Manufacturing of electrical appliances and equipment - 393 entries found
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Kheifets L.I., Gilbert E.S., Sussman S.S., Guénel P., Sahl J.D., Savitz D.A., Thériault G.
Comparative analyses of the studies of magnetic fields and cancer in electric utility workers: Studies from France, Canada and the United States
To summarize and facilitate comparison of three major studies of electric utility workers that examined the relation between exposure to magnetic fields and risk of brain cancer and leukaemia, a common analytical approach was applied to the data of the three studies. A nested case-control design with conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the relative risk/10 microtesla-years (µT-years) for each of the contributing cohorts and for the combined data. Apparent inconsistencies in the findings of these studies can be explained by statistical variation. Overall, the studies suggest a small increase in risk of both brain cancer and leukaemia. Different methodological choices had little impact on the results. Based on a combined analysis of data from ail five studies, the relative risk/10 µT-years was 1.12 for brain cancer, and 1.09 for leukaemia, neither of which was significant at the 95% confidence interval (CI) level. The combined estimates seem to provide the best summary measures of the data from all studies. However, fluctuations in risks among studies may reflect real differences, and the exposure measurements in different studies may not be entirely comparable.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 1999, Vol.56, No.8, p.567-574. Illus. 19 ref.
Elliott R.C., Jones J.R., McElvenny D.M., Pennington M.J., Northage C., Clegg T.A., Clarke S.D., Hodgson J.T., Osman J.
Spontaneous abortion in the British semiconductor industry: An HSE investigation
Following reports from the USA which suggested an association between risk of spontaneous abortion (SAB) and work in fabrication rooms and/or exposure to ethylene glycol ethers, the United Kingdom Health and Safety Executive (HSE) conducted a case-control study to examine the risk of SAB in British female semiconductor industry workers. 2,207 women who had worked at eight manufacturing sites during a 5-year retrospective time frame participated in the study. The overall SAB rate in the industry was 10.0% (65 SABs/651 pregnancies). The crude odds ratio (OR) for fabrication work was 0.65. This was essentially unchanged after adjustment for a range of potential confounding factors in the first three months of pregnancy and was reduced to 0.58 after adjustment for smoking in the previous 12 months. There were no statistically significantly elevated ORs for any work group or any specific chemical or physical exposure in the industry. There is no evidence of an increased risk of SAB in the British semiconductor industry. Reactions to this article included two letters to the editor contesting the validity of the conclusions of the study.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1999, Vol.36, No.5, p.557-572; 584-585; 586. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Viskum S., Rabjerg L., Jørgensen P.J., Grandjean P.
Improvement in semen quality associated with decreasing occupational lead exposure
Sperm quality changes were prospectively assessed in 19 men employed at a car battery plant where efforts were made to decrease the exposure level to lead. The participants delivered monthly samples of semen and venous blood during their employment at the factory. The factory then closed, and additional samples were obtained from 16 of the men. Average blood-lead concentrations decreased from 2.03µmol/L to 0.96µmol/L during the observation period. Concomitantly, significant improvements were seen in the proportion of motile cells both at sample delivery and after 24h, and in penetration. However, the sperm cell concentration and the proportion of morphological abnormalities did not change. These results support the notion that occupational lead exposure at currently acceptable levels has a small adverse effect on sperm quality, especially sperm motility, and that this effect is at least partially reversible. Topics: battery and dry cell manufacture; lead; determination in blood; limitation of exposure; spermatogenic disturbances.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 1999, Vol.35, No.3, p.257-263. Illus. 36 ref.
Industries drive out glycol ethers
Des industriels chassent les éthers de glycol [in French]
Glycol ethers are widely used in industry and are present in numerous degreasing agents, cooling fluids, paints and adhesives. In light of the carcinogenic and mutagenic risks and of the reproductive toxicity of certain glycol ethers, the preferred approach to reduce worker exposure is to avoid their use and adopt substitute materials. The collection of articles describes the practical experiences of two manufacturers, one of electrical equipment, the other of integrated circuits, in switching to product formulations free of glycol ethers.
Travail et sécurité, Oct. 1998, No.577, p.14-28. Illus.
Dell'Omo M., Muzi G., Marchionna G., Latini L., Carrieri P., Paolemili P., Abbritti G.
Preventive measures reduce exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at a graphite electrode plant
End-of-shift urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-hpur), a biological marker of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), was measured by high performance liquid chromatography in electrode workers in a graphite electrode plant. After implementation of preventive measures, median concentrations 1-hpur were significantly reduced in some groups of workers. In workers at a second baking impregnation unit, in end product finishing and in the power station, 1-hpur concentrations were unchanged. Urinary 1-hp concentrations were still significantly higher in each group of workers than in the control group. Concentrations in the workers varied with the type of job, the highest values being found in workers engaged in the power station, in the two baking impregnation units and in the green electrode unit. Implementing preventive measures significantly reduced exposure to PAHs at a graphite electrode plant. The reduction in median and peak concentrations of 1-hpur, which reflects total exposure to, and internal dose of PAHs, was most evident in workers employed in the units where preventive measures had been taken.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 1998, Vol.55, No.6, p.401-406. Illus. 26 ref.
