Power generation and distribution - 305 entries found
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Safety forum - new methods
Forum sécurité - des voies nouvelles [in French]
Special issue which presents and sums up new safety suggestions put forward at the Prevention Forum held by EDF-GDF (French national electricity and gas board) from 17 to 19 Nov. 1982 in Paris (France). Discussions were centred on a better understanding of accident causes (agencies and human factors, methods of analysis), the evolution of protective equipment (personal and collective protection, building safety into plant and equipment), improvement of know-how (basic teaching, in-service training, information); improvement in methods and behaviour (preparation, performance and checking of tasks, motivation and methods to stimulate it).
Vigilance, Feb. 1983, No.67, p.1-30. Illus.
Ontario Hydro mortality 1970-1982
This report examines the mortality statistics of employees of Ontario Hydro, the province's public utilities corporation. Observed deaths for men employed in the nuclear or thermal power generating stations as well as all other Hydro employees are listed according to place of work and to radiation dose. Observed overall rates were well within those of the general Ontario population.
Ontario Hydro, Health and Safety Division, 700 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 1982. 25p. Appendices.
Vorob'ev L.P., Černuha T.Ju., Trušinskij Z.K., Gribkova I.N.
Study of some parameters of external respiration in gas compressor station workers with different levels of adaptation to the environment
Izučenie nekotoryh pokazatelej vnešnego dyhanija u rabotnikov gazokompressornyh stancij s različnym urovnem adaptacii k okružajuščej srede [in Russian]
Summary (without data) of results of examinations of 904 workers at gas compressor stations in Kazakhstan. A combination of semi-desert climate with high-frequency noise and vibration made working conditions stressful, especially for the cardiovascular system. When male workers were divided into well-adapted and poorly-adapted groups on the basis of a battery of physiological tests, impaired respiratory function correlated with poor overall adaptation. Female workers showed no such correlation; their respiratory systems seemed more adaptable to the extreme conditions. Among the male workers, respiratory impairment correlated positively with the average length of exposure to the extreme conditions during a working day. The correlation between respiratory disorders and overall poor adaptation is reflected in the high proportion of work time lost to respiratory complaints in the gas compressor stations, and suggests that respiratory function testing can be used for screening of large populations in place of more complex or expensive techniques.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Nov. 1982, No.11, p.27-29. 6 ref.
Safety evaluation of electrical engineering installations
Sicherheitsbewertung elektrotechnischer Anlagen [in German]
This number is devoted to papers presented at a scientific meeting on the safety evaluation of electrical equipment and installations (Leipzig, German Democratic Republic, Sep. 1982). Topics covered: methods of mathematical and electronic evaluation of electrical safety; measures for the improvement of electrical safety; efficiency of protective measures. Specialised topics covered: classification criteria for quality control of electrical installations; development of a warning device for a mobile crane approaching overhead electric lines; flameproof enclosures for electrical equipment; reliability of protective measures against direct and indirect contact with live elements; determination of protection levels in industrial 220/230V installations earthed to neutral; enhanced electrical safety by use of short circuit current controllers with rectifiers; use of medium voltage installations and equipment as a calculated risk measure; technical safety of power stations and electric networks.
Elektrie, 1982, Vol.36, No.6, p.281-331. Illus. Bibl.
Work under the influence of heat (from the occupational safety point of view)
Arbeiten unter Hitzeeinfluss (aus arbeitssicherheitstechnischer Sicht) [in German]
Listing of the criteria for heat stress assessment in the workplace as a function of the amount of physical work. Presentation and study of a data sheet on work at high temperature, and on occupational safety conditions in thermal power stations. The note includes: preventive measures; calculation of the WBGT index; maximum permissible hours of work, recovery needed after work, maximum energy expenditure.
Sicherheitsingenieur, 1982, Vol.13, No.6, p.10-15. Illus. 13 ref.
Churchley A.R., Hignett K.C., Lockett L.E., Pugh J.
Design for failure-engineered system reliability and occupational hygiene
Plants, including nuclear energy plants, are considered in which highly toxic substances are used which would present a significant risk in the event of plant failure. Current legal requirements in the United Kingdom are reviewed, and procedures for establishing adequate safeguards are described. Reliability assessors assist in the selection of an optimal system.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1982, Vol.25, No.1, p.83-93. Illus. 17 ref.
Kundiev Ju. I., Navakatikjan A.O., Buzunov V.A.
