec. 1994, Vol.48, No.4, p.237-244. Illus. 35 ref.

CIS 95-1781 Cohen H.J., Powers B.J.
A study of respirable versus nonrespirable copper and zinc oxide exposures at a nonferrous foundry
Personal air samples were collected from workers involved in the casting of a 70% copper and 30% zinc alloy. Samples were taken using 10mm nylon cyclones to categorize aerosols into respirable and nonrespirable fractions. Most of the copper (94%) and zinc oxide (65%) particulate matter collected was nonrespirable. On the whole, a larger proportion of samples of total particulate matter exceeded the OSHA PEL for these substances as fumes than did samples of respirable fractions. It is recommended that air monitoring should include particle size differentiation when comparing results to health standards for fumes or respirable dusts.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1994, Vol.55, No.11, p.1047-1050. 27 ref.

CIS 95-1331 Sorohan T., Faux A.M., Cooke M.A.
Mortality among a cohort of United Kingdom steel foundry workers with special reference to cancers of the stomach and lung, 1946-90
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 1994, Vol.51, No.5, p.316-322. 8 ref. ###

CIS 95-1022 Ota H., Yamauchi T., Tanaka S., Miyama M., Yamaoka K., Yoshida S., Takizawa A.
Survey of benzo(a)pyrene in foundries
Benzo(a)piren chōsa jirei [in Japanese]
Airborne benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) concentrations at 25 foundries were determined and dust samples were taken from Aug. 1987 to Feb. 1993 in accordance with the Working Environment Measurement Standards. Dust samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorometric detection. Of 202 samples, 139 showed a higher BaP concentration that the mean concentration in the atmospheric air in Japan; some samples showed a 100-fold higher concentration. BaP concentration at shaking-out, sand-preparation and casting work-units was higher than elsewhere. Plants where coal-tar pitch was used in coremaking showed higher BaP levels than those using coal dust instead. There was a correlation between BaP levels and those of benzo(hi)perylene and benzo(k)fluoranthene. More than 85% of the BaP was found on respirable dust particles below 7µm in diameter.
Journal of Working Environment, 1 Mar. 1994, Vol.15, No.2, p.50-56. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 95-960 Practical guide to safety and health - Aluminium smelting plants - Analysis and prevention of risks related to buildings
Guide pratique de prévention dans les fonderies d'aluminium - Analyse et prévention des risques liés aux bâtiments [in French]
This guide explains how to allow, when designing buildings, for essential safety parameters and data specific to contact between molten metal and cooling water, handling operations, furnaces and workplace atmospheres. Risk factors are presented in chart form, with the corresponding risks, their causes and prevention objectives. Also provided are literature references and recommendations concerning the equipment and procedures to be used.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 1994, No.157, Note No.1976-157-94, p.475-503. Illus. 28 ref.

CIS 95-959 Weiner R., Rees D., Zwi A.
Guidelines: Monitoring dust, pneumoconiosis and pulmonary tuberculosis in South African foundry workers
These guidelines describe a procedure for the monitoring of dust and lung disease among foundry workers. They contain background information about South African foundries in general. The results of recent foundry surveys as well as surveillance practices are outlined. The guidelines give advice on the procedures for the monitoring of the workers' health and the dust conditions in workplaces.
National Centre for Occupational Health, P.O. Box 4788, Johannesburg 2000, South Africa, 1994. 20p. 4 ref.

