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Health and safety: Nuclear establishments - 1975-76.
First report of H.M. Nuclear Installations Inspectorate, covering the period 1975-1976. Chapters are devoted, inter alia, to: organisation of the Nuclear Safety Advisory Committee; basic safety policy; siting and control of development around nuclear installations; safety assessment and inspection of licensed installations; criteria for safety assessment of nuclear power plants; extramural work and consultancies; international liaison; standards and codes of practice; magnox reactors; advanced gas-cooled reactors; steam generating heavy water moderated reactors; fast reactors; light water reactors; nuclear merchant ships; fuel manufacturing and reprocessing plants; radioisotope manufacturing plants, etc.; exposure of workers to ionising radiations. Appendices: regulatory requirements; number of establishments of various types using ionising radiations; organisation of the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate.
Health and Safety Executive, London. H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London SE1 9NH, United Kingdom, 1978. 28p. Illus. Price: £1.15.
Health and Safety Executive, London.
Report by the Health and Safety Commission on the hazards of conventional sources of energy
Definitions: in this report "energy" means all sources of energy including coal, gas, oil and water power; "power production" means the use of energy sources to produce electricity. Contents: the energy industry: relative scale and accident performance (more than 50 fatal accidents in a typical year, as compared to 450 in all industries and 170 in the construction industry); role of the industries and of the Health and Safety Commission and advisory committees; legislative control and enforcement; the energy industry and its occupational hazards; coal extraction (open-cast and underground); oil and gas extraction; hydro-electric power; fuel preparation and storage; electricity generation; flooding; tip slides; emergency plans (LPG, chlorine, oil); heavy metals and other pollutants, etc.
H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London SE1 9NH, United Kingdom, 1978. 30p. Illus. 27 ref. Price: £1.00.
Bekanntmachung, Federal Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs (Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Sozialordnung), Bonn, 29 Sep. 1977.
Ministerial technical rules and guidelines on the High-pressure Gas Piping Ordinance
Technische Regeln und Richtlinien des BMA zur Verordnung über Gashochdruckleitungen [in German]
June 1977 edition of the technical rules issued in pursuance of the Ordinance of 17 Dec. 1974 (CIS 75-1543): TRGL 004 - List of standards, important data sheets, etc.; TRGL 121 - design and construction; TRGL 132 - constituent materials, production and testing of pipework; TRGL 151 - construction, welding and installation work; TRGL 161 - supervision of construction, welding and installation work; TRGL 195 - maintenance work.
Arbeitsschutz, Nov. 1977, No.11, p.328-332.
Federation of Industrial Mutual Accident Insurance Associations (Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften), Bonn, 18 Aug. 1977.
Thermal power stations
Wärmekraftwerke [in German]
These safety regulations, which apply to heat generators using solid, liquid, gaseous or nuclear fuel, with a capacity of 40GJ/h, and ancillary installations, contain provisions concerning: coal feed installations, operation and maintenance of piping for hot fluids under pressure, entry into furnace rooms of steam generators, removal of ashes, testing of thermal power stations and starting up operation. Supplement: more detailed rules for application of the regulations; comments.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Gereonstrasse 18-32, 5000 Köln 1, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 1977. 9+7p. Price: DM.1.20.
Vologdin Ja.I., Kartašev G.I.
Safety techniques in petroleum and gas industry plant construction
Tehnika bezopasnosti pri stroitel'stve ob"ektov neftjanoj i gazovoj promyšlennosti [in Russian]
Contents of this manual, which covers the construction of industrial plant and buildings, storage tanks, and oil and gas pipelines: organisation of occupational safety and health, and workers' welfare; electrical safety; lifting and handling equipment; loading, unloading and transport of materials; preparatory work; earthmoving (trench shoring, work in winter, etc.); building construction (ladders, scaffolding, etc.); welding and cutting; erection and assembly of engineering plant and equipment; laying of oil and gas pipelines; development work. Appendices: model permit-to-work form; list of hazardous operations; first-aid rules; miscellaneous safety standards.
Izdatel'stvo "Nedra", Tret'jakovskij per. 1/19, 103633 Moskva K-12, USSR, 1977. 280p. Illus. 15 ref. Price: Rbl.1.11.
Welding of pressure vessels and tubes in nuclear power plants
Svetsning av tryckkärl och tryckbärande rörledningar i kärnkraftverk [in Swedish]
These directives (entry into force: 1 Oct. 1977) concern the quality of welding of pressure vessels and tubes, and their components. They set out rules for the choice of welding and inspection methods, welders' skills and training, and required examinations on training received. Contents: basic rules (automatic welding of tubes, welding on-site or in a welding shop); supplementary examination for fabrication welders; non-destructive testing; follow-up training examination for welders. Appended: visual inspection; placing of film for X-ray inspection; length of film in relation to tube diameter.
