Manufacturing of electrical appliances and equipment - 393 entries found
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Accidents in semiconductor industries
Handōtai kanren sangyō ni okeru jiko rei [in Japanese]
Accidents that have occurred in the semiconductor industry in Japan are reviewed and summarized in order to clarify hidden hazards in workplaces in the industry. The accidents fall into five categories: silane fires, silane or germane explosions, metallic silicone powder explosions, explosions or violent decompositions of chemical waste and leakage of toxic gases. Analysis of the accidents is followed by suggestions of preventive measures.
Journal of the Japan Society for Safety Engineering - Anzen kōgaku, 15 Dec. 1994, Vol.33, No.6, p.369-375. Illus. 41 ref.
Armstrong B., Thériault G., Guénel P., Deadman J., Goldberg M., Héroux P.
Association between exposure to pulsed electromagnetic fields and cancer in electric utility workers in Quebec, Canada, and France
The authors report the association between exposure to pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) and cancer in electric utility workers in Quebec, Canada (follow-up, 1970-1988), and France (follow-up, 1978-1989), among whom 2,679 cases of cancer were identified. Exposures were assessed through a job-exposure matrix based on about 1,000 person-weeks of measurements from exposure meters worn by workers. Exposures were considerably higher in Quebec than in France. No association was found between PEMFs and cancers previously suspected of association with magnetic fields (leukaemia, other haematopoietic cancers, brain cancer or melanoma). However, there was a clear association between cumulative exposure to PEMFs and lung cancer, with odds ratios rising to 3.11 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.60-6.04) in the highest exposure group (84 cases). The association was not explained by smoking or other occupational exposures.
American Journal of Epidemiology, 1 Nov. 1994, Vol.140, No.9, p.805-820. 18 ref.
Yang Y.J., Huang C.C., Shih T.S., Yang S.S.
Chronic elemental mercury intoxication - Clinical and field studies in lampsocket manufacturers
Four workers chronically exposed to elemental mercury in a lampsocket manufacturing factory were studied. The clinical manifestations were severe in one, mild in another, and suspicious in the remaining two. Correlation between severity of clinical features and increased urinary mercury concentrations was found. The time-weighted average mercury concentrations were 0.945mg/m3 and 0.709mg/m3 for two workers in one room and 0.225mg/m3 in the other. After stopping exposure, the workers recovered spontaneously or with D-penicillamine treatment within six months. Results show that recovery from chronic elemental mercury intoxication may be complete when patients are removed early from the exposure environment. The hazard of mercury intoxication in the recycling of waste substances is emphasized.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 1994, Vol.51, No.4, p.267-270. Illus. 25 ref.
Lee H.S., Koh D., Chia H.P., Phoon W.H.
Symptoms, lung function, and diurnal variation in peak expiratory flow rate among female solderers in the electronics industry
To determine whether solderers had increased diurnal variation in peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and chronic impairment of lung function, a cross-sectional study of 150 female operators doing manual soldering using flux-cored solder wire and 52 administrative staff from two electronics factories was carried out. A questionnaire was answered, the forced respiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were measured and three-hourly PEFR monitored for five working days. Because the racial composition of the experimental and control groups was different, FEV1 and FVC were analyzed for a matched sub-set of the employees. Solderers with five or more years of exposure had a significantly lower FEV1/FVC, i.e. mild obstruction, after adjustment for age, smoking and asthma.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1994, Vol.26, No.5, p.613-619. 12 ref.
Jalbert M., Maître A., Stoklov M., Romazini S., Morin B., Perdrix A.
Lead poisoning risk in microwelding operations in the electronics industry
Risque saturnin des opérations de microsoudure en électronique [in French]
Lead exposure of welders using a lead and tin alloy was assessed comparing the blood lead levels of 169 welders in the electronics industry and those of 98 controls. Procedures included monitoring of airborne lead and surveying personal hygiene practices and soldering use by questionnaire. Atmospheric concentrations were all under 75µg/m3. No blood level was over 40µg/100mL, and there was no significant difference between blood lead levels of microwelding operators and controls. However, men and women have different lead levels, and eating and drinking at the workplace significantly modify blood lead concentration. According to this study, manual soldering operators in the electronics industry, using soldering irons and a solder of 40% lead and 60% tin, are not being exposed to a lead hazard.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, 1994, Vol.55, No.8, p.589-594. 25 ref.
Øvrebø S., Haugen A., Fjeldstad P.E., Hemminki K., Szyfter K.
Biological monitoring of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in an electrode paste plant
Comparison of several biomarkers for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure among electrode paste plant workers and workers not occupationally exposed to PAH. The PAH exposure was quantified from samples collected with person-attached sampling devices. The level of pyrene was significantly correlated with both PAH level and the level of selected carcinogenic PAHs in this type of exposure. The mean concentration of the biomarker 1-hydroxypyrene in the PAH exposed workers' urine was 6.98µmol of 1-hydroxypyrene per mole of creatinine compared with 0.08 and 0.14µmol in the two reference groups. PAH-DNA adducts were measured in DNA from white blood cells by the enzyme radioimmunoassay and 32P-postlabelling techniques. Only urinary 1-hydroxypyrene was significantly increased in the PAH-exposed group.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Mar. 1994, Vol.36, No.3, p.303-310. Illus. 37 ref.
