Manufacturing of electrical appliances and equipment - 393 entries found
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Leukaemia mortality in electrical workers in England and Wales
A critical analysis of statistics on leukaemia mortality among workers occupationally exposed to electric fields in England and Wales. The data seem to confirm the conclusions of enquiries made in the USA, which suggest a relation between exposure to electric fields and leukaemia occurrence. The difficulties involved in the comparison and interpretation of the data collected are emphasised.
Lancet, 29 Jan. 1983, Vol.1, No.8318, p.246. 6 ref.
(Comité technique national des industries chimiques, Caisse nationale de l'assurance-maladie)
Health hazards of exposure to coal tar in the aluminium, electrometallurgic and electrochemical industries, and in the manufacture of calcium carbide and calcium silicide
Risques pathologiques dus ŕ l'exposition au brai de houille dans l'industrie de l'aluminium, l'électrométallurgie, l'électrochimie et la fabrication de carbure et siliciure de calcium [in French]
These recommendations, adopted 7 Dec. 1983, apply to: (1) rooms for the manufacture of electrode paste and of prefabricated anodes (storage of raw materials; control cabins; cleaning of the workplace); and (2) electrolysis rooms (general measures applicable to all processes; electrolysis tanks; tank relining; ventilation; maintenance). For both types of rooms, recommendations are made for personal hygiene, medical monitoring, training and information of personnel, for the control of adjacent rooms and for monitoring the 3,4-benzopyrene concentration in air. Special protective measures are given for the prebaked-anode and the continuous-electrode processes.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygične du travail, 1st quarter 1984, No.114, Note No.1472-114-84 (Recommendation No.235), p.109-113.
Petržela K., Hůzl F., Senft V.
Chronic poisoning by cadmium in women in the manufacture of alkaline storage batteries
Chronické otravy kadmiem u žen při výrobě alkalických akumulátorů [in Czech]
Forty women and 2 men exposed to dust containing cadmium oxide in a storage battery factory were examined. Two cases fitting the criteria of chronic cadmium poisoning according to Czechoslovak regulations were found. There was kidney damage, an increase in the ratio of microproteins to macroproteins in the urine, and an increase in the activity of δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in the blood. The observations are consistent with the results of previous in-vitro and in-vivo experiments.
Pracovní lékařství, Aug. 1983, Vol.35, No.8, p.335-339. Illus. 35 ref.
McCulley J.P., Whiting D.W., Petitt M.G., Lauber S.E.
Hydrofluoric acid burns of the eye
A 21 year-old man working in the semiconductor industry inadvertently poured sodium hydroxide into a container of hydrofluoric acid (HF). The worker sustained eye and face burns from the ensuing explosive reaction. Injection of calcium gluconate, the treatment recommended for HF skin burns, was ineffective because of the toxic effect and additive damage of calcium on eye tissues. Immediate single irrigation with water, normal saline or isotonic magnesium chloride solution is the most effective therapy for ocular HF eye burns.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, June 1983, Vol.25, No.6, p.447-450. Illus. 16 ref.
Söderberg I., Calissendorff B., Elofsson S., Knave B., Nyman K.G.
Investigation of visual strain experienced by microscope operators at an electronics plant
75 microscope operators were examined for eye function and visual strain. The investigation included standardized interviews dealing with symptoms of visual strain, examinations of the refractive state as well as for possible eye diseases, and testing of binocular vision. 80% of the operators experienced various symptoms of visual strain. Identified causes included uncorrected astigmatism, fusion insufficiency and working hours.
Applied Ergonomics, 4 Dec. 1983, Vol.14, p.297-305. Illus. 17 ref.
Sokolov V.V., Ivanova L.A., Gorizontova M.N., Nikonova K.V., Sadčikova M.N.
Cytochemical and cytogenetic changes in the blood of persons working with microwave energy sources
Citohimičeskie i citogenetičeskie izmenenija v krovi lic, rabotajuščih s istočnikami mikrovolnovoj ėnergii [in Russian]
Results from 18 women working as testers of electronic equipment and 29 men maintaining radio equipment. The women were exposed to <10µW/cm2, with total doses ≤70µWh/cm2 during a shift; the men were exposed to 1-100µW/cm2 and received doses of 200µWh/cm2 in the course of a shift. Both groups showed elevated activities of cytoplasmic acid phosphatase in their lymphocytes, neutrophils, platelets and erythrocytes; succinate and lactate dehydrogenase were also elevated in the lymphocytes, and alkaline phosphatase activity was elevated in the neutrophils. Heteroploid and polyploid cell counts were higher than normal, indicating high mitotic activity, and chromosome abnormalities were more frequent than in controls. The changes were more extensive among the men, probably due to their greater exposure. The changes probably represent adaptation to microwave exposure. (Translation into French available from INRS, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France: Traduction INRS 60:83.)
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Oct. 1983, No.10, p.5-10. 14 ref.
