Power generation and distribution - 305 entries found
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Imbernon E., Goldberg M., Bonenfant S., Chevalier A., Guénel P., Vatré R., Dehaye J.
Occupational respiratory cancer and exposure to asbestos: A case-control study in a cohort of workers in the electricity and gas industry
In a study of male workers in the French electricity and gas industry between 1978 and 1989, cases of cancer of the pleura (12), lung cancer (310) and cancer of the larynx (116) were matched with controls from within the same company. Exposure to asbestos and other substances was estimated using a job-exposure matrix specific to the company. There was a clear association between asbestos exposure and pleural cancer. Some association between asbestos exposure and lung cancer was observed in the two highest cumulative exposure categories. Occupational exposure to asbestos could increase the risk of pleural and lung cancer even at relatively low exposure levels.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 1995, Vol.28, No.3, p.339-352. 36 ref.
Industrial injury cost analysis by occupation in an electric utility
Data on industrial injuries at the Southern California Edison Company for the period 1980 to 1987 were analyzed; cost data were converted to 1993 dollars. A cost model was developed based on medical costs, indemnity costs and lost productivity costs. The total average cost per injury for the 46 occupations was USD 5,173; the occupational total average injury cost ranged from USD 300 to USD 19,500. Occupations with high total average injury costs may be selected for special injury reduction programmes. The model provides a forecasting tool for generating future injury costs for current years.
Human Factors, Sep. 1995, Vol.37, No.3, p.591-595. 12 ref.
Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident
This report summarizes the results of international investigations into the health consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident (26 Apr. 1986). It concentrates on findings from the International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA). Contents: causes of the accident and the extent of radioactive contamination; response by national authorities and international organizations; establishment and role of IPHECA; types of health consequences (radiation effects and psychological problems); results of IPHECA pilot projects on health consequences (dosimetry, thyroid disorders, leukaemia and related blood disorders, brain damage in utero, oral health); future work.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1995. vi, 38p. Illus. Price: CHF 11.00 (CHF 7.70 in developing countries).
Schneider W.D., Bräunlich A., Lorenz A., Schöneich R., Thürmer H., Wallenstein G.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsmedizin
Dose-effect relationship derived from studies of the exposure of the respiratory tract to irritants (Final report)
Dosis-Wirkungs-Beziehungen bei irritativer Atemtraktbelastung (Schlussbericht) [in German]
Subjects covered in this report: (1) the frequency of chronic respiratory diseases as well as the occupations and irritants involved as it appears from the analyses of records of periodic medical examinations by industrial physicians in Germany between 1982 and 1990; (2) the irritative effects of flyash on workers in power plants burning bituminous coal; (3) the effects of soldering with colophony on the respiratory tract; (4) biological indicators of the inhalation of irritants; (5) dose-effect relationship between the exposure to dust and pulmonary function in foundry workers.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Verlag für neue Wissenschaft GmbH., Postfach 10 11 10, Am Alten Hafen 113-115, 2850 Bremerhaven 1, Germany, 1995. 194p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: DEM 33.00.
Department of Trade and Industry
Britain's gas supply: A safety framework
This report submitted to the British Minister for Industry and Energy examines the safety implications of liberalizing the British domestic gas supply market, and of a more open framework for gas pipeline systems. The hazards associated with gas are described along with key safety issues to be addressed: safe management of the flow of gas through the system; emergency response; the safety of gas appliances. Glossary.
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1995. ii, 58p.
Health and Safety Executive, HM Nuclear Installations Inspectorate
Oldbury on Severn Nuclear Power Station - The findings of NII's assessment of Nuclear Electric's long term safety review
The findings of this assessment are discussed under the headings: review of operation; reactor pressure boundary; reactor internals; natural and other hazards; reactor safety systems; fuel handling and cranes; radiation doses; radioactive waste; irradiated fuel storage; ageing. Areas requiring further consideration in the safety review are identified.
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1995. 23p. Illus. 18 ref.
VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Strategy generator in computerized accident management support system
The objective of this project was to design and develop a prototype computerized support system for the management of serious accident occurrences in nuclear power plants. It consists of a rule-based system which assists plant personnel in planning control measures and damage mitigation strategies ranging from normal operations to severe accident conditions. Future phases of the project involve accurate calculations in simulators and the building of a large database including all important information from the plant useful for strategy planning.
VTT Information Service, P.O.Box 2000, 02044 VTT, Finland, 1994. 91p. Illus. 40 ref. Price: EUR 43.00 (+ 8% VAT).
Tynes T., Reitan J.B., Andersen A.
