Manufacturing of electrical appliances and equipment - 393 entries found
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Health and Safety Executive
Don't tell the lads
This videotape shows what happens when a worker in a battery factory is found to have excessive blood lead levels during a regular medical check-up.
CFL Vision, P.O. Box 35, Wetherby LS23 7EX, United Kingdom, 1976. Videotape. Length: 26min. Price: GBP 28.68 (hire), GBP 85.10 (sale). ###
Lyčagin V.V., Adamovič G.G., Mihajlova T.N., Kozlova Ju.G., Kinžibalova Ž.V., Filippov O.V.
Immunological reactivity in workers in insulation and enamelling workshops of a cable factory
Ocenka immunologičeskoj reaktivnosti u rabotnikov stekloizulirovočnogo i ėmalirovočnogo otdelenij kabel'nogo zavoda [in Russian]
Studies on the influence of airborne acrolein, chlorobenzene, phenol, acetone and glass fibre dust in the workplace on natural immunity indices in the exposed workers. Workers engaged in cable insulation employing glass fibres presented immunological changes (reduction of bactericidal power of the skin and phagocytic activity of leukocytes). There was a relation between length of service and effect. Workers applying the insulating material suffered more commonly from skin disorders and chronic respiratory disease than enamellers. This morbidity is attributed to the effect of glass fibre dust and acetone.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Nov. 1976, No.11, p.24-26. 4 ref.
Dianova A.V., Kočetkova T.A., Rumjancev G.I.
Synergistic effects of mica dust and resins in the manufacture of micanite products
K voprosu o kombinirovannom dejstvie pyli sljudy i smol, primenennyh v proizvodstve mikanitovyh izdelij [in Russian]
Brief report of an occupational health survey in a factory producing micanite components, etc. (presence in workplace air of phlogopite, muscovite, shellac and alkyd resins (glyptals); 7 cases of pneumoconiotic changes in 82 cases studied), followed by results of experiments in white rats: inhalation of the 4 above-mentioned substances (separately) caused discrete pneumoconiosis. Combined inhalation of mica dust and resin, however, produced an inhibiting effect of the shellac and alkyd resin on the course of the pneumoconiosis produced by the mica, with significant potentiation of the toxic and sensitising effects. A TLV of 2mg/m3 is recommended for simultaneous concentrations of these dusts.
Gigiena i sanitarija, July 1976, No.7, p.33-37. Illus. 4 ref.
Physiological function stress in test engineers for electrical machines
Naprjažennost' fiziologičeskih funkcij ispytatelej ėlektričeskih mašin [in Russian]
Results of observations and tests on 101 test bed engineers exposed to stress due to work involving several vigilance tasks and to airflow noise from fans of the tested motors. Comparison of these results with observations on 33 controls. In the subjects, the pulse rate was 8.5 to 13.6 strokes/min. higher than the controls, the psychomotor reaction time was longer, and significant hearing losses occurred after several years of exposure. Suggested occupational health measures: noise control at the source; placing personnel and control desks in acoustic enclosures; equipment of test beds with signalling devices and automatic controls to reduce the stress due to hearing vigilance.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, July 1976, No.7, p.7-11. Illus. 5 ref.
Occupational lead poisoning
Gewerblicher "Saturnismus" [in German]
MD thesis on relations between the level of inorganic lead in the workplace air and its biological effects at a Swiss storage battery factory. General review of toxicology and symptoms of lead poisoning, measurement of lead concentrations and biological indicators. Description of storage battery production and the factory studied. Results of airborne lead determinations at different workposts and of preventive medical examinations; description of 5 instructive cases; principles of technical and medical prevention. Airborne lead concentrations varied from 0.043 to 0.947mg/m3. Urinary ALA levels were raised at levels above 0.1mg/m3. The importance of personal hygiene is stressed. Urinary ALA determinations give the most useful results, while haematological and clinical criteria have only limited value.
Schweizerische Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Luzern, Switzerland, 1976. 89p. Illus. 49 ref.
Gaseous mixtures containing monosilane
Monosilanhaltige Gasgemische [in German]
Description of research to determine the maximum concentration of monosilane in argon, nitrogen and hydrogen, to prevent the spontaneous combustion of monosilane when these mixtures are released into the atmosphere. The article recalls the properties of monosilane (silicomethane) and the conditions for its thermal decomposition. The results of the research carried out show that mixtures of 1.5mol% monosilane in argon, 2mol% in nitrogen and 2.5mol% in hydrogen may be handled without risk of spontaneous combustion.
