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Petroleum and natural gas industry - 659 entries found

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1992

CIS 92-1210
Health and Safety Commission
Guidance on multi-skilling in the petroleum industry
This document focuses on the arrangements for training that should be made when flexible or multi-disciplinary working, generally called multi-skilling, is being introduced or developed. Contents: key features of effective multi-skilling and its 3 main forms; health and safety implications of multi-skilling; broad principles for the introduction of multi-skilling; training principles; reasons why multi-skilling can fail to work as it should; use of contractors; interaction with other areas. A checklist identifies stages in the multi-skilling process and the key steps and individuals involved.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1992. iii, 12p. Price: GBP 2.00.

CIS 92-978 Di Gesso J.
Refinery losses - Waiting for the big one
The concept of the Estimated Maximum Loss (EML) resulting from a single fire or explosion at a refinery is discussed and an analysis is made of a number of refinery losses. Results show that an EML event on a refinery typically causes property damage of up to 20% of the total site value and that any one refinery can expect an EML event every 2,000 to 2,500 years. The average portion of the annual insurance premium rate required to meet refinery losses equivalent to at least 5% of the total site value is about 0.04% of the total site value.
Loss Prevention Bulletin, Feb. 1992, No.103, p.1-7. 1 ref.

1991

CIS 95-1644
Asian and Pacific Regional Centre for Labour Administration (ARPLA)
Labour administration training material: Labour inspection skills in the petroleum industry
Proceedings of a regional training course on labour inspection in the petroleum industry organized by ILO/ARPLA in Bombay, India, 16 Oct.-3 Nov. 1989. Topics covered include: a profile of the petroleum industry; legislation and enforcement; safety engineering in refineries (permit-to work system, inspection and maintenance of electrical equipment, non-destructive testing of pressurized components, instrumentation and safety devices); industrial hygiene and occupational health (hygiene inspection, control of hazardous substances, health problems); major accident hazard control (hazard assessment, fire protection, startup and shutdown procedures); safety management.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1991. v, 155p. Bibl.ref. Price: USD 9.00.

CIS 94-587 Christie D., Robinson K., Gordon I., Bisby J.
A prospective study in the Australian petroleum industry. I. Mortality. II. Incidence of cancer
These two papers report on the mortality experience and the incidence of cancer in employees of the Australian petroleum industry from 1981 to 1989. Two surveys studied more than 15,000 employees (having over five years of service) representing 92% of the eligible population. By the end of 1989, 76,529 person-years of observation had accumulated for male mortality with 241 deaths. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) analysis showed a favourable mortality experience for most causes with overall cancer rates slightly lower than those of the national population. As for the incidence of cancer, 50,254 person-years of observation had accumulated in the men with 152 incident cancers reported. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) analysis showed overall cancer rates close to those of the national population. Deficits were seen in some cancer sites, notably lung. An excess of observed/expected cases was present in all subcategories of lymphohaematopoietic cancer and was most apparent in myeloid leukaemia as well as melanoma.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1991, Vol.48, No.8, p.507-514. 41 ref.

CIS 93-863 Tsai S.P., Dowd C.M., Cowles S.R., Ross C.E.
Prospective morbidity surveillance of Shell refinery and petrochemical employees
Results are presented of a prospective morbidity study of 14,170 refinery and chemical workers from 1981 through 1988, based on an internal health surveillance system. Generally, rates and durations of absence were highest for older age groups, women, and production workers. Increased risk was associated with the presence of known disease risk factors. Overall, 48% of the employees had at least one illness/absence in excess of five days during the eight year period. 12% of the employees had four or more absences, which accounted for 54% of the total number of absences and 52% of the total work days lost. Among men, the five most common conditions accounted for 72% of all illness/absences. In descending order they were injuries (25%), respiratory illnesses (17%), musculoskeletal disorders (14%), digestive illnesses (9%), and heart disease (7%). Similar patterns were noted among women. These findings may be useful in setting priorities and directing efforts such as health education programmes and other strategies for the prevention of disease.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 1991, Vol.48, No.3, p.155-163. 12 ref.

CIS 93-318
Health and Safety Executive
Pipeline and riser loss of containment study 1990 (PARLOC 90)
The purpose of this study was to update and improve confidence in the statistical information currently available to assess the frequency of loss of containment associated with operation of North Sea pipelines. Two databases were compiled: an incident database containing a description of each reported incident and data on the pipeline or lines affected; a pipeline database containing details of all North Sea pipelines. The collation and contents of the databases are described in detail along with their use in the assessment of factors affecting the frequency of incidents. In annex: glossary of terms.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1991. 100p. Price: GBP 20.00.