Savin B.M., Nikonova K.V., Lobanova E.A., Sadčikova M.N., Lebed' E.K.
New facts in the standardisation of radiofrequency microwave energies
Novoe v normirovanii ėlektromagnitnyh izlučenij mikrovolnovogo diapazona [in Russian]
In 10 electronic and radio plants, the state of health of 1015 workers was determined and ambient levels of radiofrequency (300MHz-300GHz) radiation were measured. In laboratory experiments, 1160 animals of various species were exposed to different power densities for different periods. These studies confirmed the effectiveness of the existing MAC (1W/cm2) and showed a relation of biological effects to the intensity and duration of microwave irradiation. The maximum allowable value for the density of radiation energy flux is determined on the basis of the permissible level of energy load on the body (W) and the length of exposure (T): W=200µW-h/cm2 for all kinds of radiation except that from rotating and scanning antennas, for which W=2000µW-h/cm2.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Mar. 1983, No.3, p.1-4. 7 ref.
Andersson K., Elinder C.G., Hogstedt C., Kjellström T., Spĺng G.
Mortality in cadmium- and nickel-exposed accumulator workers
Dödsorsaker bland kadmium- och nickelexponerade ackumulatorarbetare [in Swedish]
525 men exposed for at least a year between 1940 and 1980 were studied. From early levels of approximately 1mg/m3, exposure concentrations were gradually lowered to an 8h TWA of 0.02mg/m3. General mortality was no higher than expected. Deaths from nephritis and nephrosis were significantly increased. In workers with exposure of >5 years to Cd concentrations of >0.3mg/m3 there were non-significant excesses in cancer of the lung, prostate and bladder. In workers exposed for <15 years there was an excess from chronic obstructive lung disease.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1983. 22p. 26 ref.
Sorahan T., Waterhouse J.A.H.
Mortality study of nickel-cadmium battery workers by the method of regression models in life tables
Mortality was studied in 3,025 workers for 1946-81. Occupational histories were categorised into 8 jobs with high, 14 with moderate or slight, and 53 with minimal exposure to cadmium oxide. Criteria taken into account were duration of employment, sex, year and age at start of employment. An increased risk of mortality from cancer of the prostate had already been reported in 1967 and no new evidence of an association with cadmium oxide was found. There was some indication of an increased risk of mortality from cancers of the respiratory system for those first employed before 1940.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1983, Vol.40, No.3, p.293-300. Illus. 14 ref.
Williams M.K., Walford J., King E.
Blood lead and the symptoms of lead absorption
A medical health index questionnaire was administered and blood lead (PbB) and erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EPP) were measured in 536 men employed for at least 6 months manufacturing lead acid batteries. For a variety of symptom categories the percentages of men whose symptom scores were above the median of the 3 PbB groups, 10, 40 and ≥60µg/100ml, respectively, were calculated. Men with a PbB level of 60µg/100ml and over showed consistently higher percentages. Differences between those with a PbB 10-59µg and ≥60µg/100ml were statistically significant both for potentially lead-induced symptoms as well as for skin and psychological symptoms that are not found in classic lead poisoning. Results with EPP groups were similar but not statistically significant. Heavy smokers had the highest mean score in every symptom category.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1983, Vol.40, No.3, p.285-292. 15 ref.
Potential occupational health hazards in the microelectronics industry
The materials used in the semiconductor manufacturing process - solvents, acids, arsenic, dopant gases such as arsine, phosphine and diborane - are documented on the basis of information obtained from 42 companies, including many of the major companies, in California. The types and quantities used in recent years are given, and the properties of a number of poisonous gases are summarised. The question of cylinder storage is discussed. Further studies on the health and safety of microelectronics workers are necessary for this new and little known industry.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1 Feb. 1983, Vol.9, No.1, p.42-46. 10 ref.
Sorahan T., Adams R.G., Waterhouse J.A.H.
Analysis of mortality from nephritis and nephrosis among nickel-cadmium battery workers
3025 workers were studied. Observed deaths from nephritis and nephrosis and all (non-cancer) diseases of the genito-urinary system were not significantly different from those of the general population of England and Wales. No significant association between cadmium exposure and mortality emerged from a comparison between exposures of those who had died from these causes and of survivors. Separate analysis of 39 workers with cadmium nephropathy (proteinuria) showed a just-significant difference in obsered and expected deaths for all cancers, and a mortality for non-cancers close to expectation.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1983, Vol.25, No.8, p.609-612. 10 ref.
Taguchi T., Suzuki S.
Health effects of ferrite and the raw materials dust
42 workers manufacturing ferrite cores for television tubes and 33 controls were studied. 19 of them were exposed to a mean concentration of 9mg/m3 of a mixture of ferric, zinc, magnesium oxides and manganese carbonate, and 16 of them to 3mg/m3 spinelled (cubically crystallised) ferrite dust. X-rays showed small round opacities in 4 of 33 subjects exposed for ≥5 years. Exposed workers had significantly higher rates of coughing, respiratory disease, and hospital visits than controls.