Meddelanden 1977:16, National Board of Occupational Safety and Health (Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen), Fack, 100 26 Stockholm 34, Sweden, 29 Aug. 1977. 11p. Illus. Gratis.
Decoufle P., Lloyd J.W., Salvin L.G.
Mortality by cause among stationary engineers and stationary firemen.
Stationary engineers operate and maintain equipment for power generation, heating, etc., while stationary firemen (boiler firemen) are mainly involved in operation and maintenance of steam boilers. Causes of death of 1,113 such workers were analysed. Deaths from cancer of the buccal cavity and pharynx and cancer of the rectum were twice as common as predicted, and lung cancer deaths 20% higher than predicted. Mortality from coronary heart disease was high. The relations between these findings and substances to which the workers are exposed are discussed.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1977, Vol.19, No.10, p.679-682. 20 ref.
Montes Mayorga M.
Technical measures for protection against hearing damage
Prevención técnica del trauma sonoro [in Spanish]
A brief analysis of the Spanish regulations, 1949, concerning electric power stations (which fix, inter alia, a maximum permissible sound pressure level of 60dB for generating plant) and the Occupational Safety and Health Ordinance, 1971, is followed by critical comments on the law in force at present, especially with regard to mandatory requirements and conditions for noise level measurement and the measuring methods prescribed, which the author critically compares with more recent criteria (ISO international standard R/1899 and the United States Occupational Safety and Health Act, 1970). Various practical solutions to noise control problems in existing power stations are proposed: personal protective equipment (hearing protectors), compliance with hearing protection standards, job rotation for workers in posts involving exposure to noise) and in projects for future power stations (safety by design). Detailed tables give the maximum allowable sound pressure levels for rotating electrical machines.
Salud y trabajo, Oct. 1977, No.9, p.12-15.
Deubner D.C., Gilliam D.K.
Fever of undertermined etiology after cleaning of steam turbine condensers.
Two outbreaks of a febrile syndrome marked by chills, headache, myalgia, nausea, and malaise occurred in workers who had cleaned the steam condensers of electric power turbines. Mean incubation period was 38h. 22 of 23 exposed men became ill. Clinical and environmental investigation failed to reveal the aetiology of the outbreaks. The circumstances and clinical syndrome have points of similarity to fever following inhalation of metal fumes and certain cotton dusts, and to Pontiac fever. It is thought that the symptoms were caused by inhalation of an unidentified toxin-producing microorganism.
Archives of Environmental Health, May-June 1977, Vol.32, No.3, p.116-120. Illus. 4 ref.
Flame arresters - Insure their protection.
Flame arresters and their use are described. Proper installation, preventive maintenance and testing equipment are discussed. The safety precautions, equipment needed, field test procedure, an alternate method, necessity for testing and checking, and the seller's warranty are detailed.
Professional Safety, Feb. 1977, Vol.22, No.2, p.44-47. Illus. 3 ref.
Miller M.H., Doyle T.J., Mellard T.J.
Audiometric and audiologic services for noise exposed workers.
Over 12,000 employees involved in production and distribution of electric power, gas and steam are part of a hearing conservation programme described in this article. The tests and services are provided by the company with the cooperation of an academic institution which supplies the personnel for the tests and interpretations. The required periodic examinations are given by using automatic audiometers, and necessary follow-up tests (speech audiometry, tone decay, loudness balance) are given manually. Use of personal hearing protection is stressed as part of the test results. Problems are referred to medical centres. In addition, these procedures have turned up conditions, which were then treated, not associated with chronic noise exposure. The programme also enables students to prepare for industrial situations with several types of practical experience.
Sound and Vibration, Jan. 1977, Vol.11, No.1, p.22-24. Illus.
Near-miss at Browns Ferry - A brush with nuclear catastrophe.
Description of a fire in a nuclear power plant in the USA. To protect employees and the vicinity from radioactivity a vacuum was maintained in the reactor and reactor building, thus preventing radioactivity from escaping in case of leakage. Cables and wires from the reactor to the control room passed through holes in the concrete wall, sealed airtight. Workers checking for air leaks in the wall held lighted candles to the holes through which the cables passed. If the airtight seal had broken they would pack polyurethane foam into the hole. On finding a leak they packed it with foam, but not tightly enough. When they again held the candle to the hole the vacuum sucked the flame into the hole and the foam ignited, spreading to the cables. The damage to the cables resulted in false information being conveyed to the control room (e.g. indicating that some emergency systems had started up when in fact they had not). Systems continued to fail one by one and the reactor had to be shut down. The article analyses why the chain of events lead to a near-catastrophe (faulty equipment, lack of preparedness, inadequate maintenance, faulty methods, etc.).
Occupational Hazards, Oct. 1976, Vol.37, No.11, p.36-38, Illus.