CIS 92-1308
Institute of Petroleum
Code of practice for the safe handling of drilling fluids
This code of practice is concerned with the hazards of drilling fluids used in the exploration and production of oil and gas. Contents: principles of occupational health practice; roles and responsibilities; recognition of hazard and evaluation of the risk (drilling fluids and the drilling process; hazards from drilling fluids; information on drilling fluids constituents from manufacturers and suppliers; potential exposures); control of risk (outline of various control measures; surveys and monitoring; environmental aspects; information, instruction and training). An appendix lists mud constituents with a summary of their hazards, exposure limits, likely sources of exposure and appropriate means of control.
John Wiley and Sons Ltd., Baffins Lane, Chichester PO22 9SA, West Sussex, United Kingdom, Nov. 1991. 26p. 27 ref.

CIS 92-1358
Health and Safety Executive
Risk analysis of mooring failure. Phase 2: Consequences of MODU mooring failure in the northern North Sea
This report describes the results of a risk study in which event tree analysis was used to investigate the consequences of mooring failure for Mobile Offshore Drilling Units (MODUs). The following possible consequences of mooring failure were studied: collision with an existing installation; blowout; pipeline fracture; tripping capsize; stranding or grounding. It was concluded that the greatest risk associated with station keeping system failure is that due to the possibility of a collision with another installation. The greatest risk associated with single line failure is that due to possibility of damage to the marine riser of B.O.P. leading to an uncontrollable escape of hydrocarbon.
Noble Denton Marine Services Ltd., Moray House, 145 Crown Street, Aberdeen AB1 2HR, United Kingdom, Mar. 1991. 125p. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 92-846 Macaluso M., Delzell E., Cole P., Wongsrichanalai C., Cowles S.
Validity of a mortality study based on a corporate health surveillance system
The Shell Health Surveillance System (HSS) was evaluated through conducting two mortality studies at an oil refinery. Study A used the HSS to measure the mortality of active and retired workers during 1973 to 1982. Study B used additional information sources and followed up terminated employees. For subjects included in both studies, results were very similar. However, the mortality experience of terminees before 1973 (included only in study B) was different from that of study A subjects, reflecting differences in length of employment and time since hire. HSS-based studies provide valid measures of long-term effects of past exposures among retirees and of short-term effects of recent exposures among active employees. However, they cannot detect short-term effects of past exposures, and they have limited power for evaluating dose-response relationships.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Nov. 1991, Vol.33, No.11, p.1180-1186. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 92-885 Tsai S.P., Dowd C.M., Cowles S.R., Ross C.E.
Morbidity patterns among employees at a petroleum refinery
The morbidity experience of a prospective cohort of 2132 petroleum refinery workers (working from 1981 to 1988) was studied. Standardised morbidity ratios (SMRs) of disease prevalence were calculated using data from all manufacturing employees of the company as an internal comparison group. Morbidity for all causes combined was virtually the same as that for the comparison group with 2,311 observed and 2,318 expected disease prevalence events. However, there was a statistically increased prevalence of musculoskeletal system disorders (SMR=136) and of injuries (SMR=125) among staff employees and of skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders (SMR=138) among production employees. A review of the original morbidity reports for these skin conditions showed that none were due to exposure to chemical products or solvents. The SMR for neoplasms of the lymphatic and haematopoietic tissue among production employees was slightly elevated but was based on only 3 cases. Of the 3 cases, none was due to leukaemia.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1991, Vol.33, No.10, p.1076-1080. 11 ref.

CIS 92-985 Decommissioning and removal of offshore structures. Summary report.
Status report on the initial phases of a study concerning the safe use of explosive techniques for the removal of offshore structures. Projects include use of finite element analysis to determine the structural response to explosive loadings and work on explosive cutting techniques.
Marinetech North West, Coupland III Building, The University, Manchester M13 9PL, United Kingdom, 1991. 5p.

CIS 92-1016 Stevenson A., Campion R.P., Ho E.
An overview of the MERL/BHRG international seal life prediction project
This overview presents a general outline of the work of a project concerned with elastomer seal life prediction; all detailed results and data remain confidential to the project consortium. The work included: a critical review of failure mechanisms and associated factors; determination of basic parameters using test specimens; development of a computer program to apply these results to actual seals; performance tests on seals under carefully controlled conditions. In addition, a Seal Life Prediction Methodology is being compiled to enable the techniques developed to be applied to specific problems in the future.
Health and Safety Executive, Library and Information Services, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, Mar. 1991. 24p. Illus.

CIS 92-501 Safety guidelines for the fuel retail business
Nenryō kōrigyō ni okeru rōdō saigai bōshi no tame no gaidorain [in Japanese]
The "fuel retail business" handles various liquid fuels such as gasoline and gaseous fuels such as LPG. Industrial accidents in this business involve falling down or slipping on the floor or road, traffic accidents, and back pain complaints from handling gas cylinders. To prevent such accidents, comprehensive guidelines were formulated. They include specific preventive measures such as: (1) the establishment of an organisation for safety and health management according to the size of the workplace; (2) the promotion of the safety of facilities and equipment in response to the type of business and establishment of safe working methods; (3) health management measures, (4) ideal methods for safety and health education; (5) daily measures required to prevent accidents.
Japan Industrial Safety and Health Association, 5-35-1 Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan, July 1991. 78p. Illus.

