Manufacturing of electrical appliances and equipment - 393 entries found
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Assennato G., Porro A., Longo G., Longo F., Ambrosi L.
Effects of low mercury concentrations on the nervous system among workers employed in the manufacture of fluorescent tubes
Valutazione degli effetti sul sistema nervoso dell'esposizione a basse concentrazioni di mercurio in addetti alla fabbricazione di lampade fluorescenti [in Italian]
In order to evaluate the effects of low inorganic mercury concentrations on workers employed in the manufacture of fluorescent tubes, a stratified sample of workers was selected at random and assigned to 3 groups according to the level of exposure. In all 3 groups, urinary mercury values were within the normal range for an unexposed population. Among the indicators of neurological effects the simple hearing reaction times test showed statistically significant differences among the 3 groups. In addition, various other nervous function tests revealed differences between the unexposed group and the other two. A positive correlation was found between simple reaction times and other test results in the whole sample and in the subsample of women. Moreover, the prevalence of symptoms related to low mercury exposure, collected by a questionnaire, was higher in the 2 exposed groups. Interpretation of these results is difficult because of the absence of increased urinary mercury levels in the exposed population. Some possible explanations are offered.
Medicina del lavoro, Jan.-Feb. 1990, Vol.81, No.1, p.307-315. 22 ref.
Aspects of occupational medicine concerning manufacture in clean rooms
Arbeitsmedizinische Aspekte bei der Fertigung in Reinräumen [in German]
Health requirements placed on workers in the microchip manufacturing industry who work in clean rooms include absence of respiratory diseases, urinary tract infections, skin diseases, obesity, impaired vision, claustrophobia, epilepsy, frequent migraines and spinal diseases. The importance of abstention from smoking during and 2 hours prior to work in clean rooms and the ability to work in shifts is stressed. Clothing worn in clean rooms must protect against high air velocities.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, Sep. 1990, Vol.25, No.9, p.407-408, 413-418. Illus. 6 ref.
Wave solder operations in the electronics industry: An occupational health and safety guide
This guide identifies hazards associated with wave solder operations and advises on precautions. Contents: legal requirements; description of the wave soldering process; chemical hazards (including air sampling strategies and lead control programmes); safety hazards; fire protection; equipment lockout recommendations during maintenance; checklists for managers.
Industrial Accident Prevention Association, 2 Bloor Street West, Toronto, Ontario M4W 3N8, Canada, 1990. 34p. 6 ref.
Gas detection in clean rooms of the microelectronics industry in the context of technology and safety engineering
Gasdetektion für Reinräume der Mikro-Elektronik im technologischen und sicherheitstechnischen Umfeld [in German]
The outlined gas detection system installed in a clean room of a microelectronics plant in Germany comprises: electrochemical hydrogen and other process gas detectors for monitoring room air and waste gas as well as leakage detectors. A central control panel coordinates all detectors, triggers alarm and switches off the gas supply. The gas is transported in double-jacketed pipes.
AUER Mitteilungen, 1990, No.12, p.13-20. Illus.
Vandevyver B., Leprince A.
Working conditions in clean rooms - Survey in 9 firms
Les conditions de travail en salles propres - Etude dans 9 entreprises [in French]
This paper describes working conditions and the risks involved in working in clean rooms in different sectors of activity (pharmaceutical industry, microelectronics, food industry etc.) The study focusses on four major aspects of working conditions: noise, air conditioning, changing into and out of working clothes, and isolation and communication difficulties. Strain proved to increase with the stringency of the cleanliness requirements. The results of the study point the way to recommendations on ventilation, communication between the clean rooms and the outside world, work organisation and personnel management.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygične du travail, 4th Quarter 1990, No.141, Note No.1800-141-90, p.775-786. Illus. 16 ref.
Gupta B.N., Kumar P., Srivastava A.K.
An investigation of the neurobehavioural effects on workers exposed to organic solvents
Forty-five workers exposed to the solvents xylene and toluene in varnishing processes in a major heavy electrical industry were studied to find the effect of this exposure on different parameters of behaviour. These were immediate and delayed memory, visual ability, visual learning and psychomotor ability. The findings were compared with those from subjects who were not exposed. Immediate memory and delayed memory were affected among both directly and indirectly exposed workers as compared with those in the controls which remained unaffected. Visual intelligence and memory were most affected by exposure. Psychomotor ability was significantly affected among the directly exposed workers, as compared with the occasionally exposed group which did not show any significant difference from the control workers.
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Autumn 1990, Vol.40, No.3, p.94-96. 24 ref.
Omae K., Sakurai H., Higashi T., Muto T., Ichikawa M., Sasaki N.
