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Petroleum and natural gas industry - 659 entries found

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1995

CIS 96-296 Rew P.J., Gallagher P., Deaves D.M.
Health and Safety Executive
Dispersion of subsea releases - Review of prediction methodologies
This report presents a review of methods used for the modelling of subsea gas releases and assesses the implications of using the modelling within a risk assessment. While simple empirical approximations tend to be used in risk assessment, computer modelling based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been used in a research context. Lack of full-scale data has meant that the models have not been validated for high release rates common for blowouts or the rupture of subsea pipelines. In general, the assumptions commonly used in modelling the effects of subsea gas releases lead to conservative estimates of risk.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1995. iv, 59p. Illus. 63 ref. Price: GBP 15.00.

CIS 96-208
Health and Safety Executive
Update of the UKCS risk overview
An updated risk overview of the offshore industry on the United Kingdom Continental Shelf (UKCS) is presented. The annual fatality rate (AFR) is predicted to lie in the range 8-40; the main contributory factors being process events, occupational accidents, structural events and helicopter crashes. It is estimated that 75% of major hazard fatalities are associated with evacuation, escape and rescue. In terms of installation type, large, old-style integrated platforms and flotels are the most significant contributors to the AFR. Risks of environmental damage, economic loss and uncertainties in the analysis are also discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1995. 241p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 50.00.

CIS 96-318 Shore T.E.
Health and Safety Executive
Study of the safe operation of topdrive units in hazardous areas in offshore drilling operations on the UKCS
Top drive systems providing rotational drilling power on a drilling rig often include an electric motor and thus require suitable explosion protection arrangements. A review was carried out of the various recommended methods for the classification of hazardous areas and of the suitability and reliability of methods for providing explosion protection to topdrive units. The Codes of Practice used to provide guidance on area classification have some differences in their recommendations, but in general, the guidance is consistent. Recommendations are made for improving the reliability of topdrive units.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1995. iv, 25p. Illus. Price: GBP 10.00.

CIS 96-317
Health and Safety Executive
An interim evaluation of the Offshore Installations (Safety Case) Regulations 1992
This report is based on the results of five studies undertaken to evaluate the impact of the Offshore Installations (Safety Case) Regulations 1992. The overall conclusion is that the Regulations are having a positive impact on the offshore industry's approach to the management of safety. Benefits include a more focused awareness of risk, better targeting of safety-related expenditure and improvements in safety management systems. The research indicates that managers in general support the safety case concept and that workers feel more confident about offshore safety.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1995. ii, 48p. Illus. 2 ref. Price: GBP 6.50.

CIS 95-2216 Phylaktou H., Alexiou A., Andrews G.E.
Health and Safety Executive
Interaction of fast explosions with an obstacle
Laboratory tests were carried out to investigate flame acceleration during interaction of fast explosions with an obstacle. Such situations can occur in the highly congested volumes found in offshore structures. This report provides experimental data and theoretical analysis on the fundamental influences and effects of single obstacles. One important finding was that maximum flame speed downstream of the obstacle was linearly dependent on the upstream flame speed. A fundamental turbulent combustion model was developed and applied to the test data and was shown to correlate well.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1995. iv, 45p. 28 ref. Price: GBP 5.00.

CIS 95-1843
Health and Safety Commission
Prevention of fire and explosion, and emergency response in offshore installations
This guide presents the text of the Offshore Installations (Prevention of Fire and Explosion, and Emergency Response) Regulations 1995 (see CIS 95-813) along with appropriate guidance. Main provisions concern: application of the Regulations; general responsibilities of the duty holder (operator or owner of the installation); hazard assessment; preparation for emergencies; equipment for helicopter emergencies; emergency response plan; prevention of fire and explosion; detection of incidents; communications during an incident; control of emergencies; mitigation of fire and explosion; arrangement for evacuation, escape and rescue; suitability of personal protective equipment for use in an emergency; suitability and condition of plant; life-saving appliances.
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1995. v, 49p. Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 8.50.

CIS 95-1717
Health and Safety Executive
A guide to the Offshore Installations and Pipeline Works (Management and Administration) Regulations 1995
This guide presents the text of the Offshore Installations and Pipeline Works (Management and Administration) Regulations 1995 (see CIS 95-804) along with appropriate guidance. Main provisions concern: definition of offshore installations; places and activities to which the Regulations apply; notification of authorities; duties and rights of installation managers; co-operation requirements; record keeping; permits to work; requirements for written health and safety instructions; arrangements for effective communication; safety of helideck operations; operational information requirements; health surveillance; supply drinking water and other provisions; identification of the offshore installation; employers' liability.
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1995. iv, 41p. 11 ref. Price: GBP 8.50.