Yassi A., Tate R., Fish D.
Cancer mortality in workers employed at a transformer manufacturing plant
Examination of mortality data of male workers employed between 1947 and 1975 at a transformer manufacturing plant in Canada revealed no significant increase in overall cancer deaths. There was, however, a significant considerable excess in pancreatic cancer; 11 deaths were found, all but one of which had a latency period of at least 10 years. The plant made extensive use of transformer fluids, some containing polychlorinated biphenyls. Results of earlier studies which found an excess of pancreatic cancer in association with oil exposure and electrical equipment manufacturing are summarized.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 1994, Vol.25, p.425-437. 53 ref.
Klein R., Clauzade B.
Immunity of microprocessor-based systems to radiated electromagnetic interference
Immunité de systèmes à microprocesseurs aux perturbations électromagnétiques rayonnées [in French]
Most components of automatic systems used in industrial process control are standard programmable microelectronics systems, and their malfunction may affect operator safety. The purpose of this study was to analyze the level of immunity of certain components to radiated interference. One programmable industrial controller, 2 sensors (pressure and temperature), one regulator and 3 microprocessors were tested using a measuring method comparable to the standard method. The results show that even if immunity is taken into account at the design stage, malfunctions still occur when the level of interference exceeds the immunity threshold specified by relevant standards, which can sometimes happen in the industrial environment.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 1st Quarter 1994, No.154, Note No.1952-154-94, p.51-59. 6 ref.
Koh D., Lee H.S., Chia H.P., Phoon W.H.
Skin disorders among hand solderers in the electronics industry
Full-time solderers (n=150) and non-soldering administrative staff (n=52) were examined to determine the prevalence of work-related skin disorders. Prevalence rates of ever having a work-related rash since the start of work were 19.5% for workers using multicore flux and 10.3% for liquid flux users; prevalence rates for those wearing cotton gloves were lower than those for ungloved workers. Six solderers (all ungloved multicore flux users) had work-related dermatitis. Findings suggest that work-related skin disorders are fairly common among solderers and that the use of gloves and liquid flux reduces the risk of such disorders. Acne and elevated skin sebum levels were not found to be associated with soldering.
Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1994, Vol.44, No.1, p.24-28. 16 ref.
British Occupational Hygiene Society (BOHS)
Concentrations of cadmium in air and urine in an alkaline battery works - A case study
Historical data on concentrations of cadmium in air and of cadmium in urine and blood and β2-microglobulin in urine are examined for exposed workers in an alkaline battery factory. Using simple statistical methods, annual data sets have been analyzed by department, job or other classification. Summary results show a steady annual reduction of cadmium in air with a sudden decrease during the two years covered by a major change in the production method; no such sudden decrease was noted for cadmium in urine. Results indicate that the current maximum exposure limit of 50µg/m3 for airborne cadmium hydroxide is sufficiently low to keep cadmium in urine concentrations below the presently used medical guidance level.
H and H Scientific Consultants Ltd., P.O. Box MT27, Leeds LS17 8QP, United Kingdom, 1994. vi, 35p. 40 ref. Price: GBP 11.00 surface mail (GBP 15.00 airmail).
Hazard assessment and control technology in semiconductor manufacturing II
Proceedings of a conference on hazard assessment and control in semiconductor manufacturing held in Massachusetts, USA, October 1991. Topics covered: health studies (statistics of injury and illness 1982-1990, reproductive health, respiratory symptoms, carpal tunnel syndrome); exposure assessment (glove permeation by solvents, exposure to inorganic acids and magnetic fields etc.); toxicology (biological indicators of exposure to III-V semiconductors, medical management of exposure to hydrofluoric acid etc.); process hazard review (FMECA, HAZOP etc.); control technologies; new technologies. The proceedings of the first conference were abstracted as CIS 90-159.
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), 6500 Glenway Avenue, Bldg. D-7, Cincinnati, OH 45211-4438, USA, 1993. vii, 347p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Lee B.K., Lee C.W., Ahn K.D.
The effect of respiratory protection with biological monitoring on the health management of lead workers in a storage battery industry
Zinc protoporphyrin in blood samples from 85 lead-exposed workers in a storage battery manufacturing plant in Korea was determined monthly for one year. The workers participating in the study wore maintenance-free respirators. The levels of lead and haemoglobin in blood and of delta-aminolevulinic acid in urine were determined at the beginning and the end of the study. A questionnaire was administered to collect information on symptoms related to lead exposure. The use of respirators significantly decreased the blood lead and zinc protoporphyrin levels and the levels of delta-aminolevulinic acid in urine but not the mean haemoglobin concentrations. The prevalence of lead related symptoms decreased more significantly in female workers than male workers.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1993, Vol.65, Suppl.1, p.S181-S184. Illus. 13 ref.
Kitazawa S., Shimada T., Yanagisawa T.