Industrial Health, 1983, Vol.21, No.1, p.1-9. 23 ref.
Stevenson C.J., Morgan P.R.
Investigation and prevention of chromate dermatitis in colour television manufacture
The manufacturing process, which involves handling of "phosphors" (potentially fluorescent materials, not related to phosphorus, nor active as skin irritants) incorporated in polyvinyl alcohol, and ammonium dichromate, is described. 20 cases of occupational dermatitis occurred, the major cause of which was sensitivity to ammonium dichromate. Steps taken to minimise exposure by improved technology are described. No new cases have been reported since the changes were put into effect in 1976.
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1983, Vol.33, No.1, p.19-20. 3 ref.
Olumide Y.M., Oleru G.U., Enu C.C.
Cutaneous implications of excessive heat in the work-place
9 patients developed a rash while working in a dry-cell manufacturing plant. Patch tests showed that clothing accounted for the dermatitis in 5 of the patients. One of them who worked with bitumen had an acneiform eruption and eye irritation. Environmental measurements indicated excessive environmental heat (wet and dry bulb temperatures of 91°F), sweating and maceration as predisposing factors for the development of clothing dermatitis in workers who wore dark-coloured uniforms (dye bleeding). Their working posture also made the anterior abdominal wall highly vulnerable.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 1983, Vol.9, No.5, p.360-363. Illus. 3 ref.
Contact allergy to colophony in soldering flux
3 case reports are briefly described. Aspects discussed: the soldering process, colophony (rosin) production, and its use in the electronics industry. In spite of increasing automation, much soldering work is still done by hand.
Contact Dermatitis, May 1983, Vol.9, No.3, p.205-207. 9 ref.
Coleman M., Bell J., Skeet R.
Leukaemia incidence in electrical workers
The incidence of leukaemia among men in 10 electrical occupations in South-East England in 1961-79 is reported. There was a 17% excess of all leukaemias. The excess was 89% in electrical fitters and 146% in telegraph operators. Acute lymphoid, chronic lymphoid, and acute myeloid leukaemia all showed excesses.
Lancet, 30 Apr. 1982, Vol.I, No.8331, p.982-983. 10 ref.
Integrated safety systems: an example
Sécurité intégrée: un exemple [in French]
Description of safety measures in an electronics factory producing integrated circuits, memories and microprocessors. Potential hazards were considered from the beginning in the design of the plant, which permitted integration of safety, health and emergency systems with production operations. Product flow is monitored. The atmosphere is monitored with fixed and portable equipment. An automatic fire detection system is present. There is a central monitoring station for the distribution systems for electricity and fluids, for the air conditioning and for an acid-treatment plant. Workers are under individual medical supervision. Waste disposal is included in the safety system, as are the training and information of personnel by safety officers.
Promosafe, Mar. 1983, Vol.10, No.66, p.11-14. Illus.
(Institut national de recherche et de sécurité)
Boranes [in French]
Uses, physical and chemical properties of diborane, pentaborane and decaborane, storage, method of detection and determination in air, fire hazards, pathology and toxicology (effects on the lung, central nervous system and mucous membranes; acute and chronic toxicity in animals and man; American (ACGIH) TLVs: 0.1, 0.01 and 0.3mg/m3, respectively). French regulations on occupational health and safety and neighbourhood protection are mentioned, as are French and international transport regulations. Technical and medical recommendations are offered.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygične du travail, 3rd quarter 1983, No.112, p.445-448. 15 ref.
Is it necessary to subject clean-room personnel to special medical surveillance? A survey conducted on 32 persons in the electronics industry
Faut-il soumettre le personnel travaillant en salle blanche ŕ une surveillance médicale spéciale ? Enquęte réalisée dans le secteur électronique sur 32 personnes [in French]
After a description of clean rooms (laboratories with air conditioning, constant temperature, low humidity and a high degree of air purification), this M.D. thesis reviews the technical aspects of air conditioning and definitions of thermal comfort before presenting the results of a survey of 32 persons working in clean rooms in the electronics industry. Pathological states due to air conditioning were found: allergies, dryness of mucous membranes, headaches and circulatory disorders. The literature on air-conditioner disease is reviewed.
Université de Paris VII, Faculté de médecine Xavier-Bichat, Paris, France, 1983. 73p. 75 ref.
Morel C., Reynier M., Falcy M., Protois J.C.
French National Research and Safety Institute (Institut national de recherche et de sécurité)
Hydrogčne phosphoré [in French]
Synonyms, uses, industrial operations likely to set free phosphine, physical and chemical properties, methods of detection and determination in air, fire hazards (highly flammable gas), pathology and toxicology (experimental toxicity in rats, toxicity for humans: massive inhalation of the gas may provoke neurological and respiratory problems; symptoms caused by inhalation of lower concentrations; American TLV (ACIGH): 0.3ppm). Information on French regulations concerning health and safety at work and on French and international regulations concerning transport. Technical and medical recommendations.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygične du travail, 1st quarter 1983, No.110, p.137-140. 16 ref.