No adverse effects of lead on renal function in lead-exposed workers
A cross-sectional study was performed on 165 male lead-exposed workers to clarify the quantitative relationships between less severe exposure to lead and its effects on renal function in 1985. Mean and range of blood lead concentration (Pb-B) were 36.5µg/dL and 6-73µg/dL, respectively. Duration of lead exposure was 0.1 to 26.3 years. No lead-related changes were detected in serum creatinine concentration, beta-2 microglobulin in urine, creatinine clearance, beta-2 microglobulin clearance, and uric acid clearance. Twenty of the 165 workers had been exposed to lead for more than 10 years with mean duration of 21.0 years. Average concentrations of Pb-B in each individual during 1972 to 1984 were 26.1-66.6µg/dL. Renal function indices of these 20 workers were not different from those of remaining lead-exposed workers whose lead exposure duration was 10 years or less. These results suggest that long-term less severe exposure to lead up to 70µg/dL of Pb-B may not cause adverse effects on renal function.
Industrial Health, 1990, Vol.28, No.2, p.77-83. Illus. 25 ref.
Kawakami N., Araki S., Haratani T., Kaneto T., Masumoto T., Hayashi T.
Job-stress and medical consultation rates for physical illness among blue collar workers of an electrical factory in Japan: a four-year prospective follow-up study
To investigate the relationship between job-stress and medical consultation rates for physical illness, a prospective study was conducted for male blue-collar workers of an electrical factory in Japan. Eight job-stress variables and 8 possible confounders were assessed by means of a questionnaire survey in the initial study; 375 workers without medical history of illness were followed for 4 years; they were interviewed once a year and medical consultations for physical illness were recorded. Age-adjusted rates of medical consultation during the 4-year period were significantly higher in the subjects with higher job dissatisfaction scores than in those with lower job dissatisfaction scores (p<0.05). The results of the multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that job dissatisfaction together with age and education was significantly correlated with medical consultation (p<0.05). The results suggest that job dissatisfaction is a potential factor for medical consultation in Japanese blue-collar workers.
Industrial Health, 1990, Vol.28, No.1, p.1-7. Illus. 16 ref.
The share of the metallurgical, engineering and electrotechnical complex in decreasing occupational accident rates in the whole federation
Podķl hutnickostrojķrenského a elektrotechnického komplexu na snižovįnķ pracovnķ śrazovosti celé federace [in Czech]
From 1960 to 1988, the absolute numbers of fatal and non-fatal accidents in Czechoslovakian industry decreased by almost 1/2, and the accident rate per 100 workers by almost 2/3. The Federal Ministry of Metallurgy, Mechanical Engineering and Electrical Engineering (FMHSE), which represents about 17% of the workers in the country, is responsible for high-risk occupations. Although the rate of injury in the enterprises under the jurisdiction of the FMHSE has been and remains higher than in the workforce as a whole, the numbers and rates of accidents have decreased in parallel with the decrease for the industrial sector as a whole. Tables show the evolution of accident rates for various time periods.
Bezpečnį prįca, Sep.-Oct. 1990, Vol.21, No.5, p.211-212, 223-227. Illus. 8 ref.
Koh D., Foulds I.S., Aw T.C.
Dermatological hazards in the electronics industry
This article reviews dermatological hazards in connection with the main industrial processes in the electronics industry. They include exposure to irritants and allergens during common operations such as soldering, cleaning operations, materials handling, procedures for control of static electricity and low humidity in the work environment. In spite of the numerous dermatological hazards, the risk for work-related skin disorders among electronics workers appears to be low when compared with other industries. However, the vast size of the electronics workforce will contribute to large numbers of workers with occupational dermatoses. Occupational health personnel responsible for factories in the electronics industry should therefore be aware of the dermatological hazards present, and how these may lead to work-related dermatoses.
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 1990, Vol.22, No.1, p.1-7. Illus. 45 ref.
Moulin J.J., Mur J.M., Wild P., Lafontaine M., Lefer M., Mercier-Gallay M., Villemot P., Whebi V., Coulon J.P.
Case-control study of cancer risk among four cohorts of carbon-electrode production workers
Etude cas-témoins sur le risque de cancer dans quatre cohortes de salariés de l'industrie productrice d'électrodes en carbone [in French]
This study examined the cancer risk in relation to the occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by carbon-electrode production workers. 49 cases were recorded in 4 plants by the occupational physicians for each case of control (lung, pharynx, larynx, buccal cavity) in relation to the occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and measurements of the airborne benzo(a)pyrene concentration were carried out. The odds ratios (O.R.) for lung cancer were 3.42, for cancer of pharynx, larynx and bucal cavities: 2.19 and 4.85 in 2 plants. None of the O.R. values were statistically significant. These data and those of the literature demonstrate that a definite conclusion about the risk of respiratory cancer in the manufacture of carbon electrodes cannot be reached.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1990, Vol.51, No.1, p.55-60. 16 ref.
Ergonomic deficiencies: II. Probable causes
This is Part II of a 3-part series that examines various aspects of ergonomic deficiencies at work. Causes of ergonomic deficiencies and their identification and assessment through the use of checklists are considered.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1990, Vol.32, No.2, p.131-136. Illus. 8 ref.
Barham T.D., Russell M.F., Gooding D.
