Manufacturing of electrical appliances and equipment - 393 entries found
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Schwarz G., Rakoski J.
Special dermatological problems of clean-room work
Spezielle dermatologische Probleme bei der Arbeit in Reinräumen [in German]
The development and production of microelectronic devices require so-called "clean-room" conditions. Dermatologists increasingly are confronted with the skin problems of persons working within this environment. The skin problems associated with dryness are attributable to the low humidity in the "clean-rooms", and to the lamellar flow of filtered air.
Dermatosen in Beruf und Umwelt, 1987, Vol.35, No.3, p.98-100. 3 ref.
Mortality from lung cancer among a cohort of nickel cadmium battery workers: 1946-84
The lung cancer mortality of a cohort of 3,025 workers of a nickel-cadmium battery factory during the period 1946-84 was investigated. Occupational histories were described in terms of 75 jobs: 8 with "high", 14 with "moderate", and 53 with "minimal" exposure to cadmium oxide (hydroxide) dust. The Mantel-Haenszel technique applied to prospective studies was used to compare the estimated cadmium exposures of those dying from lung cancer with those of matching survivors in the same year of follow-up. Among workers first employed during the period 1923-46, there was some evidence of an association between the risk of dying from lung cancer and duration of employment in "high or moderate" exposure jobs. Among workers first employed during the period 1947-75, there was no evidence whatsover of such an association.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 1987, Vol.44, No.12, p.803-809. 12 ref.
Parkinson D.K., Hodgson M.J., Bromet E.J., Dew M.A., Connell M.M.
Occupational lead exposure and blood pressure
Recent community studies have suggested that low-level lead exposure is significantly associated with high blood pressure in the general population. This study examines the relation between occupational lead exposure and diastolic and systolic blood pressure in 270 exposed and 158 non-exposed workers. Four exposure indicators were examined: employment at a lead battery plant versus a control plant, current blood lead value, current zinc protoporphyrin value, and TWA blood lead value. Association between known risk factors (age, education, income, cigarette usage, alcohol consumption) and exposure and blood pressure were non-significant. These results challenge the validity of the general population association.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1987, Vol.44, No.11, p.744-748. 26 ref.
Kohno K., Yoshida Y., Hirota T., Doi K.
Health surveillance of hydrofluoric acid workers - Urinary fluoride monitoring and fluoride clearance in the aging kidney
Fussan sagyōsha no kenkō kanri ni kansuru kenkyū - Seibutsugaku-teki shihyō to shite no nyōchū fusso nōdo to jinkinō no kankei, toku ni nenrei no eikyō ni tsuite [in Japanese]
Pre-workshift and post workshift fluoride concentrations were measured in urine samples from electronics industry workers who used hydrofluoric acid in the manufacture of television picture tubes, integrated circuits and other components. There was a linear relationship between post-workshift urinary fluoride concentration and HF concentration in the air. A mean urinary fluoride concentration of 4ppm corresponded to an atmospheric HF concentration of 3ppm, which is the Maximal Allowable Concentration recommended by the Japanese Association of Industrial Health and also the Threshold Limit Value suggested by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. A cross-sectional analysis of healthy subjects by 10-year age groups showed a progressive linear decline in creatinine clearance and fluoride clearance (CF). The 24-hour excretion of fluoride and CF were well correlated with each other after fluoride administration. Thus, exposure to HF can be monitored by measuring urinary fluoride. Renal fluoride clearance decreases not only with progression of kidney disease but also with advancing age.
Occupational Health Journal, May 1987, Vol.10, No.3, p.26-33. Illus. 23 ref.
Goldstein M., Weiss H., Wade K., Penek J., Andrews L., Brandt-Rauf P.
An outbreak of fume fever in an electronics instrument testing laboratory
An apparent outbreak of fume fever was identified among six workers in an electronics instrument testing laboratory during a routine thermal evaluation of conductivity on electrical cable. The employees experienced characteristic symptoms of fume fever. Three employees required hospitalisation; they demonstrated fever, leukocytosis and significant arterial-alveolar oxygen gradients, all of which resolved over several hours. To prevent future occurrences, an attempt was made to delineate the aetiologic agent by exactly reproducing the circumstances of the event and analysing them for the evolution of metal fumes or pyrolysis products of polymers. The pertinent findings included overall poor ventilation in the laboratory and the development of significant chloride air contamination during the test. This latter finding raises the possibility that a chloro polymer contaminant was the aetiologic agent.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1987, Vol.29, No.9, p.746-749. 21 ref.
Redmond S.F., Schappert K.R.