Nečaeva E.N., Berliner E.G., Dubejkovskaja L.S., Kuz'minskaja G.N., Frolova A.D., Černyh L.V.
Toxicological and hygienic characteristics of barium-based ceramics used in the radio industry
Toksikologo-gigieničeskaja harakteristika radiokeramičeskih materialov na osnove barija [in Russian]
Industrial hygiene surveys showed that workplace air in factories manufacturing barium-based ceramics for the electonics industry was contaminated with dust containing barium at levels above the MAC. Toxicological experiments showed that the biological activity of the ceramics was equivalent to the activity of mechanical mixtures of their components, and was determined by their barium content. The effect of the barium was not affected by the presence of other metals. An MAC of 0.5mg/m3 (as barium) is recommended for barium titanate, barium titanate-zirconate, barium tetratitanate, barium-calcium titanate and barium-aluminium titanate. The safety of working conditions would be improved by mechanisation of operations which are now performed manually during the servicing of crushing and grinding equipment.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Sep. 1982, No.9, p.10-14. 7 ref.
Fedoseeva N.M., Frolova A.D., Dubejkovskaja L.S., Berliner E.G., Minkina N.A.
Toxicological and hygienic evaluation of glass-ceramic cement
Toksikologo-gigieničeskaja ocenka steklokristalličeskogo cementa [in Russian]
Glass-ceramic cements are mixtures containing red lead which are used widely in the manufacture of television sets. LD50, LD16 and LD84 values were lower for cement dust and for a dust mixture representing the components of the cement than they were for pure red lead, which suggests that other components have toxic effects which are additive with those of red lead. However, the effect of cement dust administration on the internal organs of rats and mice was indistinguishable from that of lead; no marked fibrogenic action was observed. Thus, glass-ceramic cement dust can be treated as an inorganic lead compound for regulatory purposes. A MAC of 0.01mg/m3 and an average 8-hour exposure limit of 0.007mg/m3 (as lead) are recommended.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Aug. 1982, No.8, p.51-53. 2 ref.
Raymond L., Hahn K., Solook J.
Prevention of inhalation lung injury in microcomputer technology
Aspects discussed are: exhaust hoods; silicon wafer production; use of dopants; respiratory protection; hazardous substances used liable to cause lung damage; hand soldering; industrial hygiene measurements. Recommendations for protection of workers are: workers' education; health/safety committee reporting to a top manager; walk-through inspections; industrial hygiene, toxicology and fire safety consultation; periodic checks on respiratory protection and eye irrigation equipment and alarms, evacuation and other procedures; medical monitoring; prohibition of smoking where toxic agents are handled, and its discouragement elsewhere.
Medical Bulletin, Winter 1982, Vol.42, No.2-3, p.91-105. Illus. 13 ref.
Pasquini R., Monarca S., Scasselati Sforzolini G., Conti R., Fagioli F.
Mutagens in urine of carbon electrode workers
The presence of mutagen metabolites was determined in the urine of 10 workers exposed to petroleum coke and pitch, and a control group of unexposed workers, using the Salmonella/microsome (Ames) test. Urine samples collected upon waking or on Sundays showed no mutagenic activity in either group; those collected during or after occupational exposure showed high mutagenic activity in the exposed workers (significant difference in the means between the groups). Use of the Ames test could be a useful tool for evaluating health hazards of occupational exposure to mutagenic carcinogenic substances.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1982, Vol.50, No.4, p.387-395. Illus. 42 ref.
Wolff M.S., Thornton J., Fischbein A., Lilis R., Selikoff I.J.
Disposition of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in occupationally exposed persons
Relative concentrations of 37 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and the adipose-plasma partition of 28 PCB congeners were investigated in 26 workers in a capacitor manufacturing facility. Concentrations of PCB in adipose tissue and plasma were related to the duration and intensity of exposure. Concentration in adipose tissue was proportional to that in plasma with a partition for total PCB of approximately 190:1. Disposition of PCB was related to the level of chlorine substitution (20-54%) and the position on the ring.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 1982. Vol.62, No.2, p.294-306. Illus. 31 ref.
Yoshida K., Sakurai H., Toyama T.
Gastrointestinal symptoms in lead workers
Prevalence of GI symptoms was studied in 109 battery manufacturing workers in relation to lead absorption and other factors. The mean blood lead and urinary δ-ALA concentrations in subjects complaining of loss of appetite were significantly higher than in those who did not. 49 workers (45%) complained of at least one symptom associated with peptic ulcer.
Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, 1982, Vol.24, p.229-235. 20 ref.
Fischbein A., Wolff M.S., Bernstein J., Selikoff I.J., Thornton J.