CIS 92-605 Redmond T.C.
Piper Alpha - Cost of the lessons
The way insurance programmes for high-value oil/petro-chemical risks are organised is described and the insurance placement and costs resulting from the accident to the Piper Alpha oil production platform are discussed. Insurance of such risks may cover damage to the facility, business interruption, third party liability, pollution and clean up and debris removal. The actual size of the loss to the insurance industry following the Piper Alpha accident is still not known, although an approximate figure is given as USD 1.5 billion.
Loss Prevention Bulletin, Dec. 1991, No.102, p.1-5. Illus.

CIS 92-594 Omeish T.M., Sebastian M.
Overcoming electrical risks in hazardous process areas
A discussion of the importance of proper selection, operation and maintenance of electrical equipment for use in hazardous areas at petroleum processing facilities. Areas referred to are those where flammable petroleum gases and volatile flammable liquids are processed, stored or handled. Topics covered include: hazardous areas and their classification; sources of release and their likely frequency and duration; conditions for a fire or explosion; selection of electrical equipment according to the area classification; operations and maintenance; inspection of equipment and training of personnel (isolation of apparatus during inspection, hot work precautions, initial and periodic inspections, testing).
Fire Prevention, Dec. 1991, No.245, p.21-26. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 92-177
Health and Safety Commission
Guidance on permit-to-work systems in the petroleum industry
This guidance note is a revision of the 1986 edition (see CIS 87-1320) and covers both onshore and offshore activities in the petroleum industry. Contents: definition of a permit-to-work system and its objectives and functions; responsibilities of employers, occupiers, owners, managers, contractors and supervisors; required training for users of a permit-to-work system; types of permits-to-work found in the petroleum industry and when they are required. Appendices include relevant legal requirements and system and equipment isolation procedures and isolation certificates.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1991. 18p. 13 ref. Price: GBP 2.50.

CIS 92-206 Mehlman M.A.
Dangerous and cancer-causing properties of products and chemicals in the oil refining and petrochemical industry. Part V, Asbestos-caused cancers and exposure of workers in the oil refining industry
In the oil refining and petrochemical industries exposure to cancer-causing asbestos particles, especially during equipment repair and maintenance, is very high. Up to 90% of workers in the oil refining industry had direct and/or indirect contact with asbestos, and more than half of this contact occurred without the use of any kind of precaution, exposing these workers to a high risk of developing lung cancer and mesothelioma, both fatal diseases. The hazards include: inadequate health and safety training for both company personnel and workers; failure to inform about the dangers and diseases (cancers) resulting from exposure to asbestos; excessive use of large numbers of untrained and uninformed contract workers; lack of use of protective equipment; antiquated approached and responses to repairing asbestos breaks and replacement of asbestos in oil-refining facilities.
Toxicology and Industrial Health, Jan.-Mar. 1991, Vol.7, No.1/2, p.53-71. Illus. 57 ref.

CIS 92-279
Institute of Petroleum
Electrical safety code
This Code forms Part 1 of the Institute of Petroleum Model Code of Safe Practice in the Petroleum Industry. Contents: types of protection for electrical apparatus for use in hazardous areas; selection of electrical apparatus according to zone of risk, temperature classification and environmental conditions; certification and marking of apparatus; installation requirements; inspection, maintenance and testing; earthing and bonding for electrical systems and for structures, process and other non-electrical plant (protection against lighting, raido-frequency induction and static electricity); static electricity on personnel. A table lists properties of some flammable substances along with the temperature class of suitable apparatus.
John Wiley and Sons Ltd., Baffins Lane, Chichester, West Sussex PO22 9SA, United Kingdom, 6th ed., Mar. 1991. 46p. Illus. Ref.

CIS 92-266 Leslie I.R.M., Birk A.M.
State of the art review of pressure liquefied gas container failure modes and associated projectile hazards
A literature search and review was carried out to assess the state of knowledge with regard to pressure liquefied gas (PLG) vessel failure modes and mechanisms, release severity, projectile hazards, and blast effects. Specific parameters of interest were the effect of vessel initial conditions on rupture severity, and the ability to predict the occurrence of the boiling liquid expanding vapour explosion (BLEVE). The review revealed several areas where knowledge is weak, including the effects of blast on structures, the understanding of the failure modes of PLG containers, projectile modelling for PLG vessel failures, and the effects of fill level on the severity of an explosion or the likelihood of a BLEVE.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Nov. 1991, Vol.28, No.3, p.329-365. 71 ref.

CIS 92-311
Department of Energy
United Kingdom offshore steels research project - Phase II: Summary of project task reports
The UKOSRP II programme, completed in 1986, was directed towards determining the fatigue endurance of joints and involved fatigue and corrosion fatigue tests on structural steel weldments and tubular joints and stress analysis of tubular joints. The programme consisted of 6 topic areas: effect of thickness; effect of corrosion fatigue; effect of post weld treatment; effect of other weld improvement techniques; effect of joint geometry; effect of variable amplitude loading. This report provides a summary of each of the 25 tasks in these areas and presents conclusions reached for each one.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1991. vi, 160p. Illus. 49 ref. Price: GBP 39.00.

