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Diseases of the kidney and the urinary system - 286 entries found

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  • Diseases of the kidney and the urinary system


CIS 82-1668 Kawahara K., Samamoto M., Kushihata T.
Correlation between renal dysfunction and imino acid in cadmium poisoning. 1. Urinary findings of copper and/or cadmium-administered rats for three months
In rats receiving copper (Cu) and/or cadmium (Cd), high correlation coefficients were found between (1) urinary Cd and both protein and free proline; (2) between urinary total proline and both free proline and free hydroxyproline; (3) between urinary Cd and calcium in the femur; and (4) between urinary proline and protein. Correlation was found between urinary imino acids in rats receiving 200ppm of Cu and Cd simultaneously or 200ppm of Cu alone. Urinary Cd, protein and glucose, and total and free proline can be used for early detection of chronic Cd poisoning.
Hokuriku Journal of Public Health - Hokuriku Koshu Eisei Gakkaishi, Oct. 1981, Vol.8, No.1, p.14-18. 16 ref. Price: Y.2000.

CIS 82-1659 Catania A., Galasso F., Taré R.
A series of 41 cases of urinary tract tumours in industrial workers
Considerazioni su una serie di 41 casi di tumori dell'apparato urinario insorti in operai dell'industria [in Italian]
An epidemiological survey of 41 cases of urinary tract tumours of occupational origin reported in the statistics during 1974. The general characteristics of urinary carcinomas and the incriminated carcinogens are reviewed, and the general site distribution of these neoplasms in the urinary tract is discussed together with indication of histological types and probable causative agents. The 41 cases are described with tabular data on: geographical distribution; age of patient; length of employment; incriminated carcinogen; tumour site; histological type; age at diagnosis; breakdown of cases by length of exposure, substances to which patients were exposed, and site of lesions.
Rivista degli infortuni e delle malattie professionali, July-Aug. 1981, Vol.48, No.4, p.389-400. 4 ref.

CIS 82-1396 Murray T., Walker B.R., Spratt D.M., Chappelka R.
Cadmium nephropathy: Monitoring for early evidence of renal dysfunction
In an attempt to establish a screening method for early detection of cadmium-induced nephropathy at a reversible stage, periodic analyses of cadmium (Cd) level were determined in the blood, urine, and hair of 23 workers exposed to platics and pigments containing a Cd stabiliser. Urine cytology, creatinine clearance and urinary levels of lysozyme, β-2-microglobulins, immunoglobulins and aminoacids were also monitored. Cd levels in blood and urine were only useful as indicators of acute environmental exposure. Hair Cd content was elevated in most workers. Urine cytology was not reliable as an indicator of possible nephropathy. All 5 measures of renal function are recommended in screening and follow-up of Cd workers.
Archives of Environmental Health, July-Aug. 1981, Vol.36, No.4, p.165-171. 25 ref.

CIS 82-1353 Ellis K.J., Morgan W.D., Zanzi I., Yasumura S., Vartsky D., Cohn S.H.
Critical concentrations of cadmium in human renal cortex: dose-effect studies in cadmium smelter workers
Cadmium (Cd) was measured in vivo (using a neutron activation technique) in the left kidney and liver of 82 industrially exposed workers and 10 control subjects. The range of Cd values for the industrial group was 0.9-57mg for the whole kidney and 0.8-120ppm for the liver, compared to 0.4-11.8mg and 0.6-7.9ppm for the controls. At <40ppm in the liver, the kidney Cd burden increased with increasing liver concentration. At >40ppm, the kidney Cd content decreased as the liver concentration increased. This relation between Cd in the kidney and the liver for all subjects showed a critical level (Cd burden at which adverse effects occurred in the kidney) of 31mg Cd in the kidney. Estimates of the critical level by β2-microglobulin and urinary protein measurements yielded values of 31-42mg Cd for the whole kidney (300-400µg/g for the renal cortex).
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, May 1981, Vol.7, No.5, 691-703p. 23 ref.

CIS 82-1075 Thériault G., De Guire L., Cordier S.
Reducing aluminium: an occupational possibly associated with bladder cancer
Report of a case-control questionnaire survey undertaken to identify reasons for the exceptionally high incidence of bladder cancer among men in the Chicoutimi census division of the Province of Quebec. An increased risk of bladder cancer was associated with employment in the electrolysis department of an aluminium reduction plant. The estimated relative risk was 2.83 (95% confidence interval: 1.06-7.54). An interaction was found between this employment and cigarette smoking, resulting in a combined relative risk of 5.70 (95% confidence interval: 2.00-12.30). Employment in the aluminium reduction plant resulted in exposure to fumes and gases containing aromatic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their byproducts which may contribute to the development of bladder cancer in aluminium workers.
Canadian Medical Association Journal, 15 Feb. 1981, Vol.124, p.419-423. 50 ref.