Cancer as a factor of mortality in town gas workers
Krebs als Todesursache bei Beschäftigten der Gasindustrie [in German]
This research report is a retrospective analysis of causes of death among town gas workers and in some control industries (970 deaths between 1953 and 1972): population and methodology; relation between certain causes of death and smoking habits or type and duration of exposure; morphological aspects. A higher rate of mortality due to cancer of the respiratory or urinary tract was noted particularly in workers at the coke oven batteries and coal tar processing installations. The relation between the type of workpost and the occurrence of cancer was statistically very significant. 1 in 6 of the exposed workers died from cancer of the respiratory tract, compared to 1 in 16 among non-exposed persons. An average of 30-35 years elapsed between commencement of exposure and death due to cancer of the respiratory or urinary tract. Analysis of the results in the light of other research.
Forschungsbericht Nr. 151, Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Unfallforschung, Martener Strasse 435, 4600 Dortmund-Marten, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 1976. 119p. Illus. 84 ref.
Ševčenko N.F., Arnopolin A.G., Mel'nik G.I., Begali S.V., Alekseenko L.I.
Explosion-proof electrical equipment for the petroleum and gas industries
Vzryvozaščiščennoe ėlektrooborudovanie dlja neftjanoj i gazovoj promyšlennosti [in Russian]
Contents of this practical handbook: classification and labelling of explosion-proof electrical equipment of Soviet manufacture; asynchronous and synchonous electric motors, electric valve actuators and pump sets; starting and regulating gear, electric control and signal elements; measurement and monitoring equipment; automation devices; lighting equipment; advice on assembly and use of electrical equipment designed for explosive atmospheres.
Izdatel'stvo "Nedra", Tret'jakovskij proezd 1/19, 193633 Moskva K-12, USSR, 1976. 183p. Illus. 22 ref. Price: Rbl.0.58.
A comparison of the observed and the expected cancers of the haematopoietic and lymphatic systems among workers at Windscale: A first report.
This study relates to currently employed workers at Windscale nuclear power plant. The observed number of all haematopoietic and lymphatic cancers among the populaton at risk was not significantly different from the number expected.
NRPB-R54, National Radiological Protection Board, Harwell, Didcot, Oxford 0811 ORQ, United Kingdom, Dec. 1976. 14p. 15 ref. Price: £0.50.
Determination of exposure to electric fields in extra high voltage substations.
Electrophysical effects related to extra high voltage (130-800kV) were surveyed to determine personnel exposure to electric fields. The electric field strengths and electric discharges to personnel were the important electrophysical factors. Instruments for measuring the field strength at grounded surfaces and at nonzero potentials were constructed. A dummy was used for measuring the distribution of capacitive currents to a person. The dummy can also be used to measure the effectiveness of special shielding clothes.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Sep. 1976, Vol.2, No.3, p.190-198. Illus. 17 ref.
Manz A., Siemsen C.H., Opp J.
Carbon monoxide content of the workplace atmosphere at gas-producing ovens
Kohlenmonoxidgehalt der Arbeitsatmosphäre am Gaserzeugungsofen [in German]
The CO concentrations at the oven batteries of coking plants were measured, with particular attention to gas leaks from the chamber. At the top of the ovens the level is normally 10ppm; during filling, concentrations of up to 350ppm can occur, and up to 1,200ppm inside the resulting fume clouds. Various factors increasing or reducing the risk of acute poisoning are referred to. Under normal conditions respiratory protection is not considered necessary.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Prophylaxe, Jan. 1976, Vol.26, No.1, p.10-15. 14 ref.
Cancer of the urinary tract in town gas workers
Harnwegskarzinome bei Beschäftigten der Gasindustrie [in German]
Statistical analysis of causes of death among personnel of a domestic gasworks of a large town showed a high rate of urinary tract carcinoma (in particular, 7 cases of hypernephroid carcinoma) in furnace battery and pipe distribution system workers. The author believes the causative agents to be substances contained in tar, in particular beta-naphthylamine. Average exposure was calculated to be 21 years, latency period 10.4 years and age at death, 65.9 years. Surgical treatment was successful where diagnosis was sufficiently early. The article stresses the importance of preventive measures, personal hygiene and periodic check-ups after cessation of occupational exposure.
Münchener medizinische Wochenschrift, 1976, Vol.118, No.3, p.65-68. 22 ref.
Operational safety aspects of nuclear facilities.
The U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) Division of Operational Safety has developed a comprehensive system safety programme for nuclear energy installations. The unique features include separation of management and staff responsibilities, clear definition of responsibilities in the line organisation and a clause in all ERDA contracts concerning safety and health of workers and public. The Management Oversight and Risk Tree (MORT) programme (a dynamic system model and methodology for implementation of safety elements to reduce accident rates) has been tested and is in operation with ERDA contractors. In addition, an accident investigation training programme for government and contractor employees is in operation. Instruction is given in analytical techniques, investigative methods, witness interviewing, preservation of evidence, actual investigation exercises and various other investigation subjects.