Occupational dermatitis associated with garments
An outbreak of irritant contact dermatitis associated with residual perchloroethylene (PCE) in dry-cleaned garments was studied at a large semiconductor manufacturing facility. A new method was developed to measure PCE levels, which was used to detect concentrations ranging from 0.83 to 32.01ppm in the garment.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Mar. 1987, Vol.29, No.3, p.243-244. 4 ref.
Fischer G., Gränz A.
Atmospheric ionisation and radiation sources in production areas of a microchip factory
Ionenklima und Strahlenquellen in Produktionsstätten eines Chip-Werkes [in German]
Although high-voltage ion implantation equipment and thickness meters were in use in production areas of a microchip manufacturing facility, monthly exposures of employees were around 5mrem, i.e. close to natural background levels and well below the 166mrem maximum allowable dose per year (in Austria) for members of the general population. No negative ions were detectable in the air of fully air-conditioned offices or clean rooms. Positive ions were detectable at all measuring points; the positive ion concentration in the room with the thickness meter rose several-fold when the device was in use. Even in non-air-conditioned offices, total ion levels were lower than in the open air.
Sichere Arbeit, Jan. 1987, Vol.40, No.1, p.13-16. 39 ref.
Asia Monitor Resource Center
Health hazards in the electronics industry: A handbook
A very thorough guide to the health hazards that occur in the electronics industry, written for workers. Coverage: the major processes used in the industry (semiconductor wafer fabrication, semiconductor assembly, printed circuit board fabrication, final product assembly); major jobs (cleaning, bonding, encapsulation and marking, etching and plating, soldering); dangerous chemicals; allergies and irritation; reproductive hazards; cancer hazards; radiation; noise; stress; methods of hazard control (responsibilities, organisation of a health committee, information and education, monitoring the workplace, hazard control, first aid, medical care). A sample occupational and environmental history form is given. A list of over 250 chemical substances known to be used in electronics manufacturing includes for each: chemical structure, physical properties, uses in the industry, toxicity, exposure standards (TLV and MAC), routes of entry, health effects, methods of control. A special index by synonyms is also provided to this list of chemicals.
International Metalworkers' Federation, 54bis, route des Acacias, Case postale 563, 1227 Genčve, Switzerland, 1987. 259p. Illus.
Pokrovskaja E.A., Antonjuženko V.A., Volkova I.O., Aširova S.A., Zoloto L.V., Alieva T.I.
Effects on workers of a complex of chemicals released during the preparation of polyurethane foam insulation in the manufacture of refrigerators
Vlijanie na organizm rabotajuščih kompleksa himičeskih veščestv, vydeljajuščihsja pri polučenii penopoliuretanovoj izoljacii v proizvodstve holodil'nikov [in Russian]
Hygienic studies of the working environment in shops for polyurethane foam insulation production revealed contamination with a mixture of chemicals that fall in hazard classes II-IV (dimethylethanolamine, propylene oxide, methylene chloride, 4,4-diphenylmethanediisocyanate). Medical examinations of the exposed workers demonstrated the potential risk of developing an occupational pathology. Changes in the upper respiratory tract were the major initial symptoms; later, nervous system disorders developed. These deviations in the workers' health were seen against a background of changes in their immune status.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Dec. 1986, No.12, p.20-23. 6 ref.
Monitoring of lead poisoning in battery manufacturing workers and in printers - Phase 2
Akü ve matbaa işēilerinde kurşun zehirlenmesi taranmasi - Ikinci aşama [in Turkish]
This survey (with an inserted English-language summary) of 1509 battery workers explored the regional distribution of high blood lead levels in the country. High levels (>49.9µg/dL) ranged from 29.4% of exposed workers in Izmir to 54% in Adana. When zinc protoporphyrin levels were taken into consideration, the blood lead level was in general even higher. Blood lead levels showed negative correlation with age, work duration and personal hygiene habits, but there was no correlation with health complaints and clinical findings. 142 workers were included in both phases of the survey. Among the 96 who had normal or acceptable blood lead levels in the first phase, about 80% had increased blood lead levels in the second phase, whereas among the 46 who had high lead levels in the first phase, 58.7% could be reclassified as belonging to the normal or acceptable category in the second phase.
İSGÜM, PK: 393 Yenişehir, Ankara, Turkey, 1986. 73p.
Isakov V.M., Federovič M.A.
Sound and vibration insulation in the electric equipment industry
Vibrošumozaščita v ėlektromašinostroenii [in Russian]
Contents: electric machines and their vibroacoustic characteristics; prediction of the vibroacoustic characteristics of electric machines; methods and means of reducing noise and vibration; trends in the improvement of the design of low-noise electric equipment.