CIS 95-1863
Health and Safety Executive
Blast and shock induced vibrations in offshore jacket installations
A study was carried out to determine the severity of shock induced vibrations in offshore structures. Aspects investigated include: blast loading from explosions; blast loading on a typical fixed leg offshore platform; existing guidelines for assessing platform vibrations; current requirements for offshore suppliers; human response to platform vibration; vibration criteria used by the nuclear industry; developing vibration criteria for the offshore industry.
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1995. iv, 60p. Illus. 12 ref. Price: GBP 15.00.

CIS 95-1707 David G.C., Fernandes A.F.
Health and Safety Executive
Physical selection for rescue craft crew
A survey was carried out to investigate the training received by rescue craft crew in the offshore oil and gas industry in the North Sea and the physical demands of their work. Recovery of a casualty into the rescue craft was identified as one of the most physically demanding activities carried out. A simulation study showed that this task caused high levels of physiological and biomechanical stress. Data from the study were used to design a static strength test for use in the physical selection of crew. The physical demands of other tasks need to be investigated so that further physical selection criteria may be developed.
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1995. ii, 75p. Illus. 34 ref. Price: GBP 15.00.

CIS 95-1366
Health and Safety Executive
Strategy for offshore research. Summaries and objectives of strategy papers
This report describes the programme of research undertaken by the Health and Safety Executive's Offshore Safety Division. Summaries of research strategies in a number of hazard areas are provided along with key research objectives. Topics covered include: fire and blast; collisions; structural steel and concrete failure; moorings failure; diver physiology and diving operations; pipelines; factors underlying occupational accidents; long-term health; escape and rescue.
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1995. 23p. 4 ref. Price: GBP 5.00.

CIS 95-1365 CONCAWE Review 4:1
Topics covered in this review of CONCAWE's activities: public exposure to airborne benzene; health aspects of exposure to benzene; health studies on asphalt workers; risk assessment of petroleum substances; cost of meeting European Union environmental regulations; cost-effective approach to solving ecological problems; effect of diesel fuel properties on exhaust emissions from diesel cars with oxidation catalysts; pipeline integrity management.
CONCAWE, Madouplein 1, 1030 Bruxelles, Belgium, Vol.4, No.1, Apr. 1995. 25p. Illus.

CIS 95-804 Health and Safety - The Offshore Installations and Pipeline Works (Management and Administration) Regulations 1995 [United Kingdom]
These Regulations (entry into force: 20 June 1995, except for Regulation 23(2): 20 June 1997) contain requirements for the management and administration of offshore oil and gas installations for purposes of health and safety. Most of the duties imposed by the Regulations are on the "duty holder", who - depending on the installation - is the operator or the owner. Main provisions concern: notification of authorities; appointment, duties and rights of installation managers regarding safety and health; keeping of records; permits-to-work; safety plans; effective communications; safe operation of helideck installations; information requirements; availability of drinking water and other provisions. The Regulations give effect to certain provisions of Council Directives 92/91/EEC (CIS 93-23) and 89/391 (CIS 89-1401). Offshore Installations Regulations 1972/702, 1972/703, 1975/1289 and 1989/978 are revoked, while many provisions of other Regulations are revoked or changed.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1995. 16p. Price: GBP 3.20.

CIS 95-813 Health and Safety - The Offshore Installations (Prevention of Fire and Explosion, and Emergency Response) Regulations 1995 [United Kingdom]
These Regulations (entry into force: 20 June 1995) contain requirements for measures for the protection of persons on offshore oil and gas installations from fires and explosions, and for securing effective "emergency response", i.e. action to protect persons on such installations in an emergency. Most of the duties imposed by the Regulations are on the "duty holder", who - depending on the provision - is the operator or the owner. The Regulations give effect to certain provisions of Council Directive 92/91/EEC (CIS 93-23). Offshore Installations Regulations 1976/1542, 1977/486 (CIS 77-2054) and 1978/611 are revoked, as are certain provisions of Regulations 1976/1019 and 1993/1321.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1995. 12p. Price: GBP 2.80.