Incidence of cancer among workers in Norwegian hydroelectric power companies
The goal of this study was to examine whether exposure to electromagnetic fields is related to cancer. The study cohort consisted of 5,088 men who had worked for at least one year between 1920 and 1991 for hydroelectric power companies in Norway. The occupational exposure of these workers included extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields. The standardized incidence (SIR) of cancer was close to unity for the cohort. Calculated cumulative exposure to electromagnetic fields was not associated with the incidence of leukaemia or brain tumours, but an excess of malignant melanoma was shown for the highest category of magnetic field exposure. An analysis of combined possible exposure to oils containing polychlorinated biphenyls and exposures to magnetic fields or possible exposure to electric sparks gave SIRs of 265 and 280, respectively, for the higher exposure category. These results do not support the assumption of a possible association between exposure to electromagnetic fields and leukaemia and brain tumours. The possible association between exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls or magnetic fields and risk of malignant melanoma should be studied further.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Oct. 1994, Vol.20, No.5, p.339-344. 29 ref.
Thériault G., Goldberg M., Miller A.B., Armstrong B., Guénel P., Deadman J., Imbernon E., To T., Chevalier A., Cyr D., Wall C.
Cancer risks associated with occupational exposure to magnetic fields among electric utility workers in Ontario and Quebec, Canada, and France: 1970-1989
This article reports on a case-control study within three cohorts of electrical utility workers in France and Canada (223,292 men in total). During the observation period (1970-1989) 4,151 new cases of cancer occurred. Each participant's cumulative exposure to magnetic fields was estimated based on measurements of current exposure of 2,066 workers performing tasks similar to those in the cohorts using personal dosimetry. Estimates were also made of past exposure. Workers who had more than the median cumulative exposure to magnetic fields had a higher risk for acute non-lymphoid leukaemia (odds ratio (OR) = 2.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-5.44) and acute myeloid leukaemia (OR = 3.15, 95% CI 1.20-8.27). There was also an elevated risk for mean exposure above 0.2 microtesla (acute non-lymphoid leukaemia, OR = 2.36, 95% CI 1.00-5.58; acute myeloid leukaemia, OR = 2.25, 95% CI 0.79-6.46). However, there were no clear dose-response trends with increasing exposure and no consistency among the three utilities.
American Journal of Epidemiology, Mar. 1994, Vol.139, No.6, p.550-572. 50 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Arrangements for responding to nuclear emergencies
This document describes the current arrangements for minimizing the effects on the general public of a nuclear accident in the United Kingdom. Contents: radiation exposure and protection standards; possible nuclear accidents and consequences; emergency plans to deal with the effects of an accident at a nuclear site; countermeasures to protect the public; emergency exercises; roles of government departments, national agencies and local organizations; public information; transport of radioactive material.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury CO10 6FS, Suffolk, United Kingdom, Sep. 1994. v, 58p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 7.50.
Health and Safety Executive
HSE investigation of leukaemia and other cancers in the children of male workers at Sellafield: Review of results published in October 1993
Following criticism of procedures used for estimating radiation doses of certain individuals in the 1993 HSE report on childhood leukaemia in children of male workers at Sellafield (see CIS 94-1395), two revised results are presented: for the non-Seascale subjects, there is no indication of any association of childhood leukaemia or non-Hodgkins lymphoma with the father's pre-conception external radiation dose; for those resident in Seascale at the time of the child's birth, the weak association with 12-week pre-conception external radiation dose now becomes non-significant. The report's other main findings all remain unchanged.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1994. 4p. Price: GBP 2.75.
Direct estimates of cancer mortality due to low doses of ionizing radiation: An international study
An analysis was made of mortality data from studies on nearly 96,000 nuclear industry workers monitored for external radiation in Canada, the UK and the USA to assess directly the carcinogenic effects of protracted low-dose exposure to ionizing radiation. These are the most precise direct estimates so far made of carcinogenic risk following this type of exposure. Results suggest that the risk estimates obtained by extrapolation from studies of atomic bomb survivors are unlikely to be substantially in error. A commentary (p.1039) points out that these new estimates can be applied to occupational risk groups other than nuclear industry workers.
Lancet, 15 Oct. 1994, Vol.344, No.8929, p.1039-1043. Illus. 26 ref.
Health and Safety Commission
Safety in the installation and use of gas systems and appliances
This code of practice presents the text of the Gas Safety (Installation and Use) Regulations 1994 along with guidance on their requirements. Contents: general interpretation and application; general provisions for gas fittings; meter installations and regulators; installation pipework; gas appliances; miscellaneous (maintenance, escape of gas, exemption certificates).
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1994. viii, 35p. Illus. Price: GBP 5.75.
Guide for safety with underground services
This guide outlines the dangers associated with work near underground services and gives advice on how to reduce these dangers. Contents: dangers of electricity cables, gas pipes, liquid petroleum services, oil pipelines, water pipes, sewers and telecommunication cables; safe systems of work; plans; cable and pipe locating devices; safe digging practices; safe systems of work for trenchless methods; new housing developments; installation of new services near existing services; demolition sites. Appendices include legislation and first aid.