Arbeitsschutz, Sep. 1976. No.9, p.299-302. 5 ref.
Milburn H., Mitran E., Crockford G.W.
An investigation of lead workers for subclinical effects of lead using three performance tests.
The tests - 2-flash fusion threshold, reaction time to a touch stimulus, and rate at which hand grip pressure is developed - showed no differences between 16 exposed workers at a lead and battery manufacturing plant (mean exposure 12.5 years) and 15 controls from the plastic department of the same company, in spite of marked differences in their present blood lead levels. (61 and 28µg/100ml, respectively).
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Dec. 1976, Vol.19, No.3-4, p.239-249. 12 ref.
Ouw H.K., Simpson G.R., Siyali D.S.
Use and health effects of Aroclor 1242, a polychlorinated biphenyl, in an electrical industry.
34 workers exposed to approx. 400ppb Aroclor 1242 were examined. They complained of a burning sensation of the face and hands, nausea, and a persistent body odour. One had chloracne, and 5 an eczematous rash on the legs and hands. Hepatic function tests were normal, but the mean blood Aroclor level was significantly higher than in controls. A tentative value of 200ppb is suggested as an acceptable exposure limit. Efficient exhaust ventilation, and regular liver function tests and blood level determinations of exposed workers are recommended.
Archives of Environmental Health, July-Aug. 1976, Vol.31, No.4, p.189-194. 13 ref.
Factories and Industrial Undertakings (Dry Batteries) Regulations 1976 - Legal Notice 196 of 1976.
These Regulations, dated 26 July 1976, are intended to protect workers' health in premises where dry-cell batteries containing manganese dioxide are manufactured. Definitions are followed by sections devoted to: storage; mixing rooms; rooms for moulding and pressing manganese dioxide "dollies"; dust; ventilation; good housekeeping; tiled surfaces for walls and floors, avoidance of dust concentration; prohibition of taking meals, smoking or sleeping in mixing rooms or moulding and pressing rooms; protective clothing (cap, face mask, gloves, overalls); lockers; washing facilities; warning notices; liability for use of faulty equipment; penalties.
Hong Kong Government Gazette, 6 Aug. 1976, No.32, Legal Supplement No.2, p.B607-611.
Storment J.W., Pelton H.K.
Practical noise control in a large manufacturing plant.
Federal regulations recently enacted in the USA for the control of noise in industry have led to an intensification of noise control programmes and measures. The basic elements of a systematic programme are discussed, and a comprehensive noise survey conducted at a large manufacturing company is described in detail. Prototype enclosures were built to evaluate their noise reduction properties and functional practicability. Numerous practical examples are given of how specific noise problems were effectively solved: power plant (furnaces, boilers, compressors, pipes and valves), metalworking machines, plastics moulding and conveying equipment, etc.
Sound and Vibration, May 1976, Vol.10, No.5, p.22-32. Illus. 4 ref.
Health and Safety Executive, London.
Lead - Health damage.
This guidance note is a new and modified edition of a former U.K. Department of Employment code of practice on this question. An introduction is followed by sections devoted to: control of lead dust and fume; maintenance work; housekeeping; inspection of control measures and monitoring of the factory environment; respiratory protective equipment; personal hygiene for lead process workers; protective clothing; biological monitoring of lead workers (medical supervision, initial and periodic medical examinations, records); health education, information and related training of employees; communication and joint consultation; legal requirements (quotations and extracts from relevant laws and regulations). Guidance on control of dust and fume in the lead smelting and refining and lead battery industries is appended.
H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London SE1 9NH, United Kingdom, 1976. 85p.
Forni A., Cambiaghi G., Secchi G.C.
Initial occupational exposure to lead.
Description of chromosome and biochemical studies in 11 subjects before and during their first exposure to lead fumes at a storage battery plant. The rate of abnormal metaphases, which are described in detail, doubled after one month of exposure. It further increased after 2 months, remained steady up to 7 months, and then tended to decrease. Blood lead levels increased for some months and then reached a steady state. Urinary lead and coproporphyrin levels showed a sharp increase, and urinary δ-ALA a moderate increase, in the first month. Erythrocyte ALAD activity fell by almost 50% in the first month, fell further subsequently, and remained low throughout the subsequent months of the study.