Dermatological findings in capacitor manufacturing workers exposed to dielectric fluids containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)
A long-term study in 326 capacitor manufacturing workers is reported. The prevalence of dermatological abnormalities was 37% but typical signs of PCB poisoning such as chloracne were much less prominent than in the epidemic of "yusho" caused by accidental ingestion of contaminated rice oil in Japan in 1968, despite high plasma PCB concentrations. An association between dermatological signs and plasma levels of higher PCB homologues was suggested, but polychlorinated dibenzofurans, reported to be present in commercial PCB mixtures as contaminants, should be considered as aetiological factor.
Archives of Environmental Health, Mar.-Apr. 1982, Vol.37, No.2, p.69-74. Illus. 39 ref.
Landrigan P.J., Costello R.J., Stringer W.T.
Occupational exposure to arsine: An epidemiological reappraisal of current standards
Studies at a lead-acid battery manufacturing plant are reported. Personal air samples for exposure to arsine and particulate arsenic (As) and area air samples for arsenic trioxide (AS2O3) vapour concentrations were done. Arsine levels in 177 breathing-zone air samples were 0-49µg/m3. Highest levels were in the battery formation area. Exposures to As and As2O3 were generally lower. 8 of 39 production workers had urinary As concentrations that indicated As absorption. The current arsine exposure standard, 200µg/m3, fails to prevent chronic increased absorption of trivalent arsenic from the inhalation of arsine.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Sep. 1982, Vol.8, No.3, p.169-177. Illus. 48 ref.
Roels H, Lauwerys R., Buchet J.P., Bernard A., Barthels A., Oversteyns M., Gaussin J.
Comparison of renal function and psychomotor performance in workers exposed to elemental mercury
Renal function and psychomotor performance (eye-hand coordination, arm-hand steadiness) of a group of 43 workers exposed to mercury vapour (battery manufacturing, chloralkali plant) were examined. Their mean age and average duration of exposure to mercury were 38 and 5 years, respectively. Increased proteinuria and albuminuria were found to be slightly more prevalent in the exposed group than in controls. The scores of the psychomotor tests were less satisfactory in the Hg workers, and the arm-hand steadiness test was more discriminative than the eye-hand coordination test. Increased prevalence of abnormal psychomotor scores seems to occur for mercury in blood between 1 and 2µg/100ml and for mercury in urine between 50 and 100µg/g creatinine. Therefore, a biologic threshold limit value of 50µg/g creatinine is proposed for urinary mercury to prevent the development of preclinical effects on the central nervous system.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 1982, Vol.50, No.1, p.77-93. Illus. 28 ref.
Gartside P.S., Buncher C.R., Lerner S.
Relationship of air lead and blood lead for workers at an automobile battery factory
Air and blood lead data, recorded over a period of 3 years for 972 workers (exposed to 25-350µg/m3) in an automobile battery factory were statistically analysed. The air lead values were measured by mobile area samplers for 2 years and then by personal samplers for 1 year. Blood lead analyses were usually performed once a month. The trend in air lead levels was significantly upward in the 1st year and significantly downward in the 2nd year, while the trend in blood levels was significantly downward in the 1st year and the 3rd year. The relationship between air lead and blood lead was assessed, and the variables age, job tenure, and department identity were included in an ananlysis of covariance. The data support the conclusions reached by the WHO (1980). The occupational relationship between air lead and blood lead is so weak that blood lead must be used as a starting point to determine a health criterion.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 1982, Vol.50, No.1, p.1-10. Illus. 17 ref.
Malcolm D., Barnett H.A.R.
A mortality study of lead workers 1925-76
The principal causes of death of 754 individuals from a population of 1,898 pensioners from 4 lead-acid battery factories during the period 1 Jan. 1925 to 31 Dec. 1976 were studied. Causes of 553 deaths occurring before retirement were also studied. A significant excess of deaths from cerebrovascular accidents and renal disease occured in the high-exposure group of pensioners. There was no significant excess of deaths from all causes, nor from cancer, hypertensive disease, nor any other circulatory disease. The introduction of regular blood lead analysis in 1964, had, by 1976, reduced blood lead levels in the high-exposure group to roughly the same level as that of the moderate-exposure group in 1965-1967. Conditions are probably now adequate to prevent any excess of mortality in any of the 3 groups.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1982, Vol.39, No.4, p.404-410. Illus. 15 ref.
Smith A.B., Schloemer J., Lowry L.K., Smallwood A.W., Ligo R.N., Tanaka S., Stringer W., Jones M., Hervin R., Glueck C.J.
Metabolic and health consequences of occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls
Study on 3 groups of workers occupationally exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in which serum PCB concentrations were quantitated as lower and higher PCBs (L-PCBs and H-LCBs). Serum L-PCB and H-PCB concentrations were many times greater among workers manufacturing power capacitators than among the general population. With increasing concentrations of serum PCB there were increasing symptoms of mucous membrane and skin irritation, systemic malaise and altered peripheral sensation. There were also findings indicative of the physiological effect of PCBs on the liver. There was a positive association of serum PCB with plasma triglyceride and negative association with plasma HDL-cholesterol, which may have long term cardiovascular consequences.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1982, Vol.39, No.4, p.361-369. 34 ref.