Ergonomics in industry - Two cases of implementation
Ergonomía en la industria - Dos casos de implementación [in Spanish]
Topics: automation; case study; Colombia; electronics industry; ergonomics; housekeeping; lighting; noise; protective gloves; sound attenuation; work efficiency; work organization; workplace design.
Protección y seguridad, Jan.-Feb. 1998, Vol.44, No.257, p.23-28. Illus.
Luo J.C.J., Hsu K.H., Hiseh L.L., Wong C.J., Chang M.J.W.
Lung function and general illness symptoms in a semiconductor manufacturing facility
Pulmonary risk in a semiconductor plant was assessed by conducting pulmonary function tests and a symptoms survey. There was a borderline significance of higher prevalence of restrictive lung abnormality in male photolithographic workers than in male control workers. There was a significantly higher prevalence of restrictive lung abnormality in male ion-implantation workers than in male control workers. There were significantly higher prevalences of airway irritation, eye irritation, headache, stress, tiredness, and poor memory in female photolithographic or etch/diffusion workers than in control workers. Results suggest that restrictive lung abnormality is a potential health effect in male silicon-wafer fabrication workers in the semiconductor industry. Topics: chest radiography; electronics industry; epidemiologic study; eye irritation; fatigue; mental stress; migraine; pulmonary function; respiratory diseases; respiratory function tests; risk factors; semiconductor devices; sex-linked differences.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 1998, Vol.40, No.10, p.895-900. 18 ref.
Rydzewski B., Sułkowski W., Miarzyńska M.
Olfactory disorders induced by cadmium exposure: A clinical study
The purpose of this study was to evaluate olfactory disorders in workers occupationally exposed to cadmium. In addition to medical history and medical examinations, blood and urine tests were taken and olfactometry performed. The quantitative and qualitative olfactory disorders were evaluated on the basis of the established odour detection threshold and odour identification threshold. The examinations revealed numerous cases of hyposmia and parosmia and one case of anosmia. In the majority of people with olfactory disorders, hypertrophic changes in the nasal mucosa, dependant on the duration of employment, were identified. Statistically significant relationship between olfactory impairment and cadmium concentration in blood, urine and the workplace air was observed. However, such a relationship was not found in regard to the duration of employment. The results of these examinations could be the ground to perform certain preventive and therapeutic procedures. Topics: battery and dry cell manufacture; cadmium; determination in blood; determination in urine; long-term exposure; loss of smell; odour threshold; olfaction; olfactometry; smoking.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1998, Vol. 11, No.3, p.235-245. Illus. 10 ref.
Järup L., Bellander T., Hogstedt C., Spång G.
Mortality and cancer incidence in Swedish battery workers exposed to cadmium and nickel
In a long-term study of battery workers exposed to nickel hydroxide and cadmium oxide, there was an increased overall risk for lung cancer. No exposure-response relation was observed between cumulative exposure and risk of lung cancer. There was a highly significant risk of cancer of the nose and nasal sinuses, which may have been caused by exposure to nickel or cadmium or a combination of both exposures. Topics: battery and dry cell manufacture; cadmium; cancer; nickel; cohort study; latency; length of exposure; lung cancer; morbidity; mortality; nasal cancer.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 1998, Vol.55, No.11, p.755-759. 24 ref.
Ho S.F., Sam. C.T., Embi G.B.
Lead exposure in the lead-acid storage battery manufacturing and PVC compounding industries
Workers from two PVC compounding plants and two lead acid battery manufacturing plants in Singapore were studied along with a control group. The mean lead-in-air level was higher in the battery manufacturing plants than in the PVC compounding plants. Battery workers had higher mean blood lead than PVC workers, but there was poor correlation with lead-in-air levels. Malays had higher blood lead levels than the Chinese, although there was no significant difference between the two ethnic groups among the controls. Workers who ate with bare hands at least once a week had higher blood lead levels after adjusting for lead-in-air levels. Results indicate that the higher blood lead levels observed in the Malay workers may have been due to their higher exposure and eating with bare hands. Topics: battery and dry cell manufacture; lead; case-control study; determination in air; determination in blood; exposure evaluation; food contamination; job-exposure relation; personal hygiene; personal sampling; race-linked differences; smoking.
Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1998, Vol.48, No.6, p.369-373. 18 ref.
Ladou J., Rohm T.