Occupational Safety and Health Service, Department of Labour, P.O. Box 3705, Wellington, New Zealand, May 1994. 70p. Illus. 11 ref.
Scansettei G, Pira E., Botta G.C., Turbiglio M., Piolatto G.
Asbestos exposure in a steam-electric generating plant
A study on asbestos risk in an old multi-fuel-fired steam electric power station showed that in spite of the presence of large amounts of asbestos-containing materials, the mean airborne concentration of asbestos was as low as 1.55 fibres/L under normal operating conditions. Much higher concentrations may obviously occur during maintenance or renovation operations. Man-made mineral fibres (MMMFs) were detected only occasionally in samples. Three non-consecutive sputum samples were collected from all 521 workers included in the study: 3.1% of the samples contained asbestos bodies (ABs) (less than four ABs per g of sputum). Small opacities were present in 15 out of 470 radiogrammes of acceptable quality (3.2%). No ABs were found in these cases. Pleural changes were less common (10 cases). Two out of 5 bilateral cases had ABs in the sputum. Repeated AB counts in the sputum is considered as being more useful than the search of pleural abnormalities by traditional postero-anterior (PA) view in detecting signs of low asbestos exposure.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Dec. 1993, Vol.37, No.6, p.645-653. 22 ref.
Pascual Benés A., Gadea Carrera E.
Radioactive facilities: Definition and operating standards
Instalaciones radiactivas: definición y normas para su funcionamiento [in Spanish]
This information note discusses protection against ionizing radiation in nuclear and radioactive facilities. Definition and classification of nuclear and radioactive facilities, as well as their operating standards, are given. Reference is made to Spanish laws and regulations on the subject.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1993. 5p. 7 ref.
McLaughlin J.R., King W.D., Anderson T.W., Clarke E.A., Ashmore J.P.
Paternal radiation exposure and leukaemia in offspring - The Ontario case-control study
A case-control study was conducted to determine whether there is an association between the occupational exposure of men to ionizing radiation and leukaemia in their children. Cases (n=112; 890 controls) were children to age 14 who died from or were diagnosed as having leukaemia from 1950-1988 and were born to mothers living in the vicinity of an operating nuclear facility. Six fathers of cases and 53 fathers of controls had a total body dose >0.0mSv before a child's conception, resulting in an odds ratio of 0.87 (95% confidence interval 0.32-2.34). There was no evidence of an increased leukaemia risk in relation to any exposure period (lifetime, six months or three months before conception) or exposure type (total whole body dose, external whole body dose, or tritium dose), except for radon exposure to uranium miners, which had a large odds ratio that was not significantly different from the null value.
British Medical Journal, Oct. 1993, Vol.307, No.6910, p.959-966. 40 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
HSE investigation of leukaemia and other cancers in the children of male workers at Sellafield
A series of studies was carried out on the excess of leukaemia observed among children living near the Sellafield nuclear power plant and the possible association with parental employment at the plant. Although one study indicated an increased risk of leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in children born to fathers employed at Sellafield, the excess in these illnesses was almost entirely concentrated in children whose fathers started work in the period from 1950 to 1964. Overall, no further preventive action was required to protect the health and safety of radiation workers in general, and those at Sellafield in particular, than that already taken. Glossary of terms and abbreviations.
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1993. v, 220p. 19 ref. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 20.00.
Imbernon E., Warret G., Roitg C., Chastang J.F., Goldberg M.
Effects on health and social well-being of on-call shifts - An epidemiologic study in the French national electricity and gas supply company
An investigation of the effects on health and social well-being of on-call shift work to cover emergencies outside working hours has been carried out by EDF-GDF, the French national company that supplies gas and electricity. A "weekly report form", completed for three consecutive weeks randomly selected using a sampling plan covering the entire year to take into account seasonal variations, was subsequently filled in by 115 of the group exposed to on-call shift work and 167 of those who were not, in order to investigate events occurring outside working hours and sleep. The findings show that the main demands of being on-call were telephone calls, accompanied by a shorter sleeping time, and more frequent tiredness on waking up. No particular disorder was found more frequently in the exposed group, but the psychological equilibrium and family and social life of the workers in the on-call shift group were disturbed: some variables in the questionnaire and indices calculated from some items revealed adverse effects. Analysis of the frequency of on-call shifts showed that these effects were greater the more frequently the subject was on call.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Nov. 1993, Vol.35, No.11, p.1131-1137. 17 ref.
Metal and steel production, foundries and electricity and heat generating plants
Metal- stålværker og støberier, el- og varmeværker [in Danish]
Volume No.1 of a series of monographs covering occupational safety and health in all sectors of the Danish economy. It covers the metal production industries, foundries and electricity and district heat plants. The major work environmental problems in these sectors are accidents, noise exposure, air contaminants, heavy workload and vibrations (Raynaud's phenomenon).