1994

CIS 96-2329 Rundmo T.
Associations between organizational factors and safety and contingency measures on offshore petroleum platforms
The study determined the associations between organizational factors and safety and contingency measures among employees on the Norwegian continental shelf. Substantial correlations were found between management and employee commitment and involvement in safety work, social support, attitudes towards safety measures, and the personnel's satisfaction-dissatisfaction with the safety and contingency measures. Employee perceptions of greater management commitment, social support, and subjective evaluations of priorities of safety versus production goals were all important predictor variables for employee satisfaction with safety and contingency measures.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 1994, Vol.20, No.2, p.122-127. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 96-869 Harris M.K., Carter S.R.
Investigative industrial hygiene: Airborne lead concentrations during arc gouging in confined spaces
Determination of airborne lead concentrations during arc gouging in confined spaces in a petroleum refinery.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1994, Vol.55, No.12, p.1188-1192. 10 ref. ###

CIS 96-868 Guidotti T.L.
Occupational exposure to hydrogen sulfide in the sour gas industry - Some unresolved issues
This literature survey deals with the effects of exposure to hydrogen sulfide in the natural gas industry. It is stressed that the acute toxicity of hydrogen sulfide is well known. However, exposure-response data are confined to lethal doses. There is some evidence that long-term exposure to hydrogen sulfide causes eye irritation. Further studies are needed for confirmation.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1994, Vol.66, No.3, p.153-160. Illus. 54 ref.

CIS 95-1430 de Carvalho A.B., Kato M.
Evaluation of the risk of exposure to benzene and cyclohexane during maintenance and shut-down procedures in a petrochemical plant
Caracterização do risco de exposição a benzeno e ciclo-hexano em atividades de manutenção e procedimentos de parada em planta petroquímica [in Portuguese]
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, Apr.-June 1994, Vol.22, No.82, p.21-34. Illus. 9 ref. ###

CIS 95-1406 Gennaro V., Ceppi M., Boffetta P., Fontana V., Perrotta A.
Pleural mesothelioma and asbestos exposure among Italian oil refinery workers
The association between asbestos exposure and risk of mesothelioma was studied among workers from two oil refineries in the northern Italy. Men (n=2,300) who had been employed between 1914 and 1988 were studied. The follow-up covered the mortality of 639 white-collar and 1,661 blue-collar workers from 1950 to 1991. Among the cases, the median duration of employment was 14.5yrs and the median time since first employment was 27.5yrs. Among 10 men with pleural mesothelioma, seven were maintenance workers, one was an electrician and two were unspecified blue-collar workers. Blue-collar workers experienced a significant increased risk of pleural neoplasms, five deaths in each plant, when compared with either the provincial (standardized mortality ratio (SMR) 266) or national (SMR 1663) reference populations. The SMR, based on eight deaths, was 320 for workers with more than 10yrs of employment and 20yrs since first exposure. The results support the notion that exposure to asbestos in oil refineries causes pleural mesotheliomas.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1994, Vol.20, No.3, p.213-215. 6 ref.

CIS 95-1030 Review of European oil industry benzene exposure data (1986-1992)
This report summarizes results of over 2,000 measurements taken by CONCAWE member companies in Western Europe during the period 1986-1992 to assess exposure to benzene vapour during a range of refinery, distribution and retail activities. Overall, results are similar to those recorded in the previous CONCAWE report covering 1977-1985, with most of the 8-hr time-weighted average (TWA) exposures below 1ppm. Highest benzene exposures occurred during the following activities: rail loading of motor gasolines over extended periods; open loading of ships and barges with motor gasoline cargoes; refinery off-site tasks; top road tanker filling of motor gasolines by full-time loaders.
CONCAWE, Madouplein 1, 1030 Bruxelles, Belgium, Nov. 1994. iv, 22p. 1 ref.

CIS 95-610 CONCAWE Review 3:2
Topics covered in this review of the activities of CONCAWE: brief review of current work concerning air quality, waste management, health and product safety and safety management; air quality developments in the European Union; 1992 sulfur survey of European refineries; assessment of emissions of volatile organic compounds; motor fuels and vehicle emissions; environmental quality standards; classification of products as carcinogens.
CONCAWE, Madouplein 1, 1030 Bruxelles, Belgium, Vol.3, No.2, Oct. 1994. 24p. Illus.