Wolff M.S., Fischbein A., Thornton J., Rice C., Lilis R., Selikoff I.J.
Body burden of polychlorinated biphenyls among persons employed in capacitor manufacturing
The results of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) determinations in plasma and adipose tissue from workers employed in capacitor manufacture, with 30 years exposure to various Aroclors, have been evaluated in relation to duration and intensity of PCB exposure. In general, males had higher PCB concentrations than females. The correlation of plasma concentration (1-546ppb) of the more highly chlorinated PCBs, which had been used in the past, with total duration of employment suggested accumulation over time. The less highly chlorinated PCBs were the source of current exposure, and were observed in concentrations of 6-2530ppb in plasma. Higher exposure occurred among persons with direct contact with PCBs, in jobs such as capacitor filling. Adipose tissue concentrations, for both the more highly chlorinated PCBs (1-165ppm) and lower chlorinated PCBs (0.6-414ppm), were proportional to those in plasma. The relation between adipose and plasma concentrations suggests that plasma or serum PCB concentration is an adequate exposure index.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Feb. 1982, Vol.49, No.3-4, p.199-208. Illus. 14 ref.
Nethercott J.R., Albers J., Guirguis S., Ching G., Hofstader S., From L.
Erythema multiforme exudativum linked to the manufacture of printed circuit boards
Report of 4 cases of erythema multiforme major (Stevens-Johnson syndrome) in men working in a factory producing printed circuit boards and having exposure to palladium chloride, copper sulfate, formaldehyde, expoxy-fibreglass, lead, trichloroethylene and ammoniumm persulfate. Signs and symptoms developed after 6-12 weeks of exposure. There was liver involvement in 3 cases. The manufacturing processes, clinical findings and investigational procedures are described. On the basis of positive epicutaneous tests in 2 of the 4 workers, formaldehyde is presumed to be the cause of the reactions.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 1982, Vol.8, No.5, p.314-322. Illus. 28 ref.
Ungers L.J., Moskowitz P.D., Owens T.W., Harmon A.D., Briggs T.M.
Methodology for an occupational risk assessment: an evaluation of four processes for the fabrication of photovoltaic cells
Using data from the California semi-conductor industry, a 5-step occupational risk assessment procedure was applied to 4 processes for the fabrication of photovoltaic cells, which represent an emerging technology, and for which occupational hazard data do not yet exist. These 5 steps are: identification of process operations within a process; identification of occupations involved with each process operation; calculation of the labour requirement for each occupation to complete a given process operation; calculation of disability and mortality rates and application of them to labour requirements; summation of all occupational disability and mortality values by individual operation and by fabrication process. Estimates of disability and mortality rates for this emerging industry, based on the theoretical procedure, were higher than those calculated for the semi-conductor industry due to higher risks associated with the silicon I and gallium arsenide processes.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1982, Vol.43, No.2, p.73-79. Illus. 9 ref.
Cresci A., Pannelli F., La Rosa F., Riccioni R., Corvatta G.
Environmental hazards in a factory making electronic musical instruments
Fattori di nocivitŕ ambientale in uno stabilimento per la produzione di strumenti musicali elettronici [in Italian]
Aspects of occupational hygiene covered: respirable dust; gases and vapours of organic solvents; welding fumes; noise levels; microclimate; lighting. 284 workers answered a questionnaire relating to these subjects and to other complaints about working conditions. Their answers were compared with results of environmental tests. Though none of the measured values exceeded TLV's, more than 50% of the workers complained about respirable dust, vibration, fatigue, repetitive and monotonous work, sleepiness, boredom and overwork.
Rivista di medicina del lavoro ed igiene industriale, Jan.-Mar. 1981, Vol.5, p.21-39. Illus. 24 ref.
Skorobogatova A.M., Tarasova G.M., Čumakov G.F.
Assessment of cardiovascular function in workers exposed to various air-ionisation conditions
Ocenka funkcional'nogo sostojanija serdečno-sosudistoj sistemy u rabotajuščih v uslovijah različnogo režima aėroionizacii [in Russian]
Pulse rate, blood pressure, and 7 other indicators of cardiovascular system performance were determined in 60 women who fabricated microelectronic circuits in clean rooms. 30 of the women were tested before and after a shift in a clean room with a normal air supply; the other 30 were tested before and after a shift in a room with air ions added to the air supply. The subjects working under normal conditions showed poor cardiovascular response to stress in comparison with the subjects exposed to air ions. Thus, the air-purification systems of clean rooms deprive the air of a physiologically optimal concentration of air ions; these can be replaced by appropriate devices. Optimal levels are: 500-6000 positive ions/cm3 and 5000-6000 negative ions/cm3, with the ratio of positive to negative ions being 0.9-1.2.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Nov. 1981, No.11, p.18-21. 13 ref.