Archives of Environmental Health, Mar.-Apr. 1976, Vol.31, No.2, p.73-78. 20 ref.
Ishihara N., Kanaya A., Ikeda M.
m-Dinitrobenzene intoxication due to skin absorption.
Case history and laboratory investigation following the intoxication of a 37-year-old woman, employed in the production of electronic parts, who developed cyanosis with general malaise and anorexia after the introduction of an improved chemical mixture (containing 0.5% m-dinitrobenzene) into the production process. Tests showed that m-dinitrobenzene penetrates protective latex gloves such as were worn by the patient. The fact that m-dinitrobenzene is known to be absorbed through the skin and to cause systemic poisoning indicates that the main route of invasion was skin absorption via the gloves. No hepatotoxicity was found.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 26 Jan. 1976, Vol.36, No.3, p.161-168. 17 ref.
Čakrtova E., Knížek M., Lepší P.
Hazards of phosphine formation during polishing of gallium phosphide plates
Fosforovodík jako riziko při mechanickém opracování destiček fosfidu galia [in Czech]
Mechanical grinding of gallium phosphide in an aqueous emery suspension gave rise to considerable quantities of phosphine in the grinder's breathing zone, reaching about 0.1mg/m3, the mean maximum permissible level in Czechoslovakia. Phosphine results from hydrolysis of gallium phosphide, and its release can be controlled by adding an oxidiser (H2O2) to the aqueous emery suspension.
Pracovní lékařství, Sep. 1975, Vol.27, No.7-8, p.250-254. Illus. 14 ref.
Swensson Ĺ., Vesterberg O., Wildt K., Knave B., Goldberg J.M., Persson H.E.
Examinations of workers chronically exposed to lead. I. Health control of storage battery factory workers. II. A neurological and neurophysiological examination of storage battery factory workers
Undersökningar av kroniskt blyexponerad personal - I. Hälsokontroll av kroniskt blyexponerad personal vid Nordiska Ackumulatorfabriker NOACK AB. II. En neurologisk och neurofysiologisk undersökning av personal vid Nordiska Ackumulatorfabriker NOACK AB [in Swedish]
In the first part of the study, the blood of 58 workers exposed to lead was continuously monitored for 5 years. There was no damage to haemopoietic organs or kidneys and the blood pressure was unaffected. In the second part, no intoxication symptoms or peripheral nerve dysfunction were observed during examinations of 65 workers chronically exposed to lead. Blood lead values ranged from 21 to 66mg/100ml (expressed as the mean for 1967-1972). Clinical and neurological examinations included special reference to the peripheral nerve function with measurements of conduction velocities and threshold determinations of vibratory sensations on the extremities. Changes of existing Swedish recommendations for lead exposure are not considered justified.
Arbete och hälsa - Vetenskaplig skriftserie 1975:3 and 1975:4, Arbetarskyddsverket, Stockholm, Sweden, 1975. 17 and 14p. 18 ref. Price: Swe-cr.11.00 and 10.00.
Lancranjan I., Popescu H.I., Găvănescu O., Klepsch I., Şerbănescu M.
Reproductive ability of workmen occupationally exposed to lead.
The subjects of this survey were divided into 4 groups: 23 workers with lead poisoning, 42 with moderate exposure, 35 with slight, and 50 with physiological levels. Workers in the first 2 groups showed asthenospermia, hypospermia and teratospermia; the reproductive powers of the others were not affected. Hypofertility due to lead poisoning possibly results from a direct effect on the gonads, as no action on the hypothalamo-pituitary axis was noted.
Archives of Environmental Health, Aug. 1975, Vol.30, No.8, p.396-401. Illus. 27 ref.
Tomlinson R.W., Corlett E.N.
The ergonomics of open-fronted C-frame presses.
Results of a 3-phase study: survey of the anthropometric characteristics of cutting presses carried out in a company manufacturing components for the electronics industry; comparison after ergonomics modification of the press; laboratory simulation (using a mock-up of a press) of the effects produced by modifying 3 of the most pertinent parameters (height of bed, distance between operator and press, most efficient height of guard). The study showed up a number of discrepancies between characteristics of existing presses and ergonomic criteria. Performance studies with the modified press resulted in improved output as compared with the original press. This improvement was confirmed by performance studies on the simulator, particularly as regards hand movement, reaching time, etc.