CIS 95-716 Keck R., Krüger B., Kretschmer R.
Monitoring of scrap and finished products for radioactive elements
Überwachung von Schrott und Fertigprodukten auf radioaktive Bestandteile [in German]
Scrap metal may be contaminated with radioactive components particularly if it comes from medical, research, military equipment or nuclear power plants. Scintillation counters are found suitable for radiation monitoring of scrap metal because all types of radioactivity can be detected. The installation of scintillation counters at the state borders in Germany, at the entrance to the premises of scrap metal dealers, to steelworks and foundries to detect radioactive material in scrap metal carried on trucks and on railway wagons is described and illustrated.
Stahl und Eisen, May 1994, Vol.114, No.5, p.69-77. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 95-308 Barlier A.
Optical radiation in a forge. Measurements and protective devices
Rayonnements optiques dans une forge. Mesures et moyens de protection [in French]
This study was carried out to determine the level of potentially eye-damaging optical radiations (ultraviolet, visible, infrared) in a forge. Spectral irradiance from 200 to 3,000nm and spectral radiance from 400 to 700nm were measured at different workstations (hot rolling, press forging, electrosteel furnaces, walking beam furnaces, forging furnaces, rolling furnaces). The efficiency of the preventive measures practiced at the relevant workplaces was also evaluated. Long-term exposure to infrared radiation seem to constitute a serious eyesight risk to operators at all workplaces, with none of the means of protection found to be efficient. Filter transmission characteristics were therefore defined to provide effective protection at the different workplaces studied.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 2nd Quarter 1994, No.155, Note No.1960-155-94, p.181-193. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 94-1886
Health and Safety Commission, Foundries Industry Advisory Committee
Hearing protection in foundries
This leaflet highlights the need for the correct wearing and maintenance of ear protectors in foundries. Signs of damage in ear plugs and ear muffs are outlined along with guidance on care and maintenance. Examples of good and bad earmuffs are provided.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, July 1994. 6p. Illus. 4 ref.


CIS 97-1207 Check list for forges
Checklista för smidesverkstäder [in Swedish]
This safety check list designed for forges includes 41 items covering the following areas: incoming goods and stock rooms; cutting malleable iron; heating; smithing; trimming; blasting; other questions.
Arbetarskyddsnämnden, Box 3208, 103 64 Stockholm, Sweden, 1993. 6p.

CIS 96-1901 Müller P., Schmid R.
Bundesministerium für Forschung und Technologie
Trial of novel stress-reducing methods and procedures in a new aluminium foundry with innovative technology and organization
Pilothafter Einsatz neuartiger belastungsmindernder Techniken und Verfahren im Rahmen der vollständigen technisch-organisatorischen Neugestaltung einer Aluminiumgiesserei [in German]
The German automotive company BMW moved its aluminum foundry to a new plant with the most modern equipment. The staff of 135 employees was organized in novel teams. Various team sizes and compositions were tested to operate the die-casting, rough dressing and coremaking departments. The experiences gained with the different types of teams are described. It was found important that workers have a say in the team composition and that the teams be not too large in size. An increase in productivity was not feasible without pecuniary incentive. Schemes for continued education in social and professional skills and for improvement of the flow of information are presented.
Giesserei-Verlag GmbH, Breite Strasse 27, 40213 Düsseldorf, Germany, 1993. 77p. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 96-625 Dodson R.F., O'Sullivan M., Corn C.J., Garcia J.G.N., Stocks J.M., Griffith D.E.
Analysis of ferruginous bodies in bronchoalveolar lavage from foundry workers
Classical ferruginous bodies in tissue samples are considered to be markers of past exposure to asbestos. Recent studies have shown that the presence of ferruginous bodies in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid correlates with past exposure to asbestos and offers a more sensitive reference than occupational history. Lavage samples from five subjects who had worked in foundries were evaluated by light microscopy for the presence of ferruginous bodies and by transmission electron microscopy for both characterization of the uncoated fibre burden and analysis of the cores of the ferruginous bodies. All samples at lower magnification (light microscopy (200 x)) contained ferruginous bodies. At higher magnification (400 x), a separate population from this group could be identified by the presence of a thin black ribbon. Transmission electron microscopy of the core materials of ferruginous bodies and comparable uncoated particulates supported the reliability of higher magnification light microscopy for distinguishing most of these non-asbestos cores.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1993, Vol.50, No.11, p.1032-1038. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 94-1607 Bezard F., Dubois J.P., Jourdain P., Laplaiche N., Richard P., de Roll P., Rolland A.M., Roussel D., Scalbert J., Violette E.
Foundries: Coremaking processes
Les fonderies: procédés de noyautage [in French]
The general and specific risks of the coremaking process and their management are reviewed. Suggestions are made for the monitoring of workplaces and for medical surveillance.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 1993, No.55, p.251-258. 28 ref.