Occupational hygiene and physiology in thermal power stations
Gigiena i fiziologija truda na teplovyh ėlektrostancijah [in Russian]
Sections deal with: technical processes and harmful factors in thermal power plants (noise, vibration, microclimate, air pollution, lighting); conditions of work (central control desk; boilerhouse and turbine shop; fuel conveying plant; generating plant); physiological conditions of work for women; psychophysiological selection of power-station workers; classification of work in power stations; health status of power-station workers; health engineering measures in thermal power plants (noise and vibration control, dust and air-pollution control, creation of a normal microclimate, work-rest schedule, medical surveillance of workers).
Izdatel'stvo "Medicina", Petroverigskij per. 6/8, Moskva, USSR, 1982. 222p. Illus. 87 ref. Price: Rbl.2.00.
First-aid training at the French electricity and gas boards
Enseignement du secourisme à l'EDF-GDF [in French]
Contents of this MD thesis: brief review of the development of the concept of first aid, and principal regulations in France on first aid at workplaces of the French electricity and gas boards; first aid training in these undertakings from the administrative and practical viewpoints: safety training, need for first aid workers, first aid specialists at the workplace, preparation for the various first aid certificates and as first aid supervisors, nuclear power plants, transport of injured persons. By virtue of his role in medical emergencies, the occupational physician is best qualified to advise on first aid training.
Université de Paris VI, Faculté de médecine Saint-Antoine, Paris, France, 1982, 114p. 21 ref.
Protection of workers against electrical hazards - Order of 16 Feb. 1982
La sécurité des travailleurs contre les dangers d'origine électrique - Décret du 16 février 1982 [in French]
These 2 articles analyse the content of the Order and compare it with previous legislation. Comments on the new provisions (see above).
Journal de l'équipement électrique et électronique, Oct. 1982, No.482, p.29-31; Nov. 1982, No.483, p.51-54.
Decree No.82-167 of 16 Feb. on measures designed to ensure protection of workers against electrical hazards in the construction, use and maintenance of electrical power distribution plant
Décret n°82-167 du 16 février 1982 relatif aux mesures particulières destinées à assurer la sécurité des travailleurs contre les dangers d'origine électrique lors des travaux de construction, d'exploitation et d'entretien des ouvrages de distribution d'énergie électrique [in French]
Provisions applicable to work in these installations as laid down by the Act of 15 June 1906 with the exception of electric traction installations: operating electric power distribution plant (modifications, extensions, maintenance), plant in the course of construction when in the vicinity of other operating power distribution plant. Plant is considered to be operating as soon as the circuits are rendered live, even for testing.
Journal officiel de la République française, 17 Feb. 1982, p.601-603.
Examination and testing of nuclear power plant dynamic restraints (snubbers)
This standard (approved as an American National Standard: 19 Aug. 1982) lays down general requirements for the periodic inspection and testing of nuclear power plant equipment dynamic restraints (snubbers), the malfunction of which would significantly increase the occurrence or the consequences of an accident or the malfunction of equipment important to safety. Sections cover: responsibility for implementation; terminology; principles and guidelines; pre-service inspection; in-service inspection; records and record keeping. Appendices deal with: examination checklist items; and design and operating information.
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, United Engineering Center, 345 East 47th Street, New York, N.Y. 10017, USA, 1982. 11p.
Electrical fields in high-voltage installations - Results of measurements under overhead electricity lines, in distribution installations and power generating stations
Elektriske felt i høyspenningsanlegg - En kartlegging av elektriske felt under kraftledninger, i fordelingsanlegg of i kraftstasjoner [in Norwegian]
Sections cover: physics of electrical and magnetic fields; instruments and methods for measuring field intensity; results. These show that electrical field intensities, measured 1.8m above ground under overhead lines, depend on the voltage level, the height of the lines above ground and the type of pylon. Field intensity may be as high as 6kV/m in the case of a 420kV line 11.5m above ground (the natural atmospheric electrical field intensity being only 0.13kV/m). Intensity falls exponentially with increasing line height. Measurements at 1.8m above the ground in 420 and 300kV substations showed maximum intensities of 11kV/m and 6.4kV/m at a distance of 2.5m from the disconnecting switches.
Statens institutt for strålehygiene, Østerndalen 25, 1345 Østerås, Norway, 1982. 57p. Illus. 20 ref.
De Assis Marinho Pereira F., Lindquist L.N., Silvestre E.C., Pereira W.G.
Rules for underwater work applied to hydroelectric enterprises
Diretrizes para trabalhos subaquáticos aplicadas a empreendimentos hidroelétricos [in Portuguese]
These rules summarise good practice (including legal prescriptions) in diving as an activity in the energy sector. Topics covered are: size of teams, selection and training of personnel, classification of divers, equipment, support personnel and equipment, safety requirements, medical support. Annexes inserted in text: physical and medical tests for divers, equipment selection as a function of depth, ascent rate as a function of working depth, major jobs performed by divers at hydroelectric stations.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, Oct.-Dec. 1981, Vol.9, No.36, p.37-41. 6 ref.