Applied Ergonomics, Guildford, United Kingdom, Mar. 1975, Vol.6, No.1, p.23-31. Illus. 9 ref.
Repko J.D., Morgan B.B., Nicholson J.
Behavioral effects of occupational exposure to lead.
Final report on controlled studies in which 80 behavioural tests were performed in 316 lead-exposed subjects (5 levels of body burden were distinguished) engaged in storage battery manufacture, with statistical analysis of the results. Intellectual functions were not affected by lead exposure, whereas sensory (hearing), neuromuscular and psychomotor, and psychological functions all were. Neuromuscular and psychomotor functions showed the greatest effect: major changes occurred at blood lead (PbB) levels of 70-79µg%. PbB levels are not a sensitive measure of changes in functional capacity, blood aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D) being found the most sensitive predictor of task performance. Recommendations are made for a biomedical standard of 70µg% for PbB, and of 21 units of ALA-D activity, as well as on the use of functional tests in routine monitoring of exposed workers. Directions for future research. Numerous appendices.
HEW Publication No.(NIOSH)75-164, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Post Office Building, Cincinnati, Ohio 45202, USA, May 1975. 239p. Illus. 172 ref.
Seppäläinen A.M., Tola S., Hernberg S., Kock B.
Subclinical neuropathy at "safe" levels of lead exposure.
This study was undertaken to investigate the correlation between blood lead levels (PbB) and the presence of functional disturbances. Highly sensitive neurophysiological techniques revealed subclinical neuropathy in 26 workers from a storage battery factory whose PbB during the entire period of lead exposure of 1-17 years had never exceeded 70µg/100ml. Comparison on an international basis of the method of PbB measurement used showed it to be satisfactory. Measurement of the conduction velocity of the slower motor fibres of the ulnar nerve, the most sensitive test, yielded lower values in the exposed group than in controls. A dose-response relationship was found to exist within the group, but the authors stress that individual diagnosis is not possible. Conclusion: an exposure intensity giving rise to PbB levels below 70µg/100ml can cause slight nervous damage and present concepts of safe PbB levels should therefore be reconsidered.
Archives of Environmental Health, Apr. 1975, Vol.30, No.4, p.180-183. Illus. 8 ref.
Udžvarlić H., Tanasković B., Roubić R., Huml D., Stojaković M., Dizdarević J., Čolos V., Šurbat G., Budai V., Šubara S.
Health conditions and health impairment in workers employed in an electrical equipment factory (araldite department)
Higijenski uslovi i neki aspekti oštećenja zdravlja radnika u tvornici elektroaparata (Odjeljenje araldita) [in Serbocroatian]
Results of an occupational health survey carried out in a plant manufacturing electrical insulation equipment: concentrations of atmospheric silica, glass fibre and phthalic anhydride dust exceeded TLVs. Medical examination of 72 workers brought to light chronic inflammatory disorders of the upper respiratory airways, 2 cases of pneumoconiosis with small rounded opacities (one associated with inactive pulmonary tuberculosis), 5 cases of inactive pulmonary tuberculosis and numerous cases of mild obstructive respiratory syndrome (27%). The authors recommend mechanisation of the processes, airtight enclosure, local exhaust ventilation, strict personal hygiene, use of barrier creams, protective clothing and gloves, and medical supervision for improved personnel selection (contraindications: persons suffering from dermatitis, allergies, etc.).
Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju, 1975, Vol.26, No.1, p.23-40. 40 ref.
Cooper W.C., Gaffey W.R.
Mortality of lead workers.
The mortality of 7,032 men employed for one or more years as smelters or battery-plant workers was followed over a 23-year period (1947 to 1970). Lead absorption in many of these men was greatly in excess of currently accepted standards. 1,356 deaths were reported. Deaths from neoplasms were in slight excess in smelters, not significantly increased in battery-plant workers. There were no excess deaths from kidney tumours or from hypertension heart disease. There was an excess of deaths from "other hypertension disease", of marginal statistical significance but consistent with other evidence relating lead to renal damage. The life expectancy of lead workers was calculated to be approximately the same as that of all U.S. males.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1975, Vol.17, No.2, p.100-107. 26 ref.
Kosova L.V., Geršovič E.M.