Improving the protection afforded by earmuffs to employees who are exposed to noise
This study investigated causes of variations in the protection afforded by earmuffs among different wearers. Microphones were installed in five earmuff cups worn by workers in an electronics factory where the noise was due to a large lamination press. Real-time measurements of sound level pressure were made both before and after instruction on how to fit the earmuffs correctly. Results showed that simple instruction on how to fit the hearing protectors gave an overall improvement in protection of 4dB. The effect of wearing safety spectacles was found to be negligible. Subjects with short hair tended to achieve higher levels of protection than those with long or curly hair.
Noise Control Engineering Journal, Sep.-Oct. 1989, Vol.33, No.2, p.67-76. Illus. 13 ref.
Bruze M., Almgren G.
Occupational dermatoses in workers exposed to epoxy-impregnated fiberglass fabric
In a plant producing printed circuit boards 84 of 143 employees complained of dermatoses. Of these 79 were examined by patch tests with products from the work environment. In 35 (22%) evidence of occupational dermatoses was found. Contact allergy to bisphenol A diglycidyl ether was diagnosed in six persons.
Dermatosen, 1989, Vol.37, No.5, p.171-176. Illus. 18 ref.
New problems at workplaces arising from the combination of familiar substances with new production methods
Neue Probleme bei der Kombination bekannter Arbeitsstoffe mit neuen Arbeitstechniken [in German]
New technologies can pose new problems as is illustrated by the production of semiconductors. Workers are exposed to 60 different gaseous pollutants in clean rooms with about 43 air exchanges per hour. Experimental studies are being conducted to gain information on the harmfulness of that exposure. As an example, preliminary results of the exposure of rabbits to various mixtures of 1,1,2-trichloroethane and 1,4-dioxane are summarised. They reveal a dependence of enzyme activity on the mixing ratio and on the duration of exposure.
Information für den Betriebsarzt, 1989, No.3, p.2-5. Illus. 14 ref.
Structure and air flow pattern of clean rooms for LSI manufacturing
Handōtai kurin-rūmu no kōzō to kūki no nagare [in Japanese]
In clean rooms used for LSI manufacturing, it is indispensable to circulate a high volume of air all the time. A clean room, whose ceiling is covered with an air filter and whose floor is perforated, is shaped in such a way as to maintain laminar air flow as much as possible. The relation between clean room structure and accidents caused by process gases, chemicals (acids and solvents), electricity and fire is discussed. The most effective means of accident prevention in clean rooms used is to educate the workers in how to work and how to evacuate the clean room.
Journal of Industrial Hygiene of Japan - Rōdō eisei kōgaku, June 1989, No.28, p.9-14. Illus. 3 ref.
Matte T.D., Figueroa J.P., Burr G., Flesch J.P., Keenlyside R.A., Baker E.L.
Lead exposure among lead-acid battery workers in Jamaica
To assess lead exposure in the Jamaican lead-acid battery industry 46 production workers and 23 battery repair workers were surveyed. Engineering controls and respiratory protection were judged to be inadequate at battery manufacturers and battery repair shops. At manufacturers, 38 of 42 air samples for lead exceeded a work-shift time-weighted average concentration of 0.050mg/m3. Only one of seven air samples at repair shops exceeded 0.050mg/m3. Repair shop workers, however, had higher blood lead levels than manufacturing workers (65% vs. 28% with blood lead levels above 60µg/dL respectively). Manufacturing workers had a higher prevalence of safe hygienic practices and a recent interval of minimal production had occurred at one of the battery manufacturers. The high risk of lead toxicity among Jamaican battery workers is consistent with studies of battery workers in other developing countries.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1989, Vol.16, No.2, p.167-177. Bibl.
Ong C.N., Chia K.S., Koh D., Saijoh K.
Neurochemical effect of lead exposure: A study on catecholamine metabolism
A study was conducted on 106 lead workers and a control group of 25 nonexposed workers to examine the neurochemical changes caused by lead exposure. The urinary excretion of major catecholamine metabolites, homovanillic acid (HVA), and vanillylmandellic acid (VMA) was measured. Workers exposed to lead had a mean blood lead concentration of 43.2µg/100mL, whereas the concentration for the nonexposed was 12.7µg/100mL. Urinary HVA was significantly elevated in the exposed group when compared with controls ( p<0.01). HVA was also found to be associated with an increase of lead in blood. Although not statistically significant, the VMA excretion was also noted to be moderately elevated. The present study was unable to establish a highly significant dose-response relationship between lead exposure and HVA excretion, as has been reported earlier in lead-poisoned children.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 1989, Vol.16, No.6, p.667-673. Illus. Bibl.
Stenton S.C., Kelly C.A., Walters E.H., Hendrick D.J.