CIS 92-172 CONCAWE 1990 annual report
Report on the activities of the oil companies' European organisation for environmental and health protection. Activities in 1990 centred on: atmospheric emissions; automotive fuel quality (lead in gasoline, gasoline oxygenates, benzene/aromatics content of gasoline, diesel fuel quality); protection of health during manufacture and use of petroleum products (work in oil refining and distribution, protection for users of petroleum products, ecotoxicology); pipeline performance and monitoring; oil spill clean-up; water quality; waste management; noise control; safety and the control of major hazards.
The Oil Companies' European Organization for Environmental and Health Protection (CONCAWE), Bruxelles, Belgium, May 1991. iv, 16p.

CIS 91-2021 Wigley D.A.
Guidelines to good practice in pipe freezing
Cryogenic pipe freezing is a technique for solidifying the liquid in a pipe to form pressure-resistant plugs for maintenance and repair work. Part 1 of these guidelines provides an introduction to the concepts of pipe freezing and outlines the points to be considered when deciding whether the technique would be suitable for a particular application. Part 2 sets out the information needed to determine the conditions under which a plug may be formed by pipe freezing. Topics covered include: freezing water-based, hydrocarbon-based and other fluids; special freezing techniques; characteristics of pipe wall materials; safe handling of cryogenic fluids and solids; operating procedures; special requirements for particular industries.
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Southampton, Southampton S09 5NH, United Kingdom, July 1991. 109p. Illus. 32 ref.

CIS 91-2051
Department of Transport
Assessment of the suitability of stand-by vessels attending offshore installations - Instructions for the guidance of surveyors
This revised version of the Code for the Assessment of the Suitability of Standby Vessels has been prepared for the guidance of the offshore and standby vessel industries. Contents: legal requirements for standby vessels; assessment of suitability of vessel; load line requirements; stability data; accommodation and survivors' reception; inspection of machinery and electrical plant; life saving and rescue equipment; scale and arrangement of fire appliances; lights, shapes and sound signals; supplementary equipment; radio and other communications; manning requirements. Appendices include a list of training establishments and bodies serving standby vessels, medical training courses for standby crews, and lists of medicines and medical stores.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1991. 43p. Price: GBP 6.55.

CIS 91-1988 Mellin B.E.
Fire resistant protective clothing (Nomex suits)
During a fire caused by ignition of a vapour cloud of escaping hydrocarbons at a USA refinery in 1989, a workers suffered burns to the head, hands and leg but was saved from more serious burns to the body by the wearing of flame retardant overalls (Nomex suits). The incident demonstrates the value of fire resistant protective clothing which it is recommended should be made available for all high risk operations.
Loss Prevention Bulletin, Aug. 1991, No.100, p.28-30. Illus.

CIS 91-2048 Chaplin C.R., Potts A.E.
Health and Safety Executive
Wire rope offshore: A critical review of wire rope endurance research affecting offshore applications
Report on an investigation of the performance of wire ropes in offshore applications. Topics covered include: types of mooring ropes currently in use and typical mooring configurations; environmental loading on and response of floating offshore platforms; mooring design procedures and allowable loads in design; tension-tension fatigue and bending fatigue performance of wire ropes; cumulative damage theory; corrosion effects and discard criteria; inspection and non-destructive testing techniques; proposal for a joint industry study on the prediction of wire rope endurance for mooring offshore structures; discussion of results and recommendations for further work.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1991. 335p. Illus. ca. 200 ref. Price: GBP 60.00.

CIS 91-1556 Onuba O.
Medical problems in off-shore oil drilling in Nigeria
This paper discusses the surgical and medical problems affecting off-shore oil drilling workers in the south-eastern Atlantic coastline of the Nigerian territorial waters (about 50-60 kilometers from land). There were a total of 1300 attendances at the off-shore clinic within 12 months, i.e. 3.6 daily for a workforce of 110. These were successfully managed by 2 well-trained industrial staff nurses who were supervised by an experienced base doctor on shore. Most of the patients were treated for minor medical and surgical conditions such as headaches, malaria, cuts and bruises. However, a few acute emergencies did arise, after which the workers concerned had to be taken on-shore by helicopters for further treatment. Four accidental deaths occurred during the period, one of which was clearly preventable, but there were no major disasters. This demonstrated the effectiveness and significant role which well-trained nurses can play in industrial health.
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Summer 1991, Vol.41, No.2, p.77-79. 1 ref.