Effect of strontium-calcium-bismuth titanate on the body in experimental conditions
O dejstvii stroncij-kal'cij-vismutnogo titanata na organizm v uslovijah ėksperimenta [in Russian]
Animal research was carried out to determine the health hazard involved in exposure to titanate powders used in large quantities for the manufacture of magnetoelectric and piezoelectric ceramic materials. After intratracheal administration, a gradual accumulation of dust was observed in the pulmonary tissue, together with discrete cytotoxic and fibrotic reactions. Titanate dust is therefore considered to be only slightly toxic.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Dec. 1974, No.12, p.56-57. 6 ref.
Dekker J.C., Pel H.J., Sieswerda D.
Illusory safety when working with dimethylformamide
Schijnzekerheden bij het werken met dimethylformamide [in Dutch]
The introduction of a new electrolyte containing dimethylformamide (DMF) in the manufacture of capacitors prompted a series of tests to assess the permeability of gloves formerly used for protection against an electrolyte containing dimethylacetamide. The test results showed that natural rubber and neoprene are very permeable to DMF, while Hypalon and polyethylene gave much better results. The permeability was lowest with Buta-Sol, which is based on butyl rubber.
Tijdschrift voor sociale geneeskunde, 22 Nov. 1974, Vol.52, No.23, p.860-862. Illus. 6 ref.
Wolf D., Adelmann M., Domes M.
Mercury determination at workplaces in the manufacture of fluorescent tubes - Results and analytical methods
Quecksilbermessung am Arbeitsplatz bei der Herstellung von Leuchtstoffröhren - Ergebnisse und Analysenmethoden [in German]
Description of the manufacture of fluorescent tubes and results of air analyses, followed by recommendations on appropriate preventive measures. Part 2 of the report is an account of sampling of mercury vapours at the workplace with the aid of scrubber flasks, chemical preparation of the samples and determination of mercury by photometry or spectroscopy, the results of which are compared by statistical methods. Part 3 takes stock of experience with detector tubes and compares this technique with other methods of mercury determination. The conclusion points to the inadvisability of being satisfied with results obtained by detector tubes alone in evaluating the hygiene conditions at the workplace.
STF-Report 1-74, Staubforschungsinstitut des Hauptverbandes der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften, Langwartweg 103, 53 Bonn 1, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 1974. 37p. Illus. 28 ref.
Levantovskaja O.M., Ljubčenko P.N., Dajhin I.S., Sorkina N.S.
Blood coagulation in lead poisoning and the influence of specific treatment
Sostojanie gemokoaguljacii pri svincovoj intoksikacii i vlijanie na nee specifičeskoj terapii [in Russian]
Results of blood coagulation studies in 104 workers with long-term exposure in a storage-battery plant. Over-all coagulation activity is unchanged in cases of mild lead poisoning, but long-term exposure gives rise to increased fibrinogen levels, activated fibrinolysis, and reduced serum accelerator globulin and prothrombin activities. 13 workers were given D-penicillamine (oral doses of 450mg daily). All coagulation indices had become normal after 10 days' treatment. The changes observed are thought to be due to protein synthesis disturbances in the liver and to inhibition of enzymes by lead which combines with their sulfhydryl and disulfide groups.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, July 1974, No.7, p.28-31. 16 ref.
Haeger-Aronsen B., Abdulla M., Fristedt B.I.
Effect of lead on δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity in red blood cells - II. Regeneration of enzyme after cessation of lead exposure.
Reduction of δ-aminolaevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity in the red blood cells has proved to be the most sensitive test for lead poisoning (CIS 1199-1972, Cud Mtw). The regeneration of ALAD after cessation of lead exposure was studied in 31 men who had worked in a storage battery plant. At the same blood lead concentration (PbB), ALAD activity was found to be slightly higher in those whose exposure had terminated than in those with continuing exposure. Regeneration was faster in men with a shorter exposure to lead and a lower PbB at cessation of exposure.
Archives of Environmental Health, Sep. 1974, Vol.29, No.3, p.150-153. Illus. 18 ref.
McGill D.B., Motto J.D.
An industrial outbreak of toxic hepatitis due to methylenedianiline.