CIS 95-201 A brief guide on COSHH for the offshore oil and gas industry
Guide to the implementation of the COSHH 1994 regulations (CIS 95-19), with the needs of the offshore oil and gas industry in mind.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1994. iv, 19p. Illus. 26 ref. Price: GBP 6.75. ###

CIS 95-196 Mearns K.J., Fenn C.E.
Health and Safety Executive, Offshore Technology Report
Diet, health and the offshore worker - A pilot study
This report presents the results from a pilot study to survey the number and types of health promotion programmes currently in operation on offshore installations in the UK and Norwegian sectors of the North Sea. Most respondents gave offshore health promotion high priority because of the ageing offshore population and their relatively poor lifestyle (smoking, lack of exercise and overeating). A range of programmes is currently in operation but they are limited to 47% of Norwegian platforms and 39% of British platforms which replied to the questionnaire. The data reflect a growing interest in preventive medicine and health promotion offshore. Appendices: questionnaires.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1994. vi, 42p. 35 ref. Price: GBP 10.00.

CIS 95-183 Dadonov Ju. A.
Accident and injury levels in oil and gas extraction and prospecting
Sostojanie avarijnosti i travmatizma v neftegazodobyvajuščej promyšlennosti i na geologorazvedočnyh rabotah [in Russian]
In 1993, there were 19 serious accidents and 34 fatal injuries in the gas and oil prospecting and extraction enterprises subject to the Russian mining inspectorate. The number of accidents was down in comparison to 1992, but fatalities were up. Most of the increase was in Western Siberia. Defective or improperly repaired equipment was involved in some of the fatalities, but in all cases there was a failure to follow good practice or official regulations. Most (16) of the accidents occurred during drilling operations. Blow-outs (9) were the most common type.
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, June 1994, No.6, p.13-16.

CIS 95-292
Health and Safety Executive
A critical review of hydrate formation phenomena
This report presents a detailed review of the published data on the formation of natural gas hydrates during hydrocarbon processing and transportation. Models for the prediction of hydrate formation are described and compared and a new formulation for hydrate modelling is proposed. Results of a survey of methods used by North Sea oil and gas producers to predict and deal with hydrate problems are also presented. The report provides a basis for the design of an effective hydrate prevention strategy.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1994. 113p. Illus. 83 ref. Price: GBP 25.00.

CIS 94-2098 Khoury G.A.
Health and Safety Executive, Offshore Technology Information
Effect of bacterial activity on North Sea concrete
This report describes the results of a series of tests designed to investigate the effects on typical North Sea concrete of acid/seawater solutions at elevated temperatures. Tests were performed on cement paste and concrete specimens. One of the main findings was the formation on the exposed surfaces of the cement paste specimens of a layer of reaction products which helped slow down the rate of attack. Results of the experiments may be used in the development of methods for the prediction of depths of attack for the lifetime of a structure.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury CO10 6FS, Suffolk, United Kingdom, 1994. vi, 120p. Illus. 8 ref. Price: GBP 15.00.

CIS 94-1955
Health and Safety Executive, Oil Industry Advisory Committee
Play your part! How offshore workers can help improve health and safety
This document provides guidance to operators, safety representatives, individual employees and others on how to co-operate to improve health and safety offshore through active participation of the workforce. Contents: why involving the workforce is important; building a good safety culture; how the workforce can be involved; setting and maintaining standards; the safety case; case study - how you can help prevent an accident.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury CO10 6FS, Suffolk, United Kingdom, 1994. iv, 40p. Illus. Price: GBP 3.50.

CIS 94-1751
Advanced Mechanics and Engineering Ltd.
PARLOC 92 - The update of loss of containment data for offshore pipelines
This report describes an update to a previous study (see CIS 93-318) regarding loss of containment from North Sea pipelines. The pipeline database and the incident database compiled during the first study have been updated to include information to the end of 1991. Compilation of the databases is described along with an analysis and assessment of loss of containment incidents. In annex: glossary of terms.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1994. vii, 226p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 30.00.

CIS 94-1619 Flin R., Slaven G.
Offshore Management Centre, Robert Gordon University (Aberdeen)
The selection and training of offshore installation managers for crisis management
Final report of a project to examine how the selection and training of offshore installation managers (OIMs) might be improved, with particular reference to their ability to handle an offshore emergency. (Interim reports are abstracted under CIS 93-1244 and CIS 93-873). Conclusions and recommendations are discussed under the headings: selection criteria, selection methods, training procedures, simulated emergency exercises and competence assessment. In general, since OIMs manage a wide range of installations with different operational demands, assessment of competence to manage an emergency should be made in relation to the safety case of a particular installation.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1994. vii, 210p. 74 ref. Price: GBP 45.00.