CIS 94-907 Rotimi C., Austin H., Delzell E., Day C., Macaluso M., Honda Y.
Retrospective follow-up study of foundry and engine plant workers
A retrospective follow-up study of 21,013 workers employed at a foundry and two engine manufacturing plants was conducted to determine if these workers had an unusual mortality experience. A total of 2,235 deaths occurred during the follow-up period of 1970-1987. Mortality from all causes was lower than expected. Men experienced a 6-13% excess of lung cancer deaths, depending on the choice of the comparison group. The data displayed evidence of a positive trend between lung cancer mortality and increasing duration of employment (p=0.008). White men experienced a statistically significant excess of deaths from stomach cancer (SMR=158; 95% CI=101-234). Black men had increased mortality from pancreatic cancer, especially among engine plant workers (SMR=303; CI=121-624), and an excess of prostate cancer, concentrated among foundry workers (SMR=234; CI=112-430).
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1993, Vol.24, No.4, p.485-498. Illus. 38 ref

CIS 94-976 Edmonds M.A., Gressel M.G., O'Brien D.M., Clark N.J.
Reducing exposures during the pouring operations of a brass foundry
The focus of this exposure assessment and control technology study was a brass foundry and the lead exposures of workers involved in the transportation and pouring of metal. Controls in place at the foundry included ventilation systems at the furnace and along the continuous and stationary pouring lines. Real-time measurements were made to determine which tasks were the primary exposure sources, and a hand-held aerosol monitor was used to measure real-time aerosol exposures (as a surrogate for lead) in the workers' breathing zones. The greatest aerosol exposures occurred during the transportation of an unventilated full ladle. The addition of local exhaust ventilation could result in a reduction of worker exposure to aerosols during the continuous pouring operation by up to 40%. The controls and techniques suggested in this study could be applied to pouring operations throughout the industry to reduce worker exposure to metal fumes.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, May 1993, Vol.54, No.5, p.260-266. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 94-917 Metal and steel production, foundries and electricity and heat generating plants
Metal- stålværker og støberier, el- og varmeværker [in Danish]
Volume No.1 of a series of monographs covering occupational safety and health in all sectors of the Danish economy. It covers the metal production industries, foundries and electricity and district heat plants. The major work environmental problems in these sectors are accidents, noise exposure, air contaminants, heavy workload and vibrations (Raynaud's phenomenon).
Direktoratet for Arbejdstilsynet, Landskronagade 33-35, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, 1993. 66p. 22 ref. Price: DKK 100.00.


CIS 95-1505 van den Brulle P.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Noise emission from foundry machines II - Blasting machines, automatic moulding machines and shakeout conveyors
Geräuschemission von Giessereimaschinen II - Strahlanlagen, automatische Formanlagen, Förderroste [in German]
Cleaning areas in the metal industry are known for their high levels of noise. Measurements were made on 55 shot blasting machines and 6 air pressure blasting machines. With the help of secondary noise abatement measures, the sound pressure level can be lowered below 85 or even 80dB(A). Instructions to carry out these changes are available from manufacturers. The state of the art of moulding machines, core shooting machines and shake-outs has considerably changed in the last few years. A relationship was found between the quality of the noise abatement measures and the maintenance of machinery. The emission sound pressure level at the work station of well-serviced machines with adequate mufflers is around 85dB(A) for moulding and 80dB(A) for core shooting machines. The sound power level of shake-out conveyors is proportional to the area of the conveyor section and a noise reduction of about 10dB(A) can be achieved by encapsulating the conveyor section.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, Am Alten Hafen 113-115, 2850 Bremerhaven 1, Germany, 1992. 184p. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 94-584 Jansing P.J., Lamprecht J.
Multifactorial genesis of laryngeal cancers in an oil hardening department
Multifaktorielle Genese eines Kehlkopfkarzinoms in einer Ölhärterei [in German]
A group of 29 workers employed in the oil-bath hardening section of a foundry in Germany and a control group of 40 workers received medical examinations of the larynx. Measurements in the oil-bath hardening area yielded benzo(a)pyrene concentrations between 23 and 36ng/m3, a respirable dust concentration of 2.21mg/m3 with a quartz content of 4%, noise levels ranging from 85 to 95dB(A) and room temperatures of 29.2 to 30°C at a relative humidity of 13%. A highly significant incidence of laryngeal cancers was found for the workers of the oil-bath hardening department, 4 versus none in the control group. Laryngeal disorders were far higher than in the control group, 76% versus 27%. There were more and heavier smokers in the control group than in the exposed group.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, Apr. 1992, Vol.27, No.4, p.137-139. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 94-229 Société française de médecine du travail - 25 January 1992 Meeting
Société française de médecine du travail - Séance du 25 janvier 1992 [in French]
Summary of papers presented at the 25 Jan. 1992 Meeting of the Société française de médecine du travail. Themes studied: acquired sensitivity to solvents; syndrome of acquired sensitivity to chemical odours; pleural plaques without associated asbestosis and respiratory function; epidemiologic survey of mortality in a lead foundry: methodology and results; Health Commission of the CINDEX (Centre inter-entreprise de l'expatriation) or how to ensure the safeness and comfort of travels and life abroad; prevention of AIDS risk among hospital workers.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1992, Vol.53, No.3, p.195-199.