CIS 82-1063 Radioimmunological determination of β2-microglobulins in occupational health supervision examinations
Radioimmunologische Bestimmung von β2-Mikroglobulin für arbeitsmedizinische Überwachungsuntersuchungen [in German]
As a criterion for the evaluation of renal tubule lesions due to cadmium, the urinary concentration of β2-microglobulins can play an important role in the medical supervision of persons exposed to cadmium. The radioimmunoassay method is reliable and practical for group screening. Blood and urine analyses among non-exposed persons showed normal β2-microglobulin levels of 1.0-2.3mg/l serum and a normal upper limit of 3.20µg/l urine.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, Mar. 1981, Vol.16, No.3, p.62-65. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 82-752 Van der Laan G.
Chronic glomerulonephritis and organic solvents. A case-control study
Chronische glomerulonefritis en organische oplosmiddelen - Een case-control onderzoek [in Dutch]
50 patients with histologically confirmed chronic glomerulonephritis (34 men, 16 women, average age 42 years) and 50 controls (age and sex matched) with a variety of internal diseases completed an extensive questionnaire. Additional information was obtained by interview, especially with regard to exposure to organic solvents. Contrary to 4 other recently published case-control studies, no difference was found between cases and controls as regards solvent exposure. A relative risk of 1.1 with an upper 95% confidence limit of 2.7 was calculated. According to previous epidemiological studies, glomerulonephritis cannot be considered as an occupational disease of workers exposed to organic solvents. Cohort studies in groups of workers in which exposure data to organic solvents are available, should be carried out to elucidate this question.
Tijdschrift voor sociale geneeskunde, 19 Aug. 1981, Vol.59, No.16, p.578-582. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 82-476 Curtès J.P., Cantineau A.
Occuptional hepatic and renal diseases
Affections hépatiques et rénales d'origine professionnelle [in French]
Aspects considered: physio-pathology, clinical and biological aspects, aetiology (toxic substances, infection, physical injury), prevention, compensation.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale. Intoxications, 18 rue Séguier, 75006 Paris, France, 10 Oct. 1981. 10p.

CIS 81-1403 Buchet J.P., Roels H., Bernard A., Lauwerys R.
Assessment of renal function of workers simultaneously exposed to inorganic lead and cadmium.
62 workers exposed to both metals were examined. Results were compared with those in 3 other groups: exposed to lead only, cadmium only, and controls. There was no interaction between lead and cadmium. Renal dysfunction occurring in the sumultaneously exposed group is attributed to cadmium exposure.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, May 1981, Vol.23, No.5, p.348-352. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 81-1390 Cartwright R.A., Gadian T., Garland J.B., Bernard S.M.
The influence of malignant cell cytology screening on the survival of industrial bladder cancer cases.
88 men with bladder cancer identified in the workforce of a chemical factory were matched with hospital controls. 33 of the factory cases had been diagnosed as a result of the malignant cell cytology screening (MCC) programme. The men diagnosed by MCC survived longer than the hospital series, while those diagnosed symptomatically survived for a shorter period of time. Reasons for longer survival in the MCC group were mainly accounted for by earlier diagnosis.
Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Mar. 1981, Vol.35, No.1, p.35-38. 7 ref.


CIS 81-1997 Greenberg S.R.
Fluorescent studies on the potential existence of vascular metallic immune complexes
In an acridine orange-stained preparation of the rat kidney, positive fluorescence was observed in the media of renal arterioles following long-term implantation of cadmium wire into the cortex, but was absent in animals similarly treated with copper wire or plastic. The presence of lymphocytic foci around the thickened vesels in Cd-containing kidneys, together with evidence of an association of RNA with immune complex formation, suggest that the vascular thickening in the presence of Cd ions is attributable to the mural location of a metallic-originated immune complex.
Archives of Environmental Health, May-June 1980, Vol.35, No.3, p.148-151. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 81-1973 Schaller K.H., Gonzales J., Thürauf J., Schiele R.
Early screening for kidney damage in persons occupationally exposed to lead, mercury and cadmium
Früherkennung von Nierenschäden bei beruflich gegenüber Blei, Quecksilber und Cadmium exponierten Personen [in German]
Report on medical examinations of 81 exposed workers in the metal trades and in manufacture of Ni-Cd storage batteries. To evaluate exposure, concentrations of these metals in blood and urine samples were determined. Renal excretion of certain proteins also served as an indicator of sub-clinical kidney damage. Description of analysis methods, results, and interpretation of results by comparison with those obtained by other authors. After relatively long-term exposure to Cd, characteristic β2-microglobulinuria and a high level of excreted total proteins can be observed; these phenomena are also observed, to a lesser extent, in persons exposed to Hg. Examination of persons exposed to lead did not show high levels of urinary protein excretion. Proposals are made for the urine analyses to be performed as part of a preventive medical examination in the case of exposure to Cd, and for limit concentrations of urinary and blood mercury to be observed in the case of exposure to Hg.
Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene, Originale Reihe B, 171, 1980, No.4-5, p.320-335. Illus. 31 ref.