Professional Safety, May 1976, Vol.21, No.5, p.34-35. 3 ref.
Influence of noise on the peripheral vascular reaction and role of autonomic reflexes
Influence du bruit sur la réaction des vaisseaux sanguins périphériques et rôle des réflexes végétatifs. [in French]
Report submitted to the 8th International Congress on Noise (Basle, Switzerland, June 1974). The author describes experiments carried out in 10 healthy subjects aged 20-25 years, employed in a hydroelectric power station, who underwent laboratory noise tests (110-125dB with 131dB peaks), with predominant low-frequency sound (i.e. conditions resembling those encountered in their work). Plethysmographic and ECG recordings were taken and blood pressure was measured before and during exposure. The pulse became much less perceptible on exposure to intense noise; this was taken as evidence of considerable contraction of the peripheral blood vessels of the upper limbs. Data in the literature indicating changes in P and T waves of the ECG and those of the S-T segments, were not confirmed. Contrary to the findings of previous authors, this article reports minimal, or absence of, effects of noise on arterial blood pressure, but confirms previous reports that intense autonomic reflexes are more frequently found in socially maladjusted subjects.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, Oct.-Nov. 1975, Vol.36, No.10-11, p.577-583. Illus. 11 ref.
Safety symbols and posters for energy production and distribution plants
Znaki i plakaty bezopasnosti dlja ėnergetičeskih ustanovok [in Russian]
Description and reproduction of a number of symbols and posters (prohibitive, warning, informative, indicative (of correct procedures), etc.). Shapes, colour schemes and symbols used are mostly in conformity with conventional international usage or standards.
Ėnergetik, Nov. 1975, No.11, p.14-16, Illus.
Commission on Reactor Safety (Commissie Reactorveiligheid), Voorburg, Sep. 1975.
Report on safety aspects of the fissionable material cycle in the Netherlands
Advies over de veiligheidsaspecten van de splijtstofcyclus in Nederland [in Dutch]
Contents of the report: present situation in the Netherlands as regards use of nuclear energy; inspection of nuclear plants; nuclear reactors (description of principal types, safety (basic principles and guidelines), built-in safety, classification of accidents); other stages in the nuclear fuel cycle (enrichment, manufacture and transport of fuel elements); protection of nuclear power plant personnel; physical protection of nuclear power plants and fuel; conclusions and recommendations (only light-water cooled nuclear power reactors should be used; transformation of fissionable materials should not be permitted in the Netherlands, etc.).
Directoraat-Generaal van de Arbeid, Postbus 69, Voorburg, Netherlands, 1975. 210p. Illus. 87 ref. Gratis.
Civolani O., Fassò A., Lembo L., Tagliati S.
Manual on criticality dosimetry
Manuale per la dosimetria di criticità [in Italian]
Some 40 criticality accidents have occurred to date in the world, although relatively few since 1960. This manual is a guide to ambient and personal dosimetric measurement in the event of such an accident. After an introduction defining criticality accidents and giving their characteristics, with considerations governing the choice of ambient and personal dosimetry systems, sections are devoted to the ambient and personal dosimeters used at the Italian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) Centres; standardised systems for measurement with activation detectors; steps to be taken in the event of accident; assessment of the absorbed dose. Numerous appendices: personal data form, aids to calculation, tables, formulae, etc.
Comitato Nazionale Energia Nucleare, 125 viale Regina Margherita, Roma, Italy, Dec. 1975. 109p. Illus. 11 ref.
Safe work with gas installations used in iron and steel plants
Tehnika bezopasnosti v gazovom hozjajstve metallurgičeskih zavodov [in Russian]
Contents of this manual: properties of combustible gases; theory of gas ignition and explosion; safety rules to be observed in the planning and design of gas installations; work involving gas explosion hazard in coking plants, blast furnaces, gasworks, steelworks and rolling mills; causes of gas explosions and prevention.
Izdatel'stvo "Metallurgija", 2-j Obydenskij per. 14, 119034 Moskva G-34, USSR, 2nd edition, 1975. 247p. Illus. 21 ref. Price: Rbl.0.80.
Irion H., Legler U.
Audiometric examinations of noise-exposed workers to determine progression of noise-induced hearing loss
Audiologische Untersuchungen an Lärmarbeitern zur Progredienz der Lärmschwerhörigkeit [in German]
Literature survey of the pathogenesis and clinical aspects of noise-induced hearing loss; description of audiometric examinations in 1,129 workers at a power station, with details of the noise exposure at the workplace (60-100dB(A)), and comparison with earlier results. A significant relation was found between hearing loss at 4,000Hz and the rating level at the workplace. Even after more than 20 years' exposure, tone audiometry still showed progression of hearing impairment. It is supposed that the "saturation phase" is longer for the sound levels recorded at the power station, which are as a whole lower than those noted in other studies. Speech audiometry yields no information on the evolution of deafness in time, but only on the ability to comprehend spoken messages.