Direktoratet for Arbejdstilsynet, Landskronagade 33-35, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, 1993. 66p. 22 ref. Price: DKK 100.00.
Solov'janov A.A., Osipov V.I., Jurkevič S.O.
Occupational morbidity in installations of the electric power industry
Professional'naja zabolevaemost' na predprijatijah ėlektroėnergetiki [in Russian]
Statistics on occupational disease on file at the former Ministries of Health and Energy of the USSR and the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation were analyzed in terms of the occupation and place of employment (enterprise, region) of the victim, the organ or system involved and probable causative factors. The data cover the years 1984-1991. A major cause of morbidity is the inadequacy, non-use or total absence of personal and collective protective equipment.
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, 1993, No.7, p.2-11. Illus.
Saarilhati J., Mattila M., Laine A.
Analysis and improvement of the ergonomics and safety of ultrasonic inspections in nuclear power plants
A study was made of radiation exposure and the work posture of inspectors carrying out ultrasonic tests of pipeline weldings during shutdown of two nuclear power plants in Finland. Results showed that inspectors were exposed to higher radiation doses than other workers in nuclear plants; automated testing resulted in higher radiation doses than manual testing because of the time required to install and adjust the equipment. Poor working postures were common during both manual and automated inspections.
In: Nielsen R. and Jorgensen K. (eds.), Advances in industrial ergonomics and safety V., Taylor and Francis Ltd., Rankine Road, Basingstoke RG24 OPR, Hants, United Kingdom, 1993, p.621-626. 5 ref.
Advisory Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations
ACSNI Human Factors Study Group third report: Organising for safety
This report by the Advisory Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (ACSNI) considers the role played by organisational factors and management in promoting nuclear safety. Contents: the evolution of safety management and regulation; proactive safety management; the concept and measurement of safety culture; safety culture and the factors that contribute to its strength; general organisational factors affecting safety culture; the role of risk perceptions and attitudes; violations; some broader social issues; actions to review and promote safety culture; conclusions and recommendations. Appendices include: the development of accident causation models; validation of safety programmes and interventions; risk perceptions and attitudes to hazards; safety auditing systems.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1993. 100p. 147 ref. Price: GBP 7.00.
Charuel C., Romazini S., Gallin-Martel C., Martin A., Schlumberger H.G., De Gaudemaris R.
Low-back pain within EDF-GDF - Study over two years of the medical and socio-economic consequences of occupational injuries
Les lombalgies à EDF-GDF - Etude des circonstances et conséquences socio-économiques des accidents du travail sur deux ans [in French]
A study of subjects suffering from occupational back pain during the period 1987-1988 was carried out by occupational physicians of the electricity and gas company EDF-GDF (France) to evaluate the circumstances and causes, the seriousness and the medical, social and professional consequences of the condition. A multivariate analysis revealed the risk factors particular to each professional group. Priority was given to two kinds of activity: trench welding and work requiring much travel, both of which had a high incidence of back pain due to the frequent rotation of the body. A prevention programme can be established for each professional category: modified workstation fittings, modification of work processes, body movement training. The evaluation strategy of these various actions are still to be defined.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, de médecine du travail et de sécurité sociale, 1992, Vol.53, No.8, p.727-732. Illus. 10 ref.
Seldén A., Berg P., Jakobsson R., de Laval J.
Methylene dianiline: Assessment of exposure and cancer morbidity in power generator workers
The biaromatic amine 4,4'-methylenedianiline (MDA) is an animal carcinogen, possibly also carcinogenic in humans. In a cohort of 595 power generator workers potentially exposed to MDA in a curing agent of an epoxy system, the overall standardised cancer incidence ratio (SIR) among males (n=550), however, was only 0.52 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.16-1.21) based on five observed cases. One male urinary bladder cancer case was found in comparison to 0.6 expected (SIR 1.67; 95% CI 0.04-9.31). This case was identified in an unexposed subcohort. High levels of MDA metabolites were ascertained in the urine of currently exposed workers, probably following percutaneous absorption. Although no evidence of an increased overall or bladder cancer risk was detected, the limitations of the study in regard to the size of the cohort, age and cancer latency preclude a definite risk assessment. The dermal absorption of MDA has been highlighted.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1992, Vol.63, No.6, p.403-408. Illus. 16 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Safety assessment principles for nuclear plants
This document updates and consolidates earlier publications by the British Nuclear Installations Inspectorate concerning nuclear power plant and nuclear chemical plant principles (see CIS 85-992). Contents: regulatory background and safety assessment; fundamental principles; safety analysis during normal operations and under accident conditions; siting of nuclear plant; engineering principles for nuclear plant design (general principles, external and internal hazards, structural integrity, safety systems and safety related instrumentation, plant specific principles); life-cycle requirements. Glossary of terms.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1992. iii, 46. 10 ref. Price: GBP 10.00.