CIS 81-1651 Schumann G.B., Lerner S.I., Weiss M.A., Gawronski L., Lohiya G.K.
Inclusion-bearing cells in industrial workers exposed to lead
A characteristic renal response to lead exposure is the formation of discrete, dense, staining intranuclear inclusion bodies in the renal tubular epithelial cells. Cytological examination of the urinary sediment of 19 workers exposed to inorganic lead showed 4 to have exfoliated inclusion-bearing cells of proximal renal tubular origin. These lead-induced inclusion-bearing cells appeared distinctly different from viral-induced inclusions or inclusions of other origin. Their presence is cytological evidence of injury to the tubular epithelium; however, their clinical significance and their application to medical monitoring are not clearly understood.
American Journal of Clinical Pathology, Apr. 1980, p.192-196. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 81-487 Franchini I., Cavatorta A., Mutti A., Borghetti A.
Acute renal insufficiency caused by industrial toxics
Insufficienza renale acuta da tossici professionali [in Italian]
The chief nephrotoxic substances used in agriculture and industry are listed. The pathogenesis is described under the heads: direct tubular lesions, systemic and/or renal ischaemia, and indirect metabolic tubular lesions. The clinical picture and therapy are also dealt with.
Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1980, Vol.71, No.4, p.283-295. Illus. 89 ref.

CIS 81-175 Bernard A., Roels H., Buchet J.P., Lauwerys R.
Screening for early diagnosis and prevention of kidney damage due to occupational exposure to cadmium
Dépistage précoce et prévention des lésions rénales dans l'exposition professionnelle au cadmium. [in French]
Contents: properties and uses of Cd; characteristics of kidney damage due to Cd (epidemiology, early screening by determination in urine of proteins of low molecular weight such as β2-microglobulin, or of high molecular weight such as albumin or transferrin); relation between kidney damage and exposure to Cd (exposure parameters; critical concentration in air and in biological media (kidney tissue, urine, blood); detection by determination of urinary Cd levels); recommendations.
Cahiers de médecine du travail - Cahiers voor arbeidsgeneeskunde, June 1980, Vol.17, No.2, p.47-64. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 80-1693 Tola S., Tenho M., Korkala M.L., Järvinen E.
Cancer of the urinary bladder in Finland
Report of an epidemiological study comprising 180 cases of bladder cancer of occupational origin and matched controls. The study failed to show any statistically significant risk of bladder cancer among those exposure groups which were considered to be at risk. Occupations with no chemical exposure were equally common among cases and controls, suggesting that the role of occupational exposure in the aetiology of bladder cancer was probably not a major factor. But exposure to cement and/or concrete, a previously unsuspected exposure category, was suggested as a possible aetiological factor of bladder cancer.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1980, Vol.46, No.1, p.43-51. 12 ref.

CIS 80-1372 Iwao S., Tsuchiya K., Sakurai H.
Serum and urinary beta-2-microglobulin among cadmium-exposed workers.
10 workers with past heavy Cd exposure, 3 with low exposure, and 5 controls were studied. Blood and urinary Cd were higher in the heavily exposed workers even after cessation of exposure. Elevated blood Cd was significantly associated with elevated serum β-2-microglobulin (β2M). High β2M in urine is not necessarily due to tubular impairment but may result from a plasma β2M level exceeding the renal threshold.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, June 1980, Vol.22, No.6, p.399-402. 22 ref.

CIS 80-1277 Tarusawa S., Suzuki S., Tomisawa N., Yoshioka N., Takahashi K.
Myglobin levels in the serum and urine in patients with vibration disease - Relation between haptoglobin and myoglobin.
Serum and urinary myoglobin and serum haptoglobin levels were slightly higher in 60 patients with vibration disease than in healthy controls. There was no significant relation between haptoglobin levels and either severity or duration of work with the chain saw. Patients with Raynaud's phenomenon had higher haptoglobin levels than those without. There was no relation between the haemoglobin and myoglobin levels.
Journal of the Japan Accident Medical Association, Jan. 1980, Vol.28, No.1, p.19-24. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 80-1076 Keogh J.P., Pestronk A., Wertheimer D., Moreland R.
An epidemic of urinary retention caused by dimethylaminopropionitrile.
The epidemic was discovered in a polyurethane production plant, probably due to the use of a catalyst containing dimethylaminopropionitrile. No new cases occurred after its removal.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 22-29 Feb. 1980, Vol.243, No.8, p.746-749. 15 ref.

CIS 80-1075 Kreiss K., Wegman D.H., Niles C.A., Siroky M.B., Krane R.J., Feldman R.G.
Neurological dysfunction of the bladder in workers exposed to dimethylaminopropionitrile.
An outbreak of neurogenic bladder dysfunction occurred in 104 (63%) of 166 workers engaged in polyurethane foam manufacture. The epidemic began with the introduction of the catalyst dimethylaminopropionitrile (DMAPN), and stopped when the use of DMAPN was discontinued. Epidemiological and neurological data are given. DMAPN is the only neurotoxin that produces urinary symptoms more frequently than limb nerve symptoms.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 22-29 Feb. 1980, Vol.243, No.8, p.741-745. 19 ref.


