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Petroleum and natural gas industry - 659 entries found

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CIS 05-349
Health and Safety Executive
Guidance on permit-to-work systems - A guide for the petroleum, chemical and allied industries
This document describes good practice in the use of permit-to-work systems, and as such may be useful to operators using permit-to-work systems as part of a demonstration that risks have been reduced to as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP). The guidance is applicable to the onshore and offshore petroleum industry, onshore chemical and allied industries and other industries where permit-to-work systems are used. Topics addressed: definition of a permit-to-work system; when permit-to-work systems are required; harmonizing roles within permit-to-work systems; responsibilities; training and competence; layout of a permit-to-work; work planning and risk assessment; monitoring, audit and review of permit-to-work systems. Appendices include relevant legal requirements and assessment and monitoring checklists. Replaces the previous edition (CIS 97-1210).
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2005. vi, 29p. Illus. 26 ref. Price: GBP 8.95.

CIS 05-496 Parkes K.R., Carnell S., Farmer E.
Health and Safety Executive
Musculo-skeletal disorders, mental health and the work environment
The purpose of this study was to analyse the prevalence, severity and psychosocial risk factors of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among male employees in the oil and gas sector in the United Kingdom. 321 workers of this industry having participated in a previous survey five years earlier responded to the Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire. Low-back pain showed the highest 12-month prevalence (51%). Psychological distress and physical workload factors were the most significant direct predictors of MSDs, while anxiety and lack of social support were significant factors in predicting changes in the prevalence of MSDs over a five-year period.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2005. iv, 59p. Illus. 71 ref. Price: GBP 15.00. Downloadable version free of charge. [in English]

CIS 05-212 Nelson A., Sanderson D.
Health and Safety Executive
The effect of multiple member failure on the risk of gross collapse over typical inspection intervals
The objective of this project was to examine the existing practice for establishing the reliability of offshore structures. Specifically, it examines whether ignoring the risk of platform collapse from multi-member failure is significant or not. Probabilistic fracture mechanics calculations are used to predict the probability of individual member failures and the effects of stress redistribution on the integrity of neighbouring joints are examined. The report concludes that multimember failures may result in large reductions in platform strength which can have a significant effect on platform reliability predictions.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2005. viii, 31p. Illus. 5 ref. Price: GBP 20.00. Downloadable version free of charge. [in English]


CIS 06-101 Concawe Review 13:2
Contents of this review of Concawe's activities: concepts of cost benefit analysis in the Clean Air for Europe (CAFE) programme; cost-effectiveness of NOx abatement in oil refineries; monitoring and reporting of CO2 emissions from oil refineries; implications of EU chemicals control legislation (REACH); gasoline volatility and ethanol effects; motor vehicle emissions and fuel specifications; downstream oil industry safety statistics.
CONCAWE Review, Autumn 2004, Vol.13, No.2, p.1-24. Illus.

CIS 05-107 Integrated safety, health and environmental management system implemented in Petrobras UN-COL
El sistema integrado de gestión en seguridad salud y ambiente de Petrobras UN-COL [in Spanish]
The process adopted by the Columbian unit of an oil and gas production enterprise for the implementation of an integrated safety, health and environmental management system (SHE) is described. This system satisfies the requirements of the ISO 14001 and OHSAS 18001 international standards. The work was completed in 22 months thanks to the concerted efforts of employees, subcontractors and suppliers, and resulted in the award of the SHE certification in December 2002.
Protección y seguridad, July-Aug. 2004, Vol.50, No.296, p.45-46. Illus.

CIS 04-102 Shikdar A.A.
Identification of ergonomic issues that affect workers in oilrigs in desert environments
The main objective of this research was to assess ergonomic-related problems in oil rigs in a desert environment. The investigation involved the use of a checklist, the physical inspection of the premises and the examination of the workers' medical records. Findings showed that significant health problems could be attributed to ergonomic deficiencies in the environment and work system of the oil rig. Some of the major ergonomic issues identified were hard physical work, back pain, discomfort, hot environments, long shifts and diverse schedules. 94% of the employees perceived the workday as very long, 79% were dissatisfied with the work schedule, while 61% perceived the summer work environment as extremely hot. Ergonomics should be considered in the work system design so as to reduce or eliminate problems in oil rigs in hot climate regions.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2004, Vol.10, No.2, p.169-177. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 03-1626 Gun R.T., Pratt N.L., Griffith E.C., Adams G.G., Bisby J.A., Robinson K.L.
Update of a prospective study of mortality and cancer incidence in the Australian petroleum industry
The objective of this study was to update the analysis of the cohort mortality and cancer incidence among workers in the Australian petroleum industry. Cause-specific mortality and cancer incidence for workers employed between 1981 and 1996 were compared with those of the Australian population by means of standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs). 692 of the 15,957 male subjects and 16 of the 1206 female subjects had died by the cut off date, 31 December 1996. In males, the all-cause SMR and the SMRs for all major disease categories were significantly below unity. A non-significant increase of the all-cancer SIR (1.04) and a significant increase of the incidence of melanoma (SIR 1.54), bladder cancer (SIR 1.37), prostate cancer (SIR 1.19), pleural mesothelioma (SIR 1.80), leukaemia (SIR 1.39) and multiple myeloma (SIR 1.72) were observed. Possible reasons for these trends are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2004, Vol.61, No.2, p.150-156. 29 ref.