Ėnergoatomizdat, Matsovo pole 1, 191065 Leningrad, USSR, 1986. 207p. Illus. 67 ref. Price: SUR 1.20.
Rosenberg N., Gervais P.
Colophony-induced asthma in the workplace
Asthme professionnel ą la colophane [in French]
Information note aimed at occupational physicians. Prevalence in the exposed population (mainly solderers in the electronics industry). Diagnosis in the work environment; medical confirmation (skin tests and establishing a functional profile suggesting asthma; aetiological diagnosis). Study (1-4 years after diagnosis) of the evolution of the condition in 28 subjects who had been sensitised during soldering operations in the electronics industry. Medical and technical prevention. Compensation.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, Dec. 1986, No.28, p.311-313. 17 ref.
Awad El Karim M.A., Hamed A.S., Elhaim Y.A.A., Osman Y.
Effects of exposure to lead among lead-acid battery factory workers in Sudan
Effects of exposure were investigated among 92 workers in the factory and 40 non-exposed workers in a control group from an oil mill. The two groups were closely similar in age, stature, body weight, and socio-economic conditions. A highly significant increase (P<.01) was recorded in blood lead, urinary coproporphyrin and basophilic stippled red blood cells of the exposed group. Central nervous system symptoms (insomnia, fatigue, weakness and drowsiness) were reported by 50% and other symptoms such as abdominal colic and constipation were reported by 41% of the exposed group. Blue line on the gum was detected only in 2% of the exposed group. Strong associations between exposure to lead and the prevalence of central nervous system symptoms, abdominal colic and constipation were recorded.
Archives of Environmental Health, July-Aug. 1986, Vol.41, No.4, p.261-265. 21 ref.
Assennato G., Paci C., Baser M.E., Molinini R., Gagliano Candela R., Altamura B.M., Giorgino R.
Sperm count suppression without endocrine dysfunction in lead-exposed men
Battery workers (N=18), who were exposed to high airborne lead levels were compared with cement workers (N=18), who were exposed to ambient lead levels. Blood lead, urinary lead, semen lead, and zinc protoporphyrin concentrations were markedly elevated in battery workers. Battery workers had a significantly shifted frequency distribution of sperm count. There were no significant differences between the two groups in mean follicle-stimulating hormone, testosterone, prolactin, luteinising hormone, or total neutral 17-ketosteroid levels. Alcohol, cigarette, and coffee consumption, frequency of intercourse, and days of abstinence prior to semen donation were not significantly different in the groups. These results suggest a direct toxic effect of increased lead absorption on sperm production or transport in man.
Archives of Environmental Health, Nov.-Dec. 1986, Vol.41, No.6, p.387-390. 22 ref.
Ungers L.J., Jones J.H.
Industrial hygiene and control technology assessment of ion implantation operations
Workplace monitoring suggests that ion implantation workers are exposed to low levels of arsenic, boron and phosphorus. Dosimetry for ionising radiation indicates that serious exposures are unlikely to occur while engineering controls remain intact. The effectiveness of existing controls is discussed, particularly in the case of maintenance and repair personnel. Recommendations are made regarding additional preventive measures and future areas of research are identified.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1986, Vol.47, No.10, p.607-614. Illus. 14 ref.
Verberk M.M., Sallé H.J.A., Kemper C.H.
Tremor in workers with low exposure to metallic mercury
In a fluorescent lamp production factory, a newly developed lightweight balance-tremormeter was used to measure postural tremor of the finger in 21 workers (ages 28 to 61) exposed for 0.5-19 yr to metallic mercury. In addition, tremor was measured in an indirect way by means of a "hole-tremormeter". The excretion of mercury in urine was 9-53 (average 20) µmol/mol creatinine. With increasing mercury excretion, the following parameters increased: the acceleration of the tremor, the contribution of the neuromuscular component (8-12Hz) to the power spectrum of the acceleration, the width of the power-spectrum and the score on the hole-tremormeter. The study indicates that exposure to metallic mercury below the current TLV (50µg/m3) may increase the tremor of the finger.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1986, Vol.47, No.9, p.559-562. Illus. 12 ref.
Spilman M.A., Goetz A., Schultz J., Bellingham R., Johnson D.
Effects of a corporate health promotion program
The effects of a pilot health promotion programme at a large telecommunications corporation in the USA were evaluated. The study group was given an initial health risk appraisal and offered health education modules. A control group was given the health risk appraisal with no modules; a second control group was neither given the appraisal nor offered modules. The health promotion programme was found to lower health risks and improve health-related and job-related attitudes among the study group. Participants in specific intervention modules experienced gains in positive health behaviours.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1986, Vol.28, No.4, p.285-290. 2 ref.