Between 1966 and 1972, 12 young male workers exposed to 4,4'-methylenedianiline (4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane) developed hepatitis manifesting the following clinical features: a short prodromal period, severe right-upper-quadrant pain, high fever and chills, followed by jaundice. All recovered in 7 weeks. When re-examined 9 months to 5 1/2 years later, all were without clinical or biochemical evidence of chronic liver disease. Circumstantial evidence in the 12 cases suggested that the skin was the major portal of entry of the toxic compound. Pending the development of an automated system requiring no worker contact with methylenedianiline, protective suits with attached rubber gloves were introduced and worn by all exposed workers. No further cases of hepatitis occurred.
New England Journal of Medicine, 8 Aug. 1974, Vol.291, No.6, p.278-282. Illus. 54 ref.
Fox A.J., Lindars D.C., Owen R.
A survey of occupational cancer in the rubber and cablemaking industries: results of five-year analysis, 1967-71.
A mortality study of the rubber industry and electric cable manufacture in which rubber is used was carried out by the Employment Medical Advisory Service of the Department of Employment to compare the patterns of mortality in 3 exposure groups: (a) men employed in factories which used known carcinogenic compounds and who entered these factories before Jan. 1950; (b) men employed in factories which used known carcinogenic compounds and who entered these factories after Dec. 1949; and (c) men employed in factories which had never used known carcinogenic compounds. The results of a first analysis of this study are reported and discussed.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 1974, Vol.31, No.2, p.140-151. Illus. 41 ref.
Hess K., Straub P.W.
Chronic lead poisoning
Chronische Bleivergiftung [in German]
Detailed description of the complex pathological picture observed in the case of a worker with 30 years' occupational exposure to lead in an accumulator factory (evolution of the disease, clinical findings, autopsy). In spite of a typical clinical picture, lead is not held responsible for the terminal encephalopathy, in view of the fact that Alzheimer's syndrome was discovered at autopsy. However, the neurovegetative asthenia and progressive kidney disease without hypertonia, but with uraemia, which preceded the encephalopathy are in all probability due to chronic lead poisoning. The article discusses the diagnosis and symptomatology of chronic lead poisoning, encephalopathy and kidney disease.
Schweizerische Rundschau für Medizin - Revue suisse de médecine - Praxis, 19 Feb. 1974, Vol.63, No.7, p.177-183. Illus. 40 ref.
Lauwerys R., Buchet J.P., Roels H., Brouwers J.
Epidemiological survey of workers exposed to cadmium
Enquęte épidémiologique des travailleurs exposés au cadmium. [in French]
Preliminary results of a survey covering 80 workers occupationally exposed to cadmium dust (electronics factory, manufacture of Ni-Cd storage batteries, industrial production of cadmium). The authors distinguish 3 groups of effects according to the degree and duration of exposure to the dust. They also take into account the effects of the subjects' smoking habits. Conclusion: prolonged exposure to a cadmium dust concentration lower than the TLV may result in a syndrome of mild respiratory obstruction; kidney damage occurs before lung function impairment. The authors therefore recommend that the TLV for total cadmium dust concentration should be lowered from 200 to 50µg/m3.
Cahiers de médecine du travail - Cahiers voor bedrijfsgeneeskunde, Dec. 1973, Vol.10, No.4, p.169-170.
Engels L.H., Kühnen G.
Protection against dust in the storage battery manufacturing industry
Staubschutz in der Akkumulatoren-Industrie [in German]
This report of a study on industrial hygiene conditions in storage battery factories is prefaced by a description of the manufacturing process involved. In 3 years the Dust Research Institute took 451 air samples in 16 factories. The lead levels monitored and the resuts of a statistical analysis for each production stage are summarised in tabular form. The maximum permissible values of lead concentration were exceeded in every workplace. A considerable part of the report is devoted to health engineering at the various manufacturing stages (exhaust ventilation, adequate air renewal by conventional ventilation, separation or enclosure of plant, automation, etc.).
STF-Report Nr.2-73, Staubforschungsinstitut des Hauptverbandes der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften, Langwartweg 103, 53 Bonn 1, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 1973. 27p. Illus. 9 ref.
Dubejkovskaja L.S., Asanova T.P., Rozina G.Ju., Budanova L.F., Zenkevič E.S., Revnova N.V., Gorn L.Ė.