CIS 80-1681 Méndez-Martin A.
Urinary lithiasis in airline flight personnel
La urolitiasis en el personal de vuelo [in Spanish]
This literature survey shows that according to medical statistics urolithiasis is one of the most common occupational diseases affecting air crews. Aspects considered: predisposition (causes), aetiology; raised urinary levels of salts forming kidney stones; inadequate compensation of water losses; temperature and humidity levels in aircraft; flight crews' dietary habits; age, length of service and seniority; hypercalcinuria; uric acid metabolism; factors modifying the physicochemical balance of urinary salts; urinary lithiasis and fitness for flying duties; prevention (physical exercise, correct diet, observance of nycthemeral rhythms, medical supervision).
Medicina clínica, 1979, Vol.72, No.2, p.65-70. 26 ref.

CIS 80-1650 Ali-Zade G.A.
Renal function in workers exposed to allyl chloride and metallic mercury
K voprosu o funkcional'nom sostojanii poček u rabočih, kontaktirujuščih s nekotorymi veščestvami (hloristyj allil, metalličeskaja rtut') [in Russian]
Studies in 120 workers involved in glycerine synthesis and 30 controls are reported. The exposed workers showed renal disorders, generally involving secretory and excretory functions. Radioisotopic examinations was the most precise method of diagnosis.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Oct. 1979, No.10, p.22-25. 5 ref.

CIS 80-482 Koizumi A., Shiojima S., Omiya M., Nakano S., Sato N., Ikeda M.
Acute renal failure and maneb (manganous ethylenebis[dithiocarbamate]) exposure.
The case is reported of a 62-year-old man who was taken to the emergency clinic with oliguria, diarrhoea, and hoarseness, after spreading maneb on 200m2 of garden. He was found to have acute renal failure on the basis of clinicobiochemical data. He had handled maneb with unprotected hands and had nibbled treated side buds of corn.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 7 Dec. 1979, Vol.242, No.23, p.2583-2585. 10 ref.

CIS 80-461 Philbert M., Girard-Wallon C., Garçon J., Ripault J., Berry J.P.
Experimental polycystosis of the kidney caused by diphenylamine (phenylaniline, anilinobenzene)
La polykystose expérimentale du rein induite par la diphénylamine (phénylaniline, anilinobenzène). [in French]
Cystic dilatation at all levels of the renal tubules occurred in rats and especially guinea pigs poisoned with diphenylamine (DPA) in a dose of 2-4g/100g feed. The lesions were roughly proportional to the degree of poisoning. They were histologically identical with those seen in hepato-renal polycystic disease in human adults, with the difference that they were isolated: in particular there were no associated hepatic cysts. In spite of the considerable difference between the DPA concentrations used and those in the occupational environment, technical and medical prevention is called for in DPA-exposed workers. The carcinogenic hazard of DPA was not established on account of the short period of poisoning.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, June-July 1979, Vol.40, No.6-7, p.685-697. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 80-172 Cartwright R.A., Bernard S.M., Glashan R.W., Gray B.K.
Bladder cancer amongst dye users.
This letter to the Editor reports on a study of occupation of 637 patients with bladder cancer and 637 controls. 37 were textile dye workers (20 with, 17 without bladder cancer). There was no excess risk of bladder cancer among the dye workers.
Lancet, 17 Nov. 1979, Vol.2, No.8151, p.1073-1074.

CIS 79-1420 Lerner S., Hong C.D., Bozian R.C.
Cadmium nephropathy - A clinical evaluation.
A case is presented of a worker exposed to cadmium for 9 years. There was evidence of mild proximal tubular and glomerular dysfunction, and he presented considerable weight loss and other symptoms. The value of monitoring urinary total protein as recommended by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is discussed. Increased beta-2-microglobulin without proteinuria but with elevated blood and urine cadmium levels raises questions about which biological indicators will prove most effective in monitoring cadmium exposed workers.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, June 1979, Vol.21, No.6, p.409-412. 20 ref.


CIS 78-1931 Lagneau C.
Bladder cancer and dye manufacture
Lésions vésicales et fabrication des colorants. [in French]
MD thesis. History of bladder tumours in the dye industry and incidence in France, USA, United Kingdom, Italy, USSR. Review of known bladder carcinogens (1- and 2-naphthylamine, benzidine, 4-aminobiphenyl or p-xenylamine and auramine) and probable carcinogens (o-dianisidine, 3,-3'-dichlorobenzidine, magenta, 2,3'-dimethylazobenzene, o-aminoazotoluene, acetylaminofluorene, 3,3'-dihydroxybenzidine, p-nitrobiphenyl). General remarks and review of chief theories of carcinogesis. Early diagnosis of occupational bladder cancer (microhaematuria, urinary cytology, routine cystoscopy). Report of various forms and stages of the pathological process, with concrete case histories. Prevention measures in dye production plant: enclosure; high ceilings to facilitate ventilation; walls impervious to carcinogens; regular washing of floors; prohibition of 2-naphthylamine (USSR and United Kingdom); handling of benzidine in paste form; protective clothing; showers after work. Hazards and their prevention at different production stages. French compensation system.
Université de Paris V, Faculté de médecine Necker - Enfants Malades, Paris, France, 1978. 93p. 61 ref.