Moskowitz P.D., Briggs T., Ungers L., Hamilton L.D.
A prospective method for estimating occupational health risks in new energy technologies
The approach used (and illustrated by application to the photovoltaics industry) is to separate out the workforce of an emerging industry by different worker classifications, and to determine the health risks to these workers from statistics of related industries. The approach identifies accident-related effects, but cannot be used to quantitate occupationally induced disease.
Department of Energy and Environment, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA, 1981. 17p. Illus.
Bauman A., Horvat D.
The impact of natural radioactivity from a coal-fired power plant
Radiation surveys of the working area inside a coal-buring power station were performed, and urine samples from 6 non-smokers working in contaminated areas were assayed for Pb 210; 6 non-exposed power station workers served as controls. Mean Pb 210 level in 24-h urine controls was 1.04 ± 0.53pCi/l; in workers exposed to various levels of radioactivity, the levels ranged from 1.8 to 14.47pCi/l. Radiometric surveys within the power plant showed that certain areas were significantly contaminated with radioactive material. Chromosome analysis of metaphase cells in exposed workers showed that 6-10% of the cells had chromosomal aberrations (dicentrics, rings, inversions, breaks, gaps), while only 1.5-4% of those from controls displayed chromosomal aberrations (deletions only).
Science of the Total Environment, 1981, Vol.17, p.75-81. 11 ref.
Blanc M., Lert F., Leclerc A., Chastang J.F., Blanc C., Goldberg M.
Epidemiology of serious accidents at the French National Electricity and Gas Company
Epidémiologie des accidents du travail graves à l'Electricité et Gaz de France [in French]
Since 1975, an in-depth ongoing survey has been carried out on "serious" occupational accidents (i.e. those with permanent sequelae giving entitlement to an indemnity) at the French National Electricity and Gas Company (national electricity and gas production and distribution monopoly) to obtain an epidemiologic picture of the accident patterns. For each serious accident, demographic, social and professional data (DSP variables) are collected together with information about the circumstances and consequences of the accident, and stored in a data base. This study covers 1257 serious accidents that occurred in 1975, which are analysed on the basis of the main DSP variables (sex, age, professional situation and region) and which are used to explain accident incidence and severity (length of absence from work, level of partial permanent disability).
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1981, Vol.42, No.2, p.69-84. Illus. 12 ref.
Manz A., Düwel G., Krusche D., Schulze V., Waltsgott H.
Scope and effectiveness of measures to reduce the cancer risk of workers in the gas industry
Möglichkeiten und Wirksamkeit technischer Massnahmen zur Herabsetzung des Krebsrisikos bei Beschäftigten der Gasindustrie [in German]
Research report on the humanisation of work on the cancer hazard in the gas industry (coking plants, catalytic cracking plants, natural gas distribution installations) and the safety and health measures for worker protection. Occupational health statistics for 1953-1977 (workplace and cancer hazard, causes of death, respiratory and urinary tract cancer, risk factors, smoking, age, duration of exposure) are given. Plant and processes and their modifications are described. Occupational health problems (sampling, benzene, tar and its components, carcinogenic substances and level of workplace exposure). Cancer hazard black spots: coke ovens and piping networks.
Fachinformationszentrum Energie, Physik, Mathematik, 7514 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Federal Republic of Germany, 1981. 269p. Illus. 59 ref. Price: DM.43.70
Biorhythmic cycles and their association with injuries at work in power plants and power installations
Bioritmički ciklusi i njihova povezanost sa povredama na radu na elektroenergetskim objektima [in Serbocroatian]
Physical, emotional, and intellectural biorhythms were computed for workers who sustained injuries in 225 accidents in power plants and power installations. The calculations were based on the date of birth of the worker and the accident date. No statistical significance was found between accident occurrence and critical days, best days, positive periods, or negative periods in the physical biorhythmic cycle. A random distribution of accidents was found throughout the emotional and intellectual cycles in which increases and decreases in accident numbers occurred in unexpected positions. Further research into this relation is not recommended.
Ergonomija, 1981, Vol.8, No.4, p.13-21. Illus.
German Federal Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs (Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Sozialordnung)
Technical rules on high-pressure gas pipelines
Technische Regeln für Gashochdruckleitungen (TRGL) [in German]
Publication of the new amended text (Feb. 1981 edition) of these technical rules, issued under the High-Pressure Gas Pipelines Ordinance (7 Dec. 1974): TRGL 001, Annex 1 - List of technical rules currently in force (installation, equipment, stations); TRGL 004 - List of principal standards, information sheets, safety regulations, etc.; TRGL 231 - pressure vessels in stations.