The international electronics industry
The manufacture of microelectronics products is accompanied by a high incidence of occupational illnesses, which may reflect the widespread use of toxic materials, including metals, photoactive chemicals, solvents, acids and toxic gases. There are also problems of radiation exposure and occupational stressors. The fast-paced changes of the technology underlying this industry, as well as stringent security precautions, have added to the difficultly of instituting proper health and safety measures. The microelectronics industry is a good example of an industry that is exported to many areas of the world before health and safety problems have been properly addressed and resolved. Topics: abortion; electronics industry; epidemiological aspects; harmful substances; health hazards; manufacturing processes; semiconductor devices; welding fumes.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan.-Mar. 1998, Vol.4, No.1, p.1-18. Illus. 26 ref.
Williamson A., Feyer A.M.
The causes of electrical fatalities at work
Data from the Australian Work-Related Fatalities Study were analysed to examine accidents where the direct cause of death was contact with electricity (electrocution) and accidents which occurred in occupations with high exposure to electricity (electrical and related trades) but where the cause of death was not necessarily electrocution. Accident patterns for these two groups were compared to those for all fatalities. Behaviour was most likely to be involved in electricity-related deaths and to be a prime cause. Compared to fatal accidents in general, in electricity-related fatalities omission errors were more common than commission errors, and electricity-related fatalities had different patterns of contributing factors. Electrocutions were more likely to have involved poor upkeep of equipment and task errors at an earlier time compared to electrical trade fatalities and fatalities in general. Results may be used to identify the most effective targets for prevention. Topics: analysis of accident causes; causes of accidents; electric shock; electrical accidents; electrical industry; electricity; faulty construction; human behaviour; human failure; risk factors; survey; unsafe acts.
Journal of Safety Research, Fall 1998, Vol.29, No.3, p.187-196. Illus. 14 ref.
Guendelman S., Samuels S., Ramirez M.
Women who quit maquiladora work on the U.S.-Mexico border: Assessing health, occupation, and social dimensions in two transnational electronics plants
Topics: accident absenteeism; anamnesis; assemblers; cohort study; electronics industry; healthy worker effect; Mexico; migrant workers; risk factors; sickness absenteeism; social aspects; women.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1998, Vol.33, No.5, p.501-509. Illus. 24 ref.
Soleo L., Pesola G., Vimercati L., Elia G., Michelazzi M., Gagliardi T., Drago I., Lasorsa G.
Amalgam fillings and urinary mercury excretion in workers exposed to low levels of inorganic mercury
Amalgami dentari ed eliminazione urinaria di mercurio in lavoratori esposti a basse concentrazioni di mercurio inorganico [in Italian]
Topics: mercury; dental services; determination in urine; diet; exposure evaluation; manufacture of fluorescent tubes; mercury alloys; non-occupational factors; questionnaire survey; respiratory impairment; smoking.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1998, Vol.89, No.3, p.232-241. 27 ref.
St-Vincent M., Chicoine D., Beaugrand S.
Validation of a participatory ergonomic process in two plants in the electrical sector
Topics: Canada; design of equipment; electrical industry; ergonomic evaluation; ergonomics; evaluation of technique; job study; repetitive work; risk factors; work design; work posture; workers participation; workplace design.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Jan. 1998, Vol.21, No.1, p.11-21. Illus. 23 ref.
Analysis of dangerous substances
Gefahrstoff-Analytik [in German]
Update (43rd) to the loose-leaf collection of methods for monitoring compliance with exposure limits and anti-pollution laws, and for analysis of process gases, abstracted under CIS 90-955. This issue presents an overview of the analytical techniques of the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration, describes new analytical systems from the Dräger Corporation as well as their full line of indicator tubes, gives updated versions of the Chemical Safety Law (Chemikaliengesetz), Occupational Safety and Health Law (Arbeitsschutzgesetz) and Technical Rules (TRGS) 900, 903 and 905 on exposure limits, and introduces a consensus document on good laboratory practice and data processing. Topics: atmospheric pollution; chemical safety; compendium; compressed air; dangerous substances; data sheet; determination in air; directive; Germany; laboratory work; law; legislation; manuals; microelectronics; neighbourhood protection; storage tanks; threshold limit values; USA.
Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft AG & Co. KG, Rudolf-Diesel-Str. 3, 86899 Landsberg/Lech, Germany, 43. Ergänzungslieferung, Nov. 1997. 210p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Yokota K., Johyama Y., Yamaguchi K., Fujiki Y., Takeshita T., Morimoto K.
Risk factors for sensitisation to methyltetrahydrophthalic anhydride
In a cross-sectional survey of 148 workers exposed to methyl tetrahydrophthalic anhydride (MTHPA), specific IgE antibody was detected in serum from 97 (66%) of exposed workers. When workers were divided into two groups according to low and high total IgE, current smoking was significantly associated with specific IgE production only in the group with low total IgE. Smoking may be a preventable risk factor for increasing specific IgE in workers exposed to MTHPA. Topics: allergy tests; antibodies; autoimmunization; methyl tetrahydrophthalic anhydride; electrical industry; risk factors; sensitization; smoking.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 1997, Vol.54, No.9, p.667-670. 14 ref.