Safety features illustrated in the use of industrial robots employed in production in precision mechanical/electronic industries and manufacture of appliances
Industrial robots are flexible, programmable production tools which have been successfully introduced into the production sector and are increasingly gaining in importance. The kinematic and control flexibility of these machines, and especially their high-speed movements, make special demands on safety engineering. General safety measures, and in particular those aiming at securing the loading and unloading areas of industrial robot cells, are illustrated with reference to a number of robot applications implemented in our company. These measures were based on the requirements laid down in the relevant specifications, especially in draft guideline VDI 2853, and embodied in the recognised rules of safety engineering.
Journal of Occupational Accidents, June 1986, Vol.8, No.1-2, p.91-98. Illus. 8 ref.
Fisher F.L., Williamson R.B., Toms G.L., Crinnion D.M.
Fire protection of flammable work stations in the clean room environment of a microelectronic fabrication facility
An applied engineering programme is described which investigates the fire safety of combustible wet stations used within microelectronic clean room fabrication facilities. The main concern involves the impact of a wet bench fire on the clean room environment of the fabrication facility. The effectiveness of the installed fire detection and suppression systems is discussed as well as the additional steps which should be taken in order to insure early detection and suppression of fires.
Fire Technology, May 1986, Vol.22, No.2, p.148-165. Illus. 9 ref.
Effectiveness of a positive pressure respirator for controlling lead exposure in acid storage battery manufacturing
Effective protection for workers using powered air-purifying respirators and their corresponding blood lead histories are reported and compared with results for half-masks, negative pressure respirators. Airborne lead protection factors for the powered respirator ranged from 2 to 74, while lead levels in the blood remained stable or decreased for 8 of the 13 workers monitored when compared to negative pressure respirator use levels.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1986, Vol.47, No.2, p.144-146. 6 ref.
Monitoring of lead poisoning in battery manufacturing workers and in printers
Akü ve matbaa işēilerinde kurşun zehirlenmesi taranmasi [in Turkish]
This survey (with an inserted English-language summary) of 744 battery workers and 604 printers demonstrated high (>49.9µg/dL) blood levels in 25.2% of the battery workers and 4.1% of the printers, while it showed "acceptable" (30-49.9µg/dL) blood lead levels in 16.1% of the battery workers and 6.9% of the printers. Protoporphyrin IX analysis showed a higher percentage of affected workers: 69.8% among the battery workers and 13.2% among the printers registered high (>79.9µg/dL) protoporphyrin IX levels. In general, blood lead level determination proved to be more sensitive a test of lead exposure than protoporphyrin IX analysis.
IŞGÜM, PK: 393 Yenişehir, Ankara, Turkey, 1985. 49p.
Soldering in the electronics industry
Contents of this occupational hygiene guide: glossary; duties and responsibilities of employers and employees; health and safety committees; assessment of the working environment; information, instruction and training; environmental control and work methods; protective equipment and clothing; cleaning and maintenance; air monitoring; health surveillance sheets; records. A sample assessment sheet and health surveillance sheet are given in the appendix.
Occupational Health and Toxicology Branch, Division of Public Health, Department of Health, Wellington, New Zealand, Oct. 1985. 25p.
Egojan V.V., Pagutjan A.K.
Replacement of metallic mercury in fluorescent lamp production
Ob isključenii metalličeskoj rtuti iz proizvodstva ljuminescentnyh lamp [in Russian]
It is proposed to eliminate metallic (liquid) mercury from fluorescent lamp factories by introducing ampoules of titanium mercuride that can be mounted on the electrode assembly at one end of the fluorescent tube. After evacuation and sealing of the tube, the ampoule can be heated by applying a 1A current to the electrode for 30s. This will liberate mercury from the ampoule. Gradual loss of mercury during operation of the lamp by sorption to the luminophore and glass inside the tube will be compensated by further evaporation of mercury from the ampoule.
Svetotehnika, 1985, No.4, p.7-8. Illus. 4 ref.
Gustavsson P., Hogstedt C., Jonsson U.
Impact on health of the exposure of capacitor manufacturing workers to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) - an epidemiological and medical investigation
Hälsoeffekter av yrkesmässig exponering för polyklorerade bifenyler (PCB) bland kondensatorarbetare - epidemiologisk och medicinsk undersökning [in Swedish]
A cohort study of 142 male Swedish capacitor manufacturing workers. Twenty-three deaths and 7 cancers were noted. These numbers would be expected for the general population. Although one person had 2 rare tumours (a semi-malignant mesenchymal tumour and a malignant lymphoma) and the follow-up period was short, the results do not suggest that PCB exposure presents a high risk of cancer under the conditions of this factory. Annual medical examinations of some of the cohort revealed no abnormal results attributable to PCB exposure.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1985. 21p. Illus. 32 ref.