Noise generated by an electronic parts feeder and its abatement
Denshi buhin kyokuki kara no soon to sono taisaku [in Japanese]
Vibrating parts feeders are widely used in industry. The type considered here dispenses electronic components. The parts are kept moving through the feed hopper by the vibration of an alternating-current solenoid. In the original design, two feeders each driven by its own solenoid, were mounted on a single base, which rested on the floor. When the two were mounted on a plate that was separated from the base by rubber spacers and were driven by one off-centre solenoid, noise emission was reduced by 14-15dB.
Journal of the INCE of Japan, 1 Feb. 1993, Vol.17, No.1, p.30-33. Illus. 1 ref.
Health and Safety Executive, Technology and Health Sciences Division
A review of the control of toxic gases within the microelectronic semiconductor manufacturing industry
This report reviews the use, control and monitoring of hazardous substances within the microelectronic semiconductor manufacturing industry with particular emphasis on certain toxic gases. Contents: the UK industry; the manufacturing process and hazardous substances likely to be encountered; use, control and monitoring of hazardous substances (solvents, acids, alkalis, arsine, phosphine, diborane, silane); biological monitoring; waste disposal of toxic gases; prevention of exposure to toxic gases by substitution.
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Oct. 1993. vi, 19p. 24 ref.
Aptel M., Cail F., Cnockaert J.C., Didry G., Herrault J., Moreau D., Mouze-Amady M.
Study of the risk of occupational carpal-tunnel syndrome in an electrical appliance manufacturing plant
Etude dans une entreprise de montage d'appareils électroménagers des facteurs de risques professionnels du syndrome du canal carpien [in French]
A study was carried out over several months in a French electrical appliance manufacturing plant to help management develop a musculoskeletal disorder prevention strategy and control the incidence of carpal-tunnel syndrome (CTS). A questionnaire survey was administered to a sample of workers from the assembly unit to study their musculoskeletal complaints and their stress levels (the latter having been determined by saliva cortisol measurement). Prevention can be achieved by reducing stress and strain, the training and information of personnel, the improving of the functional aptitude of operators, the enrichment of tasks with a view to varying movements and the introduction of in-plant fitness programmes.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 1993, No.54, p.149-164. Illus. 10 ref.
Dufresne A., Krier G., Muller J.F., Perrault G.
Measurement of metallic particles extracted from the lung parenchyma of two electricians and one electrotechnician
X-ray spectroscopy and laser microprobe mass analysis were used to determine the chemical nature of particles extracted from the lung parenchyma of two electricians and one electrotechnician who had died of lung cancer. The retained particles were qualitatively representative of these workers' work history (e.g. the electrician who had worked in a mine had retained more silicates than the two others). The concentration of nickel in the lungs of these workers was higher than the concentrations measured in the lungs of 39 other workers who died of different types of cancers.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1993, Vol.54, No.9, p.564-568. Illus. 8 ref.
Avoidance of health risks in the manufacture of semiconductors
Vermeiden von Gesundheitsrisiken in der Halbleiterfertigung [in German]
The proportion of micronuclei in the lymphocytes of female workers in a semiconductor production plant was determined. The workers were responsible for cleaning and maintenance of the plasma etching reactor and exposed to more than 70 different chemical substances. With 9 to 14 micronuclei per 500 cells the number was above that expected (<8/500 cells). In order to reduce the incidence of micronuclei to <8/500 cells, exhaust hoods were installed, the training of the workers was improved, respirators were distributed for work on the open plasma etching reactor, and the reactor was purged with nitrogen prior to opening.
Siemens-Zeitschrift, Special-FuE, Fall 1993, p.22-25. Illus.
Wallis G., Menke R., Chelton C.
Workplace field testing of a disposable negative pressure half-mask dust respirator (3M 8710)
The performance of the 3M 8710 dust/mist halfmask respirator was characterized in a workplace (alkaline battery plant) atmosphere that contained concentrations of manganese dioxide dust in the range 0.14 to 20 mg/m3 as manganese. Workplace protection factors (WPFs) were calculated from the ratio of the concentration outside the respirator (C(o)) and that measured simultaneously inside the respirator (C(i)). The WPFs were in the range of 2.8 to 248. The relation of WPF to C(o) for 13 was approximately linear. The size distribution of manganese dioxide particles was determined at different values of C(o). The relation of C(p), the concentration of particles in stated particle size groups, and C(o) was linear as well. An explanation for the dependence of WPF on C(o) could be that the performance of the respirator is related to particle size.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1993, Vol.54, No.10, p.576-583. Illus. 17 ref.
International Metalworkers' Federation (IMF)
Community and environmental hazards in microelectronics manufacturing
Les dangers de l'industrie microélectronique pour les collectivités et l'environnement [in French]
A survey of the occupational and environmental hazards associated with the microelectronics industry. Contents: how hazards (i.e. dangerous substances) escape; lasting presence of toxic substances; a case study from the Mexico-US border; pollution (of air, water, soil); handling and storage; accidents, spills, other emergencies; how local communities are affected (effects of solvents, gases, metals, acids and alkalis, bonding chemicals, mixtures); improving hazard control (air pollution control, record keeping). Glossary of terms used.