CIS 94-1780 Parkes K.R.
Sleep patterns, shiftwork, and individual differences: A comparison of onshore and offshore control-room operators
A study was made of self-reported sleep quality and duration in offshore and onshore control-room operators during day-shift (D-S) and night-shift (N-S) work and during leave-periods (L-P). Offshore workers reported longer N-S sleep duration and lower D-S sleep quality than those onshore; L-P measures were the same for both groups. Age and neuroticism were negatively related to both duration and quality of sleep, and number of years of shiftwork was negatively related to sleep duration. Findings are discussed in relation to the literature on shiftwork and sleep in general and the characteristics of the offshore environment in particular.
Ergonomics, May 1994, Vol.37, No.5, p.827-844. Illus. 53 ref.

CIS 94-1267 Rundmo T.
Occupational accidents and objective risk on North Sea offshore installations
Objective risk among personnel working on offshore petroleum installations on the Norwegian Continental Shelf was calculated using data from a self-completion survey which had a response rate of 92%. The study, conducted in Spring 1990, drew respondents from five companies and eight installations and provided details of respondents' accident experience. Results of the risk assessment are presented in respect of accident probability, accident consequences and exposure to specific hazards. It is concluded that information collected in this way can be used as a basis for a valid assessment of objective risk.
Safety Science, Jan. 1994, Vol.17, No.2, p.103-116. 19 ref.

1993

CIS 96-2198 van Sittert N.J., Boogaard P.J., Beulink G.D.J.
Application of the urinary S-phenylmercapturic acid test as a biomarker for low levels of exposure to benzene in industry
Recently, the determination of S-phenylmercapturic acid (S-PMA) in urine has been proposed as a suitable biomarker for the monitoring of low-level exposures to benzene. In the study reported here, the test was validated in 12 separate studies in chemical manufacturing plants, oil refineries and natural gas production plants. A strong correlation was found between eight hour exposure to airborne benzene of 1mg/m3 (0.3ppm) and higher and urinary S-PMA concentrations in end-of-shift samples. A strong correlation was also found between urinary phenol and S-PMA concentrations. In conclusion, with the current sensitivity of the test, eight hour time-weighted-average benzene exposures of 1mg/m3 (0.3ppm) and higher can be measured.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1993, vol.50, No.5, p.460-469. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 95-1683 Rushton L.
A 39-year follow-up of the UK oil refinery and distribution center studies - Results for kidney cancer and leukemia
This paper reports the principal results of a mortality analysis of workers at UK oil refineries and distribution centres, together with detailed results for kidney cancer and leukaemia. The mortality from all causes of death is lower than that of the general population, and reduced mortality is also found for many of the major nonmalignant causes of death. In the refinery study, some increased mortality patterns are found for diseases of the arteries, and no healthy worker effect is found in the distribution centre study for ischaemic heart disease. Mortality from all neoplasms is lower than expected overall in both studies, largely due to a deficit of deaths from lung neoplasms. Mortality from kidney neoplasms is increased overall in the distribution centre study, and in drivers in particular. The deaths from leukaemia are slightly less than expected in the refinery study and slightly more than expected in the distribution centre study.
Environmental Health Perspectives, Dec. 1993, Vol.101, Suppl.6, p.77-84. 71 ref.

CIS 95-1787 Poole C., Dreyer N.A., Satterfield M.H., Levin L., Rothman K.J.
Kidney cancer and hydrocarbon exposures among petroleum refinery workers
A review of 18,323 death certificates of male refinery workers identified 102 kidney cancer cases, to each of whom four controls were matched by refinery location and decade of birth. Work histories were found containing an average of 15.7 job assignments per subject. To each job, semiquantitative ratings were assigned for the intensity and frequency of exposures to three hydrocarbon categories: non-aromatic liquid gasoline distillates, aromatic hydrocarbons and volatile hydrocarbons. Each exposure had either no association or a weak association with kidney cancer. For the non-aromatic liquid gasoline distillates the estimated relative risk (RR) for any exposure above refinery background was 1.0. In an analysis of the longest job held by each subject, three groups appeared to be at increased risk: labourers (RR = 1.9), workers in receipt, storage, and movements (RR = 2.5), and unit cleaners (RR = 2.3).
Environmental Health Perspectives, Dec. 1993, Vol.101, Suppl.6, p.53-62. 53 ref.