Occupational asthma due to a repair process for polyethylene-coated electrical cables
The case of an electrical cable repairer is reported who presented with symptoms suggestive of occupational asthma. A supervised workplace challenge test confirmed this diagnosis and laboratory challenge studies implicated heated polyethylene repair tape containing the chemical cross-linking agent dicumyl peroxide as the cause. Similar cross-linking processes are widely used in the cable manufacturing industry and the possibility of occupational asthma occurring in other settings may need to be considered.
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Spring 1989, Vol.39, No.1, p.33-34. 7 ref.
Unskilled labour by women in industrial production
Frauenarbeitsplätze für ungelernte und angelernte Tätigkeiten in der industriellen Produktion [in German]
Unskilled work by women in consumer electronics, textile and clothing industries involves e.g. assembly-line work, soldering or ironing. Work-related health problems (backache and neck disorders, visual function disorders, noise-induced hearing loss) and preventive measures (e.g. ergonomic design of workplaces) are outlined. A survey on job satisfaction revealed for instance that women with high physical strain felt satisfied with their work.
BAD-Inform, 1989, No.2, p.1-6. Illus. 1 ref.
Paul M., Himmelstein J., Weinstein S., Pransky G., McDougal C., Brogie B., Legendre S.
Ocular infections and the industrial use of microscopes
A cluster of ocular infections occurred in one area of a computer fabrication facility that relied on the use of industrial microscopes. A questionnaire was administered to all employees in this area. Microscope oculars were cultured and compared with control microscopes from a nonindustrial setting. Risk of infection was correlated with the number of hours of microscope use per day and subjective indicators of cleanliness. Bacterial cultures confirmed increased colony counts in industrial oculars compared with control oculars. Hygienic practices were instituted similar to those employed in medical settings. No further outbreaks of conjunctivities have been reported in a 1-year follow-up.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1989, Vol.31, No.9, p.763-766. 24 ref.
Doyle L., Gallagher K., Health B.S., Patterson W.B.
An outbreak of infectious conjunctivitis spread by microscopes
Among the potential occupational hazards of microscope use is the transmission of infectious agents among employees. A large (145 cases) and costly ($647 000) epidemic of viral conjunctivitis in a microelectronics factory is reported. Spread of the illness appeared to be through sharing of microscopes among employees. Routine handwashing instructions and safety glasses failed to prevent spread of the epidemic. Mandatory screening prior to work and temporary plant shut-down were finally successful. Efforts to control this outbreak and recommendations to prevent similar epidemics in other workplaces are discussed.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1989, Vol.31, No.9, p.758-762. 12 ref.
Skyberg K., Hansteen I.L., Jelmert Ų., Rųnneberg A.
A cytogenic and haematological investigation of oil exposed workers in a Norwegian cable manufacturing company
Cytogenetic and haematological parameters were studied in 31 oil exposed workers and 31 office workers matched for age and smoking, all men employed by a Norwegian cable manufacturing company. Information was obtained about tobacco and alcohol consumption, infections, allergies, chronic diseases, use of medicines, and exposure to radiography. A decrease in the absolute lymphocyte counts was observed in the most heavily exposed subgroup (p < 0.05) but no other significant differences were found between exposed workers and referents. The influence of non-occupational variables on the cytogenetic parameters was studied by stepwise multiple linear regression analysis. The frequency of sister chromatid exchanges appeared to be influenced by smoking history (p < 0.05) and season of sampling ( p < 0.01) and, if season was excluded, by age (p < 0.05) and current smoking (p < 0.05). The number of cells with chromosomal aberrations increased with age (p < 0.05) and lymphocyte count ( p < 0.05), whereas the frequency of stable rearrangements was negatively correlated with current smoking (p < 0.01).
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1989, Vol.46, No.11, p.791-798. 23 ref.
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists
Hazard assessment and control technology in semiconductor manufacturing
Presentations from a symposium (Cincinnati, Ohio, USA, 20-22 Oct. 1987) co-sponsored by the Semiconductor Industry Association, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. The meeting provided a forum for the exchange of information among researchers, health and safety personnel from industry, equipment and material suppliers and representatives of US governmental agencies. The areas covered were: health studies, hazard control technology of manufacturing processes, catastrophic releases and emerging technologies. The health studies include statistics on occupational injuries and illnesses in the industry for the period 1980-1985.
Lewis Publishers Inc., 12 South Main Street, P.O. Drawer 519, Chelsea, MI 48118, USA, 1989. 329p. Illus. Bibl. Index. Price: USD 45.00.
Chia K.S., Ong C.N., Ong H.Y., Endo G.