Can nuclear power plant operators work without error?
Mogut li operatory AĖS rabotat' bezošibočno? [in Russian]
The basic findings of industrial psychology concerning "operator error" are reviewed. A primary cause of the Chernobyl disaster was not so much operator error per se as a lack of necessary standards. A case of human error amounts to a brief involuntary deviation from the standards or to a single fault in their formulation. Achieving error-free operation in practice requires dealing with three factors: the operator him/herself, the man-machine interface and the interactions of the personnel as a whole.
Tehničeskaja ėstetika, 1992, No.2, p.10-13. Illus. 14 ref.
Strader C.H., Petersen G.R.
Evaluating strategies for health surveillance - Health event ascertainment at a nuclear facility
The US Department of Energy's Health Surveillance System is a pilot project to design, implement, and evaluate a system of routine morbidity surveillance based on routinely collected occupational medical data at participating Department of Energy facilities. At the Hanford Site (Richland, Washington), most health events were ascertained using a 21-day threshold-of-absence criterion. This provisional threshold, established under the assumption that it would capture all important morbidity, has been criticised as potentially omitting morbidity of interest. A review of all health-event absences occurring over a one-year period revealed that the efficacy of the 21-day threshold varies widely by diagnosis and that absence-based eligibility criteria are not useful for all morbidity of interest. Future development will require supplementation of health-event ascertainment by other, diagnosis-based criteria to ensure completeness of ascertainment.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1992, Vol.34, No.1, p.45-52. Illus. 22 ref.
Occupational accidents 1991. French National Electricity Board Employees
Accidents du travail 1991 - Agents EDF [in French]
Leaflet giving the key figures of the safety level at the French National Electricity Board. Number of occupational accidents reported, trends in frequency and severity rates in 1991. Direct costs of accidents.
Electricité de France, Direction des affaires générales, service prévention et sécurité, 22-30 avenue de Wagram, 75382 Paris Cedex 08, France, 1992. 2p.
Kendall G.M., Muirhead C.R., MacGibbon B.H., O'Hagan J.A., Conquest A.J., Goodhill A.A., Butland B.K., Fell T.P., Jackson D.A., Webb M.A., Haylock R.G.E., Thomas J.M., Silk T.J.
National Radiological Protection Board
First analysis of the National registry for Radiation Workers: Occupational exposure to ionising radiation and mortality
This analysis provides a mortality study covering over 95,000 radiation workers with a collective lifetime dose of 3200 man Sv. The Standardised Mortality Ratio (SMR) for all causes of death was 85, significantly below 100, indicating a substantial Healthy Worker Effect. The SMR for all neoplasms (86) was also significantly below 100, as was the SMR for lung cancer. The only cancer for which an elevated SMR reached statistical significance was thyroid cancer, although this observation may be due to chance. Internal analysis (or test for trend in risk with dose) showed positive trends with dose for all cancers taken together and for leukaemias (excluding chronic lymphatic leukaemia).
HMSO Books, PO Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, Jan. 1992. 102p. Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 7.00.
Flue gas monitoring system - Guiding system for safe access to flue gas purification plants
Rauchgaswarnanlage - Leittechnisches System zum sicheren Befahren von Rauchgasreinigungsanlagen [in German]
A method for preparing the access of maintenance/repair workers to gas cleaning facilities in thermal power stations is outlined. It involves the cooling off of the sector concerned, to be followed by a thorough checking for absence of flue gas and other toxic substances. A portable toxic atmosphere detection and warning unit is illustrated, to be carried along during work.
Sicherheitsingenieur, Sep. 1991, Vol.22, No.9, p.36-38, 40-42. Illus. 4 ref.
Imbernon E., Goldberg M., Guenel P., Bitouze F., Brement F., Casal A., Creux S., Folliot D., Huez D., Lagorio S., Lalande B., Langlois L., Niedbala J.M., Soncarrieu A., Warret G.
MATEX: A job-exposure matrix for the epidemiological surveillance of workers in a large company (EDF-GDF)
MATEX: une matrice emplois-expositions destinée à la surveillance épidémiologique des travailleurs d'une grande entreprise (EDF-GDF) [in French]
Large-scale epidemiological surveys cannot be carried out successfully through traditional survey methods. Despite their limitations, job-exposure matrices are among the reliable standardized tools which can best contribute to carrying out such surveys. The MATEX project, a job-exposure matrix specifically developed for the power and gas industry in France, includes assessments for about 30 possible carcinogens used in the French national power and gas company using the 1, 2A and 2B categories of IARC. For each of these substances, data are collected on tasks involving some form of exposure; these data are then used to derive indices of the probability and intensity of exposure which can be included in epidemiological surveys.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1991, Vol.52, No.8, p.559-566. 13 ref.
Pistelli R., Pupp N., Forastiere F., Agabiti N., Corbo G.M., Tidei F., Perucci C.A.