Forschungsbericht Nr.134, Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Unfallforschung, Postfach, 46 Dortmund-Marten, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 1975. 210p. Illus. 298 ref.
Lighting outdoor locations of electric generating stations.
These recommendations deal with the lighting requirements of outdoor installations and areas in hydroelectric power plants, pumped-storage stations, fossil-fuel plants and nuclear power stations. A table lists the levels of illumination recommended for various areas and tasks; these range from 2 to 54lx. Advice is also given on lighting techniques, lighting control and emergency lighting.
Journal of the Illuminating Engineering Society, Electric Generating Stations Subcommittee, Illuminating Engineering Society, New York, Jan. 1975. New York, USA, Apr. 1975, Vol.4, No.3, p.220-228. Illus. 7 ref.
Gas transmission and distribution piping systems.
This Code covers the design, fabrication, installation, inspection, testing, and the safety aspects of operation and maintenance of gas transmission and distribution systems, including gas pipelines, gas compressor stations, gas metering and regulating stations, gas mains, and service lines up to the outlet of the customer's meter set assembly. Definitions (with index) of piping systems and components are followed by chapters devoted to: materials and equipment; welding; piping system components and fabrication details; design, installation and testing; operating and maintenance procedures; corrosion control; miscellaneous. Appendices: list of material specifications approved, extruded headers, examples illustrating the application of the rules for reinforcement of welded branch connections, etc. General index.
ANSI B31.8-1975, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 345 East 47th Street, New York, N.Y. 10017, USA. Standard approved on 6 Mar. 1975. 118p. Illus. 99 ref. Price US-$15.00.
Ministry of Labour (Ministère du travail), Paris.
Decree No.75-112 of 19 February 1975 to give effect to Book II of the Labour Code (Title III): protection of workers against electrical hazards in electric generating stations inspected under the authority of the Minister responsible for electrical energy, and in transformer stations
Décret n°75-112 du 19 février 1975 pris pour l'exécution du livre II du code du travail (titre III): protection des travailleurs contre les dangers d'origine électrique dans les ouvrages de production d'énergie électrique et dans les ouvrages de transformation. [in French]
This Decree contains provisions concerning: all work performed in or on electrical installations (prescribed skills, proficiency, qualifications and duties of workers, informing workers of hazards, etc.); work on disconnected installations (disconnection, isolation of sector on which work is to be carried out, checking for voltage, earthing and short-circuiting of conductors, reconnection); "live" work (qualifications, proficiency, training and equipment of personnel, observance of safety instructions); precautions to be taken after accidents; work near live installations.
Journal officiel de la République française, 28 Feb. 1975, Vol.107, No.50, p.2333-2335.
Fluid-dynamic noise sources at power plants: Noise production - Noise protection
Strömungstechnische Lärmquellen in Kraftwerken: Schallentstehung - Schallschutz [in German]
The author provides several examples to demonstrate the need to control noise from fluid-dynamic sources in power plants (steam turbines; gas turbines; boiler feed pumps; electric motors; fans, blowers, compressors; transformers; cooling towers; steam converters; pressure reducers; safety valves; pipes and fittings). The advantages and disadvantages of primary and secondary noise protection measures are compared. Primary noise protection requires understanding of the mechanism of noise production. Fluid-dynamic noise production is reviewed, and examples of control measures and application of the model technique to the solution of noise problems in power plants are discussed.
IHZ-WK-74-24, Ingenieurhochschule Zittau, Theodor-Körner-Allee, 88 Zittau, German Democratic Republic, Nov. 1974. 35p. Illus. 5 ref.
National fuel gas code.
This first edition of the Code, representing an augmented edition of NFPA No.54-1969, was co-sponsored by the American Gas Association, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and the National Fire Protection Association, and was approved on 4 June 1974 as American National Standard ANSI Z223.1-1974. It offers general criteria for the installation, operation and maintenance of gas piping and gas equipment. Part 1 is concerned with non-industrial and Part 2 with industrial and certain other premises. The latter has sections devoted to: general safety precautions; sizing of gas piping systems; installation of consumer-owned gas meters and regulators; installation of gas equipment; initial operation of gas equipment; maintenance of gas equipment; definitions; informative appendices (gas equipment design, construction and maintenance; special meter piping; tables for pipe sizing; list of standards, codes, specifications and regulations).
NFPA No.54-1974. National Fire Protection Association, 470 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02210, USA, 1974. 161p. Illus. Price: US-$3.00.
Schofield G.B., Dolphin G.W.