IMF Bulletin on Occupational Health and Safety - Bulletin FIOM sur l'hygiène et la sécurité au travail, 1993, No.33, p.1-15 (whole issue). Illus. 11 ref.
Investigation and evaluation of zinc protoporphyrin as a diagnostic indicator in lead intoxication
To evaluate the utility of zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) as an indicator of lead exposure, we examined 128 workers employed at a battery storage plant and two smelters, 343 persons who lived within 200m of the plants, and 217 controls. Based on Chinese criteria, the "normal" ZPP value among inhabitants of Shaanxi Province was determined to be 85µg/100mL. ZPP proved to be more sensitive and specific indicator of lead exposure, at both high and lower levels, than PbB or PbU. Among 115 patients who underwent chelation therapy for lead poisoning, ZPP also proved to be a valid index of recovery.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 1993, Vol.24, No.6, p.707-712. 9 ref.
A study of occupational dermatoses in the electronics industry
This thesis presents the results of a literature survey on dermatological hazards in the electronics industry along with a questionnaire survey of workers in two electronics factories in the United Kingdom and Singapore. Work-related skin disorders were common: 94 (33%) of the UK workers and 482 (19%) of the Singapore workers had at least one previous episode of a work-related skin disorder. The majority of disorders were due to trauma of the skin (burn scars, abrasions) while cases of irritant or allergic contact dermatitis were infrequent. There was an increasing trend in the prevalence of acne.
Journal of Occupational Medicine - Singapore, Jan. 1993, Vol.5, No.1, p.v-x, 1-76. Illus. 130 ref.
Shusterman D., Windham G.C., Fenster L.
Employment in electronics manufacturing and risk of spontaneous abortion
A large case-control study of environmental risk factors for spontaneous abortion was conducted in a California county. Because of the prevalence of electronics production work within this population, a specialized questionnaire was administered to self-identified electronics production workers. The odds ratio for spontaneous abortion and any electronics production work was 0.94 (95% confidence interval = 0.58, 1.5). Odds ratios for the three main branches of electronics production (semi-conductor fabrication, printed circuit board manufacturing, and assembly) were likewise near or below unity. Specific production activities with elevated odds ratios included semi-conductor diffusion, parts encapsulation, soldering, and flux removal, although the numbers were small and none of the confidence intervals excluded unity. Limitations of this study included modest statistical power and a potential for non-differential misclassification of exposures, both of which could bias findings towards the null.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1993, Vol.35, No.4, p.381-386. Illus. 17 ref.
Chan O.Y., Gan S.L., Yeo M.H.
Study on the health of female electronics workers on 12 hour shifts
Health complaints, blood pressure, sleep and sickness absence experience were studied in 308 female electronics workers employed for at least one year on 12h shifts - 253 on permanent and 55 on rotating schedules. Seventy-five 8h day workers acted as controls. There were no significant differences in symptom prevalence between the controls and 12h shift workers, except for complaints of tiredness, with a higher proportion of the rotating shift group also having headaches. No significant differences in prevalence of hypertension were noted. Although subjects on the night shift had shorter sleep than controls and 12h day workers, only the group on rotating schedule had a higher proportion of workers who did not sleep well compared to the controls. Sickness absence was not increased in the 12h shift groups when compared to the controls. The results indicate no serious health problems among workers on 12h shift for over a year.
Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1993, Vol.43, No.3. p.143-148. 18 ref.
Sheehy J.W., Jones J.H.
Assessment of arsenic exposures and controls in gallium arsenide production
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) researchers conducted a study of control systems for electronics facilities using gallium arsenide. Three facilities which appeared to have effective controls were chosen for in-depth evaluation through industrial hygiene sampling. The following gallium arsenide processes were studied: Liquid Encapsulated Czochralski (LEC) and Horizontal Bridgeman (HB) crystal growing, LEC cleaning operations, ingot grinding/wafer sawing, and epitaxy. Results at one plant showed that in all processes except epitaxy, average arsenic exposures were at or above the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) action level of 5µg/m3. While cleaning the LEC crystal pullers, the average potential arsenic exposure of the cleaning operators was 100 times the OSHA PEL. At the two other plants, personal arsenic exposures were well controlled in LEC, LEC cleaning, grinding/sawing, and epitaxy operations.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1993, Vol.54, No.2, p.61-69. Illus. 13 ref.
Roels H., Van de Voorde R., Vargas V.M.M., Lauwerys R.
Relationship between atmospheric and urinary nickel in workers manufacturing electrical resistances using nickel oxide - Role of the bioavailability of nickel
The daily concentrations of nickel in total (i.e. inhalable) and respirable airborne dust (personal sampling) and in post-shift and pre-shift urine samples were monitored during five consecutive work days in 20 workers exposed to NiO in a workshop manufacturing electrical resistances. The individual daily atmospheric nickel concentrations ranged from 0.5 to 9,586µg Ni/m3 (geometric mean 22.9) for total dust and from 0.2 to 332µg Ni/m3 (geometric mean 3.5) for respirable dust. The results of the urinary excretion of nickel suggested that the occupationally-related systemic absorption of nickel strongly differed in one subject compared to the other 19 workers. In the latter group the nickel concentration in urine never exceeded 5µg Ni/g creatinine, it did not differ between post-shift and pre-shift samples (geometric means: 1.1 versus 1.2µg Ni/g creatinine), and it was only slightly higher than that measured in a group of 17 non-exposed subjects.