Ho S.F., Phoon W.H.
The significance of aches/pains among workers in an electronics factory
315 female workers with at least three months employment history in a factory manufacturing disk drives were studied. Each worker completed a self-administered questionnaire on their personal particulars, hours of work, opinions on the work and the workplace and the presence and severity of aches/pains experienced. 44.8% of the workers had complaints of aches/pains, Of these, 57.5% reported an improvement in their symptoms during their days off. 41.8% had symptoms affecting two or more sites. The most commonly affected sites were the hands and shoulders, followed by the head and back. 66.7% of these workers reported that the pains were severe enough to affect their activities. 53.9% had to seek some form of medical treatment and 23.4% took medical leave. However, the physical examinations of this group of workers were normal. The symptoms appeared to be influenced by their attitude towards work. A significantly higher number of workers with symptoms expressed dissatisfaction with work and had complaints of a noisy and cold environment. Topics: electronics industry; hand; individual susceptibility; job dissatisfaction; musculoskeletal diseases; questionnaire survey; repetitive strain injury; risk factors; shoulder; sickness absenteeism; symptoms; women.
Medical Journal of Malaysia, June 1997, Vol.52, No.2, p.134-138. 17 ref.
Pelclová D., Picková J., Patzelová V.
Chromosomal aberrations, hormone levels and oxidative phenotype (P450 2D6) in low occupational lead exposure
Topics: analysis of chromosome aberrations; battery and dry cell manufacture; lead; chromosome changes; determination in blood; hormone secretion; metabolic disturbances.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 1997, Vol.3, No.4, p.314-322. Bibl.ref.
Vaglenov A.K., Laltchef S.G., Nosko M.S., Pavlova S.P., Petkova V.V., Karadiov A.D.
Cytogenetic monitoring of workers exposed to lead
Topics: battery and dry cell manufacture; blood-cell anomalies; lead; cytogenetic studies; determination in blood; genetic effects.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 1997, Vol.3, No.4, p.298-308. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Controlling the ergonomic hazards of wiring tasks for household appliances
Topics: data sheet; design of equipment; ergonomics; hand tools; manufacture of household; musculoskeletal diseases; pneumatic tools; repetitive work; upper extremity disorders; USA; wiring.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, Dec. 1997. 4p. Illus. 1 ref.
Fine mechanics and electrotechnics mutual occupational accident insurance associations: Information and trends
Berufsgenossenschaft der Feinmechanik und Elektrotechnik: Infos und Trends [in German]
Topics: CD-ROM; computerized data bases; directory; electronics industry; Germany; legislation; occupational safety; precision mechanics; training material.
BC Verlags- und Mediengesellschaft mbH, Töpferstr. 14, 65191 Wiesbaden, Germany (e-mail: email@example.com), 1997. CD-ROM (needs Windows 3.1, 3.11 or 95).
Risk of lead poisoning during lead-tin wire electronic soldering operations
Risque de saturnisme lors des opérations de soudure électronique au fil plomb-étain [in French]
Topics: lead; determination in air; determination in blood; electronics industry; France; lead poisoning; questionnaire survey; soldering and brazing; tin.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 1997, Vol.37, No.4, p.455-458. Illus. 7 ref.
Prevalence of arterial hypertension in electric motor production workers
Topics: blood pressure; Bulgaria; toluene; case-control study; electrical industry; heat; hypertension; noise; organic solvents.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 1997, Vol.3, No.3, p.224-230. Illus. 14 ref.
Ward M. S., et al.
Lead poisoning in an electrician: A bad substitute for a bad habit
A case report of an electrician with unexplained abdominal pain. Blood analysis suggested lead poisoning, and this was confirmed by the occupational history. For ten years, the worker had chewed about a meter of electrical cable every day as a substitute for smoking. The cable insulation turned out to contain lead.
Medical Journal of Australia, Jan. 1997, Vol.166, p.23-24. Illus. 6 ref.
These 17 chapters in a major new survey of OSH examine health and safety issues in various manufacturing industries: achieving safer products; robot system safety design; small companies; welding (ergonomics and occupational hygiene); conventional lathes, cutters and upright drilling machines; surface treatment and metal finishing; industrial photographic film developing; woodworking; automotive industry; road vehicle repair; the electronics and electromechanical workplace; mining industry; metallurgical industry; glass industry; printing; shipbuilding and ship repairing.
In: The Workplace (by Brune D. et al., eds), Scandinavian Science Publisher as, Bakkehaugveien 16, 0873 Oslo, Norway, 1997, Vol.2, p.435-648. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Shigemi J., et al.
The relationship between job stress and mental health at work
A questionnaire survey of 763 workers in a Japanese electronics company identified 37.8% with mental health problems. Regression analysis indicated that after adjusting for sex, age, marital status, familial stress and physical health, subjective job stress was significantly associated with the state of mental health. Significant stress factors included too much trouble at work, too much responsibility, not being allowed to make mistakes, poor relationship with superiors, and being unable to keep up with technology.