CIS 91-1163 Marsh G.M., Enterline P.E., McCraw D.
Mortality patterns among petroleum refinery and chemical plant workers
A historical cohort study was conducted to evaluate the mortality experience of 6,831 employees of the Shell Oil Company, Deer Park, Texas, petroleum refinery and chemical plant with emphasis on cancer mortality. Subjects were all workers with potential plant exposure who were employed for at least 3 months during 1948-72. Vital status was determined as of 12/31/83 for 98% of the cohort and death certificates were obtained for 95.4% of 1,180 observed deaths. An analysis of specific cancer sites revealed patterns of increased risk suggestive of a possible relationship between occupational exposures in the refinery and lympho-reticulosarcoma. Patterns of increased risk were also observed among chemical plant workers for a category of lymphopoietic tissue cancers. Some very limited evidence of a possible workplace association was also found among refinery workers for leukaemia and cancers of the central nervous system and biliary passages/liver. No evidence was found of an increased risk for cancer of the respiratory system or stomach or for malignant melanoma.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1991, Vol.19, No.1, p.29-42. Illus. 67 ref.

CIS 91-1050 Fitzgerald B.P., Green M.D., Penington J., Smith A.J.
A human factors approach to the effective design of evacuation systems
Various design factors of evacuation systems with particular reference to fires on board aircraft and offshore installations are discussed. Human factors such as the potential for panic, confusion, ignorance and disorientation and the implications for evacuation system design are considered. Proposals made by various authors to produce models of human behaviour under extreme threat stress factors which may affect muster times following an alarm signal. The main consequences of the Piper Alpha offshore platform incident are summarised. Proposed hardware solutions and human behaviour and ergonomic issues of the evacuation procedure are discussed.
Loss Prevention Bulletin, Feb. 1991, No.097, p.13-22. 16 ref.

1990

CIS 93-669 Well testing - Minimum guidelines for safety enhanced field operations
These guidelines are intended to establish minimum standards of practice in all Canadian, land-based well testing operations. Topics covered: personnel responsibilities and qualifications; general safety requirements; well testing minimum workwear requirements, equipment specifications and layout guidelines; start-up and operating procedures.
Alberta Occupational Health and Safety, 5th Floor, 4920 - 51 Street, Red Deer, Alberta T4N 5Y5, Canada, 3rd ed., 1990. 32p. Illus.

CIS 91-1903 Occupational health and safety of workers in the petroleum sector in the Arab States
As-sihha wa s-salaamatu l-mihniiya li l-(aamaliin fii qitaa(i n-naft fii l-watani l-(arabiyy [in Arabic]
Part 1: responses to an ALO questionnaire from Bahrain, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Syria (separate government and trade union replies) and Yemen. Topics: national legislation, occupational health services, surveillance of the work environment, accident prevention, training and propaganda, directives and other publications, results of the questionnaire, conclusions. Part 2: discussion of the results for various operations (drilling, transportation, etc.); typical hazards and occupational diseases; preventive measures; environmental issues.
Arab Labour Office, Arab Institute for Occupational Health and Safety, P.O. Box 5770, Damascus, Syria, 1990. 200p.

CIS 91-1565
The Oil Companies' European Organisation for Environmental and Health Protection
Catalogue of CONCAWE reports
This catalogue lists all reports published by CONCAWE that the organisation considers to be currently relevant (publication years range from 1970 to 1990). The 88 reports are grouped under the headings: air protection; automotive fuels and emissions; water and soil protection; oil pipelines; oil spill clean-up technology; petroleum products; health; noise; safety; general. The contents of each report are summarised in an abstract.
CONCAWE, Madouplein 1, 1030 Bruxelles, Belgium, Dec. 1990. 42p.

CIS 91-1134 American Petroleum Institute - 1990 Publications Catalog
Catalogue of publications (including training materials and/or audiovisual matter) published by the API. Subject matter covered includes, among others: interpretation of API standards; fire safety of petroleum installations; offshore structures; offshore safety and pollution; safety of mechanical equipment in refineries; electrical installations in refineries; pressure vessels; transportation; hazardous wastes and substances. Short summaries and prices (in USD) are supplied throughout.
American Petroleum Institute, 1200 L Street, N.W., Washington D.C. 20005, USA, 1990. 110p. Index.

CIS 91-554 Eide I.
A review of exposure conditions and possible health effects associated with aerosol and vapour from low-aromatic oil-based drilling fluids
This paper reviews investigations on possible health effects after inhalation of aerosols and vapours from the low-aromatic oil-based drilling fluids which have replaced diesel-based fluids. The main advantage of the low-aromatic base oils with respect to health hazards is their lower volatility. As a result of enclosure and local extract ventilation it has been possible to reduce time-weighted average concentrations of aerosols and vapours to below 100mg/m3. Effects on the central nervous system have only been observed at higher concentrations of these hydrocarbons, and male rat hydrocarbon neuropathy is not considered predictive of a normal human response. Insufficient information is available on possible long-term effects of exposure to the low-aromatic oil-based drilling fluids, especially regarding carcinogenicity and changes in the lungs.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Apr. 1990, Vol.34, No.2, p.149-157. 38 ref.