CIS 94-301 Mora V., Pairon J.C., Garnier R., Laureillard J., Lionnet F., Hoguet L., Schaeffer A., Efthymiou M.L., Brochard P.
Acute arsine poisoning in a ferrous metal foundry: Report on two cases
Intoxication aiguë par l'hydrogène arsénié dans une fonderie de métaux ferreux. A propos de deux observations [in French]
Acute arsine poisoning was observed in 2 workers employed in a ferrous metal foundry. One presented an acute haemolysis with acute renal failure, requiring haemodialysis. Renal function slowly recovered but high blood pressure was observed secondarily. The 2nd case presented as predominantly cytolytic hepatitis on the 20th day after acute haemolysis. The evolution was rapidly resolutive, with no transfusion needed. The hypothesis of a causal role of arsine intoxication in this hepatitis is therefore possible. Subsequent atmospheric measurements in the workplace showed detectable amounts of arsine during the shovelling of the scories: results were < or equal to the threshold limit value when the operations were performed in dry conditions. In contrast, an atmospheric level of 60ppm was observed when water was added to the scories. This could be due to arsenical impurities present in ferrosilicium and calcium carbide used in the foundry. These observations underline the potential risk of arsine intoxication in such industries and raise the possibility of a delayed cytolytic hepatitis.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1992, Vol.53, No.3, p.167-173. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 93-892 Perrault G., Dion C., Ostiguy C., Michaud D., Baril M.
Selective sampling and chemical speciation of airborne dust in ferrous foundries
Airborne dust was selectively sampled in three ferrous foundries. Granulometric fractions were analysed to determine the concentrations of dust, crystalline silica, and metal fumes. The trend in airborne dust concentrations seemed to be explained by the extent of natural or mechanical ventilation in the foundries, although the differences between foundries were generally not statistically significant. Quartz was present in large and medium size particles and absent in small (<0.5µm) particles. Lead was always concentrated in the small particle fraction and was preponderant in the foundry where untreated scrap metal was used. The complexity in particle composition increased as the average aerodynamic diameter of the particle decreased. The metallic content of small particles was higher than that of large particles and was related to casting operations. Medium size and large particles seemed to come mainly from the sand and other ingredients used in the moulding operations.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1992, Vol.53, No.7, p.463-470. Illus. 47 ref.

CIS 93-659
Foundries Industry Advisory Committee
Vibration white finger in foundries - Advice for employers
This leaflet gives advice to employers on reducing the risk of ill health caused by exposure to the use of rotating or percussive hand-guided tools. Symptoms of hand-arm vibration syndrome and vibration white finger are described along with precautions and preventive measures, including identification of risks to employees, review of product and process design, purchase of new tools and equipment and health surveillance.
HSE Information Centre, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, 1992. 8p. 6 ref.