Industrial Health, Jan. 1997, Vol.35, No.1, p.29-35. Illus. 16 ref.
Keira T., et al.
Adverse effects of colophony
This literature survey reviews the uses of colophony in industry, its adverse health effects, epidemiologic studies related to its use, diagnosis of colophony-related disorders, pathophysiology and control measures. Colophony is a mixture of resin acids used in a variety of industries, in particular, as a soldering flux in the electronics industry. Its main health effects are bronchial asthma and contact dermatitis. Control measures include medical examinations focusing on allergic history, and replacement of colophony in soldering flux.
Industrial Health, Jan. 1997, Vol.35, No.1, p.1-7. 63 ref.
Ergonomics program development: Prevention in the workplace
The development of an ergonomics programme to prevent work-related repetitive strain injuries in an electronics manufacturing company is described. Hazard assessment consisted of a review of injury/illness records by department and location, work site surveys, and a survey of workers for evidence of risk-related tasks. Tasks were prioritized according to degree of hazard, and alternative interventions were developed for each task. Intervention activities included evaluation by an ergonomics corrective action team and an ergonomics specialist team, training, exercises, and changes to equipment and processes. The programme resulted in a significant reduction in repetitive strain injury severity.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1997, Vol.58, No.2, p.145-149. 6 ref.
Frieling E., Pfitzmann J., Pfaus H.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Work organisation and working hours in the field of research and development - An empirical analysis of mechanical and electrical engineering
Arbeitsorganisation und Arbeitszeitsregelungen im F&E-Bereich - Eine empirische Analyse in der Metall- und Elektrobranche [in German]
Topics: computer aided design; electronics industry; flexible working time; Germany; machinery industry; part-time employment; questionnaire survey; statistical aspects; work organization; work time schedules.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Verlag für neue Wissenschaft GmbH, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1996. xi, 240p. Illus. 113 ref.
Guénel P., et al.
Exposure to 50-Hz electric field and incidence of leukemia, brain tumors, and other cancers among French electric utility workers
The association between cancer and exposure to electric fields was investigated in a case-control study nested within a cohort of 170,000 workers employed at the French electric utility company Electricité de France (EDF) between 1978 and 1989. Exposure was assessed by personal monitoring of 850 EDF workers for a full work week. The analysis did not show any increased risk for leukaemia. For brain tumours (69 cases) there was some indication of a dose-response relation, although the risk did not increase uniformly with exposure. An unexpected association was also observed for colon cancer, but not for any other type of cancer. This study indicates that electric fields may have a specific effect on the risk of brain tumour.
American Journal of Epidemiology, 1996, Vol.144, No.12, p.1107-1121. 41 ref.
Yokota K., Joyama Y., Yamaguchi K., Fijiki Y., Takeshita T., Morimoto K.
Study on allergic rhinitis in workers exposed to methyltetrahydrophthalic anhydride
Methyltetrahydrophthalic anhydride (MTHPA) is used as a hardening agent in an epoxy resin system. Because work-related nasal symptoms were observed in some workers exposed to MTHPA at two condenser plants, a cross-sectional survey was performed to improve their work environment. Mean MTHPA levels in the manufacturing processes to which the workers were routinely assigned were extremely low (1.09-22.4µg/m3). However, specific IgE antibody (S-IgE) was detected in 9 (32%) of 28 workers. Of these, 8 (89%) had nasal symptoms. An IgE-mediated mechanism seems to be associated with at least some of the cases of work-related nasal symptoms. This indicates that the occupational health administration of MTHPA cannot be controlled simply by limiting exposure in the work environment. Total IgE (T-IgE) levels averaged 200.5 units/mL in S-IgE-positive workers and 51.3 units/mL in S-IgE-negative workers. This implies that workers in whom the T-IgE level is 80 IU/mL or less should be assigned to work in these manufacturing processes.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine, Oct. 1996, Vol.1, No.3, p.133-135. Illus. 10 ref.
McDiarmid M.A., Freemand C.S., Grossman E.A., Martonik J.
Biological monitoring results for cadmium exposed workers
Measurements of cadmium in blood and urine were obtained for more than 100 workers at a battery production facility over an 18 month period. Changes in biological parameters are reported for a group of 16 workers medically removed from cadmium exposure following elevations in some biological parameters, and for a group of 15 workers in the platemaking area, where airborne cadmium exposures were being reduced through the use of engineering and work practice controls. Results indicate that both medical removal from cadmium exposure and exposure abatement measures generally result in declines in biological monitoring parameters of exposed workers.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1996, Vol.57, No.11, p.1019-1023. Illus. 13 ref.
Miller A.B., To T., Agnew D.A., Wall C., Green L.M.