Bundesarbeitsblatt, July-Aug. 1981, No.7-8, p.96-104.
On-the-spot therapeutic action following plutonium contamination in industry
Conduite thérapeutique immédiate en milieu industriel face à une contamination par le plutonium. [in French]
MD thesis dealing with on-the-spot treatment for plutonium contamination, a rare but possible hazard of nuclear fission in nuclear breeder reactors, during both routine operations and manual reactor-core changing. It deals with the basic principles of nuclear physics and the specific nature, properties, use and metabolism of plutonium, the biological effects of ionising radiation, French, European and international legislation and regulations on radiation hazards, and approaches to on-the-spot treatment of plutonium contamination. The primary approach should be preventive but should include theoretical evaluation of doses. For the rare cases of plutonium contamination that do occur, systematic treatment should be initiated at an early stage.
Université de Paris VI, Faculté de médecine Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, France, 1981. 174p. 118 ref.
Cohen A.V., Pritchard D.K.
Health and Safety Executive
Comparative risks of electricity production systems: a critical survey of the literature
Contents: cross-comparison of electricity production systems by type of risk; mining, processing, transport and storage of fuel (coal, uranium, fuel oil); occupational hazards of power station operation (estimates of accidental deaths, injuries and cancer incidence; chronic sulfur toxicity); occupational cancer hazard; mutagenic effects; major incidents (nuclear, non-nuclear); long-term waste effects (nuclear, non-nuclear).
H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London SE1 9NH, United Kingdom, Dec. 1980. 31p. 87 ref. Price: £2.00.
Sources of information on nuclear and energy-related activities
This data sheet provides details of 27 information sources with addresses, publications and products available, missions, and services offered.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611, USA, 1980. 5p. Illus.
Bencko V., Symon K., Štálnik L., Bátora J., Vančo E., Švandová E.
Rate of malignant tumor mortality among coal burning power plant workers occupationally exposed to arsenic
Retrospective study of mortality patterns among 88 male workers in a power station firing high-arsenic coal and 159 in 3 power stations firing coal with arsenic concentrations of an order of magnitude lower, who had died up to 18 years prior to the study. Among those who died before the age of 60 years, 38% of the exposed group died of cancer against 23% in the control group; in those who died after the age of 60 years the malignancy rates were 51% and 43% respectively. The absolute increase in tumor mortality rates was not significant; however, the higher incidence of malignant deaths in younger age groups and the shorter exposure times were statistically significant (p<0.05 in both cases). Coal combustion products contain micro-quantities of numerous biologically active elements, but the arsenic content of coal (950-1500g/t) justifies the suspicion of a link between specific tumour mortality and exposure to high levels of arsenic.
Journal of Hygiene, Epidemiology, Microbiology and Immunology, 1980, Vol.24, No.3, p.278-284. Illus. 18 ref.
Current occupational health problems in nuclear power stations
Aktual'nye voprosy gigieny truda na atomnyh ėlektrostancijah [in Russian]
Review of the working conditions and ionising radiation exposure in the operation and maintenance of nuclear power reactors in nuclear power stations in service in the USSR and other countries. Possible future trends in research and measures designed to ensure total safety in these power stations (optimisation of radiometric and dosimetric surveillance; improvement and standardisation of personnel irradiation recording and assessment methods - especially for workers maintaining and changing fuel elements; assessment of the radiation protection aspects of new plants).
Gigiena i sanitarija, July 1980, No.7, p.17-20. 7 ref.
Gas plants [German Democratic Republic]
Gasanlagen [in German]
This standard applies to installations for the production, preparation, storage, distribution and use of town gas or natural gas. Part 4 concerns protective and safety measures to be taken before and during work in installations using these gases. Part 5: instructions for permits to work in gas plants.
Staatsverlag der DDR, DDR-1080 Berlin, Jan. 1980. 2 + 2p.
Federation of Industrial Mutual Accident Insurance Associations (Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften)
Thermal power stations
Wärmekraftwerke [in German]
These safety regulations, which apply to heat generators using solid, liquid, gaseous or nuclear fuel (power rating 40GJ/h) and auxiliary installations, contain provisions on safety measures for coal-feed installations (warning notices or other means of indicating danger areas, coal unloading and transport, protection against falls, repair work) and precautions to be observed in the operation of, and maintenance work on, installations using hot fluids under pressure, entering steam generator furnaces, and ash removal. The last section concerns preparation for testing and pre-operational inspection of power stations, and qualified personnel authorised to do so. Supplement: rules for enforcement of the regulations, and commentaries.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Gereonstrasse 18-32, 5000 Köln 1, Federal Republic of Germany, 1 Apr. 1980. 9 + 7p. Price: DM.1.40.