CIS 78-1922 Lauwerys R., Buchet J.P., Roels H., Bernard A., Hubermont G.
Study of population groups and workers exposed to heavy metals
Etude de groupes de la population générale et des travailleurs exposés aux métaux lourds. [in French]
4 studies undertaken at the industrial and medical toxicology unit at Louvain Catholic University (Belgium) are reported. Exposure was not occupational in 2 of these: children living near a lead foundry; levels of lead, mercury and cadmium in 500 pregnant women and their infants. In the 2 studies dealing with exposed workers, renal function was determined in workers exposed to lead, mercury or cadmium, and plasma α1-antitrypsin activity in cadmium-exposed workers. Results are briefly reported. The hypothesis of Chowdhury and Louria regarding an inhibitory action of cadmium on plasma α1-antitrypsin was not confirmed in vivo.
Cahiers de médecine du travail - Cahiers voor arbeidsgeneeskunde, June 1978, Vol.15, No.2, p.113-118. 11 ref.

CIS 78-1692 Roels H., Bernard A., Buchet J.P., Lauwerys R., Masson P., Seminck T.
Response of β2-microglobulin and other proteins in workers exposed to cadmium, lead or mercury.
Workers exposed to these metals or combinations of them were compared with a control group. There was a significant increase in urinary excretion of low and/or high molecular weight proteins only in those exposed to cadmium or to lead + cadmium. On account of its high specificity, increased β2-microglobulin excretion is a valid indicator of cadmium-induced tubular proteinuria. Discussion centres on elucidating this latter condition.
Cahiers de médecine du travail - Cahiers voor bedrijfsgeneeskunde, Mar. 1978, Vol.14, No.1, p.78-92. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 78-1691 Piscator M.
β2-microglobulin in the diagnosis of chronic cadmium poisoning.
The renal effects of cadmium (Cd) are discussed. Determination of urinary β2-microglobulin (β2-m) is a powerful tool for diagnosis of chronic Cd poisoning, and screening of Cd-exposed workers. Urinary pH should always be determined, since the β2-m concentration may vary with the pH. Renal damage, once it has set in, is irreversible, and Cd levels in both blood and urine should be monitored for prevention of Cd-induced renal tubular dysfunction.
Cahiers de médecine du travail - Cahiers voor bedrijfsgeneeskunde, Mar. 1978, Vol.14, No.1, p.69-77. 14 ref.

CIS 78-1661 Devulder B., Martin J.C., Plouvier B., Le Bouffant L., Tacquet A., Furon D.
Ultrastructural appearances of human and experimental cadmium nephropathy
Les aspects ultrastructuraux de la néphropathie cadmique humaine et expérimentale. [in French]
Highly toxic at the cellular level, cadmium (Cd) exerts its action specifically by disturbing mitochondrial energy production mechanisms. The ultrastructural appearance of experimental Cd nephropathy is mainly tubular atrophy with an intense collagen reaction in the neighbouring interstitium, thickening of the glomerular basal layer and marked changes in endothelial cells and podocytes (especially spreading of the pedicels) and vacuolisation of the distal tubular cells with calcium deposits evidencing nephrocalcinosis. In man, high urinary Cd may be the only biological indication of nephropathy that is already well advanced histologically, shown by electron microscope studies to involve the glomeruli. Thus regular determination of urinary Cd should be done in addition to protein in regular screening of Cd workers.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, Jan.-Feb. 1978, Vol.39, No.1-2, p.35-43. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 78-1624 Yver L., Maréchaud R., Picaud D., Touchard G., Talin d'Eyzac A., Matuchansky C., Patte D.
Acute renal insufficiency during lead poisoning - Responsibility of the chelating agent
Insuffisance rénale aiguë au cours d'un saturnisme professionel - Responsabilité du traitement chélateur. [in French]
Report on a case of acute renal insufficiency occurring after administration of 1g EDTA daily for occupational lead poisoning in a printing worker, which caused massive elimination of lead (15,000µg/24h). The study provides new evidence concerning the mechanism of kidney toxicity of the chelating agent and aids clarification of the cause of renal lesions due to lead. The best prevention of renal complications of treatment by chelating agents appears to be surveillance of urinary lead levels, which should remain at 1,000-2,000µg/24h, a level which is not toxic for the kidney.
Nouvelle presse médicale, 6 May 1978, Vol.7, No.18, p.1541-1543. 13 ref.