Leukemia following occupational exposure to 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields among Ontario electric utility workers
Report on a nested case-control study of 1,484 cancer cases and 2,179 matched controls from a cohort of 31,543 Ontario Hydro (electrical utility for the province of Ontario, Canada) male employees. Associations of cancer risk with electric field exposure were evaluated and compared with previously reported findings for magnetic fields. Pensioners and active workers were followed for 18 years and 15 years, respectively. Exposures to electric and magnetic fields and to potential occupational confounders (such as ionizing radiation and known carcinogens) were estimated through job exposure matrices. Odds ratios were elevated for haematopoietic malignancies (all leukaemias) with cumulative electric field exposure. For cumulative magnetic field exposure, there were similar elevations. Evaluation of the combined effect of electric and magnetic fields for leukaemia showed significant elevations of risk for high exposure to both, with a dose-response relation for increasing exposure to electric fields and an inconsistent effect for magnetic fields. There was some evidence of a nonsignificant association for brain cancer and benign brain tumours with magnetic fields. For lung cancer, the odds ratio for high exposure to electric and magnetic fields was 1.84 (95% CI 0.69-4.94).
American Journal of Epidemiology, July 1996, Vol.144, No.2, p.150-160. 33 ref.
Correa A., Gray R.H., Cohe R., Rothman N., Shah F., Seacat H., Corn M.
Ethylene glycol ethers and risks of spontaneous abortion and subfertility
Occupational exposures to ethylene glycol ethers (EGE) are of concern since their reproductive toxicity has been well documented in animal studies. A retrospective cohort study was conducted among workers at two semiconductor manufacturing plants in the eastern United States in 1980-1989. Assessment of potential exposure to mixtures containing EGE was based on reported processes and company records. Among female workers potential exposure to mixtures containing EGE was associated with increased risks of spontaneous abortion and subfertility. Both of these risks exhibited a dose-response relation. Among spouses of male worker potentially exposed to mixtures containing EGE, there was no increased risk of spontaneous abortion, but a nonsignificant increased risk of subfertility was ascertained.
American Journal of Epidemiology, Apr. 1996, Vol.143, No.7, p.707-717. 38 ref.
Kelsh M.A., Sahl J.D.
Sex differences in work-related injury rates among electric utility workers
Injury trends were examined by type, severity and how they occurred among a cohort of 9,582 female and 26,898 male electric utility workers employed during 1980-1992. Unadjusted injury rates were higher throughout the period for male workers. However, after adjustment for occupation, job experience and age, elevated rate ratios indicate that female workers have higher injury rates. The rate ratios were slightly higher for more severe injuries. Differences between male and female workers in training, physical capacity, task assignments, as well as other factors, could explain the observed injury trends.
American Journal of Epidemiology, May 1996, Vol.143, No.10, p.1050-1058. Illus. 27 ref.
Federal environmental regulations affecting the electronics industry
This document provides information on U.S. environmental regulations potentially affecting the electronics industry. The requirements cover those chemicals identified as being in use in the semiconductor manufacturing, printed wiring board manufacturing, semiconductor packaging, and display manufacturing industries.
Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 401 M Street SW, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Sep. 1995. v, 67p.
Kim Y., Harada K., Ohmori S., Lee B.K., Miura H., Ueda A.
Evaluation of lead exposure in workers at a lead-acid battery factory in Korea: With focus on activity of erythrocyte pyrimidine 5'-nucleotidase (P5N)
Activity of erythrocyte pyrimidine 5'-nucleotidase (P5N) and other biological variables were examined in 66 exposed workers in a lead-acid battery factory and in 26 non-exposed workers in Korea. The time-weighted average of 13 of 18 air samples for lead exceeded 0.05mg/m3. Blood lead concentration (PbB) in 39 of the 66 exposed workers was above 40µg/dL and the mean PbB in the exposed group was 45.7(15,7)µg/dL. Compared with the non-exposed group, erythrocyte P5N activity and activity of erythrocyte aminolevulinic-acid dehydratase (ALAD) were significantly inhibited. The findings show that the depression of erythrocyte P5N activity by lead exposure results in the accumulation of erythrocyte pyrimidine nucleotides. The results indicate that the erythrocyte P5N activity test provides supporting evidence of lead exposure and shows the effect of lead on nucleotide metabolism.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 1995, Vol.52, No.7, p.484-488. 29 ref.
Gräff B., Hubert K., Zoller H.J.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Study on air velocities and air temperatures in industrial workplaces
Untersuchungen von Luftgeschwindigkeiten und Lufttemperaturen an industriellen Arbeitsplätzen [in German]
Air temperature, air velocity and relative humidity were measured at various locations in 11 industrial plants. The measurements were taken at 0.1, 1.1 and 1.7m above the ground. In all cases the values for air turbulence and air temperatures were in the acceptable range. Industrial plants studied included manufacturers of ventilation and air conditioning systems, a large truck assembly plant, a manufacturer of electronic components, a boiler manufacturer, a company producing punched metal products and chemical plants producing household products.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Verlag für neue Wissenschaft GmbH, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1995. 188p. Illus. 8 ref.