Increase in non-specific bronchial responsiveness following occupational exposure to vanadium
Aumento della reattività bronchiale aspecifica dopo esposizione professionale a vanadio [in Italian]
A study was conducted to evaluate the level of bronchial responsiveness among workers recently exposed to vanadium pentoxide during periodical removal of ashes and clinker from the boilers of an oil-fired power station. A total of 11 male workers and 14 controls were examined 40-60h after the last exposure. None of the subjects in the 2 groups had symptoms of bronchial inflammation or significant airway obstruction. However, bronchial responsiveness, investigated using a methacholine challenge test, was significantly higher in the exposed group. It is suggested that exposure to vanadium increases bronchial responsiveness even without clinical appearance of bronchial symptoms. The possible role of such an increased level of airway responsiveness in the development of chronic obstructive lung disease is discussed.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1991, Vol.82, No.3, p.270-275. 15 ref.
Leukaemia and paternal radiation exposure
A recent study inferred that a reputed cluster of cases of leukaemia in children near the UK Sellafield nuclear facility was probably caused by occupational exposure of the father to ionising radiation at the plant. This paper raises the following objections to this hypothesis: the statistical argument ignores the difficulties raised by the temporal clustering of the cases and the apparent limitation to one village; ionising radiation is a general mutagen and there is no evidence of any other genetic effect at Sellafield; children of parents exposed to the Japanese nuclear explosions have shown no genetic effects and no increase in leukaemia or any other cancer.
Medical Journal of Australia, 1 Apr. 1991, Vol.154, No.7, p.483-487. 23 ref.
Radical solutions are needed
Nužny radikal'nye rešenija [in Russian]
Editorial presenting fatal accident statistics for mining, metallurgy, petroleum and gas extraction, petroleum refining, the chemical and petrochemical industry and geological exploration, as well as for cranes and for equipment subject to the boiler and gas inspectorates in the USSR for 1988 and 1989. Although there were 89 fewer deaths in 1989 (1151 versus 1240 in 1988), the decrease is modest, and there was actually an increase in the petroleum and gas industry. The numbers are broken down by industrial sector and republic; total figures for the Russian, Ukrainian and Kazakh republics are broken down by district. The relation of these figures to the safety situation in general is discussed. Improvement requires action on 3 fronts: increasing the safety consciousness of the whole population; imposing serious fines on those who violate safety rules; establishment of a legal and regulatory system that clearly defines the rights and responsibilities of individuals, enterprises and authorities.
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, Mar. 1990, No.3, p.2-6.
Coal-burning power station "Rete 2": Hazard evaluation
Centrale a carbone "Rete 2": valutazione dei rischi [in Italian]
Report of a hazard evaluation survey of a coal-burning electricity generating station near the Italian city of Reggio Emilia. Contents: technological characteristics of the station; results of the hazard survey (atmospheric emissions, air-quality measurements, noise, environmental radioactivity, liquid and solid waste); health and toxicological aspects of the survey (potential non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic effects of exposure to the substances found in the survey; subjective impact of the findings; environmental effects). On the whole, the safety and health measures implemented by the station are judged highly satisfactory, both from the occupational and the environmental point of view. The commission does make the recommendation, however, that there should be more consultation and cooperation with the population of the neighbouring areas than exist now.
Regione Emilia - Romagna / Sedi, via Ciamician 2, Bologna, Italy, Jan. 1990. 82p. Illus. 24 ref.
Gustavsson P., Reuterwall C.
Mortality and incidence of cancer among Swedish gas workers
The mortality and incidence of cancer was studied among 295 workers at a Swedish gas producing company. All men employed for at least one year between 1965 and 1972 were included in the study. The follow up period for mortality was 1966 to 1986, and the incidence of cancer was followed up from 1966 to 1983. Expected numbers of deaths were based on local death rates among occupationally active men, the expected numbers of cancer were based on national statistics. The total mortality was increased, mainly due to an excess of deaths from circulatory diseases. The excess was larger after long follow up and after long employment periods. Two cases of cancer in the nose and nasal sinuses were found; there was no excess of lung cancer. Smoking habits were investigated for a subset of the cohort and did not differ from the average for men in large cities. The findings are discussed in relation to other studies of soot and combustion exposed workers.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 1990, Vol.47, No.3, p.169-174. 34 ref.
Kohlhase D., Schubert K.
Auf Nummer sicher gehen [in German]
The analysis of occupational accidents in a German gas company revealed that 40% were due to stumbling, slipping and falling. A training programme for employees was worked out. In courses employees were taught safe behaviour on ladders, stairs, on the level and when getting in and out of cars. Video-films, overhead transparencies and posters were used to illustrate dangers and methods to prevent accidents.
Sicherheitsingenieur, 1989, Vol.20, No.12, p.16-20. Illus.
Forastiere F., Pupp N., Magliola E., Valesini S., Tidei F., Perucci C.A.