Figueiredo A., Lavorino P.R., Perez Parra J.M.
Askarels: Hazards, controls, handling and removal
Askaréis: Riscos, controles, manuseio e destinação final [in Portuguese]
Contents: general characteristics of askarels (technical, ecological, toxicological; short and long-term health effects); advantages and disadvantages of their use; handling of damaged capacitors and transformers (precautions); storage of capacitors and transformers (fire prevention); first aid; personnel selection and training; waste disposal (incineration, recovery, resale, burial).
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, Oct.-Nov.-Dec. 1980, Vol.8, No.32, p.20-27. Illus. 13 ref.
U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission
Fire protection program for operating nuclear power plants.
Amended text, dated 17 Nov. 1980, of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations laying down fire protection requirements for nuclear power plants. Provisions concerning: water supplies for fire suppresion systems; section control valves; hydrants; hydrostatic testing of hoses; shutdown capability; fire barriers. Appendix: fire protection programme for nuclear power facilities already in operation prior to 1 Jan. 1979: fire hazard analysis; fire prevention features; automatic fire detection; fire protection of safe shutdown capability; fire brigade; fire brigade training; fire barriers and fire doors; oil collection system for reactor coolant pump (unless containment is inerted during normal operation).
Federal Register, 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 50. 19 Nov. 1980, Vol.45, No.225, p.76602-76616.
Direction des affaires générales, Service prévention et sécurité
Accident statistics - French Electricity Board, 1979
Statistiques accidents-Agents EDF, 1979. [in French]
Statistics are given for: energy distribution, hydroelectric power, heat production, energy transport, research. The main data given relate to: fatal and non-fatal accidents, accident incidence and severity. Statistics for 1979 (1978 in brackets): fatal accidents at work: 14 (8); accidents with lost time of more than 24h: 3270 for a workforce of 124,845 (3186, 113,792); incidence: 16.45 (17.36); commuting accidents: 5 fatal, 703 non-fatal (6 and 698).
Electricité de France, 22-30 avenue Wagram, 75008 Paris, France, 1980. 66p. Illus.
Ginzburg-Šik L.D., Zapirov M.Z.
Safety in installing thermal and mechanical equipment of electric power stations
Tehnika bezopasnosti pri montaže teplomehaničeskogo oborudovanija ėlektrostancij [in Russian]
Contents: on-site safety organisation and inspection; general safety rules (on-site traffic, machine tools, work at height); safety aspects of arc welding and cutting; loading, unloading and storage of materials; hand tools and power-driven hand tools; rules for the erection and assembly of boilers, turbo-generators, piping and ductwork, tanks, and coal storage and feed installations; safety rules for testing turbines and generators and cleaning boilers; safety specifications for scaffolding and ladders; safe work on electrical installations; first aid.
Izdatel'stvo "Ėnergija", šluzovaja nab. 10, Moskva M-114, USSR, 1980. 128p. Illus. 7 ref. Price: Rbl.0.35.
Becarelli G., Fiquet J.M., Lesaffre R.
Use of chemicals in power stations
Utilisation des produits chimiques dans les centrales. [in French]
Aspects considered: uses of chemicals in thermal power stations (water treatment; cleaning inner walls of boliler tubes; treatment of combustion gases); different types of chemicals used and corresponding hazards (H2SO4, HCl, soda, ammonia, morpholine, hydrazine, lime, Javelle water, chlorine, sulfur dioxide, solvents); advice on OSH measures.
Vigilance, Sep. 1980, No.62, p.26-39. Illus. 2 ref.
A propos d'échelles. [in French]
Review of safety aspects of use of ladders, and advice on accident prevention: setting up and extending ladders; access to ladders; hazards of coming down and stepping off ladders; work on ladders; anchoring and stability of ladders; overloading.
Vigilance, Sep. 1980, No.62, p.10-19. Illus.
Tagging device for manhole covers
Dispositif de condamnation d'un tampon de trou d'homme. [in French]
In power stations access to cable tunnels for maintenance and other work is usually through manholes. Description of a device for padlocking manhole covers to prevent unauthorised access.
Vigilance, Apr. 1980, No.61, p.53. Illus.
Briggs T.M., Owens T.W.
Industrial hygiene characterization of the photovoltaic solar cell industry.
Aspects described in this literature survey and report of studies at 14 plants producing solar cells or materials used in their production, are: silicon cell production; cadmium sulfide cell production; gallium-arsenide cell production; amorphous silicon cell production; installations; toxicology of materials used. Industrial hygiene practices are generally good throughout the photovoltaics industry. The main problems relate to accidental release of toxic materials. Recommendations are made for engineering control of processes involving cadmium, gallium arsenide, crystalline silica, silicon, and a large number of other toxic substances and gases and laser and other radiation.
DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No.80-112, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Mar. 1980. 174p. Illus. 179 ref.
Presswood W.G., Huyser J., Whitaker C.G.
Monitoring airborne fly ash by the membrane filter counting procedure.
A variation of the NIOSH procedure for sampling and counting airborne asbestos is described for monitoring fly ash in the diameter range of 0.75-15µm. A survey of 5 coal-fired generating plants showed fly ash concentrations of up to 263 particles/cm3 in the range 0.75-5µm.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1980, Vol.41, No.1, p.33-39. Illus. 17 ref.
Vincent B.G., Krasner L.M.
Safety assessment of petroleum and gas producers
Accident and illness data were collected and documented and current regulations and related research were investigated to provide a basis for the identification of hazards to personnel and the development of recommendations for improvements in problem areas and processes. A significant injury problem was identified in the area of extraction. Fire hazards were present in processing areas. Storage areas presented the least hazard to personnel. Appendices provide: existing safety regulations and standards for the petroleum industry; a bibliography on ongoing research into injury and illness problems; a coding manual for loss incidents reports; NIOSH computer printouts of the data on which much of this report is based; case histories of specific incidents in the three problem areas identified.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 5600 Fishers Lane, Rockville, Maryland 20852, USA, May 1979. 151p. Illus.
Protective clothing for repair work
Specodežda dlja provedenija remontnyh i avarijnyh rabot [in Russian]
Two sets of overalls designed for workers making repairs on gas production plant and thus exposed to condensates having a high hydrogen sulfide content are described. Of airtight construction, one is intended for work in confined spaces, and the other is for work in the open air.
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, Oct. 1979, No.10, p.37-39. Illus.
Ministry of Labour (Arbejdsministeriet), Denmark.
Notification of safety rules for natural gas installations in accordance with the Working Environment Act
Bekendtgørelse om sikkerhedsbestemmelser for naturgasanlæg efter Lov om arbejdsmiljø [in Danish]
This notification (effective 18 Sep. 1979) applies to natural gas distribution and storage installations (pipework, compressors, regulation stations, valves). General rules concern choice of material, design and construction, and special rules deal with protection of pipework against mechanical deterioration and corrosion, marking of valve location, pressure limiters, shutoff and relief elements, pressure gauges, explosion vents and control of operation. Rules for operation (qualification of personnel, instructions in Danish, inspection records) are given. Installations must be approved and regularly inspected by the labour inspectorate.
Lovtidende A, 18 Sep. 1979, No.406, p.1099-1101.
The question of radiation causation of cancer in Hanford workers.
This study confirms the association of radiation, accumulated at rates below the permissible rate, with cancer induction in nuclear power plant workers. The calculated doubling dose for cancers overall was 43.5 rad. Earlier findings that certain tissues are unusually radiosensitive for cancer induction were not confirmed. The trends suggest that persons young at the time of radiation exposure show lower doubling rates than persons older at the time of exposure. The conclusions are drawn above all in workers receiving a cumulative dose of 10rad or more.
Health Physics, Nov. 1979, Vol.37, No.5, p.617-639. 10 ref.
Phillipe A., Réal P., Segre J.
Occupational safety and health in thermal power stations
La prévention et la sécurité dans les centrales thermiques. [in French]
Part 1: brief description of how a thermal power station operates and how its various services are organised; major hazards (burns, mechanical, electrical and chemical hazards; explosions; other hazards); general health and safety engineering principles and methods. Part 2: maintenance work; basic principles and procedures for tagging out thermal, mechanical and electrical devices and installations; examples of tagging out (coal pulveriser, feed pump).
Vigilance, 1979, No.59, p.40-50, and No.60, p.13-24. Illus. 2 ref.
Occupational radiation exposure in nuclear power plants in Japan
There are 20 nuclear power plants operating in Japan. This paper gives recent occupational exposure statistics, and discusses problems of occupational exposure control. Individual exposure level is fairly well controlled below the occupational dose limit (5 rem/yr). The collective dose (man-rem) is however increasing. The collective dose from maintenance and repair of the nuclear power plants is much larger than the dose from routine operation.
Japanese Journal of Public Health, 15 Aug. 1978, Vol.26, No.8, p.439-443. 4 ref.