Williams M.E., Baldwin D.G., Manz P.C.
Semiconductor industrial hygiene handbook - Monitoring, ventilation, equipment and ergonomics
This manual provides a practical guide to the provision of industrial hygiene services in the semiconductor processing industry. Contents: industrial hygiene monitoring for chemical and physical agents (exposure assessment, biomonitoring, air contaminants, continuous gas monitoring, radiation hazards); ventilation systems; personal protective equipment (chemical protective gloves, respirators); indoor air quality; ergonomics (stressful postures, materials handling, workplace and equipment design); record keeping; plan review. Appendices provide details of semiconductor processing technology.
Noyes Publications, Mill Road, Park Ridge, New Jersey 07656, USA, 1995. xv, 348p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: USD 64.00.
Broadwell D.K., Darcey D.J., Hudnell H.K., Otto D.A., Boyes W.K.
Work-site clinical and neurobehavioral assessment of solvent-exposed microelectronics workers
Clinical and neurobehavioural assessments were carried out among 25 microelectronics workers and a matched control group. Retrospective exposure assessments in the study group suggested chronic low-level exposure to solvents, with intermittent acute exposures. Results of neurobehavioural tests indicated that the exposed group had measurable deficits in sensory, motor and cognitive function. They also reported more medical symptoms and altered mood states. Three workers had findings consistent with a solvent-induced encephalopathy. Results support an association between chronic low-dose solvent exposure and measurable neurobehavioural changes.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1995, Vol.27, No.5, p.677-698. Illus. 83 ref.
Froom P., Kristal-Boneh E., Ashkanazi R., Ribak J.
The value or urinary lead measurements in the periodic examination of battery workers
An attempt was made to determine whether urinary Pb measurements can help to identify battery workers who need more careful follow-up. The results, which were compared with data from blood Pb measurements, indicated that, although a correlation was found between blood and urinary Pb levels, urinary lead measurements should not be included in the periodic examination of workers exposed to lead.
Israel Journal of Occupational Health, 1995, Vol.1, No.1, p.27-32. 11 ref.
de Peyster A., Silvers J.A.
Arsenic levels in hair of workers in a semiconductor fabrication facility
This study examines the relationship between total arsenic (As) levels in the hair of employees in a semiconductor fabrication facility and job responsibility, a surrogate variable for As exposure potential. Maintenance personnel who regularly worked in equipment cleaning areas were assumed to have a higher potential for occupational exposure to As than other employees. Hair samples were collected from workers with high, medium and low potential for exposure and from controls (administrative employees). Total As in hair was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Exposure levels were established by taking air and wipe samples, and by evaluating returned questionnaires designed to detect nonoccupational As sources. Mean hair As, though somewhat higher than in controls, was not significantly higher in any of the exposed groups. In general, nonoccupational sources of As seemed to contribute more to hair As levels than any occupational exposure. Monitoring for low-level As exposure in this industry should only be considered if nonoccupational exposures can also be examined.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1995, Vol.56, No.4, p.377-383. 22 ref.
The safe storage, handling and use of special gases in the micro-electronics industry
Contents of this code of practive (1988 edition, see CIS 91-261): key requirements for employers of personnel using special gases; potential hazards of compressed gas containers; potentially hazardous properties of gases; location, design, construction and operation of the gas container storage area; handling of gas containers; gas supply points; gas supply systems; disposal of waste gases; operating principles for gas supply systems; plant maintenance; general safety requirements (protective equipment, training, emergency response).
British Compressed Gases Association, 14 Tollgate, Eastleigh, Hampshire SO53 3TG, United Kingdom, Rev.ed., 1995. ix, 55p. 33 ref. Price: GBP 35.00 (GBP 30.00 to member companies).
New materials and the working environment
Papers presented at an interdisciplinary seminar (Lyngby, Denmark, 22-24 August 1994). Titles: new materials and implications for the work environment; production and use of powder metallurgy products; production and use of advanced technical ceramics; fabrication of advanced polymer matrix fibre composites; new methods in surface treatment; particle deposition, retention and toxicity of poorly soluble dusts; toxicity of man-made mineral fibres; formation and emission of tungsten oxide fibres during hard-metal production; occupational hazards during machining of fibre-reinforced plastics; exposure to reactive compounds during production of fibre-reinforced plastics; life-cycle assessment in a historical perspective; integrated environmental and occupational assessment of new materials (in Denmark); the management response to new materials and their growing impact on safety, health and environment.
National Institute of Occupational Health, Lersø Parkallé 105, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, Mar. 1995. 166p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
St-Vincent M., Chicoine D.