Respiratory cancer mortality among workers employed in thermoelectric power plants
Results of a cohort study of 406 workers. The total mortality was below that expected (observed 40, standardised mortality ratio (SMR) 87) on the basis of national rates. Cancer mortality was slightly increased (SMR 112), mainly because of an excess of respiratory cancer (observed 9, SMR 171, 90% CI 89-299). Lung cancer deaths were higher than expected among those less than 60 years of age and among those with a duration of exposure and a latency period since first employment of over 10 years (observed 7, SMR 184). Furthermore, the increase was more pronounced among maintenance workers and workers in general services. Previous data indicated that there had been past exposure to some known respiratory carcinogens (i.e., asbestos, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). This study suggests that a possible lung cancer risk from traditional electricity generating plants should be considered and further studied.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1989, Vol.15, No.6, p.383-386. 9 ref.
The economics of safety. From evaluation to prevention of technological risks
Economie de la sécurité. De l'évaluation à la prévention des risques technologiques [in French]
This document shows how technological development, with the hazards it implies (e.g. major accident hazards, long-term effects of exposure to chemicals) and the evolution of the public perception of safety challenge the traditional concept of "socially acceptable" hazard levels. Taking the example of radiation protection in the nuclear industry, the author assigns a very important role to cost-benefit analysis in the choice and development of preventive stategies.
Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale, INSERM, 101 rue de Tolbiac, 75654 Paris Cedex 13, France, 1989. 302p. Illus. 312 ref. Price: FRF 165.00.
Developments in computer-based probabilistic safety analyses
Entwicklung auf dem Gebiet rechnergestützter probabilistischer Sicherheitsanalysen [in German]
Probabilistic safety analyses are used to detect faults during construction of nuclear power plants or upon completion. Recent developments point to their additional use for operation optimisation. Risk detection models used for this purpose in the U.S.A. are programmed, for instance, to determine the effects of system changes or improvements.
Atomwirtschaft, Feb. 1989, Vol.34, No.2, p.91-92. 8 ref.
Biederbick M., Schaub R.
Cryogenic sealing of cooling water circuits
Frost-Service für Abdichtungen im Kühlwasserkreislauf [in German]
A method for repair, maintenance or inspections of cooling water pipes in nuclear power plants without emptying the cooling system is described. The method is based on attaching a sleeve upstream of the affected pipe section. The sleeve is filled with liquid nitrogen. Aside from pipe materials known to remain unaffected by temperatures of -196°C, ferritic-pearlitic materials are suitable.
Atomwirtschaft, Feb. 1989, Vol.34, No.2, p.89-90. Illus. 4 ref.
Kapitel U., Dietl R.
Safety installations for construction and operation of the flue gas cleaning equipment of a power plant
Sicherheitstechnische Einrichtungen bei Bau und Betrieb der Rauchgasreinigungsanlagen [in German]
Equipment was installed in a power plant near Regensburg (Fed. Rep. of Germany) for the removal of oxides of nitrogen and of sulfur from the flue gases. Safety installations for the prevention of accidents during construction and operation of these flue gas cleaning facilities include sufficiently large access doors, broad scaffolds, fall arresters and valves to shut off flue gas ducts.
Sicherheitsingenieur, 1989, Vol.20, No.3, p.12-14, 16-18, 20, 22. Illus.
Trayer D.M., Thornton C.C., Lehman C.B.
Development and testing of a new thermal-acoustic industrial insulation
Following laboratory tests of several candidate materials, one was selected for full-scale tests on high-speed boiler-feed water pumps in an electric power plant. The field tests showed a noise reduction of 10 to 30 decibels in the frequency range of 250 to 4000Hz. It is thought that at least 10 decibels of mid-frequency noise attenuation can be achieved on noisy process equipment such as high-speed pumps, turbines, and control valves. Heat stress conditions in the area of pumps were also alleviated as the result of a temperature reduction of 6°K (10°F) dry-bulb. An investigation is being conducted to determine if this represents a significant thermal energy gain in the process feedwater - a factor which could offset the cost of the insulation. The insulation is asbestos-free, and the removal and replacement of individual components are achieved without generation of excessive airborne dust.
Applied Industrial Hygiene, Feb. 1989, Vol.4, No.2, p.45-49. Illus. 5 ref.
Bureau of Labour Protection, Ministry of Labour
Safety code for gas produced in industrial enterprises [China]
Gongye qiye meiqi anquan quicheng [in Chinese]
This standard (effective 1 Dec. 1986) applies to coal-gas and natural gas (less than or equal to 12.24kgf/cm2) that is produced in industrial enterprises. It defines the safety requirements in design, operation, management and maintenance of facilities in the production, distribution and storage of gas. The main divisions are: basic requirements; gas production, recycling and purification; gas pipelines (including natural gas pipelines), accessories of gas equipment and pipelines; gas compressing and mixing centres; gas tanks, operation and servicing precautions in gas facilities, emergency procedures in gas accidents; gas control rooms and "vigilance centres" (safety monitoring and emergency response centres). Appendix: commentaries to each of the main divisions.