Moskowitz P.D., Briggs T., Ungers L., Hamilton L.D.
A prospective method for estimating occupational health risks in new energy technologies
The approach used (and illustrated by application to the photovoltaics industry) is to separate out the workforce of an emerging industry by different worker classifications, and to determine the health risks to these workers from statistics of related industries. The approach identifies accident-related effects, but cannot be used to quantitate occupationally induced disease.
Department of Energy and Environment, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA, 1981. 17p. Illus.
Nikonova K.V., Hramova N.D., Sokolova I.P., Lebed' E.K., Syčeva N.A., Marčenko B.S.
Occupational hygiene assessment of the conditions prevailing at work with ultra-high-frequency electromagnetic radiation sources
K gigieničeskoj ocenke uslovij truda pri rabotah s istočnikami ėlektromagnitnyh izlučenij sverhvysokočastotnogo diapazona [in Russian]
Power density measurements were carried out in 22 plants where workers manufacturing electronic equipment were exposed to this type of radiation. At 96% of the workplaces studied the power density did not exceed 5µW/cm2. It is known, however, that work involving the use of certain ultra-high-frequency equipment (magnetrons, klystrons) with anode voltages > 10-12kV may expose to much higher power densities. Moreover, the workplace air may be polluted by exhaust gases, ozone, nitrogen oxides and solvent vapours. There is a need for a better metrological approach to assess more correctly the radiation exposure of electronic workers.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Mar. 1981, No.3, p.1-5. 11 ref.
Specchio L.M., Bellomo R., Pozio G., Dicuonzo F., Assennato G., Federici A., Misciagna G., Puca F.M.
Smooth pursuit eye movements among storage battery workers
11 male workers with lead (Pb) and erythrocyte protoporphyrin blood actual levels >50 and 100µg%, respectively, and 18 male controls not exposed to Pb, were tested using a clinical pendular eye tracking test (PETT). Measurements of blood Pb, urine Pb, erythrocyte protoporphyrin, delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity and urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid were made for all workers. The smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM) were evaluated by an eye tracking technique in which subjects followed a horizontally moving target in the form of a luminous spot on a dark background. The maximum predicted eye movement velocity during tracking was about 30°/s. SPEM were plotted on a polygraph using skin electrodes. The Pb-exposed workers displayed a disorder of motor coordination of SPEM system. The PETT was useful, when associated with biochemical data, as a means of evaluating the degree of subclinical damage to the nervous system during Pb poisoning.
Clinical Toxicology, 1981, Vol.18, No.11, p.1269-1276. Illus. 12 ref.
Inspection lighting in the electronics industry
The lighting for visual inspection of machine-soldered printed circuits is very difficult, as small details of each soldered connection must be made visible without disturbing reflections. After some basic considerations on the lighting scheme for this task, a new luminaire is presented. It has an asymmetrical light distribution so that it can be placed to the side of the worker in such a position as to avoid producing specular reflection in the work piece and yet throws enough light onto it.
International Lighting Review, 1981, Vol.32, No.2, p.46-47. Illus. 3 ref.
Maroni M., Colombi A., Arbosti G., Cantoni S., Foŕ V.
Occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls in electrical workers - II.Health effects.
Clinical studies in 80 workers exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) for several years are reported. 15 workers had skin diseases (chloracne in 4, folliculitis in 4, oil dermatitis and juvenile acne (1 each), dermatitis due to irritative or allergic agents in 5). There was hepatic involvement, generally hepatomegaly, in 16. Bleeding cavernous haemangiomas were present in 2, associated with chronic myelocytic leukaemia in one. The workers with chloracne were all employed in electric capacitor impregnation with PCBs. The abnormal liver findings, but not chloracne, correlated significantly with blood PCB concentrations.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1981, Vol.38, No.1, p.55-60. Illus. 27 ref.
Maroni M., Colombi A., Cantoni S., Ferioli E., Foŕ V.
Occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls in electrical workers - I.Environmental and blood polychlorinated biphenyls concentrations.
80 workers at 2 plants exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) for several years were studied. Air concentrations were 48-275µg/m3. All tools and work surfaces tested were contaminated, and PCBs were found on the hands of workers. Blood PCB concentrations were 88-1319µg/kg, and were closely correlated to length of exposure. The effect of the chlorine content on blood PCB concentrations is considered. Absorption of PCBs in these workers was mainly through the skin. PCB determination in whole blood can be used to monitor industrial and environmental exposure.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1981, Vol.38, No.1, p.49-54. Illus. 12 ref.
Owens T., Ungers L., Briggs T.