CIS 91-267 Browning B., Searson A.H.
Lessons to be learnt from an oil terminal fire
Report of a fire which started when spilled oil was ignited by maintenance work involving flame cutting and which spread to destroy a large proportion of the terminal facilities. Significant aspects of the incident include: fire propagation between diked areas; overpressure failures of fixed roof tanks exposed to external fire; overpressure protection of fixed roof tanks; boilover-type eruption in a burning fuel oil tank; potential for escalation of a floating roof tank seal fire; firefighting techniques for major ground fires.
Loss Prevention Bulletin, Aug. 1990, No.094, p.19-24. Illus.

CIS 91-12
Health and Safety Commission
First aid on offshore installations and pipeline works - Approved Code of Practice; Offshore Installations and Pipeline Works (First-Aid) Regulations 1989 [United Kingdom] and Guidance
The Regulations came into force on 13 Sept. 1990. They place a duty on employers to ensure adequate first-aid and basic health-care provision for all their personnel. Contents of the Code of Practice: duty of the person in control of an offshore installation or pipeline works to provide adequate first-aid arrangements and to inform workers of these arrangements; size, layout and sitting of sick bays and associated medical equipment and facilities; provision of first-aid kits and their location and contents; numbers and types of offshore medics or first-aiders required and their recruitment, training and general responsibilities; liaison with medical practitioners onshore; arrangements during the construction and dismantling of offshore installations. General guidance for inclusion in first-aid boxes is given along with lists of recommended medications and equipment.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1990. 40p. Illus. Price: GBP 7.50.

CIS 91-153 CONCAWE Annual Report 1989
Reports the 1989 activities of CONCAWE, the oil companies' European organisation for environmental and health protection. Topics covered include: atmospheric emissions of SO2, NOx, volatile organic compounds and CO2; automotive fuel quality with reference to the lead, oxygenate, benzene and aromatics content of gasoline, and diesel fuel quality; health protection during the manufacture and use of petroleum products. The organisation of CONCAWE is described and 1989 publications listed.
CONCAWE, Bruxelles, Belgium, Mar. 1990. 16p.

CIS 90-1532 Radical solutions are needed
Nužny radikal'nye rešenija [in Russian]
Editorial presenting fatal accident statistics for mining, metallurgy, petroleum and gas extraction, petroleum refining, the chemical and petrochemical industry and geological exploration, as well as for cranes and for equipment subject to the boiler and gas inspectorates in the USSR for 1988 and 1989. Although there were 89 fewer deaths in 1989 (1151 versus 1240 in 1988), the decrease is modest, and there was actually an increase in the petroleum and gas industry. The numbers are broken down by industrial sector and republic; total figures for the Russian, Ukrainian and Kazakh republics are broken down by district. The relation of these figures to the safety situation in general is discussed. Improvement requires action on 3 fronts: increasing the safety consciousness of the whole population; imposing serious fines on those who violate safety rules; establishment of a legal and regulatory system that clearly defines the rights and responsibilities of individuals, enterprises and authorities.
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, Mar. 1990, No.3, p.2-6.

CIS 90-1630 Eide I.
The application of 8-hour occupational exposure limits to non-standard work schedules offshore
This paper reviews general methods for adjustment of 8-h occupational exposure limits to offshore work schedules and recommends toxicokinetic models for calculating adjustment factors. These factors may be used to develop exposure limits whose aim is to provide the same degree of worker protection offshore as the original limits. A general formula for regular, repetitive work is used to calculate adjustment factors as functions of biological half-lives for 2 different offshore work schedules. In both, the work period is 12h a day for 14 consecutive days but the off-duty period between tours of duty is either 2 or 3 weeks. The worst case adjustment factor is 0.60, occurring at biological half-lives of 78 and 76h, respectively. At lower biological half-lives, the adjustment factors are identical for the 2 work schedules, whereas at higher biological half-lives they differ.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Feb. 1990, Vol.34, No.1, p.13-17. 8 ref. Illus.

1989

CIS 91-1999
Health and Safety Executive
The fires and explosion at BP Oil (Grangemouth) Refinery Ltd
This report describes the investigations into 3 separate maintenance related incidents within a major British company in 1987. Investigation of a fire of flammable liquids during maintenance of a refinery flare system showed that potential ignition sources had not been rigorously excluded, means of escape were inadequate, and permit-to-work procedures had been implemented without sufficient awareness of potential hazards. A fire and explosion during recommissioning of a refinery hydrocracker resulted from the rupture of a vessel following breakthrough of high pressure hydrogen, probably caused by inadequate operating practices and the disconnection of safety devices. Evasion of safety rules led to a fire in a storage tank at a crude oil terminal; smoking caused ignition.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1989. 44p. Illus. 3 ref. Price: GBP 7.50.