U.K. experience on the medical aspects of radiological protection of workers handling plutonium.
After a review of the physical and biological properties of plutonium, pathology (experimental and human), and current radiological protection standards, this article deals with the control of human exposure, therapeutic measures, body content assessment (nose-blowing, urinary excretion, chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes) and autopsy findings, sickness absence and cancer deaths. No disease attributable to plutonium toxicity has been diagnosed in either the USA or the United Kingdom in any worker concerned with the production or manipulation of plutonium, but the highest priority must still be given to good plant design and safe working conditions in the nuclear energy industry.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Dec. 1974, Vol.17, No.2, p.73-83. 13 ref.
Ventilation of underground excavations
Ventilation des ouvrages souterrains. [in French]
This article enumerates some of the principles applying to the ventilation of large undergound excavations, and gives an example of the application of these principles during the preparatory work for the construction of an underground hydroelectric power station; general features of the site; how the work progressed; installation of a ventilation system and subsequent modifications as the project progressed.
Cahiers des Comités de prévention du bâtiment et des travaux publics, Jan.-Feb. 1974, No.1, p.4-14. Illus.
Ministry of Economy and Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs (Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Sozialordnung), Bonn.
High-pressure Gas Piping Ordinance, of 17 Dec. 1974
Verordnung über Gashochdruckleitungen [in German]
This Ordinance, which entered into force on 1 Jan. 1975, applies to the installation and operation of pipe systems for gas at a pressure lower than 16 bars for public mains distribution and for industrial use, and which constitute a potential hazard for workers employed in their vicinity. These pipe systems should be installed and operated in conformity with specifications contained in the schedule to the ordinance or according to recognised engineering procedures. Provisions concerning: prior notice of intention to lay or install pipe systems or commence using them; prohibition of use of systems; inspection and maintenance; shutting down and disuse of pipe systems; notification of accidents and dangerous incidents; experts; committee on high-pressure gas mains. The schedule contains rules for laying underground gas piping, protection against corrosion, safety devices against overpressure, pressure-monitoring devices, detectors for leakage.
Bundesgesetzblatt, Teil I, Bonn, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 20 Dec. 1974, No.138, p.3591-3595.
Evaluation of radiation emergencies and accidents - Selected criteria and data.
This manual is intended to provide a convenient reference to criteria and data which would be useful in evaluating the consequences of radiation emergencies and accidents. The data refer to: method of estimating environmental hazards from airborne releases; emergency dose assessment; controlling radioactive contamination; instrumentation, measurement and protection factors; miscellaneous data on radiation shielding; conversion factors; rules of thumb. They consist mainly of figures, nomograms and tables compiled from various sources. Particular attention is paid to the special needs of developing countries.
Technical Reports Series No.152, International Atomic Energy Agency, Kärntner Ring 11, Postfach 590, 1011 Wien, Austria, 1974. 136p. Illus. 43 ref. Price: US-$6.00.
The new safety regulations "Work on Gas Mains" from the construction engineer's point of view
Die neue Unfallverhütungsvorschrift "Arbeiten an Gasleitungen" aus der Sicht des Bauingenieurs [in German]
A review of the problems to be solved and methods to be followed in unearthing old mains and replacing them by new ones: mechanical trench digging, shoring, closing of site to traffic, alertness to possible presence of old mains systems no longer in use, precautions against sparking, use of mains-laying equipment incorporating safety features.
Die Berufsgenossenschaft, Sep. 1974, No.9, p.374-379.
Luceau P., Deluc R.A.
Harnessing the Golfech falls
L'aménagement de la chute de Golfech. [in French]
Detailed description of the worksites (dam, head and tail races, powerhouses, traffic ways, etc.) and of the safety measures taken in the construction of an important river hydroelectric power generation plant in the south of France. The effort to integrate safety into the various tasks was rewarded by an extremely low accident rate for the project as a whole and by large refunds on the insurance premiums paid by the contractors.
Cahiers des Comités de prévention du bâtiment et des travaux publics, May-June 1974, No.3, p.117-125 and 135-136. Illus.
Occupational noise exposure problem areas in power plants.
Procedures and equipment used successfully in a power plant to establish compliance with occupational noise regulations are described: A-scale survey of the plant, personnel exposure, identification and characterisation of sound sources. Noise levels of typical power plant noise generators are listed, and sound spectra of noise sources presented. The results show that specific noise sources can be identified with the aid of noise spectra. General observations are formulated concerning noise exposure reduction.
Sound and Vibration, June 1974, Vol.8, No.6, p.28-33. Illus.
Noise control of high volume gas handling plants.
The major sources of noise in large-volume gas-handling plants (compressors and adjacent pipes, pressure-reducing valves, electric motors, high-speed drive gears, oil and gas burners, steam turbines) are briefly examined, and practical methods of noise control are suggested.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1974, Vol.35, No.2, p.107-111. Illus. 2 ref.