Ng T.P., Tsin T.W., O'Kelly F.J.
An outbreak of illness after occupational exposure to ozone and acid chlorides
A new labelling process, introduced in an electric motor factory and installed without adequate ventilation control, exposed workers to various toxic gases. Of the 246 workers, 93% complained of some ill effect, including respiratory complaints, fever, headache, dizziness, nausea or vomiting. Epidemiological analysis supported an exposure-effect relationship. The primary substances suspected were ozone, phosgene and associated chloroacetyl chlorides, generated by an ultraviolet print curing arrangement, and perchloroethylene used as a cleaning solvent.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1985, Vol.42, No.10, p.686-690. Illus. 5 ref.
Chen Z., Chan Q., Par C., Qu J.
Peripheral nerve conduction velocity in workers occupationally exposed to lead
The peripheral nerve conduction velocity between the wrist and elbow of the right upper limb and the relationship between this parameter and biochemical parameters for workers occupationally exposed to lead were studied. The nerve conduction velocity (NCV) was decreased when the exposure level reached 0.0652mg/m3 and it slowed further when exposure levels increased. There was a negative correlation between NCV and length of exposure. The NCV decreased proportionally with increasing blood lead levels. The blood lead level associated with a significant change in NCV was <40µg/100mL. There was no correlation between NCV and the amount of porphyrin metabolites. The measurement of NCV can be used as one of the sensitive criteria for the early detection of the toxic effects of lead.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1985, Vol.11, Supplement 4, p.26-28. 9 ref.
Wang Y., Lu P., Chen Z., Liang Y., Lu Q.
Effects of occupational lead exposure
Epidemiologic study covering 53 workers in a battery factory, 52 solderers in a television factory and 50 embroidery workers (control group). The average air lead levels in each workplace were 0.578, 0.002 and 0.001mg/m3, respectively. Only the battery workers showed adverse effects in terms of clinical manifestations and biochemical criteria. A significant dose-response relationship existed between toxic effects and lead concentrations in air and in blood and urine. Early clinical symptoms were dysfunction of the central nervous system, indigestion, arthralgia, and myalgia in the extremities. The symptomatic threshold values of blood lead, urinary lead, and zinc photoporphyrin were, respectively, 0.300, 0.045 and 0.400mg/L. The motor and sensory conduction velocities of the median nerve were slower in the exposed group than in the reference group.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1985, Vol.11, Supplement 4, p.20-25. 20 ref.
Persson J., Kilbom Å., Jonsson B.
Risk factors for work related disorders of the neck and shoulder - a 2-year study of individual risk factors
Belastningsrelaterade besvär i nacke och skuldror - en studie över individuella riskfaktorer [in Swedish]
96 women in the electronics industry were followed over a 2-year period. Their work was traditionally "light", characterised by repetitive arm movements, short work cycles and static work postures. The independent variables studied were: muscle strength, previous medical history, productivity, hobbies and work technique. By stepwise multiple regression analysis these independent variables were related to frequency, severity and localisation of occupational cervico-brachial disorders (OCD), subdivided into 4 stages. Working technique, previous sick-leave and high productivity imply an increased risk of OCD. Static muscle strength and change of working tasks could be identified as predictors for improvement.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1985. 117p. Illus. 13 ref. Price: Swe.cr.45.00.
McKenzie F., Storment J., Van Hook P., Armstrong T.J.
A program for control of repetitive trauma disorders associated with hand tool operations in a telecommunications manufacturing facility
Repetitive trauma disorders, including strains, tendinitis, ganglions and carpal tunnel syndrome were the leading cause of lost time and compensation expenses at this plant employing 6000 workers in 1979. The plant-wide incidence rate of OSHA reportable repetitive trauma disorders was 2.2 cases per 200,000 workhours and resulted in 1001 lost workdays. Incidence rates as high as 4.6 were reported in some areas. In 1981, the plant safety and health committee undertook a control programme that included creation of a task force, a training programme, improvements in the design of workstations and tooling, and management of restricted workers. During 1982, the incidence rate of repetitive motion disorders has decreased to 0.53 cases per 200,000 workhours and resulted in only 129 lost workdays.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1985, Vol.46, No.11, p.674-678. Illus. 6 ref.