In: Reference Collection of National Occupational Safety and Health Standards 1985-1986, China Standards Publishing Co., Beijing, China, Apr. 1988, p.207-255. Price: CNY 11.00 (whole volume).
Gustavsson P., Reuterwall C.
Mortality and cancer incidence among gas workers
Dödsorsaker och cancersjuklighet bland gasverksarbetare [in Swedish]
The mortality and incidence of cancer was studied among 295 gas production workers. All men employed for at least one year between 1965 and 1972 were included in the study. The mortality was studied from 1966 to 1986 and cancer incidence from 1966 to 1983. Expected numbers of deaths were based on the mortality among occupationally active men in Stockholm, and the expected numbers of cancers were based on national statistics. There was an excess of deaths from circulatory diseases, mainly ischaemic heart disease, that increased after long follow-up. The excess does not seem to be caused by tobacco smoking habits, which were investigated for a subset of the cohort. Two cases of cancer in the nasal cavity and sinuses were found, which is a very uncommon tumour form. No excess of lung cancer was found. There was a tendency towards increased mortality in non-malignant respiratory diseases. The results are similar to those from a Swedish coke oven plant.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1988. 34p. Illus. 4 ref.
Hultengren M., Rosén G.
Health effects of work in production and distribution of electricity - Part 5: Exposure to chemical factors
Hälsorisker i arbete vid elproduktion och eldistribution - Delrapport 5: Exponering för kemiska belastningsfaktorer [in Swedish]
Chemical exposure was estimated on the basis of workplace measurements and assessments made by technical experts. Data on occupational diseases in the electrical power industry were taken from "The Information System on Occupational Accidents and Diseases" (ISA). Solvents were the most important chemical factors besides asbestos. Many workers could have been exposed to solvents above the TLVs during maintenance and repair work. However, average exposure for most working hours was low. Exposure to other chemical hazards was generally low. Skin exposure to creosote was a problem when working with impregnated poles. Asbestos was the suspected agent in 220 cases of 399 occupational diseases reported to the ISA during 1979-1985. Only a few diseases such as eczemas due to the use of chemicals such as impregnating agents, solvents, oils and cleaners were reported during the same period.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1988. 31p. Illus. 26 ref.
Muraca P.W., Stout J.E., Yu V.L., Yee Y.C.
Legionnaires' disease in the work environment: implications for environmental health
Outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease have occurred in hotels, hospitals, and homes but had not been reported yet in the work environment. The authors report the occurrence of Legionnaires' disease in three employees of two industrial plants. The potable water in the two plants contained high numbers of Legionella pneumophila. Monoclonal antibody subtyping of environmental and patient isolates of L. pneumophila implicated one of the plants as the source for the disease. L. pneumophila was eradicated from this plant using acidic and caustic scale removers, calcium hypochlorite, and a biocide. A systematic approach to Legionnaires' disease in the work environment, a problem which can be expected to be recognised with increasing frequency, is presented.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1988, Vol.49, No.11, p.584-590. Illus. 24 ref.
Safety margin for controlling operating faults
Sicherheitsreserven bei der Beherrschung von Störungen [in German]
Various examples of reported malfunctions in nuclear power plants are presented. The fail-safe measures available in each case to control the mishap are described. Cases covered: unforeseeable developments of the incident, simultaneous failure of several operating systems, failure of safety equipment and operating mistakes by personnel.
Technische Mitteilungen, Jan. 1988, Vol.81, No.1, p.18-23. Illus.
Safety measures in odorisation plants
Sicherheitstechnik in Odorieranlagen [in German]
Tetrahydrothiophene (THT) is used for odorisation of natural and liquefied fuel gases. Described safety measures address the protective clothing to be worn when handling THT as well as the explosion and fire prevention measures (e.g. prohibition of smoking, warning signs, fire extinguishers, use of explosion-proof electrical equipment) for transport and storage of THT.
Betrifft Sicherheit, Informationen der Berufsgenossenschaft der Gas- und Wasserwerke, 1988, Special issue, p.8-10. Illus.
Ruppert F., Ettemeyer A.
Hazardous substances: an information challenge
Gefahrstoffe als Wissensanforderung [in German]
Perception of danger and risk posed by substances encountered in a nuclear power plant was determined by questionnaires and interviews. Even though safety organisation in the plant was found to be of a high level, most of the workers rely on their sensory ability to recognise harmful and dangerous substances rather than on the information they would obtain on these substances by reading warning notices.
Zeitschrift für Arbeits- und Organisationspsychologie, 1988, Vol.32, No.3, p.118-127. Illus. 21 ref.
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