Hygienic assessment of ethylene glycol during the manufacture of certain electronic components
Gigieničeskoe značenie ėtilenglikolja v proizvodstve nekotoryh radiodetalej [in Russian]
Determinations carried out in the atmosphere of 2 electronic components manufacturing workshops showed that the mean concentration of ethylene glycol at critical points was 49mg/m3. No cases of occupational ethylene glycol poisoning were found, but the subjective symptoms noted (headaches, general asthenia, fatigue, etc.) and the functional disorders of the nervous system observed in almost half of the exposed workers point to the neurotoxic effect of this substance. A TLV of 5mg/m3 is recommended.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Oct. 1973, No.10, p.1-4. 3 ref.
Compilation of statutory instruments in force concerning occupational safety and health in the electrotechnical industry
Sbornik dejstvujuščih pravil tehniki bezopasnosti v ėlektrotehničeskoj promyšlennosti [in Russian]
Compilation of regulations in force in the USSR as of 1 Jan. 1972. Contents: general provisions concerning occupational safety and health; safe working methods in the manufacture of electronic tubes, electric bulbs, lead and alkali accumulators, dry batteries, ceramic insulators, carbon electrodes and electric cables; metalworking; foundries; welding and cutting; metal coating; painting; work in laboratories; use of industrial gases; woodworking; work with mercury, epoxy resins, methanol; protection against radiofrequency radiation and ultrasound; noise and vibration control.
Izdatel'stvo "Ėnergija", šljuzovaja nab. 10, Moskva M-114, USSR, 1973. 584p. Illus. Price: Rbl.5.16.
Farina G., Alessio L.
Repeated episodes of chronic lead poisoning appearing long after occupational exposure to lead
Ripetuti episodi di intossicazione saturnina comparsa a distanza di tempo dalla esposizione professionale a piombo [in Italian]
Study of a case of occupational lead poisoning in a worker employed in battery manufacture who had been exposed between 1946 and 1962 to a severe chronic lead poisoning hazard and who had several recurrences of symptoms of the disease long (up to 1972) after ceasing to work with lead. Since the subject had not absorbed lead outside his job, these recurrences seem to be caused by the mobilisation of metal accumulated in large quantities in the organs. The evolution of this case leads to practical suggestions concerning both suitable treatment and the programme of laboratory checks to be applied to persons suffering from chronic lead poisoning.
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 1973, Vol.64, No.9-10, p.358-362. 7 ref.
Jindřichová J., Medek V., Boštík V., Eminger S.
The hazards of chronic lead poisoning in coating electric resistors with a lead-base enamel
Riziko olova při stříkání elektrických odporů olovnatými smalty [in Czech]
Study of the lead poisoning hazard in a workshop where workers were engaged in enamelling electric resistors by spraying with a product containing 13 to 43% PbO. Over a 10-year period (1961-1971) various preventive measures (especially improved ventilation) have made it possible to reduce the concentration of Pb in the atmosphere to a level near to the threshold limit value (0.05 mg Pb/m3), despite a 5-fold increase in production. The authors were able, on the basis of experiments carried out with a decinormal solution of HCl, to establish the solubility in the gastric juice of Pb originating in the enamels.
Pracovní lékařství, June 1973, Vol.25, No.6, p.238-242. Illus. 8 ref.
Application of human engineering principles and techniques in the design of electronic production equipment.
An account of a study to improve working conditions in a microwelding operation which was physically excessively demanding on the operators. The rationale and practice of the solutions developed for this work station (anthropometric data, physical accommodation, seats, elbow and foot rests, reach distances, illumination and visibility, work space and storage, etc.), the construction of a prototype and the results obtained are discussed in detail.
Human Factors, Apr. 1973, Vol.15, No.2, p.137-148. Illus. 5 ref.
Dugandžić M., Stanković B., Milovanović Lj., Korićanac Z.
Urinary excretion of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in lead-exposed persons
Izlučivanje 5-hidroksiindolsirćetne kiseline u mokraći osoba izloženih olovu [in Serbocroatian]
The effect of lead on tryptophan metabolism was examined by determining the urinary excretion of 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA) in 50 workers engaged in the manufacture of lead batteries. The authors also determined the urinary levels of lead, delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and coproporphyrin and atmospheric lead concentrations in the working environment in order to establish the degrees of exposure and lead absorption. The same biological parameters were investigated in 35 controls. It was found that lead has a negative effect on tryptophan metabolism and activates the excretion of its metabolite 5-HIAA. This phenomenon appears to be a useful practical index for the detection of occupational lead exposure if used together with other tests (determination of lead, ALA and coproporphyrin).
Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju, 1973, Vol.24, No.1, p.37-44. Illus. 18 ref.
Recommendations for the ventilation of lead accumulator plate manufacturing plants
Rekomendacii po ventiljacii osnovnyh cehov zavodov svincovyh akkumuljatorov [in Russian]
Description of enclosures and exhaust systems on lead-melting tanks and accumulator-plate casting machines and conveyors. Various methods of local exhaust to eliminate lead aerosols and dust, hydrocarbons and ammonia are tabulated, together with the required air speed at the exhaust inlet. An equation is given for determining the air volume required for the dilution ventilation of accumulator stores with high sulfuric-acid concentrations. Special air-inlet arrangements are recommended for rooms where hydrogen may accumulate and form explosive atmospheres.
Naučnye raboty institutov ohrany truda VCSPS, 1973, No.83, p.18-21. Illus. 5 ref.
Industrial hygiene and occupational health of workers insulating wire with glass fibre
Voprosy gigieny truda i sostojanie zdorov'ja rabočih v kabel'nom proizvodstve pri izgotovlenii provodov so steklovoloknistoj izoljaciej [in Russian]
Working conditions and health status of workers manufacturing glass-fibre-insulated electrical wire were studied in 5 wireworks. Findings related to glass fibre dust, solvent vapours, carbon monoxide, radiant and convection heat, physical workload and health status (neurasthenia, neuralgia, bronchitis, atrophic changes of the upper respiratory tract, dermatitis and eczema) are reported. The following recommendations are made for improving working conditions: the use of winders with a coating attachment and less dangerous solvents; adequate ventilation of the impregnation shop; enclosure of wire insulating machines; air showers for drying-oven operators; improved workshop lighting; use of dustproof working clothes, barrier creams and hand protection.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Feb. 1972, Vol.16, No.2, p.12-15. 2 ref.
El-Dakhakhny A.A., El-Sadik Y.M.
Lead in hair among exposed workers
67 workers employed in lead and tin can factories were examined medically and biochemically. Lead concentrations were determined in blood, urine and hair, and a correlation was found between levels of lead in hair and the biochemical and medical findings. A lead in hair of more than 30µg/g is a sign of excessive lead exposure.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1972, Vol.33, No.1, p.31-34. Illus. 6 ref.
Kleinfeld M., Messite J., Swencicki R.
Clinical effects of chlorinated naphthalene exposure
Description of a case of collective exposure to a mixture of tetra - and pentachloronaphthalene in a plant manufacturing insulated electrical coils. The technical process and the environmental and medical findings are described. Of the 59 workers examined, 56 had skin lesions which could be ascribed to chlorinated naphthalenes; the face and arms were particularly affected. There were also symptoms of systemic poisoning, although there was no clinical evidence of abnormal liver function. The factors which contributed to the incident are stated.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, May 1972, Vol.14, No.5, p.377-379. Illus. 6 ref.
Williams N., Smith F.K.
Polymer-fume fever: Elusive diagnosis
Report of a case of polymer-fume fever in an electronic woman worker which had remained undiagnosed for several months. She had suffered more than 40 attacks as a result of contamination of her cigarettes with polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) which she was using as a parting compound for spraying moulds. The patient did not smoke at her bench but usually took a cigarette out of the pack before washing her hands. PTFE resins liberate various degradation products at high temperatures, although the pyrolysis products responsible for polymer-fume fever are not known.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 20 Mar. 1972. Vol.219, No.12, p.1587-1589. 12 ref.
Instructions for planning heating and ventilation plant in lead-accumulator factories
Ukazanija po proektirovaniju otoplenija i ventiljacii zavodov svincovyh akkumuljatorov [in Russian]
Basic rules for the elimination of air pollutants in workplaces and the removal of gaseous emanations from accumulator factories, the planning and construction of industrial buildings, and the planning of production processes. Instructions for the heating and ventilation of workplaces (with table of local exhaust ventilation systems adapted to certain types of work), and for filtering and purifying intake air. Numerous diagrammes illustrating the principles of ventilation and exhaust systems are appended.
Vsesojuznyj central'nyj naučno-issledovatel'skij Institut ohrany truda VCSPS, Leningrad, USSR, 1971. 56p. Illus.
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