Renal tubular function of workers exposed to low levels of cadmium
Cadmium induced renal tubular effects were examined in 65 female workers in a factory manufacturing nickel cadmium batteries. Urinary β2-microglobulin (β2m), urinary N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase activity (NAG), and serum creatinine and serum urea concentrations were used to assess the renal effects. Only urinary NAG showed a significant deterioration in renal function among the exposed group. NAG detects the largest proportion of abnormalities among the exposed group. Abnormal urinary β2m is detected in only 15.4% of the workers, half of whom have blood cadmium above 10µg/L. The proportion of abnormalities detected by urinary NAG differs significantly from the proportion of abnormalities detected by urinary β2m (p<0.01). The age adjusted mean urinary NAG excretion showed a significant rise with urinary cadmium of above 3µg/g creatinine. Urinary β2m failed to show any significant rise. With blood cadmium concentrations, the age adjusted mean urinary NAG excretion showed a rise from 1µg/L of blood cadmium followed by a plateau between blood cadmium concentrations of 3-10µg/L. No significant rise in mean urinary excretion of β2m was seen until blood cadmium concentrations exceeded 10µg/L.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 1989, Vol.46, No.3, p.165-170. Illus. 26 ref.
Chemical hazards in the electronics industry
Denshi sangyō ni okeru kemikaru hazādo [in Japanese]
The characteristics of chemical hazards that are encountered in the electronics (particularly, the semiconductor) industry, as compared to other manufacturing industries, are described. The magnitude of the problem is illustrated by the large variety of highly dangerous chemicals used and released in the manufacture of optoelectronic and integrated circuit devices, the hazards posed to workers and the environment, and the difficulties and costs of counteracting them. The processes and chemicals involved in the fabrication of semiconductor-grade silicon, single crystal formation, integrated circuit devices, light-emitting diode and solar photovoltaic devices are presented.
Air Cleaning - Kūki Seijō, Oct. 1988, Vol.26, No.3, p.1-13. Illus.
Allergy to chromium, cobalt and nickel in metal and electrical industry workers
Patch tests were carried out on 303 metal and electrical industry workers. Allergy to chromium was diagnosed in 19.2% of the metal industry and in 12.5% of the electrical industry workers. Hypersensitivity to cobalt was observed in 9% of the metal industry and in 5.9% of the electrical industry workers. Allergy to nickel was encountered more frequently in the electrical industry workers than in the metal industry employees (5.9% and 1.8%, respectively). Sensitisation to chromium compounds prevailed among galvanisers. Hypersensitivity to metals was determined as the cause of dermatitis in 29.4% of the metal industry and 38.3% of the electrical industry workers.
Polish Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1988, Vol.1, No.4, p.298-305. 23 ref.
The safe storage, handling and use of special gases in the micro-electronics industry
Contents of this Code of Practice: key requirements for employers of personnel using special gases; potential hazards of compressed gas containers; potentially hazardous properties of gases; location, design, construction and operation of the gas container storage area; handling of gas containers; gas supply points; gas supply systems; disposal of waste gases; operating principles for gas supply systems; plant maintenance; general safety procedure.
The British Compressed Gases Association, St. Andrews House, 26 Brighton Road, Crawley, West Sussex RH10 6AA, United Kingdom, 1988. 55p. 17 ref.
Bruynzeel D.P., Hennipman G., Van Ketel W.G.
Irritant contact dermatitis and chrome-passivated metal
An outbreak of hand dermatitis is reported amongst employees working on a new assembly line of an electronics factory. Twenty-four out of 41 employees had signs of irritant contact dermatitis. The fingertips and the dorsal parts of the hands were especially affected. Mechanical factors in combination with zinc-chromium compounds from galvanised steel seemed to be responsible for the dermatitis and the dry skin. The use of an emollient solved the problem.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 1988, Vol.19, No.3, p.175-179. Illus. 13 ref.
Determination of hydrides of arsenic, antimony and tin in workplace air
The efficiency of a silver nitrate-impregnated 37mm back-up pad (Ag-pad) in collecting hydrides of arsenic, antimony and tin has been studied. Detailed analytical methods using graphite furnace-AAS for the quantitative determination of the elements have been developed and the accuracy and precision of the methods have been determined. A field study in a lead acid battery manufacturing plant has been performed using a 37mm 0.8µm cellulose acetate filter combined with an Ag-pad to collect and differentiate between hydrides and particulate compounds of arsenic and antimony in the air.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1988, Vol.32, No.3, p.385-397. Illus. 16 ref.
Safety for a semiconductor fabrication facility
Handōtai-seizō-kōjō ni okeru anzentaisaku-shisutemu [in Japanese]
There are some potential hazards in semiconductor fabrication facilities including health hazards and risks of fire, explosion, air pollution and water pollution. A gaseous or liquid chemical substance may leak from a pipe, a vessel or other process equipment or an unpredictable chemical reaction may occur in an exhaust equipment, such as a duct or a waste gas scrubber. Fail-safe process equipment, hazard detectors and protective equipment are necessary for safety. A cabinet for cylinders of toxic or combustible gas is an example. It is installed with gas flow monitors, automatic cylinder-valve-closers, gas leakage detectors, exhaust ducts, fire detectors and automatic fire extinguishers. In case of emergency, the cylinder valve will be automatically closed and, simultaneously, alarms will go off in the process room and the control room of the facility. Operators must operate equipment in ways that prevent accidents and decrease hazards. A computer-controlled safety system is useful and increases the reliability of the operator who must correctly operate emergency procedures at critical stages.