Estimates of occupational safety and health impacts resulting from large-scale production of major photovoltaic technologies
The worker and societal risks attributable to photovoltaic cell (solar cell) production processes (silicon I, which uses conventional approaches for production of single-crystal silicon cells; silicon II, which uses more advanced techniques; cadmium sulfide; and gallium arsenide) are estimated from various sources of data. Injury and fatality levels were predicted on the basis of statistics from the semiconductor industry, since many of the same process steps and materials are used in both industries.
Department of Energy and Environment, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA, 1980. 289p. 67 ref.
Forni A., Sciamč A., Bertazzi P.A., Alessio L.
Chromosome and biochemical studies in women occupationally exposed to lead
Blood lead levels and erythrocyte protoporphyrin and δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity of red blood cells were determined for 18 healthy females occupationally exposed to lead in the manufacture of electrical storage batteries and 12 female controls. Cytogenetic studies were performed on lymphocytes cultured for 2 and 3 days with phytohaemagglutinin. Significantly increased rates of metaphases with chromatid and chromosome aberrations, excluding gaps, were observed in the exposed vs. the control group at both culture times. The yield of abnormal metaphases was higher in the 3-day than in the 2-day cultures, in both exposed and control groups, but the difference was only moderately significant for controls and highly significant for those exposed. These results are consistent with those found for males.
Archives of Environmental Health, May-June 1980, Vol.35, No.3, p.139-145. 13 ref.
Jagodziński A., Staszałek J.
Guide for social labour inspectors in the electrical equipment manufacturing industry
Poradnik społecznego inspektora pracy w przemyśle elektromaszynowym [in Polish]
Information on the organisation, powers and duties of the social labour inspectorate in the electrical equipment manufacturing industry; legal aspects of worker protection; occupational accident investigations (circumstances, causes); workmen's compensation. Considerations on occupational safety and health aspects of metalworking, metal cutting and welding, electroplating, painting and varnishing, transport, storage battery and compressor rooms, and boiler rooms. Appended: prohibited employment for women and young persons, work in conditions involving health hazards, dangerous work.
Instytut wydawniczy CRZZ, Warszawa, Poland, 1980. 288p. Illus. 60 ref. Price: Zł.32.00.
Data for establishing a TLV for concentrations of gallium arsenide in workplace air
Materialy po obosnovaniju PDK arsenida gallija v vozduhe rabočej zony [in Russian]
Report on animal experiments with gallium arsenide (GaAs) dust. The acute effect thresholds were 152.5mg/m3 (inhalation), and 7,000mg/m3 (intragastric administration). No irritant effect on skin was observed. Retention coefficient: 5.2. A 4-month exposure to 12mg/m3 induced significant changes in rectal temnperature and physiological thresholds, and an increase in body weight. Erythrocyte count increased after 2-month exposure, but decreased progressively after 3 months. Recommended TLV for GaAs dust: 2mg/m3.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Mar. 1980, No.3, p.45.
Hemminki K., Niemi M.L., Koskinen K., Vainio H.
Spontaneous abortions among women employed in the metal industry in Finland.
From union files and hospital discharge records, spontaneous abortions were analysed among Finnish metal workers between 1973 and 1976 (35.000 women). Among these, 195 spontaneous abortions were recorded. The ratio was significantly higher than the corresponding ratio for all Finnish women. A particularly high-risk industry appeared to be the production of radios, television sets, and their components. Exposure to solder fumes (from colophony flux) was suggested to explain the increased risk.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 1980, Vol.47, No.1, p.53-60. Illus. 16 ref.
Dust collection in plants manufacturing electrodes and artificial graphite
Obespylivanie na ėlektrodnyh i ėlektrougol'nyh zadovah [in Russian]
Contents: harmful substances and principles of occupational hygiene; formation and spread of dust in this industry; dust control (exhaust ventilation, removal of dust from workplace air in crushing, mixing and extrusion shops; dust collection in baking and graphitisation departments; local exhaust ventilation on electrode machining equipment); pneumatic conveyor systems for raw materials.
Izdatel'stvo "Metallurgija", 2-j Obydenskij per.14, 119034 Moskva, USSR, 1980. 127p. Illus. 63 ref. Price: Rbl.0.45.
Hůzl F., Janech J., Sýkora J., Naxera P., Jandová P.
Biological exposure tests in cadmium-exposed workers in the light of occupational hygiene parameters
Biologické expoziční testy u pracujících v riziku kadmia ve vztahu k některým hygienickým parametrům pracoviště [in Czech]
Studies in 60 workers in an alkaline storage battery plant and a control group are reported. Of the values measured (urinary Cd, ALA-D activity, atypical proteins, Donaggio test, blood cholinesterase activity), only ALA-D activity increased with the length of exposure. The absence of an effect of the dust level or hazard index on these parameters suggests that length of exposure is one of the chief factors underlying the results of certain exposure tests in cadmium workers, and confirms the hypothesis of accumulation of cadmium in the body.
Pracovní lékařství, June 1980, Vol.32, No.5, p.181-185. Illus. 9 ref.
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