CIS 94-1621
Institute of Petroleum
Occupational health - Model Code of Safe Practice Part 18
This code of practice provides occupational health guidelines for the petroleum industry. Contents: recognition, evaluation and control of hazards and risks to health; general health hazards of petroleum products; specific hazards of hydrogen sulfide, hot bitumen, hydrofluoric acid, benzene and other substances; reporting of incidents, accidents and ill health; first aid and emergency planning arrangements; procedures for hazardous tasks; respiratory protection.
John Wiley and Sons Ltd., Baffins Lane, Chichester, West Sussex PO19 1UD, United Kingdom, Sep. 1993. v, 17p. 15 ref. Price: GBP 35.00.

CIS 94-1726 Cartwright C.E., Breysse P.N., Booher L.
Magnetic field exposures in a petroleum refinery
Petroleum refinery workers were classified into groups based on the type of exposure sources and work conducted. Electricians were divided into three categories: high voltage electrical distribution (HVED) workers; low voltage electrical distribution (LVED) workers; and maintenance electricians (MNTE). A total of 48 individuals, 11 HVED electricians, 12 LVED electricians, 11 MNTE workers, and 14 controls were monitored for an 8-hour shift. Both the HVED and LVED groups were found to have average full-shift mean exposures slightly greater than 10 milligauss (mG). The MNTE group and the controls exhibited lower magnetic flux density exposures, with means between 2mG and 3mG. A special group of high voltage electricians were monitored during maintenance work on large current-limiting coils in the power distribution system. Individual full-shift magnetic field means ranged from 0.06 to 2.0 gauss (G), with an overall mean of 0.93G. Peak exposures ranged from 2.1 to 18G, with an average of 12.1G.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, June 1993, Vol.8, No.6, p.587-592. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 94-1360 Crook J.
Fire and blast research in the wake of Piper Alpha
Research carried out into large-scale hydrocarbon fires and explosions in the wake of the Piper Alpha disaster will have great value for industrial plant both on and offshore. Aspects considered here include: the isolating of pipelines during and emergency by means of sub-sea valves; research into large-scale jet fires; improvements in methods of predicting the effects of gas-cloud explosions; implementation of new safety case regulations requiring operators to demonstrate that major hazard risks have been evaluated; compilation of a comprehensive set of guidelines for fire and blast engineering on offshore installations.
Fire Prevention, Sep. 1993, No.262, p.14-16. Illus.

CIS 94-1004 Petroleum coke
Petroleum coke is a black solid obtained in petroleum refining. The raw product ("green coke") contains as much as 15% volatile material, mainly hydrocarbons. This material can be driven off by heating to give calcined coke. Green coke is used mainly as fuel, while some calcined cokes are used in electrodes for the smelting of aluminium and steel. Although green coke has not been shown to be carcinogenic, the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in its volatile fraction implies that measures should be taken to avoid contact with the product. In the absence of exposure standards, those applying to coal tar pitch volatiles should be followed. Calcined coke is essentially inert, but it is a very dusty product without special treatment. Exposure to the dust has been associated with respiratory impairment and with mechanical irritation of the eyes and skin.
CONCAWE, Madouplein 1, 1030 Bruxelles, Belgium, Oct. 1993. 16p. 10 ref.

CIS 94-1024
Center for Chemical Process Safety
International process safety management conference and workshop
Papers presented at an international meeting in San Francisco, California, USA (22-24 Sep. 1993) organized by the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, the UK Health and Safety Executive, the US Environmental Protection Agency, the European Federation of Chemical Engineering and the Society of Chemical Engineers, Japan. Some of the 39 submissions discuss general management issues. Others describe the experience of individual countries or multinational companies, specific technical issues or the role of ISO standards.
American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 345 East 47th Street, New York, NY 10017, USA, 1993. viii + 560p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: USD 100,00 US and Canada; USD 140,00 elsewhere.

CIS 94-736 Light I.M., Coleshaw S.R.K.
Health and Safety Executive
Survivability of occupants of totally enclosed motor propelled survival craft
Trials undertaken with a totally enclosed motor-propelled survival craft (TEMPSC) indicated that the internal environment was related to occupancy level, with full occupancy causing greatest stress. Under summer conditions, high internal temperatures caused considerable thermal stress, particularly in those wearing survival suits. The onset of motion sickness was recorded within the first half-hour of the sea trial, with 49% of occupants feeling unwell. Major recommendations are that the occupancy level of the TEMPSC should be reduced, fluids should be supplied to help prevent dehydration and the design of the TEMPSC should be reconsidered with particular regard to ventilation.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury CO10 6FS, Suffolk, United Kingdom, 1993. v, 56p. Illus. 14 ref. Price: GBP 15.00.