Occupational Medicine, May 1993, Vol.43, No.2, p.95-104. Illus. 34 ref.
Mathur N., Gupta B.N., Rastogi S.K., Mahendra P.N., Pangtey B.S., Husain T., Bharti R.S.
Socioeconomic and health status of electronics workers employed in organized industry
To study their socioeconomic and health status, 1,770 workers in the organised electronics industry in India were surveyed. Mean age of the workers employed in this industry was 32.5±6.01 years. The average per capita income/month was INR 333, indicating a higher socioeconomic status, compared with the status of the national population as well as compared with their counterparts in the unorganised sectors. Respiratory symptoms and impairment rates were significantly higher in workers exposed to soldering fumes. The high prevalence of congested or inflamed throat was also related to chemical exposure, especially among solderers and workers exposed to metal oxides. The ocular symptoms and signs were also related to chemical exposure. Musculoskeletal disorders were related to erratic ergonomic postures.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1993, Vol.23, No.2, p.321-331. 25 ref.
Gas cleaning in semiconductor production facilities
Abluftreinigung bei Halbleiterproduktionen [in German]
Gaseous chlorine and hydrochloric acid are among the pollutants emitted in semiconductor production facilities. For cleaning the gases emitted by the various semiconductor production methods in use, gas absorption and adsorption are applied. The design of a gas cleaning system comprising two gas scrubbers (absorbers) and one activated-carbon adsorber is illustrated. Recommended safety features include monitors for the composition of the scrubbing fluids, their temperature and pressure.
WLB - Wasser, Luft und Boden, July-Aug. 1992, No.7-8, p.58-60. Illus.
Chia K.S., Tan A.L., Chia S.E., Ong C.N., Jeyaratnam J.
Renal tubular function of cadmium exposed workers
A study was made of renal tubular dysfunction among a group of 92 cadmium exposed workers from a nickel-cadmium battery factory and a control group. The urinary excretion of N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), beta-2-microglobulins (β2m) and alpha-1-microglobulins (α1m) was measured from morning spot urine samples. Excretion of NAG and α1m showed an increasing trend with rising urinary cadmium levels and with increasing length of exposure; levels were significantly raised when the urinary cadmium was above 5µg Cd/g creatinine. Results indicate that renal tubular dysfunction is present among cadmium exposed workers with levels below the current critical concentration (10µg Cd/g creatinine).
Annals of the Academy of Medicine - Singapore, Nov. 1992, Vol.21, No.6, p.756-759. 25 ref.
Bauer S., Wolff I., Werner N., Hoffmann P., Herzschuh R., Oemus K., Rath F.W., Voigt R.
Toxicological investigations in the semiconductor industry - I. Studies on the acute oral toxicity of a complex mixture of waste products from the aluminium plasma etching process
In dry etching processes complex mixtures of inorganic and organic compounds arise. Two different fractions of the complex mixture (an ethanolic solution (ES) and an insoluble liquid residue (LR)) were examined for acute oral toxicity in rats. Analytical data showed that the ES contained mainly inorganic compounds, whereas the LR contained various halogenated hydrocarbons. Neither death nor behavioural changes occurred after oral administration and observation up to 23 days. ES caused a lower mean arterial blood pressure in both sexes, increased ECG P-R intervals in male rats, and caused some mild biochemical and haematological alterations and changes in relative organ weights compared to the control groups. Exposure to LR influenced food and water intake, and caused a significant decrease in body weights, signs of polyuria, as well as changes in various relative organ weights and biochemical and haematological parameters. The blood pressure of the male animals fell and the heart rates of both sexes decreased.
Toxicology and Industrial Health, May-June 1992, Vol.8, No.3, p.141-156. Illus. 25 ref.
Bauer S., Wolff I., Werner N., Hoffmann P.
Health hazards in the semiconductor industry. A review
The development of semiconductor production has been accompanied by an increased use of toxic production materials and an increased release of potential toxic wastes, which are harmful to health and environment. This paper gives an overview of occupational health hazards resulting from production materials in the microelectronics industry and from waste products originating as gases from plasma-etching processes in photolithography during semiconductor production. The paper proposes methods for using experimental toxicology to investigate the occupational risks from complex mixtures of chemicals in the semiconductor industry.
Polish Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1992, Vol.5, No.4, p.299-314. Illus. 63 ref.
Study of sperm characteristics in persons occupationally exposed to lead
The sperm characteristics of 38 male workers exposed to lead in a battery factory were studied. Sperm analysis was performed after four days of sexual abstinence. Parameters analysed were: volume, sperm count, motility, and morphology. Exposure levels were estimated by measuring the concentration of lead and delta-aminolevulinic acid in the serum. Based on blood lead levels, the tested individuals were divided into three groups: A (12), B (11) and C (15). Significant levels of asthenospermia and teratospermia were found in exposed workers when compared with unexposed controls. Long-term exposure to lead may lead to changes in sperm characteristics and function.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1992, Vol.22, No.4, p.567-571. 23 ref.