Air Cleaning - Kūki Seijō, Oct. 1988, Vol.26, No.3, p.14-33. Illus. 35 ref.
Higher rate of miscarriages in microchip manufacture?
Erhöhte Fehlgeburtenrate bei der Fertigung von Mikrochips? [in German]
Two studies in the USA among 300 and 700 women, respectively, in microchip manufacture yielded inconclusive results as to the relationship between work and miscarriages. Safety and health measures by a microchip manufacturer in the Federal Republic of Germany are outlined. They include monitoring of air quality in the workplace, in order to check compliance with exposure limits, and biological monitoring.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, 1988, Vol.23, No.3, p.77-78.
Petsonk E.L., Storey E., Becker P.E., Davidson C.A., Kennedy K., Vallyathan V.
Pneumoconiosis in carbon electrode workers
Pneumoconiosis was diagnosed in five workers involved in the manufacture of carbon electrodes. Possible aetiologies are discussed. It is generally believed that pneumoconiosis ceased to be a problem in this industry after World War II; however, the reported cases all resulted from exposures after 1940. These findings question the efficacy of recent and current engineering controls and suggest the need for further study of this industry.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Nov. 1988, Vol.30, No.11, p.887-894. Illus. 18 ref.
A review of the epidemiologic literature on magnetic fields and cancer
Since 1979 several studies have been published that suggest that residential exposure to electromagnetic fields could increase the risk of childhood cancer. Such studies have also been published for adults. In addition, there are several studies suggesting that people in "electrical" occupations are at an increased risk of cancer. The objective of this review was to determine whether the role of electromagnetic fields in the origin of cancer can be established from the epidemiologic literature. Sevral of the studies suffer from methodological or other shortcomings, but it is not clear whether these problems are likely to explain the results. No conclusion can be drawn about the role of electromagnetic fields in the origin of cancer on the basis of current data. The existing literature, however, strongly suggests that research in this area should be pursued.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1988, Vol.14, No.6, p.337-343. Illus. 36 ref.
Pastides H., Calabrese E.J., Hosmer D.W., Harris D.R.
Spontaneous abortion and general illness symptoms among semiconductor manufacturers
Personal interviews were conducted with manufacturing workers, spouses of male manufacturers, and an internal control group. Elevated spontaneous abortion ratios were observed for females working in the "diffusion" (38.9%) and photolithographic processes (31.1%). Various general health symptoms were examined and reported more frequently among manufacturers than the non-exposed. These results should be viewed as tentative until studies with larger numbers and more detailed exposure data are carried out.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, July 1988, Vol.30, No.7, p.543-551. 46 ref.
Tuppurainen M., Wägar G., Kurppa K., Sakari W., Wambugu A., Fröseth B., Alho J.
Thyroid function as assessed by routine laboratory tests of workers with long-term lead exposure
Thyroid function was studied in 176 male workers occupationally exposed to lead. The mean blood lead concentration of the workers was 2.70 (SD 1.15, range 0.70-6.45) µmol/L. The mean duration of lead exposure was 7.6 (range 0.1-20) years. The total thyroxine (T4), free thyroxine (FT4), total triiodothyronine (T3), and thyrotropin concentrations in serum were similar in the workers in the low and high blood lead categories. In regression equations the duration of lead exposure had a weak but significant negative association with T4 and FT4, and this association was particularly pronounced when the analyses were restricted to workers with the most intense lead exposure over time. Thus, the results suggest that thyroid function might be depressed as a result of intense long-term lead exposure.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1988, Vol.14, No.3, p.175-180. Illus. 17 ref.
Ducatman A.M., Ducatman B.S., Barnes J.A.
Lithium battery hazard: Old-fashioned planning implications of new technology
Lithium battery technology has important military applications and will incrasingly enter the civilian marketplace. In order to prevent explosive fragmentation under some circumstances of malfunction or misuse, lithium batteries are designed to vent externally in the event of malfunction. Depending on the chemistry and size of a venting lithium battery, the release of toxic gases such as sulfur dioxide or thionyl chloride may pose risks to exposed individuals, particularly in enclosed spaces. Chemical and thermal burns, laryngeal oedema, pulmonary oedema, and bronchiolitis obliterans are potential outcomes. A case report is presented which illustrates the hazards.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1988, Vol.30, No.4, p.309-311. Illus. 19 ref.
Bennett D.E., Mathias C.G.T., Susten A.S., Fannick N.L., Smith A.B.