CIS 94-672
Institute of Petroleum
Fire precautions at petroleum refineries and bulk storage installations
Contents of this Code of Practice: petroleum products and combustion; site evaluation for fire defence; fire prevention at the design stage (control of ignition sources; good operating and maintenance practice); fire protection by passive measures (insulation) and actively (foam or water spray); fire detection (selection and location of equipment to detect flame, heat or smoke); fire systems (selection of extinguishing media appropriate to the fire risk; equipment for fixed and mobile fire fighting systems); fire fighting facilities in storage area; fire fighting (setting up of a fire plan and organization of emergency procedures). Other codes of practice and standards are listed. Glossary of terms.
John Wiley and Sons Ltd., Baffins Lane, Chichester PO22 9SA, West Sussex, United Kingdom, Oct. 1993. vii, 84p. Price: GBP 65.00.

CIS 94-267 OSH-OFFSHORE on SilverPlatter [United Kingdom]
CD-ROM disk with the full text of approx. 1,800 documents relevant to offshore safety in the United Kingdom. Included are the texts of relevant laws and regulations, interpretations of legislation (codes of practice etc.), guidance notes, reports and transcripts of the Piper Alpha Public Inquiry, operations and safety notices, Offshore Technology Reports, and articles from relevant journals (Offshore Research Focus, EECs Newsletter, OIAC Bulletin).
SilverPlatter International, 100 River Ridge Drive, Norwood, MA 02062-5026, USA; 10 Barley Mow Passage, Chiswick, London W4 4PH, United Kingdom. Updated quarterly. CD-ROM disk + floppy disk with search software (for IBM-compatible microcomputers).

CIS 94-247 Rushton L.
Further follow up of mortality in a United Kingdom oil refinery cohort
The results of an extension of follow up (1976 to 1989) of a cohort of workers employed for at least one year between 1 January 1950 and 31 December 1975 at eight oil refineries in Britain are reported (1st part, see CIS 82-1953). The mortality observed was compared with that expected from the death rates of all the male population of England and Wales and Scotland. The mortality from all causes was lower than that of the comparison population, and reduced mortality was also found for many of the major non-malignant causes of death. Raised mortality patterns were found for diseases of the arteries, in particular aortic aneurysm, and accidental fire and explosion, for the total study population, and across several refineries and other subgroups. Mortality from all neoplasms was lower than expected overall. Raised mortality from all neoplasms was found for labourers and in particular for malignant neoplasms of the oesophagus, stomach, and lung. As in the earlier follow up there was raised mortality from melanoma in several jobs groups.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 1993, Vol.50, No.6, p.549-560. 52 ref.

CIS 94-254 Tsai S.P., Gilstrap E.L., Cowles S.R., Snyder P.J., Ross C.E.
A cohort mortality study of two California refinery and petrochemical plants
The study examined the mortality experience of employees who worked for more than six months before December 1989 and pensioners who were alive as of January 1973. More than half (57%) of the total study population worked for 20 years or longer. The total population exhibited 11% lower all causes mortality and 20% lower cancer mortality, as compared with the California general population. There were no significant excesses of any cause-specific mortality including cancer. Among total employees, mortality for several cancer sites showed a statistically non-significant increase. A review of these work histories revealed no predominant work area or job assignment. In contrast to studies based on local county rates, lung cancer mortality in this study was significantly lower (standardized mortality ratio (SMR)=0.73). In addition, statistically significant deficits in mortality were found for cirrhosis of the liver (SMR=0.63) and all external causes of death.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1993, Vol.35, No.4, p.415-421. 38 ref.

CIS 93-2099 Parkes K.R.
Health and Safety Executive
Human factors, shift work and alertness in the offshore oil industry
This report describes a two-part study of human factors, shift work and alertness in the oil industry, with particular reference to control-room personnel. In a questionnaire survey of 172 control-room operators, offshore workers showed significantly greater anxiety than onshore workers as well as a higher incidence of sleep problems, dissatisfaction with shift schedules and higher perceived workload. Results of a more intensive study among offshore operators demonstrated significant fluctuations in alertness and performance over the course of the two-week offshore cycle; the most marked and adverse effects occurring during the shift-change phase. Findings of the studies are discussed along with factors influencing the scheduling of offshore shift work.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1993. vii, 105p. 94 ref. Price: GBP 25.00.