Musculoskeletal symptoms in two plants in the electrical sector
A questionnaire survey was carried out to investigate work variables and the occurrence and severity of musculoskeletal symptoms in a transformer assembly plant and a household appliance manufacturing plant. Musculoskeletal problems were frequent and serious. Women suffered more frequent and serious pain than men; women reported more problems in the upper limbs while men reported more back problems. The least experienced workers were the most affected. In one plant, the study identified two sectors where pain was more frequent and more serious; in the second plant, problems were distributed among different jobs throughout the plant.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 1995, Vol.1, No.1, p.78-90. 24 ref.
Chatigny C., Seifert A.M., Messing K.
Repetitive strain in nonrepetitive work - A case study
A study was made of the movements and forces involved in a factory job in which a woman worker developed epicondylitis. Although tasks were extremely varied, certain movements at risk for epicondylitis were repeated many times, in particular the turning of valves. Strain on the elbow was particularly intense for the woman worker because of the design of the workplace. Although it cannot be concluded that the worker's epicondylitis was due to her job, results suggest that equipment and worksites should be adapted to a wider range of potential worker sizes. Issues concerning the definition of repetitive strain in epidemiologic studies are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 1995, Vol.1, No.1, p.42-51. Illus. 30 ref.
Bergman A., Svedberg U., Nilsson E.
Contact urticaria with anaphylactic reactions caused by occupational exposure to iridium salt
Case study of a worker who developed respiratory tract symptoms and contact urticaria following occupational exposure to iridium chloride. An iridium chloride prick test showed a positive reaction and a scratch test produced anaphylactoid reactions. Unusually, a negative reaction was obtained with platinum salts. The results are interpreted as immediate-type hypersensitivity to iridium salt; the route of sensitization was probably through the airways. Further testing showed that iridium salt allergy could persist for at least 18 months after exposure ceases.
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 1995, Vol.32, No.1, p.14-17. 13 ref.
Report for 1990 of a study committee for testing the toxicity and other aspects of dangerous exotic chemicals used in the IC industry and elsewhere
Heisei 2 nendo - IC sangyō-ra de sayō sareru yūgaisei michi kagaku busshitsu ni taisuru dokusei shiken-ra no chōsa kenkyū i-inkai hōkokusho [in Japanese]
Report of a committee of academic and industrial experts. In 1990, its tasks were to determine the toxicity of phosphine and to conduct a questionnaire survey in the workforce involved in the manufacture of integrated circuits (ICs). Because of its high toxicity, a 4h LC50 (mouse) for phosphine could not be established directly; extrapolation from lethality at lower doses gives an estimate of 26.5-33.4ppm. Of 156 firms that received the questionnaire, 68 (120 sites, 47,000 workers) responded. Enterprises that provide equipment and gases to IC manufacturers were included as well as IC manufacturers themselves. The structures of the workforces by age, sex, type of contract and size of enterprise were determined. The identities and quantities of 50 chemicals used (silanes, compounds of arsenic, boron, rare earth elements, etc.) were tabulated. The existence of data sheets for these products and of systems for disposing of them as waste were also determined. Blood analyses were performed on a sample of the respondents and on controls employed outside the IC industry; all IC employees showed higher red blood cell counts, haemoglobin levels and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase activities, while those over 40 years of age also had elevated cholesterol and neutral fats. Facts on 251 accidents that occurred between Jan. 1985 and Oct. 1990 were collected.
Japan Industrial Safety and Health Association, Industrial Hygiene Inspection Centre, 5-35-1 Chiba, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108, Japan, no date. 360p. Illus.
Kentner M., Fischer T.
On the correlation between external and internal lead concentrations
Zur Korrelation von äusserer und innerer Bleibelastung [in German]
Lead concentrations in the air of 134 workplaces in a battery manufacturing plant were correlated with lead concentrations in workers' blood. The measurements were taken once per year throughout the period from 1982 to 1991. The close correlation between the two concentrations reported by similar studies published in the literature could not be confirmed. High lead concentrations in the workplace increased the blood lead level less than low lead concentrations. Lead concentrations in the air of workplaces below the maximum allowable exposure limit of 0.1mg/m3 increased the blood lead concentrations to a considerably higher degree than did lead concentrations above the maximum allowable exposure limit.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, Dec. 1994, Vol.44, No.12, p.433-443. Illus. 73 ref.
Accidents in semiconductor industries
Handōtai kanren sangyō ni okeru jiko rei [in Japanese]
Accidents that have occurred in the semiconductor industry in Japan are reviewed and summarized in order to clarify hidden hazards in workplaces in the industry. The accidents fall into five categories: silane fires, silane or germane explosions, metallic silicone powder explosions, explosions or violent decompositions of chemical waste and leakage of toxic gases. Analysis of the accidents is followed by suggestions of preventive measures.
Journal of the Japan Society for Safety Engineering - Anzen kōgaku, 15 Dec. 1994, Vol.33, No.6, p.369-375. Illus. 41 ref.
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