Occupational dermatitis from soldering flux among workers in the electronics industry
Observations on 26 patients with contact dermatitis from soldering flux who were seen at an occupational dermatology clinic in Singapore. All were exposed to non-rosin organic flux from the same supplier. The sex and race distribution of the cases paralleled the sex and race distribution in the electronics industry, which differs from the distribution for the population as a whole. The dermatitis was subactute in 14 of the 26 patients. In some cases, the dermatitis extended to the forearms. Twenty-two had irritant contact dermatitis from the flux and 4 were allergic to aminoethylethanolamine, a constituent of the flux. One worker was sensitive to acetic acid in addition to aminoethylethanolamine. Transfer to other work or the wearing of plastic or rubber gloves produced complete clearing in 13 cases; 11 showed more than 50% improvement, and 2 defaulted on follow-up.
Contact Dermatitis, Aug. 1985, Vol.13, No.2, p.85-90. Illus. 7 ref.
Investigation of a working population exposed to thallium
There were no significant health differences between 86 workers exposed to thallium (in an anode-plate manufacturing plant) and 79 controls. The present TLV (TWA) of 0.1mg/m3 is suggested to be acceptable.
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1985, Vol.35, No.1, p.4-9. Illus. 21 ref.
Sorahan T., Waterhouse J.A.H., McKiernan M.J., Aston R.H.R.
Cancer incidence and cancer mortality in a cohort of semiconductor workers
No excess cancer morbidity or mortality was found in this study of 1,807 workers in a semiconductor factory (employed a minimum of 1 month over a 10-year period), with the exception of melanoma, of which there were 3 cases (0.68 expected). Only 1 of the melanoma victims had had occupational exposure to ultraviolet light.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1985, Vol.42, No.8, p.546-550. 2 ref.
Engvall J., Perk J.
Prevalence of hypertension among cadmium-exposed workers
Retrospective study of 311 male workers in an alkaline battery factory aimed at investigating the relationship between cadmium oxide exposure and hypertension. Blood pressure measurements were available for a 30 year period. When age-matched groups of hypertensive and normotensive workers were compared, employment time was significantly longer in the hypertensive group. This indicates a possible relationship between cadmium oxide exposure and the development of hypertension.
Archives of Environmental Health, May-June 1985, Vol.40, No.3, p.185-190. Illus. 33 ref.
Petersen M., Hankinson J.
Spirometry reference values for nonexposed blue-collar workers
Epidemiologic research into occupationally related lung diseases requires the comparison of a study group with an external reference group. To establish such a group, carefully selected blue-collar workers who had no obvious adverse pulmonary exposure performed simple spirometry were administered a standard questionnaire and had standard chest roentgenograms taken. Prediction equations were established for 6 pulmonary indices; a method is given for using these equations in comparative studies. Tests on this reference group showed no serious biases.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1985, Vol.27, No.9, p.644-650. 16 ref. Appendix.
Fischbein A., Rizzo J.N., Solomon S.J., Wolff M.S.
Oculodermatological findings in workers with occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)
Workers employed in 2 capacitor manufacturing facilities, with long-term exposure to PCBs, were examined for oculodermatological abnormalities on 2 occasions (in 1976 and 1979). The prevalence of such abnormalities was 9.4% in 1976 and 13.3% in 1979. No significant association was found between the abnormalities and PCB concentrations in blood serum or plasma. It is suggested that severe clinical effects of PCB exposure in an occupational setting are rare, as opposed to the situation in acute poisoning episodes.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 1985, Vol.42, No.6, p.426-430. 33 ref.
Ungers L.J., Jones J.H., McIntyre A.J., McHenry C.R.
Release of arsenic from semiconductor wafers
The production of integrated circuits and other semiconductor devices requires the introduction of impurities or dopants into the crystal lattice of a silicon substrate. Inorganic arsenic, which is regulated by OSHA as a carcinogen, is frequently used as a dopant material. Silicon wafers were found to emit arsenic over a 3-5h period following ion implantation. Total amounts emitted approached 6.0µg/100 wafers processed within 4h after implantation. The implication of the potential hazard to workers is discussed.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1985, Vol.46, No.8, p.416-420. Illus. 4 ref.
Hazard assessment of the electronic component manufacturing industry
The processes investigated in this NIOSH study include the manufacturing of receiving electron tubes, cathode ray television picture tubes, transmitting electron tubes, semi-conductor and related devices, electronic capacitors and resistors. The hazard assessment encompassed tripartite meetings, literature reviews and industrial hygiene surveys. The only potential for significant health hazards to workers was found in the semi-conductor industry where a large number of toxic chemical agents is used.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, NIOSH, Robert A. Taft Laboratories, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, Feb. 1985. 142p. Illus. 214 ref.
Sorahan T., Waterhouse J.A.H.