CIS 93-1583
Health and Safety Executive
Offshore safety research and development programme. Project handbook 1992
This handbook provides information on 225 projects currently in progress or recently completed by the Offshore Safety Division of the Health and Safety Executive. A similar handbook was published in 1992 (see CIS 92-1176). Projects are grouped into sections according to programme area (oceanography, foundations and piling, risk and reliability, etc.). Information provided for each project includes: contractor, status, completion year, cost, objectives, background, project officers. An index of keywords is included.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1993. xviii, 150p. Index. Price: GBP 17.50.

CIS 93-1683 Martynjuk V.F.
Are control rooms dangerous?
Opasny li operatornye? [in Russian]
Accident reports for explosions in the chemical, petroleum refining and biotechnology industries occurring in the Russian Federation in 1990-92 were reviewed to determine their consequences for control-room personnel. Nineteen accidents involved injury to workers (100 victims, many of them repair workers), eight with fatalities (17 victims); injuries were sustained by persons in or near the control room in six cases (22 victims), with fatalities (8) in two of the events. The high proportion of deaths suggests that control-room structures must be reinforced.
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, Jan. 1993, No.1, p.14-16.

CIS 93-1242 Safety and related issues pertaining to work on offshore petroleum installations
La sécurité du travail dans les installations pétrolières en mer et questions connexes [in French]
This report was prepared by the International Labour Office as the basis for discussions at the Tripartite Meeting on Safety and Related Issues Pertaining to Work on Offshore Petroleum Installations which was held from 22 to 29 April 1993 in Geneva, Switzerland. Contents: extent and trends of offshore petroleum activities; the nature of offshore work; the accident record; national regulation of offshore safety; safety policies and techniques in enterprises; workforce involvement in safety matters; international standards and regulation; summary and suggested points for discussion; list of tables.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1993. iv, 91p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: CHF 17.50.

1992

CIS 94-1272 Bartholomew A.P.
Health and Safety Executive
Provision of a lee for TEMPSC
Trials were carried out on different types of North Sea offshore oilfield vessels to assess their ability to form a lee and consequently their capability in rescue service or support. Results indicate that, in general, an effective lee can be formed by the most highly manoeuvrable vessels of the anchor handler/supply type and that rescue operations for occupants of Totally Enclosed Motor Propelled Survival Capsules (TEMPSCs) can be successfully made. It is recommended that masters and officers of oilfield vessels become familiar with the capability of their ship to form a lee.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1992. 111p. Illus. Price: GBP 34.00.

CIS 94-1271 WOAD Worldwide offshore accident databank. Statistical report 1992
This report presents statistics on accidents to offshore structures engaged in oil and gas activities in the period 1970-1991. Tables for exposure data show number of unit- and personnel-years for mobile and fixed units classified according to type of unit, year and geographical location. Tables for accident data show number of accidents classified according to type, degree of structural damage, type of release/spill and spill size, operation mode, number of fatalities, type of unit and geographical location. In general, the data are given separately for the two time periods 1970-79 and 1980-91. A list of all major accidents is included.
DNV Technica Norge, P.O. Box 300, 1322 Høvik, Norway, 1992. viii, 175p. Illus.

CIS 93-1687
Institution of Chemical Engineers
Major hazards onshore and offshore
Proceedings of a symposium on major hazards onshore and offshore held in Manchester, United Kingdom, 20-22 October 1992. Papers are presented under the following headings: raising the issues (development of European and UK legislation over 20 years; management responsibility for offshore safety; proposed offshore safety cases); management and assessment of risk; management of hazards; protective measures and relief/venting; training and human factors; identification and assessment of risk; fire and explosion; emergency shutdown and escape.
Taylor and Francis Ltd., Rankine Road, Basingstoke RG24 0PR, Hants., United Kingdom, 1992. xii, 738p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 65.00.

CIS 93-1718 Jones M.E., Leddra M.J., Goldsmith A.S., Edwards D.
Health and Safety Executive
The geomechanical characteristics of reservoirs and reservoir rocks
This report discusses the mechanical behaviour of hydrocarbon reservoir rocks from theoretical, experimental and practical standpoints. The in situ stress and deformation states existing in hydrocarbon reservoirs and the details of how these can be altered during hydrocarbon production are discussed. Data on rock reservoir deformations is necessary in assessing the probability of a deformation problem occurring, estimating its cost and the impact of any safety and environmental implications. A knowledge of the geomechanics of the reservoir rock may influence the design of the hydrocarbon production strategy.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1992. 202p. Illus. 100 ref. Price: GBP 40.00.

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