CIS 78-1934 Kjellström T.
Accumulation and renal effects of cadmium in man - A dose-response study.
This thesis was undertaken to evaluate the protection against long-term cadmium (Cd) exposure which was afforded to workers by the threshold limit values in use in 1971. A metabolic model was designed and dose-response relations calculated to determine when the Cd concentration in kidney cortex reached critical values. In addition, epidemiological studies were made to measure early tubular damage. For the metabolism model, Cd was determined in food and faeces; it appeared that, while only 5% of ingested Cd is absorbed, the element accumulates in the body. Urinary Cd excretion is a good indicator of body burden, and blood Cd can indicate intake over a period of months. Dose-response relations indicated that the critical concentration is 150-300µg/g. The author's opinion is that the standards do not adequately protect exposed people.
Department of Environmental Hygiene, Karolinska Institute, 104 01 Stockholm, Sweden, 1977. 80p. 239 ref.

CIS 78-1350 Devulder B., Plouvier B., Furon D., Martin J.C.
Cadmium nephropathy
La néphropathie cadmique. [in French]
Study covering the following aspects of this question: mechanisms of renal toxicity of cadmium (direct cellular toxic action through the agency of metallothionein; indirect toxic action of vascular origin); clinical and biological aspects (acute poisoning; chronic poisoning (particularly proteinuria)); biological and ultrastructural aspects of cadmium nephropathy (lesions can be detected by electronic microscope as from the 15th day of poisoning, etc.); problem of arterial hypertension in chronic poisoning; therapeutic aspects (attenuation of cadmium toxicity by sodium nitrilotriacetate, etc.).
Archives des maladies professionnelles, Dec. 1977, Vol.38, No.12, p.983-992. 62 ref.

CIS 78-1083 Hansén L., Kjellström T., Vesterberg O.
Evaluation of different urinary proteins excreted after occupational Cd exposure.
55 male workers at an alkaline battery factory were examined for renal effects after several years' exposure to cadmium. Total urinary protein was determined using a biuret method. To separate the individual proteins, isoelectric focussing was done in flat beds of polyacrylamide gel. The proteins were then stained and evaluated by densimetry. Duration of exposure was taken as a measure of the dose. There was a dose-effect relation between Cd and some urinary proteins. The most pronounced relative increases occurred in the zones containing albumin and β2-microglobulin. Albumin showed the largest quantitative increase. The method appears suitable for evaluating the renal effects of cadmium.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 22 Dec. 1977, Vol.40, No.4, p.273-282. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 78-799 Biagini G., Misciattelli M.E., Contri Biaccarani M., Vangelista A., Raffi G.B., Caudarella R.
Electron microscopic features of renal changes in chronic lead poisoning
Aspetti in microscopia elettronica delle alterazioni renali in corso di intossicazione cronica da piombo [in Italian]
Ultrastructural analysis of renal biopsy specimens in 8 patients with chronic lead poisoning after 6-17 years' exposure showed degenerative and regenerative changes and metabolic hyperactivity. The findings confirm that lead nephropathy has an extremely slow evolution.
Lavoro umano, Nov. 1977, Vol.29, No.6, p.179-187. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 78-796 Bridbord K., Blejer H.P.
Prophylactic chelation therapy in occupational lead poisoning - A review.
This article both reviews the literature and takes a critical look at the findings in this field. Prophylactic use of chelation agents, particularly when exposure to lead continues, can cause kidney damage and other effects, which are listed with the appropriate reference. Conclusion: prophylactic chelation is an unacceptable medical practice which cannot be condoned.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1977, Vol.38, No.10, p.536-542. 30 ref.

CIS 78-156 Shiroishi K., Kjellström T., Kubota K., Evrin P.E., Anayama M., Vesterberg O., Shimada T., Piscator M., Iwata T., Nishino H.
Urine analysis for detection of cadmium-induced renal changes, with special reference to β2-microglobulin.
An analysis of total protein β2-microglobulin, glucose, and cadmium was performed on urine samples from people with Itai-itai disease and glomerular kidney disease, as well as on samples from a reference group. The use of 3 different methods of electrophoresis of urine proteins verified that the proteinuria in Itai-itai disease is tubular. On an average, urinary β2-microglobulin excretion among Itai-itai disease patients was 100-300 times higher than among the reference group, whereas total protein excretions was only 7-17 times higher. In a group of women with different degrees of cadmium exposure urinary excretion of proteins was evaluated with qualitative determination of protein, electrophoresis, and radioimmunoassay of β2-microglobulin. At slightly elevated β2-microglobulin excretion the first two methods gave negative results and it was concluded that radioimmunoassay of β2-microglobulin in urine is a sensitive indicator of cadmium-induced proteinuria.
Environmental Research, June 1977, Vol.13, No.3, p.407-424. 37 ref.