CIS 93-160 Andjelkovich D.A., Mathew R.M., Yu R.C., Richardson R.B., Levine R.J.
Mortality of iron foundry workers: II. Analysis by work area
Plantwide analyses of the mortality experience of 8,147 foundrymen revealed excesses for several diseases including lung cancer. Using indirect measures of smoking, it appeared that most, if not all, of the excess of lung cancer deaths could be explained by smoking habits. To explore further the possible association between these mortality excesses and foundry exposures, jobs were grouped into six work areas on the basis of similarities in production processes. No evidence was found of a relationship between lung cancer and foundry exposures. The pattern of mortality from emphysema and cerebrovascular disease in the different work areas paralleled that of lung cancer, suggesting that mortality from these diseases may have been influenced by a common aetiologic agent, probably tobacco smoke. The data also reveal possible associations between metal pattern-making and colon cancer, silica or metal dust and stomach cancer, and carbon monoxide and ischaemic heart disease. For Part I of this study, see CIS 93-159.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1992, Vol.34, No.4, p.391-401. Illus. 39 ref.

CIS 92-2013 El Kholti A.
Foundries: Processes and chemical hazards
Les fonderies: procédés et risques chimiques [in French]
Among the various metal-transformation industries, foundries are among the most hazardous, whichever processes or metals are used. This bibliographic study and information note is devoted particularly to chemical hazards in foundries. These hazards include the new hazard of exposure to sand binders containing synthetic resins. Technologies and processes considered in this article: patterning, moulding, coremaking, melting and pouring. Chemical hazards: dusts (silica, metallic dusts), gases (emissions from melting furnaces, during the manufacturing of moulds and cores, during pouring after there has been thermal degradation of binders and during the knock-out process). Prevention methods: technical prevention, personal protection, others. In annex: table of principal chemical products encountered, with corresponding TLVs, toxicity indexes, processes where encountered, chemical function or manner of appearance, hazard for workers (organic - Table A II; mineral - Table A III).
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 1992, No.49, p.41-55. Illus. 60 ref.

CIS 92-1643 O'Brien D., Froehlich P.A., Gressel M.G., Hall R.M., Clark N.J., Bost P., Fischbach T.
Silica exposure in hand grinding steel castings
Exposure to silica dust was studied in the grinding of castings in a steel foundry. Approximately one-third of the personal samples exceeded the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommended exposure limit for crystalline silica. The casting cleaning tools with the largest wheels were shown to be the major sources of dust exposure. Existing dust control consisted of the use of downdraft grinding benches. The size of the casting precluded working at a distance close enough to the grates of the downdraft benches for efficient capture of the grinding dust. In addition, measurements of air recirculated from the downdraft benches indicated that less than half of the respirable particles were removed from the contaminated airstream. The study endorsed the following control options: the use of mold coatings, which minimise sand burn-in on the casting surface; application of high-velocity, low-volume exhaust hoods; the use of a non-silica molding aggregate such as olivine.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1992, Vol.53, No.1, p.42-48. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 92-254
Health and Safety Executive
Control of silica dust in foundries
This advisory booklet gives information about silica in foundry operations, indicates means of reducing silica exposure and highlights the reasons why control measures in foundries typically fail to achieve their purpose. Contents: sources of silica exposure in foundries; typical exposure levels; descriptions of various processes and recommendations for exposure control; precautions during repair and maintenance work; housekeeping; respiratory protective equipment.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1992. 13p. Illus. 13 ref. Price: GBP 4.00.


CIS 95-663 Rosner D., Markowitz G.
Deadly dust. Silicosis and the politics of occupational disease in twentieth-century America
The history of silicosis in America from its recognition in the early years of the 20th century is reviewed. The increasing severity of the sand dust problem in foundries as a result of changes in work methods, technology and organization is described along with the impact on workers' health. The broader social conditions that contributed to the emergence of silicosis as a national crisis and attempts by government, industry and insurance to resolve it are discussed. Finally, the waning interest in this condition on the part of business, health professionals and the labour unions is reviewed.
Princeton University Press, 41 William Street, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA, 1991. xiii, 229p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: USD 15.95, GBP 13.95.

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