Dermatitis from plastic tote boxes impregnated with an antistatic agent
An outbreak of dermatitis occurred among exployees of a microelectronics firm. In a cross-sectional epidemiologic investigation, the authors found that dermatitis of the hands or arms had occurred among 14 of 29 (48.3%) employees of the incoming inspection department where plastic tote boxes recently purchased from one manufacturer had been used, compared to only one case among 17 (5.9%) employees in another department which had not used these boxes. Affected workers could detect an oily film on the surfaces of these new boxes, but not on older ones. The authors identified the oily film to be a surface accumulation of bis-hydroxyethyl-tallow amine (BHETA), an antistatic agent with which the tote boxes had been impregnated. Subsequent toxicologic investigation established that BHETA could provoke both follicular and nonfollicular irritant dermatits, and was also a potential skin sensitiser. Antistatic agents should be considered as potential causes of dermatitis among employees who handle electrical parts transported in plastic boxes, particularly when affected employees can detect an oily film on the box surfaces.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Mar. 1988, Vol.30, No.3, p.252-255. 2 ref.
A mortality study of lead workers, 1926-1985
In a case-control study of 867 deaths between 1926 and 1985 of men who had relatively high occupational lead exposure, compared with 1,206 who died during the same period, and whose lead exposure had been low or absent, there was a statistically significant excess of deaths from cerebrovascular disease between 1946 and 1965. There were also signs of a decreasing secular trend in the odds ratios for deaths from this cause between 1926 and 1985, with no difference between the two groups over the past 20 years. There was no statistically significant excess in the number of deaths from malignant neoplasms, either in general or for specific sites. Previous evidence of an increased risk of death from cerebrovascular disease is therefore confirmed, but it would seem that with the introduction of stricter standards of lead control that this has now disappeared, as has any marginal risk of death from malignant disease.
Archives of Environmental Health, May-June 1988, Vol.43, No.3, p.247-251. 9 ref.
Bowman J.D., Garabrant D.H., Sobel E., Peters J.M.
Exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields in occupations with elevated leukemia rates
In this study, spot measurements were taken of ELF (< 100Hz) electric and magnetic field exposures of electrical workers at 114 worksites in various industries. For comparison, field strength was measured in 18 residences and 3 offices. The survey indicated that workers were in general more exposed to strong fields than were people in residential and office settings.
Applied Industrial Hygiene, June 1988, Vol.3, No.6, p.189-194. Illus. 38 ref.
Sidhu A., Moch P., Podewils G., Schliephake D.
Determination and reduction of air pollution at soft-soldering workplaces in the electrical industry
Erfassung und Verminderung der Arbeitsplatzbelastung beim Weichlöten in der Elektroindustrie [in German]
Analyses of the components of soldering flux, of emissions and of breathing-zone air samples at 100 soft-soldering workplaces in the electrical industry in Germany (Fed.Rep.) showed the presence of harmful substances, e.g. of aldehydes, lead and tin. The 100 exposed women showed higher incidences of reversible eye irritations, irritations of the mucuous membranes of the respiratory tract and breathing difficulties than did matched non-exposed controls. It is recommended not to use soldering flux that contains succinic acid, maleic anhydride and hydrazine.
Schweissen und Schneiden, 1988, Vol.40, No.2, p.75-78. Illus. 6 ref.
Menke R., Chelton C.F.
Evaluation of glove material resistance to ethylene glycol dimethyl ether permeation
This study was undertaken because ethylene glycol dimethyl ether (1,2-dimethoxyethane) is a possible component of lithium-based primary battery electrolyte systems. A number of gloves were tested by the ASTM Method F-739-81, and butyl rubber was found to be the most effective barrier to permeation. Further studies determined that the butyl gloves could be reused if they were reconditioned overnight in a vacuum oven at 50°C. When an electrolyte mixture of ethylene glycol dimethyl ether (30% v/v) and propylene carbonate (70% v/v) was tested, the results indicated that the propylene carbonate retards the permeation of the glycol ether by a factor of 10. This is believed to be caused by the propylene carbonate's coating of the surface of the butyl membrane, which reduces the sorption of EGDME.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1988, Vol.49, No.8, p.386-389. Illus. 4 ref.
Health hazards in the electronic industry
Instruction manual based on material developed by a Swedish labour union organisation and aimed at workers. This version is adapted to circumstances in Malaysia, but it is easily adaptable to any English-speaking country. Contents: health hazards in the electronic industry; semiconductor manufacturing; the external environment (dust elimination); preventive maintenance; heat, thermal radiation and exposure to cold.
International Metalworkers' Federation, 54 bis, rte des Acacias, C.P. 563, 1227 Genčve 22, Switzerland, 1988. 27p. Illus.
Assessment of the developmental risks resulting from occupational exposure to select glycol ethers within the semiconductor industry
The hazards posed by the monomethyl and monoethyl ethers of ethylene glycol and their acetates are discussed. Included are: properties and uses; exposure hazard ratings; potential for exposure; personal protective equipment; developmental toxicology; hazard assessment (mutagenicity); reproductive toxicology tests; adequacy of the TLVs; sampling and analysis; risk assessment; skin absorption. The airborne concentration of the ethers is generally low enough to protect workers against reproductive and other toxic effects as long as dermal exposure is minimal.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, 1988, Vol.23, No.1, p.29-75. Illus. Bibl.