Shielded box workplaces: a solution to stresses imposed by radiological protection
Le poste de travail sur enceinte blindée: une solution aux contraintes imposées par la protection radiologique. [in French]
MD thesis: a study of workposts at shielded boxes (airtight, with filtration and ventilation systems) used for manipulating and storing radioactive substances. A brief review of radioactivity and associated hazards is followed by a workplace study (shielded box, remote manipulators and robots, observation portholes, windows and other visual means of observation, environment, technical and psychological requirements, safety rules, personal protective equipment, working hours; human aspects and contacts in work at shielded boxes). Part 2: physiological workpost study (body movements, workload, psycho-social stress). Part 3: subjective evaluation of various workloads and important role of fatigue. Part 4: ergonomic evaluation of the tasks involved and the workplace. Developments concerning medical supervision of personnel; pre-employment screening for inaptitude; job description card (for filing) indicating employment and medical record, and hazards involved. The thesis is profusely illustrated.
Université René Descartes (Paris V), Faculté de médecine Cochin - Port Royal, Paris, France, 1979, 219p. Illus. 89 ref.
Bekanntmachung, Federal Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs (Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Sozialordnung), Bonn, 5 June 1979.
Technical rules and ministerial guidelines in pursuance of the Ordinance on high-pressure gas pipes
Technische Regeln und Richtlinien des BMA zur Verordnung über Gashochdruckleitungen [in German]
Notification of the new technical rules (Feb. 1979 edition) issued in pursuance of the Ordinance of 7 Dec. 1974 (CIS 75-1543): TRGL 001 (annex 2) - standardised definitions of terms for the technical rules; TRGL 261 - safety equipment at compressor stations and control and regulation stations. Appendix: forms for TRGL 501.
Bundesarbeitsblatt, July-Aug. 1979, No.7-8, p.76-81.
Holmér I., Elnäs S., Sköldström B., Kihlström G.
Heat stress during dives in warm water
Fysiologisk belastning vid dykning i varmt vatten [in Swedish]
Heat stress in 2 divers was studied during 60min dives in water at 34, 38 and 42°C to assess tolerable exposures in fuel basins in nuclear power plants. The divers performed light work on a bicycle ergometer alternating with rest periods. They wore underwear and rubber diving suits. The cooling effects of an ice vest under the suit was also evaluated. The stress increased with increasing temperature. At 42°C, the body and mean skin temperature were higher than 39.0°C, subjects felt the conditions intolerable and exposure was stopped after 30-45min. The ice vest significantly reduced the stress, resulting in less increase in body and mean skin temperature with exposure. The rate of body heat storage was lower with the ice vest, but rose generally with increasing water temperature. The cooling power of an ice vest makes it possible to double the exposure in water at 35-45°C.
Arbete och hälsa - Vetenskaplig skriftserie 1979:20, Arbetarskyddsverket, Fack, 100 26 Stockholm, Sweden, 1979. 30p. Illus. 19 ref.
The nuclear worker and ionizing radiation.
This highly controversial article with political implications deals with the subtle immediate effects of exposure to ionising radiation in terms of managing the technology; the long-term health situation of workers; and broader questions raised by the present health monitoring system, which is considered to be inadequate. Suggestions are made for more sophisticated monitoring, with considerations of the effects on workers' families.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, May 1979, Vol.40, No.5, p.395-401. 21 ref.
Commission of the European Communities, Directorate-General "Employment and Social Affairs", Steel Industry Safety and Health Commissson.
Maintenance and repair work on gas lines and apparatus - Water seals and drain seal pots.
Travaux d'entretien et de réparation sur les conduites et appareils à gaz - Joints hydrauliques et pots de purge. [in French]
Water seals are shut-off devices in a gas mains systems which perform an isolating function by means of a seal trap. Drain seal pots are devices designed to perform 2 functions simultaneously in accordance with operating requirements: the removal of water contained in the gas, or supplies to a water seal, and isolation of gas in the mains from the surrounding atmosphere. This study specifies the numerous conditions to be met by water seals and drain seal pots on gas distribution systems in iron and steel works (blast furnace gas and coke oven gas) to guarantee optimal safety in view of the poisoning and explosion hazards of these gases.
EUR 6048, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, B.P. 1003, Luxembourg, Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg, 1978. 15p. Illus. Price: £2.50.
IEEE Standard installation, inspection, and testing requirements for instrumentation and electric equipment during the construction of nuclear power generating stations.
This standard, approved as ANSI American National Standard on 29 Nov. 1978, contains requirements for installation, inspection, and testing of Class 1E (National Electrical Safety Code, see CIS 77-1826), instrumentation, control equipment and systems during the construction phase of a nuclear power station. These requirements are intended to assure that only materials and equipment of acceptable quality are incorporated into the plant, that quality is maintained and quality workmanship prevails throughout the construction process, and that completed installations conform to specified requirements, so as to prevent accidents, and mitigate the consequences of accidents. Definitions are followed by sections devoted to: planning, prerequisites, procedures and instructions, results, measuring and test equipment, nonconforming items; pre-installation verification, installation, inspections and tests during and after installation; data analysis and evaluation; recordkeeping; required standards; supplementary provisions for multiunit stations and operating plants.