CIS 91-1184 Safety rules for the operation of petroleum pipelines
Pravila bezopasnosti pri ėkspluatacii magistral'nyh nefteprovodov [in Russian]
This booklet is aimed at engineers and technical personnel working on petroleum pipelines. Contents: general aspects (personal protective equipment, locker rooms, sanitary facilities, canteens, medical services, protection of women workers, working zones and premises, industrial noise and vibration, heating and ventilation, environmental control, electrical equipment and lighting, etc.); operation of pumping plants, tank storage, underground ferroconcrete tanks, on-shore constructions, industrial pipelines, etc; auxiliary facilities (laboratories, maintenance, mechanical and woodworking shops); repair of pumping stations and tanks; supplementary safety requirements for work with high-sulfur petroleum; operation of petroleum pipelines (tunnel pipelines, dealing with the consequences of accidents maintenance and repair of petroleum pipelines; welding and cutting; use of hoisting and earthmoving machines for repair work and cleanup after accidents); working in winter. In appendices: a list of MACs of harmful substances; types of filter respirator; eye and face protection; ear protectors; air turnover rates; logbooks and other documentation.
Izdatel'stvo "Nedra", pl. Belorusskogo vokzala 3, 125047 Moskva, USSR, 1989. 91p. Price: SUR 0.35.

CIS 90-1573 Ormerod A.D., Wakeel R.A., Mann T.A.N., Main R.A., Aldrige R.D.
Polyamine sensitization in offshore workers handling drilling muds
Oil-based mud, a complex mixture containing amines in emulsifiers, is used in offshore drilling operations. It is a skin irritant that occasionally gives rise to allergic contact sensitivity. In patch testing patients with allergy to drilling mud we have identified polyamine (diethylenetriamine and triethylenetetramine) sensitivity in 5 patients. All 5 patients were also allergic to emulsifiers. These emulsifiers are cross-linked fatty acid amido-amines, in which unreacted amine groups are thought to cross-sensitise with these constituent polyamines. Cross-reactivity between ethylenediamine, diethyleneamine and triethylenetetramine was found in 9 subjects.
Contact Dermatitis, Nov. 1989, Vol.21, No.5, p.326-329. 3 ref.

CIS 90-1746 Sutherland K.M., Flin R.H.
Stress at sea: A review of working conditions in the offshore oil and fishing industries
This paper reviews the literature available on the psychosocial aspects of the offshore oil and fishing industries. Both work sectors present unique problems for their employees and these are discussed with reference to risk and safety, accidents and injuries, occupational stressors, marriage and family life, noise, alcohol and drug abuse and personality. The paper concludes that although both occupations are intrinsically different, some psychosocial similarities can be observed.
Work and Stress, July-Sep. 1989, Vol.3, No.3, p.269-285. Bibl.

CIS 90-839 Kadamani S., Asal N.R., Nelson R.Y.
Occupational hydrocarbon exposure and risk of renal cell carcinoma
A population-based case-control study (210 cases and 210 age- sex- and frequency-matched population controls) was conducted to evaluate the association between occupational hydrocarbon exposure and risk of renal cell carcinoma. Retrospective estimates of lifetime occupational hydrocarbon exposure were made and an exposure index was calculated based on time and score combinations. A weak positive association was found for hydrocarbon exposure in males only (odds ratio = 1.6). For those under the age of 60, exposure to moderate levels of hydrocarbons produced the highest risk, while for those over the age of 70 a dose-response relationship was found. Those overweight were at high risk for renal cell carcinoma, and there was positive interaction between hydrocarbon exposure and overweight. Alcohol use alone or in the presence of hydrocarbon exposure decreased the risk significantly.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1989, Vol.15, No.2, p.131-141. Bibl.

CIS 90-5 Health and Safety - The Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 (Application Outside Great Britain) Order 1989 [United Kingdom]
This Order extends the application of the Health and Safety at Work Act (see CIS 74-2099) to certain offshore petroleum installations, and to other installations and activites within UK territorial waters, such as: pipelines; mines; construction and similar work involving structures that are not vessels; loading, unloading, fuelling and provisioning of vessels; diving operations; construction and similar work on a vessel except when performed by its own officers or crew.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1989. 5p. Price: GBP 1.35.

CIS 90-312 Mohr D.L., Clemmer D.I.
Evaluation of an occupational injury intervention in the petroleum drilling industry
Installation of power make up equipment (PME) on 13 of 30 mobile drilling units (MODUs) under study in the Gulf of Mexico provided an opportunity to evaluate the effectiveness of this device in reducing drill floor injuries. Two groups of injuries were defined on the basis of worker activity at the time of injury and the vehicle of mechanical energy; one group, "related" injuries, were preventable by the PME; the other group, "unrelated" injuries, should not have been affected by the PME. Two quasiexperimental evaluation designs were employed. The first, a multiple time series comparison of MODUs equipped and not equipped with PME, yielded a quantitative estimate of injuries averted. The second, a pretest-posttest design, compared related and unrelated injuries before and after PME installation. Because this method was subject to bias if different trends were present for related and unrelated injuries, only qualitative results could be obtained. Both methods indicated a significant reduction in related injuries attributable to the PME. A cost-savings analysis indicated savings that could conservatively pay for the equipment within 6 years.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, June 1989, Vol.21, No.3, p.263-271. 11 ref. Appendix.