Cancer of prostate among nickel-cadmium battery workers
This letter to the editor provides an analysis of prostate cancer incidence among 2559 men who worked for at least 1 month in a nickel-cadmium factory in the period 1923-1975. When the 248 workers with heaviest exposure (at least 1 year) are excluded, only 11 cases of prostate cancer were observed, against an expected 10.67. There is no excess risk of prostate cancer among workers exposed to cadmium compounds.
Lancet, 23 Feb. 1985, Vol.1, No.8426, p.459. 6 ref.
Is there high risk in high tech?
Among the numerous recognised health hazards involved in the production of semiconductors, exposures to skin and respiratory irritants to central nervous system depressants (solvents), to known or suspected carcinogens, mutagens and teratogens and to arsenic from gallium arsenide dust constitute the major problems. The apparent lack of adequate occupational safety and health programmes in the industry is discussed.
Occupational Hazards, Apr. 1985, Vol.47, No.4, p.63-67. Illus.
Radwin R.G., Armstrong T.J.
Assessment of hand vibration exposure on an assembly line
Vibration exposure from pneumatic screwdrivers used in an electrical applicance assembly plant was measured and analysed. The data collected showed that exposure was in excess of the ISO guidelines (ISO/DIS 5349-1980). Recommendations for reducing exposure included selecting tools that use air shut-off rather than clutches to control torques and rebalancing the line to reduce the number of screws installed by one worker.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1985, Vol.46, No.4, p.211-219. Illus. 15 ref.
Goh C.L., Soh S.D.
Occupational dermatoses in Singapore
Statistics for 1983 from the Singapore Occupational Dermatoses Clinic. 97% of 389 cases were contact dermatitis, of which 66.3% were irritant and 33.7% allergic, in both male and female workers. Cutting oils, solvents and flux from the engineering and electronic industries were the commonest irritants, and chromate from cement in the construction industry was the commonest allergen. The other occupational allergens were rubber chemicals and epoxy resins. The construction industry was the largest source of occupational dermatoses cases seen; possible preventive measures are discussed.
Contact Dermatitis, Nov. 1984, Vol.11, No.5, p.288-293. 30 ref.
Clonfero E., Venier P., Toffolo D., Busi L., Gava C.
Mutagenesis test on urine of workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in an anode plant
There was no significant increase in the mutagenicity of urine of non-smoking workers exposed to low levels (30-60µg/m3) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in a plant processing anodes for aluminium electrolysis. High mutagenic activity was found in the urine of smokers, regardless of exposure to PAH.
Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1984, Vol.75, No.4, p.275-281. Illus. 28 ref.
Chavalitnitikul C., Levin L., Chen L.C.
Study and models of total lead exposures of battery workers
Mathematical correlations of blood lead and zinc protoporphyrin levels as the dependent variable with the lead exposure sources were derived and demonstrated most strongly as log-log relationships. Computerized statistical analysis indicated that contaminated skin and work surfaces played a very significant part in lead exposure.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1984, Vol.45, No.12, p.802-808. 32 ref.
de Schryver A., Corbey R.
Occupational health aspects to be kept in mind when fitting up a new microelectronics factory
Arbeidsgeneeskundige aspecten bij het oprichten van een nieuwe fabriek voor micro elektronica [in Dutch]
Introductory sections on production techniques (oxidation, photolithography, etching, doping, thermal diffusion, metal vapour deposition, metallisation, encapsulation) are followed by considerations on the hazards and precautions to be taken during the production of chips in microelectronic laboratories (dopants, corrosive substances, ionising radiation, fire hazards, alarm procedure). A special section is devoted to antimony: uses, metabolism, poisoning, TLVs, workplace and biological monitoring. The risks inherent in stepping up the manufacturing scale are dealt with in detail.
Tijdschrift voor sociale gezondheidszorg, 10 Oct. 1984, Vol.62, No.20, p.796-804. Illus. 23 ref.
(Comité technique national des industries chimiques, Caisse nationale de l'assurance maladie)
Preparation of pitch- and tar-based carbon pastes
Préparation des pātes carbonées ą base de brai et de goudron de houille [in French]
Recommendations adopted on 18 June 1984. Coverage: unloading and storage of raw materials; reclaiming operations; handling by conveyors; charge preparation; mixing and cooling; moulding; impregnation with liquid pitch; smoke exhaust system; cleaning and maintenance of premises and equipment; hygiene; medical supervision; training and information of personnel; monitoring of the atmosphere. Commentary.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygične du travail, 4th quarter 1984, No.117, Note No.1510-117-84 (Recommendation No.245), p.575-578.
Elias R., Cail F.