Guide to occupational hygiene
Rukovodstvo po gigiene truda [in Russian]
Second of 2 volumes addressed to industrial physicians, specialists in occupational medicine, plant physicians and other medical personnel. Vol.2 is arranged in 16 chapters devoted to occupational hygiene problems in the following industries: mining; coal-mining (opencast and underground); iron and steel (sintering and iron-ore pellet plants, cakes and by-products, blast-furnace processes, steelmaking, ferroalloy smelting processes etc.); non-ferrous metals (manufacturing of alumina, aluminium, copper, lead, mercury, zinc etc.); machinery (foundry, press forging, heat-treating, machine shops etc.); electronics; chemicals; oil and gas extraction and refining; microbiology; synthetic polymers (plastics, man-made fibers, synthetic rubber, rubber products); construction and building materials; asbestos processing; textiles and light industry (textile, clothing, leather goods, shoe making); wood, pulp and paper, woodworking; printing; work with ionising radiation (nuclear power plants, radioactive sources, x-ray equipment, particle accelerators, etc.).
Izdatel'stvo "Medicina", Petroverigskij per. 6/8, 101000 Moskva, USSR, 1987. Vol.2, 446p. 58 ref. Price: SUR 1.90.
Rivers J.K., Rycroft R.J.G.
Occupational allergic contact urticaria from colophony
First report of allergic contact urticaria from colophony (asthma from occupational exposure is well known). The victim was a 34-year-inspector of printed circuit boards.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 1987, Vol.17, No.3, p.181. 1 ref.
Roels H., Abdeladim S., Ceulemans E., Lauwerys R.
Relationships between the concentrations of mercury in air and in blood or urine in workers exposed to mercury vapour
During 5 successive days the TWA airborne concentration of mercury vapour (Hg-air) and the levels of mercury in blood (Hg-B) and in urine (Hg-U) were investigated in 10 workers in a dry alkaline battery plant. The individual external exposure measured with personal sampler ranged from 10 to 106µg Hg/m3 (overall mean 40µg/m3). On an individual basis, strong correlations were found between the daily intensity of exposure to mercury vapour and the levels of Hg-B (end of workshift) (r = 0.86; n = 40) or Hg-U (following morning) (r = 0.81; n = 34). These relationships indicate that the ratio Hg-air (µg/m3); Hg-B (µg/dL whole blood): Hg-U (µg/g creatinine) is 1:0.045:1.22. In view of the previous investigations on the nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity of long-term exposure to mercury vapour showing a biological TLV for Hg-U of 50µg/g creatinine, this ratio suggests that the corresponding threshold values for Hg-B and Hg-air amount to 1.8µg Hg/dL of whole blood and 40µg/m3 of air, respectively.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1987, Vol.31, No.2, p.135-145. Illus. 21 ref.
Vegetative vascular dysfunction syndrome in workers exposed to low concentrations of chlorobenzene and tricresol
Sindrom vegetativno-sosudistoj disfunkcii u rabotajuščih v kontakte s nizkimi koncentracijami hlorbenzola i trikrezola [in Russian]
Medical examinations of 556 female workers exposed to low concentrations of the organic solvents chlorobenzene and tricresol (cresylic acid) in an enamelled electric wire factory showed a high incidence of vegetative vascular dysfunction syndrome (34.1%). Its incidence increased with length of exposure and concentration of solvent. Chlorobenzene and cresylic acid should be considered as risk factors which provoke the development of vegetovascular disfunction syndrome in those who work in contact with them.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Sep. 1987, No.9, p.11-13. Illus. 11 ref.
Ergonomic work-stand for printed circuit board assembly
Ergonomiczne stanowisko do montażu układów elektronicznych [in Polish]
Experiments carried out in a laboratory model of the work-stand were aimed at a quantitative assessment of the working conditions existing at traditional assembling stands and semi-automatic stands. These stands are equipped with electronic component delivery systems and light-spot indication systems in order to show the assembler the position of particular components on the printed board. Hand and eyeball movements were examined. The influence of the introduction of semi-automatic work-stands on working conditions and on the efficiency of printed circuit board assemblers was determined.
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1987, Vol.37, No.135, p.171-186. 4 ref.
NIOSH Alert - Request for assistance in reducing the potential risk of developing cancer from exposure to gallium arsenide particulates in the microelectronics industry
This Alert describes reports of animal studies indicating potential carcinogenicity. Safe working methods, personal protective clothing and equipment, and decontamination and waste disposal are recommended.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, 1987. 8p. 11 ref.
Schwarz G., Rakoski J.
Special dermatological problems of clean-room work
Spezielle dermatologische Probleme bei der Arbeit in Reinräumen [in German]
The development and production of microelectronic devices require so-called "clean-room" conditions. Dermatologists increasingly are confronted with the skin problems of persons working within this environment. The skin problems associated with dryness are attributable to the low humidity in the "clean-rooms", and to the lamellar flow of filtered air.
Dermatosen in Beruf und Umwelt, 1987, Vol.35, No.3, p.98-100. 3 ref.
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