Federation of Industrial Mutual Accident Insurance Associations (Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften), Bonn, 1 Apr. 1974.
Work on gas mains
Arbeiten an Gasleitungen [in German]
These safety regulations apply to work on mains for the conveyance of gases or mixtures of gases (but not for oxygen, acetylene or air). They cover: liability of contractor or owner, personal protection, preparations before commencing work, electrical protection, inspection for leakages, underground mains, piping for highly flammable gases, domestic gas mains. Rules for the application of the regulations and explanatory remarks are appended.
Unfallverhütungsvorschrift, Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Gereonstrasse 18-32, 5 Köln 1, Germany (Fed.Rep.). 7 + 15p. Price: DM.1.00.
Schofield G.B., Howells H., Ward F., Lynn J.C., Dolphin G.W.
Assessment and management of a plutonium contaminated wound case.
A plutonium contaminated wound is described together with its management. Initially 14.2 µCi of plutonium were present in the wound, this figure being reduced to about 1.8µCi after 2 excisions. During the period of assessment, DTPA was administered and the effect of this is discussed. Urinary excretion data were obtained and quantitative monitoring of the lymphatics of the arm and the liver were attempted. Various methods of assessment of body content are discussed which indicate the amount of retained plutonium to lie between 0.1 and 1.5 µCi. Chromosome culture from blood lymphocytes indicated probable preferential irradiation of these cells.
Health Physics, June 1974, Vol.26, No.6, p.541-554. Illus. 15 ref.
Fire protection organisation in electrical installations
Organisation de la protection contre l'incendie dans les installations électriques [in German]
Organisation de la protection contre l'incendie dans les installations électriques. [in French]
Most of the article is devoted to measures to be observed in electrical power stations and sub-stations: alarm system organisation, manning and equipment of station firefighting service, protection against gases caused by fires, automatic fire warning systems, measures to be taken in case of fire.
Bulletin des Schweizerischen elektrotechnischen Vereins - Bulletin de l'Association suisse des électriciens, 23 Feb. 1974, Vol.65, No.4, p.281-286.
Permanent International Commission for Acetylene, Gas Welding and Allied Industries (Commission permanente internationale de l'acétylène, de la soudure autogène et des industries qui s'y rattachent), Paris.
Safety manual for personnel of plants producing acetylene and gases extracted from the atmosphere - Manuel de sécurité pour le personnel ouvrier travaillant dans les usines de production d'acétylène et des gaz extraits de l'air.
Manuel de sécurité pour le personnel ouvrier travaillant dans les usines de production d'acétylène et des gaz extraits de l'air - Safety manual for personnel of plants producing acetylene and gases extracted from the atmosphere. [in French]
The first part of this bilingual manual, published for the information of workers in factories producing gases such as acetylene, oxygen, nitrogen and argon, is devoted to general rules of safe behaviour aimed at preventing falls, injuries, electric shock and fire in workshops, and to first aid in the event of burns, etc. The second part, devoted to special safety rules for oxygen plant, stresses the combustive properties of oxygen, dealing in detail with the hazards of the products and equipment involved. The third and fourth parts are concerned with the hazards of nitrogen, argon and acetylene and the safety rules to be observed in factories producing them.
Publications de la soudure autogène, 32 boulevard de la Chapelle, 75880 Paris Cedex 18, France, 2nd edition 1973. 22p. Illus.
Delafield H.J., Dennis J.A., Gibson J.A.B.
Nuclear accident dosimetry - Part 2: Dose assessment procedure.
This report provides detailed operational instructions on procedures of dose assessment with the UKAEA personnel criticality dosimeter, the installed neptunium dosimeter and the AERE/RPS personnel film dosimeter. Sections cover: general procedure for making a dose assessment; personnel monitoring; dosimeter measurements; body measurements; derivation of doses from dosimeter measurements; estimation of doses from body, hair and clothing measurements. Appendices are devoted to measuring equipment and calibration procedures, and radiochemical analysis procedures for wool and hair.
AERE R 7486, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Environmental and Medical Sciences Division, Harwell, Berkshire. H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London, S.E.1, United Kingdom, 1973. 44p. Illus. 19 ref. Price: £1.00.
Fomin E.V., Balahničev N.A.
Improved safety measures against explosion and fire hazards in stoking furnaces with solid fuel
Povyšenie vzryvo- i požarobezopasnosti toplivopodači [in Russian]
Measures proposed for peat-burning power stations: elimination of dust sources at the planning stage (by exhaust ventilation or by airtight plant premises); elimination of places where dust could accumulate; precautions to be taken when working with a naked flame; wet method dust control; periodic inspections of peat handling equipment.
Ėnergetik, June 1973, No.6, p.7-8. Illus.