Work with binocular microscopes - Visual and postural strain
Travail sous binoculaires - Astreintes visuelles et posturales [in French]
Study of working conditions during the use of binocular microscopes in the electronic component industry. Surveys in 3 enterprises included standardised interviews with operators and measurements of visual fatigue. Visual fatigue was caused by excessive eye accommodation aggravated by factors such as fixed vision and contrasting luminance in the field of vision. Postural fatigue manifested itself by localised pain, mostly at the nape of the neck and the lower back. The causes of these problems are analysed, and measures designed to improve working conditions are suggested.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygične du travail, 4th quarter 1984, No.117, Note No.1500-117-84, p.451-456. Illus. 12 ref.
Mantere P., Hänninen H., Hernberg S., Luukkonen R.
A prospective follow-up study on psychological effects in workers exposed to low levels of lead
Intelligence, memory, visuomotor function, vigilance, and personality tests were administered to a group of 89 workers before they began work at a storage battery factory in 1975 and to 24, 16 and 11 available members of the same group after 1, 2 and 4 years of work, respectively. The time-weighted average blood lead (Pb) values were in the range of 0.68-2.17µmol/L. Initially the average psychological performances were similar in the Pb workers and a referent non-exposed group. For some of the tests, a learning effect, which was clearly evident among the referents during the follow-up, was almost absent among the Pb workers. Visual intelligence and visuomotor functions were significantly impaired after 2 years. When the Pb workers were divided into 2 groups according to the median time-weighted average of blood Pb values the Block Design and Santa Ana co-ordination tests were those which best separated the subgroups. Although the impairment was slight the dispersion in the psychological changes was wide and some higher nervous functions were affected by Pb levels ≥1.45µmol/L.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Feb. 1984, Vol.10, No.1, p.43-50. Illus. 25 ref.
Greaves I.A., Wegman D.H., Smith T.J., Spiegelman D.L.
Respiratory effects of two types of solder flux used in the electronics industry
Questionnaires and lung spirometry were administered to 93 female and 11 male electronics workers who soldered printed circuit boards. 68 subjects worked only with a rosin-core solder and 36 had changed from the rosin-core to an aqua-core (phosphorous hexate) solder 15 months before the study. Symptoms of eye, throat and nose irritation occurred in almost half of the group. Lower respiratory tract symptoms, including cough, phlegm production and wheezing also occurred with increased frequency compared to the general population. Similar symptom rates occurred in the groups using the different core types. Lung spirometry tests and symptoms improved over weekends and during vacations, indicating a work-related effect.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1984, Vol.26, No.2, p.81-85. 7 ref.
Courtney D., Merrett J.D.
Respiratory symptoms and lung function in a group of solderers
Respiratory symptoms (using a modified MRC questionnaire) and lung function (using a Vitalograph dry wedge spirometer) were evaluated in 1611 women working in a large electronics company. When 4 classes (solderers, ex-solderers, non-solderers and office workers) were compared, few significant differences were found. Ex-solderers had more respiratory symptoms than members of the other groups (significantly more in the case of chest illness), while lung function differences were more related to smoking habit than to exposure to solder fumes.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1984, Vol.41, No.3, p.346-351. 8 ref.
Schmitt-Thomas K.G., Meisel H.
Workplace contamination during soldering by emission of gases and aerosols from solders and fluxes
Arbeitsplatzbelastung beim Weichlöten durch Gas- und Aerosolemissionen aus Lotmetallen und Flussmitteln [in German]
A review of the sources of air pollution in soldering (especially rosin- and hydrazine-based fluxes) is followed by qualitative and quantitative analyses of pollutants under laboratory conditions. The boiling curves and pyrolytic behaviour of fluxes containing rosin, hydrazine or neither were determined. Pollutant concentrations depended on the purity and stabilisation of rosin. High concentrations of hydrazine were found when hydrazine fluxes were used at excessively high temperatures. Evaluation of the overall environmental effect of the emissions cannot be based on simple addition of the levels of individual pollutants, as there may be synergistic effects.
Deutscher Verlag für Schweisstechnik, Postfach 2725, 4000 Düsseldorf 1, Federal Republic of Germany, 1984. 45p. Illus. 24 ref.
Leukaemia mortality in electrical workers in England and Wales
A critical analysis of statistics on leukaemia mortality among workers occupationally exposed to electric fields in England and Wales. The data seem to confirm the conclusions of enquiries made in the USA, which suggest a relation between exposure to electric fields and leukaemia occurrence. The difficulties involved in the comparison and interpretation of the data collected are emphasised.
Lancet, 29 Jan. 1983, Vol.1, No.8318, p.246. 6 ref.
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