CIS 78-151 Ehrenreich T., Yunis S.L., Churg J.
Membranous nephropathy following exposure to volatile hydrocarbons.
Case histories and exposure experiences. Membranous nephropathy was observed in 4 male workers from different occupations (photographic film research laboratory, plastics industry, gyroscope assembly plant), following exposure of 2, 11, 18, and 20 years, respectively, to various organic solvents used either in the production process or for cleaning. One of them died. There was respiratory as well as cutaneous absorption. It was impossible to identify the causative agent among the numerous solvents to which the individuals were exposed. The causal relationship between membranous nephropathy and solvent exposure is suggested. Although the mechanism of production of membrabous nephropathy in these cases is not known, an indirect immunological process mediated by endogenous tubular antigen is suggested. Exposed individuals may have proteinuria for long periods before onset of overt manifestations. Examination for proteinuria is a simple method of screening in these cases.
Environmental Research, Aug. 1977, Vol.14, No.1, p.35-45. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 77-1999 Garçon J.A.
Experimental renal polycystic disease induced by diphenylamine - Aetiopathogenic discussion
Polykystose expérimentale du rein par la diphénylamine - Discussion étiopathogénique. [in French]
In this MD thesis, industrial toxins which might give rise to polycystic kidney were sought, with reference to possible detection measures. A definition of polycystic kidney and discussion of the aetiopathogenic aspects is followed by a report of studies in rats and guinea-pigs given diphenylamine (DPA), a product used in agriculture and industry. It appears that prolonged occupational exposure to DPA can give rise to renal and hepatic lesions, and an abortion hazard in pregnant women. Regular determination of 4-hydroxydiphenylamine in the 24-hour urine is recommended.
Université René Descartes, Faculté de médecine Cochin - Port-Royal, Paris, France, 1977. 59p. Illus. 97 ref.

CIS 77-1626 Kjellström T., Evrin P.E., Rahnster B.
Dose-response analysis of cadmium-induced tubular proteinuria - A study of urinary β2-microglobulin excretion among workers in a battery factory.
The study covered 240 male and female workers exposed to cadmium oxide and nickel hydroxide dust in a Swedish battery factory. The control group comprised 87 unexposed males. Air samples from the plant showed the present exposure level to be about 50µg Cd/m3 air. Cadmium-induced effects were studied by measuring urinary β2-microglobulin excretion. Urinary β2-microglobulin concentration followed a log-normal distribution in the reference group with a geometric mean of 84µg/liter (adjusted to a specific gravity of 1.023). In the group of 185 persons continuously exposed to cadmium dust in the work environment, the prevalence of excess urinary β2-microglobulin excretion increased with employment time. The prevalance was 19% for the workers with 6-12 years of exposure to about 50µg Cd/m3 as compared to 3% for those in the reference group. Smokers had about 3 times higher prevalence than non smokers.
Environmental Research, Apr. 1977, Vol.13, No.2, p.303-317. 21 ref.

CIS 77-1026 Stewart W.K., Guirgis H.A., Sanderson J., Taylor W.
Urinary mercury excretion and proteinuria in pathology laboratory staff.
Studies in the laboratory staff of 3 hospitals using formol-corrosive solution (a mixture of formaldehyde and mercuric chloride) as fixative. Atmospheric concentrations of mercury vapour were up to 0.5nmol/l, and of total Hg up to 1.0nmol/l. Exposed workers had high urinary Hg levels (median 265nmol/24h) and protein outputs (median 117mg/24h). Control measures, ventilation and careful handling of solutions reduced atmospheric mercury to acceptable limits, with corresponding clinical effects.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1977, Vol.34, No.1, p.26-31. Illus. 26 ref.


CIS 77-2000 Guerrero J.
Role of organic solvents in the causation of glomerular nephropathy in man
Contribution à l'étude du rôle des solvants organiques dans la genèse des néphropathies glomérulaires humaines. [in French]
This MD thesis reports studies at a nephrology department in 108 patients with glomerulopathies classified according to the results of renal biopsy. Exposure to volatile chemicals (chiefly solvents) was significantly greater than in 54 controls (62% vs 28%). Present knowledge of glomerulopathy, especially immunological theories, is reviewed, and possible pathogenetic mechanisms discussed. The hypotheses remain to be confirmed experimentally. A chapter is devoted to prevention, including the need for subjects with glomerulopathy to avoid contact with the causative agent.
Université de Paris Val-de-Marne, Faculté de médecine de Créteil, Créteil, France, 1976. 60p. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 77-1985 Clayson D.B.
Occupational bladder cancer.
This review covers epidemiological studies in the chemical industry, rubber industry and other occupations (gas retort house workers, Japanese Kimono painters, textile workers, hairdressers, metal workers, etc.); experimental aspects; surveillance of exposed workers; and control measures (prohibition of manufacture and use, regulation). 4-Aminobiphenyl, 2-naphthylamine, benzidine, 1-naphthylamine, 4-nitrobiphenyl, auramine and magenta are responsible for or associated with bladder cancer in man.
Preventive Medicine, 1976, Vol.5, p.228-244. Illus. 59 ref. [in Spanish]