A guide to the Gas Safety Regulations.
This guide to the Gas Safety Regulations 1972 (see CIS 668-1973, Fyz Xsj (627)) is intented for large customers, consultants, contractors and manufacturers of gas equipment. The Regulations, which came into force on 1 Dec. 1972 and apply to domestic and industrial premises, are reproduced in full, and explanatory notes, which also indicate the responsibilities of installer and occupier, are provided where appropriate.
British Gas, Marketing Division, 326 High Holborn, London WC1V 7PT, Apr. 1973. 18p. Illus. Gratis.
Singh H., Bhar S.
Chronic respiratory disease in a gas plant.
A report of a study carried out in a town-gas plant in Maharashtra to ascertain the health hazards associated with the manufacturing process. Workers are exposed to coal dust, benzene, naphthalene, pyridine and carbon monoxide. The gases present were below the maximum permissible levels, but coal dust levels exceeded the threshold limit value. 100 exposed workers and 60 controls were investigated, taking into account age, length of service and smoking habits. X-ray findings and clinical examination showed that the incidence of chronic bronchitis, emphysema and bronchiectasis was higher among exposed than among non-exposed workers.
Indian Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 1973, Vol.19, No.2, p.47-60. 5 ref.
Walker D., Nelson K.
Engineering and metallurgical problems in the operation and maintenance of high pressure gas reformers.
A description of some of the problems encountered in the operation and maintenance of high-pressure steam/naphtha reforming plants for the production of town gas in England since the mid-1960s. Individual sections are devoted to: corrosion/erosion problems in pipework, vessels and heat exchangers, and the results obtained by corrosion/erosion protection measures in stainless-steel pipework and stainless-steel lining of vessels and heat exchangers; creep failure and stress fatigue in reformer tubes, and the repair and modification of these tubes; age hardening in outlet headers and the replacement of centrifugally cast tube headers by a wrought material of improved ductility.
Technical Report, British Engine Boiler and Electrical Insurance Co., Longridge House, Manchester M60 4DT, United Kingdom, 1972, Vol.XI, p.5-32. Illus.
Accident statistics of the French Electricity Board, 1971
Statistiques accidents agents EDF - 1971 [in French]
This brochure indicates in tabular, graph and diagrammatic form the accidents that occurred to French Electricity Board employees in 1971: fatal and non-fatal accidents; frequency and severity rates; and commuting accidents. Since 1970, there has been a large increase in the number of accidents involving the use of vehicles, a reduction in the number of manual handling accidents, falls from a height, and hand-tool accidents, and a slight decrease in electrical accidents (high and low voltage).
Electricité de France, Direction des affaires générales, Service prévention et sécurité, 22 et 30, avenue de Wagram, Paris, France, 1972. 35p. Illus.
Occupational accident statistics - French Gas Board, 1971
Statistiques des accidents du travail - Gaz de France, 1971 [in French]
Accidents to French Gas Board employees are given in tabular, graph and diagrammatic form: general breakdown of occupational and commuting accidents during 1971; fatal and non-fatal accidents 1955-1971; severity rates 1955-1971; material causes of accidents 1971; commuting accidents 1971; breakdown of occupational accidents and commuting accidents in 1971 by type of work; breakdown material causes by type of work and workplace in 1971; breakdown of occupational and commuting accidents in 1971 by nature and state of lesions; trends from 1955 to 1971.
Gaz de France, Paris, France, 1972. 25p. Illus.
Human costs of nuclear power
After having pointed out that public health efforts are often stimulated more by emotional attitudes among the public than by objective considerations, and that our knowledge of the biological effects of ionising radiations exceeds our knowledge of the effects of any other physical or chemical agent, the author assesses the human costs (accidental injuries to nuclear industry employees, and potential health hazards incurred by all persons exposed to radiation from the nuclear power industry) of producing and using nuclear fuel to generate electricity; these costs are said to be approximately 0.25 x 10-4 dollar per kWh. In terms of risk per person exposed, the mining and milling of uranium represents by far the costliest portion of the entire fuel cycle.
Science, 11 Aug. 1972, Vol.177, No.4048, p.487-493. 46 ref.
Kowaczeck J., Rutkowski E.
Occupational safety and health and fire prevention in the gas industry
Gesundheitsschutz, Arbeitsschutz, Brandschutz in der Gastechnik [in German]
Manual for gas industry workers. Contents: principles of occupational safety and health, fire prevention in gas plant; special safety engineering problems connected with the handling and use of flammable gases; safety engineering and fire prevention in gas production, transport and distribution; interpretation of accident statistics and formulation of safety techniques; suggested question-drill for inspections.
Deutscher Verlag für Grundstoffindustrie, Karl-Heine-Strasse 27, DDR-x7031 Leipzig, 1972. 298p. Illus. 66 ref.
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