Kawakami N., Haratani T., Araki S.
Effects of perceived job stress on depressive symptoms in blue-collar workers of an electrical factory in Japan
This three-year prospective study on the effects of job stress on depressive symptoms over time was conducted among male blue-collar workers in an electrical factory in Japan. Data were collected at yearly intervals by means of postal questionnaires. Initially ten job stress variables, five major covariates, and depressive symptoms (Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale) were measured. In the yearly examinations, depressive symptoms were measured for a total of 468 respondents. The results indicated that job unsuitability was a significant predictor of depressive symptoms in the second and third year, after control for the initial covariates and depressive symptoms. Lack of control over workplace and poor human relations at the workplace were significantly associated with depressive symptoms after one and two years, respectively. Job unsuitability and poor human relations at the workplace seem to be risk factors for long-lasting depressive symptoms in Japanese blue-collar workers.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1992, Vol.18, No.3, p.195-200. 26 ref.
Liver enzymes among microelectronics equipment maintenance technicians
Equipment maintenance workers within the microelectronics industry have opportunities for occupational exposure to a variety of toxic agents. This pilot investigation compares liver enzymes in this population with that of other co-workers. Participants (n=135) were randomly selected from a medical surveillance programme at the manufacturing facility. Nine job categories were examined, including equipment maintenance workers and electronic technicians. Abnormal liver enzymes were detected among equipment maintenance workers (n=8; odds ratio 16.4; p<.008) and electronic technicians (n=10; odds ratio 27; p<.0005). The data suggest that independent and/or interactive aetiologic roles of occupation and alcohol should be further investigated. Early detection of subclinical occupational or recreational hepatotoxicity with appropriate employment of industrial hygiene control technology and/or the reduction of alcohol consumption may provide a means of preventing liver disease.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1992, Vol.34, No.4, p.384-390. 31 ref.
Leira H.L., Tiltnes A., Svendsen K., Vetlesen L.
Irritant cutaneous reactions to N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP)
Several workers in a small electrotechnical company in Norway experienced irritant reactions of the skin after a few days of working with the solvent N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP). Due to concern about the health risk of commonly-used organic solvents, the company had chosen to use NMP when one of its products had to be treated with a solvent. After 2 days of work with NMP, 10 of the 12 involved workers displayed acute irritant contact dermatitis of the hands. According to published reports, NMP is not considered to be particularly irritant to the skin. The Safety Data Sheet of a Norwegian sales firm contained no information on cutaneous hazards, but the Safety Data Sheet of an American producer of NMP stated the risk of severe dermatitis upon prolonged contact. NMP seems to be more irritant to the human skin than reported thus far.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 1992, Vol.27, No.3, p.148-150. 9 ref.
Fernandez J.E., Uppugonduri K.G.
Anthropometry of South Indian industrial workmen
Results of an anthropometric survey of South Indian male workers in the electronics industry indicate that, in general, South Indian men are smaller than men from Central, Western and Northern parts of India and also smaller than American, German and Japanese men with whom comparisons were made. This difference needs to be allowed for when considering buying and using imported equipment for the electronics industry in South India.
Ergonomics, Nov. 1992, Vol.35, No.11, p.1393-1398. Illus. 11 ref.
Cancer of the breast among men in electrical occupations
A study of death registration data in the USA showed that between 1985 and 1988, 4 of the 250 men who died from cancer of the breast had electrical occupations. Three were less than 65 years old at death, more than twice the number of cases expected among this age group. These data provide little support for the propositions that fatal cancers of the breast are associated with electrical occupations in general. However, results are consistent with earlier reports of excess breast cancer among younger men, particularly those who have worked in electrical trades and telephone-related occupations.
Lancet, 13 June 1992, Vol.339, No.8807, p.1482-1483. 5 ref.
Klein R., Clauzade B.
Design and development of two generators of electromagnetic interference - Application to the study of electronic system immunity
Conception et réalisation de deux applicateurs de perturbations électromagnétiques rayonnées - Application à l'étude de l'immunité des systèmes électroniques [in French]
In order to test electronic system immunity to electromagnetic radiation, systems must be subjected to disturbing electromagnetic interference. In practice this requires devices capable of applying a perfectly controlled field to a very precise area. This paper presents 2 such devices: APERL, which operates in the 730 to 1065MHz frequency range, centred around 860MHz, with applied field intensity 100V/m. This device is used for irradiating parts of large systems (on industrial sites or in the laboratory); APP, which operates in the 2 to 250MHz frequency range, centred around 100MHz, with applied field intensity 100V/m. This apparatus is used to irradiate small systems.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd Quarter 1992, No.147, Note No.1878-147-92, p.159-175. Illus. 7 ref.
Design of a dependable microprocessor-based service. Rules and techniques
Conception d'un dispositif à microprocesseur sûr de fonctionnement - Règles et méthodes [in French]
After a brief summary of the problems posed by the dependability of microprocessor-based devices, this article sets forth some rules and methods for preventing or simply detecting faults or disturbances liable to affect such devices. The fruit of INRS experience and bibliographical research, these rules are to be applied in the design of hardware and software for microprocessor-based devices.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st Quarter 1992, No.146, Note No.1866-146-92, p.5-14. Illus. 21 ref.