CIS 77-1686 Lagrue G., Kamalodine T., Guerrero J., Zhepova F., Bernaudin J.F.
Glomerular nephropathy and inhalation of toxic substances
Néphropathies glomérulaires primitives et inhalations de substances toxiques. [in French]
Studies in 108 subjects with various forms of glomerulonephritis, and 54 controls. Taking Beirne's work as basis, the authors sought contact with organic solvents, paints, varnishes and glues, petroleum and petroleum products, cutting oils, agricultural products, detergents, etc. Of the glomerulonephritic subjects, 62% reported inhalation of chemicals (28% of controls); levels of exposure were 6.2 and 3.9 on Beirne's scale, respectively. Classification of incriminated toxins by frequency of occurrence. While involvement of these agents is documented, their action appears to be indirect. Hypotheses are put forward.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, Oct.-Nov. 1976, Vol.37, No.10-11, p.779-785. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 77-1100 Kolonel L.N.
Association of cadmium with renal cancer.
64 cases of renal cancer were compared in terms of occupation, smoking habits and diet with 2 control groups (colon cancer; non-cancerous gastrointestinal disease). Only occupation showed a statistically significant higher incidence of renal cancer. There appeared to be a synergistic effect between occupational exposure to cadmium and smoking. Discussion.
Cancer, Apr. 1976, Vol.37, No.4, p.1782-1787. 31 ref.

CIS 77-1041 Kurljandskij B.A., Medvedovskij A.G., Genin V.A., Voronin V.M., Mašbic F.D.
Experimental study of combined effects of some diphenyl amine derivatives regarding prevention of occupational bladder tumours.
Ėksperimental'noe izučenie kombinirovannogo dejstvija nekotoryh aminoproizvodnyh difenila s cel'ju profilaktiki professional'nyh novoobrazovanij močevogo puzyrja [in Russian]
Workers engaged in production of dyes based on diphenyl amine derivatives (benzidine and dianisidine sulfates) can be exposed to hydrazobenzene, benzidine and dianisidine, all known carcinogens. Studies in rats showed that these compounds have a syngergistic carcinogenic effect. It was therefore decided to segregate benzidine and dianisidine production, and to take other measures to safeguard the health and safety of workers liable to exposure.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, May 1976, No.5, p.34-38. 14 ref.

CIS 77-995 Savvidi H.K., Saakadze V.P., Kurašvili M.E.
Depression of renal function in workers exposed to high temperatures
Sostojanie parcial'nyh funkcij poček u rabočih, nahodjaščihsja pod vozdejstviem vysokoj temperatury [in Russian]
Results of renal function tests in 80 workers exposed to heat at an open-hearth furnace steelworks and a tube rolling shop, and 30 workers not exposed to heat. The exposed workers, especially those with more than 6 years' employment, showed reduced glomerular filtration and renal blood flow. The disorders are attributed to extrarenal water and electrolyte (especially sodium) losses, haemoconcentration and the resulting haemodynamic disturbances in the kidney.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Mar. 1976, No.3, p.29-31. 7 ref.

CIS 77-1016 Bernard A., Roels H., Hubermont G., Buchet J.P., Masson P.L., Lauwerys R.R.
Characterization of the proteinuria in cadmium-exposed workers.
The concentration of several proteins and of total amino acids was determined in the urine of 18 cadmium-exposed workers (averge exposure 28 years) and controls. The results were compared with the electrophoretic pattern of urinary proteins on agarose gel. The previous observation was confirmed that in the majority of cadmium-exposed workers with an abnormal electrophoretic pattern or increased total proteinuria, not only low-molecular-weight proteins (β2-microglobulin) but also high-molecular-weight proteins (albumin, transferrin) are excreted in greater amounts. Proteinuria is more closely related to the concentrations of albumin and orosomucoid than that of β2-microglobulin. The change in the total amino acid concentration in urine was less marked than that of protein. Determination of low- and high-molecular-weight proteins is recommended for detecting renal damage due to cadmium.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 21 Oct. 1976, Vol.38, No.1, p.19-30. 14 ref.

CIS 77-849 Tumours of the bladder in the chemical industry - A study of their cause and prevention.
This booklet contains historical information on bladder tumours in the dye industry. Progress and present knowledge are described for: 2-naphthylamine; benzidine and its salts; 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine, m- and 0-tolidine, dianisidine and their salts; 4-amino- and 4-nitrobiphenyl; 1-naphthylamine; auramine and magenta; methylenebis(o-chloroaniline); and other related suspected carcinogens. Industrial methods for dealing with the problem, and British, USA and USSR regulations and the ILO Convention and Recommendation on the control and prevention of occupational hazards caused by carcinogenic substances and agents, 1974, are discussed. The appendices contain names of the commmittees, a list of prescribed diseases and the Carcinogenic Substances Regulations, 1967.
Chemical Industries Association Ltd., Alembic House, 93 Albert Embankment, London SE1 7TU, United Kingdom, Feb. 1976. 39p. 107 ref.

CIS 77-730 Vesterberg O., Nise G., Hansén L.
Urinary proteins in occupational exposure to chemicals and in diseases.
The advantages of isoelectric focusing over standard methods of analysis of urinary proteins are pointed out. The version of the method used allows study of up to 25 samples on each thin-layer polyacrylamide gel. Separation takes about 1h. A sensitive staining procedure permits detection of 0.1µg protein in each zone, of which more than 20 may sometimes be separated. Evaluation is done by densitometry and classification of patterns.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, July 1976, Vol.18, No.7, p.473-476. Illus. 16 ref.

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