CIS 89-1872 Mortality from leukemia and other diseases among workers at a petroleum refinery
This study evaluates the mortality experience of 9484 white men who worked at a petroleum refinery. The number of deaths among these men during the period 1940 through 1984 was compared with the number expected on the basis of the mortality rates of US white men. Overall, there were 2,874 observed compared with 3,568 expected deaths. Mortality rates for most major cause of death categories and most cancers were also lower than expected. However, there was a statistically significant 50% excess of leukaemia deaths. Lymphocytic leukaemia was increased both among men hired before 1940 and among men hired in 1940 or later. In contrast, myelocytic leukaemia was increased only among men hired in 1940 or later. This may be due to increased use of benzene in some refinery streams. The presence of an excess of lymphocytic leukaemia, but not myelocytic leukaemia, among men hired before 1940 suggests that some factor other than benzene was responsible for the former condition.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1989, Vol.31, No.2, p.106-111. 23 ref.

CIS 89-1998 IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans - Occupational exposures in petroleum refining; crude oil and major petroleum fuels
The classes of chemicals evaluated are: crude oil, gasoline, jet fuel, diesel fuels and fuel oils (heating fuels). Occupational exposures in petroleum refining have been classified as probably carcinogenic to humans (2A). The degree of evidence for carcinogenicity of gasoline diesel fuels and fuel oils is inadequate or limited (2B), and that of crude oil, jet fuels and light fuel oils is inadequate (3).
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1989, Vol.45, 322p. Bibl. Price: CHF 65.00.

1988

CIS 95-479 Porter L.K.
Health and Safety Executive
A handbook for underwater inspectors
This manual provides information required for an Underwater Inspection Controller training course. Contents: requirements for subsea inspection; philosophy of inspection; basic terminology; modes of failure and deterioration; recording methods (photography, closed circuit television); underwater visual inspection; corrosion and corrosion protection systems; non-destructive testing techniques; diving practice relevant to inspection; quality assurance; data recording and processing; inspection planning and briefing; observation, description, interrogation and communication systems.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury CO10 6FS, Suffolk, United Kingdom, 1988. xi, 518p. Illus. 51 ref. Price: GBP 55.00.

CIS 91-1563 Kartašev G.I., Bagdinov Ju.M., Blagoveščenskij A.V., Lejnova A.A., Krickaja T.A., Potap'eva G.A., Zelenkin S.N., Komovnikov G.S., Glazkova N.A.
Occupational safety and health in the construction of installations in the oil and gas industry
Ohrana truda pri stroitel'stve ob"ektov neftjanoj i gazovoj promyšlennosti [in Russian]
Contents of this manual designed for non production workers and designers engaged in constructing installations in the oil and gas industry: generalities (Soviet labour legislation, OSH organisation, documentation, safety standard setting, training and briefing, accident investigation and reports, analysis of accident causes, penalties for violating OSH requirements, etc.); construction of pipe-lines; construction and civil engineering (roofing, plastering, painting, installation of reinforcement, erection work, etc.); mounting of production equipment; electric installation work; operation and repair of construction machines and equipment; road transport; electric safety; workplace design; industrial hygiene (microclimate, industrial dust, harmful substances, noise, ultrasound, vibration, ventilation, lighting, personal protective equipment, etc.); appendices (standards, forms and other relevant documentation).
Izdatel'stvo Nedra, pl. Belorusskogo vokzala 3, 125047 Moskva, USSR, 1988. 487p. Illus. 21 ref. Price: SUR 1.70.

CIS 91-146 Gann M.
The value of routine chest radiography in offshore workers
The results of 5266 chest X-rays taken during routine medicals on offshore oilfield workers were reviewed. Of the 119 abnormals recorded on a computer listing only 6 were considered significant and only 4, in 3 patients, were unsuspected from clinical history and examination. The results do not support the retention of routine chest X-rays in periodic medical examinations for offshore workers.
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Autumn 1988, Vol.38, No.3, p.58-60. 8 ref.

CIS 91-279 Holden P.L.
Safety and Reliability Directorate
Assessment of missile hazards: Review of incident experience relevant to major hazard plant
The main part of this paper is devoted to a review of experience of incidents in which pressure vessels containing liquefied gases have suffered major failure. The modes and patterns of failure, which dictate whether fragments are projected and how many pieces the vessel break into, are discussed. The incident experience covers major failures of 138 vessels, the majority due to flame impingement. The information available varies from knowledge only of whether fragments were projected to virtually complete details of the failure circumstances, number, range and direction of projected fragments. This data has been analysed with a view to providing information which may be useful in assessments of major hazard plant.
United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Risley, Warrington WA3 6AT, United Kingdom, 1988. 177p. Illus. Bibl. Price: GBP 9.00.

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