Mergler D., Huel G., Bowler R., Frenette B., Cone J.
Visual dysfunction among former microelectronics assembly workers
Study conducted on 54 former microelectronics workers and 54 controls in the United States.
Archives of Environmental Health, Nov.-Dec. 1991, Vol.46, No.6, p.326-334. 57 ref. ###
Helander M.G., Grossmith E.J., Prabhu P.
Planning and implementation of microscope work
In electronics manufacturing, many of the assembly operations require the use of microscopes. This paper presents measures and suggestions that could help in relieving visual and postural fatigue in microscope work. These measures include the ergonomic design of microscope workstations as well as of microscopes themselves, process changes to minimise use of the microscope, replacement of microscope workstations with television systems, and a training programme for inexperienced operators. The main emphasis in implementing these recommendations was the ergonomic design of microscope workstations; several examples are given.
Applied Ergonomics, Feb. 1991, Vol.22, No.1, p.36-42. 26 ref.
Chia S.E., Chia K.S., Ong C.N.
Ethnic differences in blood lead concentration among workers in a battery manufacturing factory
Blood lead (Pb) levels of 11 Chinese and 25 Malay lead-battery manufacturing workers were evaluated, after adjustment for environmental Pb levels, age, exposure duration and stick-years of smoking. The mean adjusted blood Pb levels were 34.8µg/dL in the Malay and 22.4µg/dL in the Chinese workers. This difference was statistically significant (p<0.02). Oral ingestion of Pb by the Malay workers, through the eating of food with hands contaminated by Pb compounds, is suggested as a possible cause for the differences in the mean blood Pb levels. Preventive measures recommended for implementation among Malay workers are discussed.
Annals of the Academy of Medicine - Singapore, Nov. 1991, Vol.20, No.6, p.758-761. 13 ref.
Wallenstein G., Schulz P., Christann M., Schöneich R., Dietz E.
Longitudinal study of workers exposed to colophony soldering fumes and of controls
Längsschnittstudie von Kolophoniumlötrauchexponierten und Kontrollpersonen [in German]
In this follow-up study 267 workers using colophony as soldering flux and 239 controls were re-examined after five years. The examined workers were employees of the electrical industry in the former German Democratic Republic. Measurements of the concentration of total aldehydes at 37 workplaces yielded an average value of 0.095mg/m3, which was somewhat lower than at the time of the first examinations. The prevalence of respiratory impairment among exposed workers found in the first study could be confirmed. It was related to the intensity of exposure rather than duration.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, 1991, Vol.37, No.2, p.75-78. Illus. 8 ref.
Static electricity and its consequences
La electricidad estática y sus consecuencias [in Spanish]
The basics of static electricity and the types of damage that it provokes are reviewed. Electric shocks affecting personnel and fires and explosions are mentioned among the occupational risks of static electricity. The supression of static charge in the working area in order to have protected work stations is discussed. Ten basic points for establishing a programme for the control of static electricity are presented. Areas in which electrostatic discharge is common (particularly in the electronics and printing industries) are identified.
Mapfre seguridad, July-Sep. 1991, Vol.11 (3rd Quarter), No.43, p.15-23. Illus.
Lipscomb J.A., Fenster L., Wrensch M., Shusterman D., Swan S.
Pregnancy outcomes in women potentially exposed to occupational solvents and women working in the electronics industry
Associations of occupational solvent exposure and/or work in electronics production with adverse pregnancy outcomes were examined in a large cross-sectional community-based reproductive health study of 1038 California women pregnant between 1980 and 1985. Occupational solvent exposure was determined by two different methods: Bureau of Census codes judged by experts to probably include solvent exposure and self-reported exposure. First trimester solvent exposure classified by either method (n=52) was significantly associated with spontaneous abortion, adjusted odds ratio 3.34 (95% confidence interval 1.42, 7.81). Among 29 women reporting regular and daily solvent exposure, the adjusted odds ratio increased to 4.44 (95% confidence interval 1.86, 10.58). Work in electronics assembly was significantly associated with delivering a low birth weight infant (adjusted odds ratio 5.38; 95% confidence interval 1.42, 20.46) but was not associated with spontaneous abortions. Further research using biological monitoring and/or other objective measures of exposure is needed to validate these findings.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, May 1991, Vol.33, No.5, p.597-604. 34 ref.
Klein R., Clauzade B.
The effects of electromagnetic interference on some equipment - Risks related to malfunction
Effets des perturbations électromagnétiques sur certains équipements - Risques liés aux dysfonctionnements [in French]
The recent development of microprocessor-based systems has led to the close study of their resistance to electromagnetic interference. These sometimes include malfunctions which can affect the safety level of the electronic devices operating industrial equipment. This electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) problem has 3 main factors: the source of the perturbation, the coupling mode and the system affected. Actual cases of malfunction were studied and are described in the article. Basic rules are established to reduce the level of electromagnetic interference, and to increase the resistance of systems to such interference.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st Quarter 1991, No.142, Note No.1811-142-91, p.5-20. Illus. 9 ref.