ANSI/IEEE 336-1977, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 345 East 47th Street, New York, NY 10017, USA, 31 Aug. 1977. 12p. 7 ref. Price: US-$5.50.
Hatch L.L., Rentos P.G., Godbey F.W., Schrems E.L.
Self-evaluation of occupational safety and health programs. Self-evaluation instrument - Electric utility industry.
These 2 documents present the concept of self-assessment by management and workers to control the hazards in the workplace. Contents of the 1st document: setting goals and objectives; programme elements; staffing and organisation; techniques for employee involvement; budgeting; recordkeeping; inspection; safety priority setting; hazard control; incentives; preplacement medical examinations; medical surveillance; ergonomics; alcoholism and drug abuse; training; role of the supervisor in training; objective and subjective measures; activity measures; relative risk assessment; information and consultation sources. Lists, forms and worksheets are shown. The last part deals with workplace safety and health under the following heads: ventilation; lighting; the working environment; sanitation; personal protective equipment; hazardous operations; handling and storage of hazardous materials; toxicology; pressure changes; psychological hazards. The 2nd document contains 37 yes-no check lists for equipment, potential hazardous substances and operations to evaluate compliance with legislation and standards.
DHEW (NIOSH) Publications Nos.78-187 and 78-202, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Oct. 1978, 2 Vols., 109p. and 105p. Illus. 38 ref.
Bekanntmachung, Federal Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs (Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Sozialordnung), Bonn, 25 Apr. 1978.
Technical rules and Ministerial guidelines on the administration of the High-pressure Gas Piping Ordinance
Technische Regeln und Richtlinien des BMA zur Verordnung über Gashochdruckleitungen [in German]
Notice and text of new technical rules (Jan. 1978 edition) issued under the Ordinance of 17 Dec. 1974 concerning high-pressure gas pipelines (CIS 75-1543): TRGL 101 - General rules for the construction and maintenance of high-pressure gas pipelines; TRGL 133 - Flanges, pipe connections, gaskets and other fittings; nuts, screws and bolts: materials, manufacture, testing; TRGL 134 - Insulating connections; TRGL 161 (appendix 1) - Plan for work and worksite supervision; TRGL 201 - General rules for compressor, control and regulating stations; TRGL 211 - Station construction; TRGL 221 - Machinery in compressor and pumping stations; TRGL 231 - Pressure vessels in stations.
Arbeitsschutz, June 1978, No.6, p.249-253.
Prevention of radiation hazards
Prévention des risques d'irradiation. [in French]
The maximum permissible radiation dose for workers not engaged, or directly or indirectly engaged, in work exposing them to radiation, as adopted in France in conformity with the International Commission for Radiation Protection (ICRP) recommendations, are given (maximum permissible whole body radiation, practical limits of dose equivalent rate and dose equivalent for external radiation, maximum admissible exposure limit to atmospheric contamination, practical limits of surface contamination). The organisation and principles of safety of nuclear installations and means of monitoring radiation levels (individual and stationary monitors, light and sound signals, centralised surveillance) are dealt with. The greater safety of nuclear over conventional power plants is brought out. Appendices: mean natural radioactivity of the earth's crust; principal radionuclides emitted from nuclear power stations after 10 years' decay and for 1GWe.year; potential radioactivity of radioactive waste from nuclear power stations.
Rayonnements ionisants, Apr. 1978, No.2, p.51-86. Illus. 29 ref.
Health and safety: Nuclear establishments - 1975-76.
First report of H.M. Nuclear Installations Inspectorate, covering the period 1975-1976. Chapters are devoted, inter alia, to: organisation of the Nuclear Safety Advisory Committee; basic safety policy; siting and control of development around nuclear installations; safety assessment and inspection of licensed installations; criteria for safety assessment of nuclear power plants; extramural work and consultancies; international liaison; standards and codes of practice; magnox reactors; advanced gas-cooled reactors; steam generating heavy water moderated reactors; fast reactors; light water reactors; nuclear merchant ships; fuel manufacturing and reprocessing plants; radioisotope manufacturing plants, etc.; exposure of workers to ionising radiations. Appendices: regulatory requirements; number of establishments of various types using ionising radiations; organisation of the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate.
Health and Safety Executive, London. H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London SE1 9NH, United Kingdom, 1978. 28p. Illus. Price: £1.15.
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