Hall N.E.L., Rosenman K.D.
Cancer by industry - Analysis of a population-based cancer registry with an emphasis on blue-collar workers
This paper presents information on occupation and industry routinely collected in a state-based (New Jersey) cancer registry to assess potential associations between workplace exposures and cancer incidence. Industry-specific proportional cancer incidence ratios (PCIR) were calculated by race and sex for all individuals and for white males with blue-collar occupations. Increased lung cancer PCIR were seen in most industries previously reported to be associated with lung cancer risk. Other results include an increased ratio of melanoma in blue-collar white male rubber and plastic product workers, an increased ratio of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas in motor vehicle manufacture workers, and an increased PCIR of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia in general construction workers. Uterine cancer was increased in proportion in white females for a number of industries including rubber and plastic product manufacture, apparel manufacture, and electrical equipment manufacture.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1991, Vol.19, No.2, p.145-159. 40 ref.
Gupta B.N., Rastogi S.K., Husain T., Mathur N., Pangtey B.S.
A study of respiratory morbidity and pulmonary function among solderers in the electronics industry
Pulmonary function assessment of 197 solderers using lead-tin alloy impregnated solder was compared with findings observed in 143 unexposed controls. Findings showed an excessive prevalence of respiratory symptoms in the exposed workers, with a higher prevalence among females. The solder fumes mainly induced a restrictive type of ventilatory disturbance followed by a mixed variety. A small fraction of the exposed group suffered from bronchial obstruction, although only a mild degree of ventilatory abnormalities was observed. The concentrations of lead fumes and organic solvents were found to be below recommended TLV values. Recommendations include provision of improved ventilation with local exhaust ducts for each worker.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1991, Vol.52, No.2, p.45-51. Illus. 23 ref.
Clean room safety and health management
Kurīn rūmu no anzen eisei kanri [in Japanese]
Clean rooms are especially important in four sectors of Japanese industry: precision instruments, electronics, food and pharmaceuticals. In addition describing the environmental conditions that must be met for a clean room to meet applicable criteria in Japan and elsewhere, this report explains the physical, chemical and biological hazards due to the clean-room environment and to the processes conducted in clean rooms, presents typical management structures for clean-room operations in the four industrial sectors, summarizes applicable Japanese safety and health regulations and lists hazardous substances and their properties. Annexes list (1) hazardous reactions of substances used in the processes typical of clean rooms, and (2) permissible levels of contaminants in wastes for land fill or disposal at sea.
Japan Industrial Safety and Health Association, 5-35-1 Shiba, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108, Japan, Sep. 1990. 128p. Illus. 36+3 ref.
Occupational cadmium exposure and testicular endocrine function
A study was made of men who had worked for one or more years in a factory manufacturing copper-cadmium alloy. The effect of cadmium exposure on the pituitary-testicular endocrine axis was measured by serum testosterone, luteinising hormone (LH) and follicular-stimulation hormone (FSH). The lack of testicular endocrine effects was in contrast to significant dose-related changes in renal glomerular and tubular function demonstrated in the same population.
Human and Experimental Toxicology, 1990, Vol.9, p.91-94. 13 ref.
Sartori P., Pahlmann W.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Pollutant exposure in the microelectronics industry
Stoffbelastung in der Mikroelektronik [in German]
A questionnaire survey of users of semiconductor technology in the Federal Republic of Germany resulted in an inventory of 358 substances. For each substance its use (e.g. for etching, cleaning, oxidation) and the hazards involved were compiled. Workplace exposure was estimated by taking into account types and conditions of processes, quantities of substances used and existing occupational safety standards. Measurements were taken at representative workplaces. In most cases concentrations were far below the maximum allowable values. Summaries in English and French.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, Am Alten Hafen, D-W-2850 Bremerhaven 1, Germany, 1990. 122p. Illus. 42 ref. Price: DEM 22.00.
Assennato G., Porro A., Longo G., Longo F., Ambrosi L.
Effects of low mercury concentrations on the nervous system among workers employed in the manufacture of fluorescent tubes
Valutazione degli effetti sul sistema nervoso dell'esposizione a basse concentrazioni di mercurio in addetti alla fabbricazione di lampade fluorescenti [in Italian]
In order to evaluate the effects of low inorganic mercury concentrations on workers employed in the manufacture of fluorescent tubes, a stratified sample of workers was selected at random and assigned to 3 groups according to the level of exposure. In all 3 groups, urinary mercury values were within the normal range for an unexposed population. Among the indicators of neurological effects the simple hearing reaction times test showed statistically significant differences among the 3 groups. In addition, various other nervous function tests revealed differences between the unexposed group and the other two. A positive correlation was found between simple reaction times and other test results in the whole sample and in the subsample of women. Moreover, the prevalence of symptoms related to low mercury exposure, collected by a questionnaire, was higher in the 2 exposed groups. Interpretation of these results is difficult because of the absence of increased urinary mercury levels in the exposed population. Some possible explanations are offered.
Medicina del lavoro, Jan.-Feb. 1990, Vol.81, No.1, p.307-315. 22 ref.
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