CIS 10-0612 Guide to KOC HSE management system
This document describes the minimum standards for the Kuwait Oil Company's HSE management system. The standards are broadly compatible with the ISO 14001 international standard for environmental management systems and the OHSAS 18001 specification for occupational safety and health management systems. The intent of these standards are: to provide a consistent and systematic framework for identifying HSE issues; to ensure that HSE risks are managed; and to ensure continuous improvement in HSE programs and performance.
Kuwait Oil Company (K.O.C.), P.O. Box 9758 Ahmadi, 61008 Ahmadi, Kuwait, 2003. 28p. Illus.
Guide_to_KOC_HSE.pdf [in English]

CIS 06-106 Lewis R.J., Schnatter A.R., Drummond I., Murray N., Thompson F.S., Katz A.M., Jorgensen G., Nicolich M.J., Dahlman D., Thériault G.
Mortality and cancer morbidity in a cohort of Canadian petroleum workers
Mortality and cancer morbidity were studied in a total of 25,292 Canadian petroleum workers hired between 1964 and 1994 and linked to the Canadian tumour registry and national mortality database. Exposure-response trends were assessed for hydrocarbons (solvents, fuels and lubricants), petroleum coke/spent catalyst and hydrogen sulphide. Overall, external comparison analyses (mortality and incidence) showed deficits for all causes and all malignant neoplasms combined and were consistent with expectation for most malignant and non-malignant sites analysed. Mesothelioma incidence was increased. Statistically significant increases were observed for hydrogen sulphide exposure and a subgroup of accidental deaths as well as for petroleum coke/spent catalyst exposure and lung cancer. However, for lung cancer, the analysis did not adequately control for smoking, was based on small numbers, and exhibited a tenuous exposure-response pattern. The findings for mesothelioma suggest the need for continued attention to asbestos in the petroleum industry. Hydrogen sulphide exposure deserves a closer scrutiny in similarly exposed populations.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2003, Vol.60, No.12, p.918-928. 64 ref.

CIS 06-79 Maher N.
The application of a job-exposure matrix in the natural gas industry
This article describes the use of a job exposure matrix for the design, implementation and analysis of a questionnaire to profile jobs in natural gas pipeline operations with respect to possible hazardous exposures. The categories of chemical, physical, ergonomic, biological, and psychological hazards were surveyed. The first stage of the project was to formulate and confirm a list of hazardous agents present within the pipeline operations. The second stage involved the collection of data about whether a particular hazardous agent was present at a location, and if so, which workers were exposed to it, and at what intensity and frequency they were exposed. The final stage of the project was to critically examine and validate the data collected. Uses of the resulting database are discussed.
AIHA Journal, Nov.-Dec. 2003, Vol.64, No.6, p.806-814. 20 ref.

CIS 05-157 Concawe Review 40 - 1963-2003 - Celebrating 40 years of CONCAWE
On the occasion of CONCAWE's 40th anniversary, this issue is devoted to articles on each of the major fields of its activity. Contents: contributions to air quality; specifications on fuel quality and reduction of emissions; guidance on water and waste management; health aspects; classification, labelling and risk assessment of petroleum products; supporting the oil industry's commitment to safe operations; monitoring the performance of European cross-country oil pipelines.
CONCAWE Review, Oct. 2003, Vol.12, No.2. p.1-25. (whole issue). Illus.

CIS 03-1982 Chen W.Q., Wong T.W., Yu T.S., Lin Y.Z., Cooper C.L.
Determinants of perceived occupational stress among Chinese offshore oil workers
In this study aimed at exploring the determinants of perceived sources of occupational stress among workers in the rapidly expanding Chinese offshore oil industry, 567 workers in a state-owned oil company were surveyed by means of a questionnaire. Items covered included occupational stress and Type A behaviour, social support and socio-demographic data. Using factor analyses, nine sources of stress were identified. Better-educated workers perceived more stress from the interface between their job and family or social life and career achievement, but less stress from ergonomics. Type A workers perceived more stress from career achievement and the living environment. Social support was significantly associated with four sources of stress. Workers with different job titles perceived stress from different sources. Findings imply that different strategies and methods need to be applied to different occupational groups and to workers with different personalities and socio-demographic characteristics.
Work and Stress, Oct.-Dec. 2003, Vol.17, No.4, p.287-305. 62 ref.

CIS 03-1880 Radiation protection and the management of radioactive waste in the oil and gas industry
This safety report documents the practical radiation protection and radioactive waste safety measures that are taken in the oil and gas industry in order to implement the requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards and the guidance provided in various safety guides. It also includes detailed information on training and supervision, radiation monitoring, decontamination methods and radioactive waste characterization. It is aimed at regulatory bodies, oil and gas field operators and service companies, workers and their representatives, health, safety and environmental protection professionals, and health and safety training officers.
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Wagramerstrasse 5, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Wien, Austria, 2003. 130p. Illus. 104 ref. Price of print edition: EUR 20.00. Downloadable version free of charge. [in English]

CIS 03-1698 Ferreira L.L., Iguti A.M.
Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego
Work in the oil industry - Dangerous, complex, continuous and group work
O trabalho dos petroleiros - Perigoso, complexo, contínuo e coletivo [in Portuguese]
This study of the activities of oil industry workers in Brazil is based on approximately 50 interviews of workers. It analyses the tasks during the various phases from exploration to distribution, through production, refining, transport and storage. Although the tasks are very diverse, the activities of oil industry workers present the following common traits: work with dangerous substances (flammable, explosive or toxic); treatment of large quantities of products; continuous work; processes carried out in closed systems consisting of equipment and piping; indirect process control; network structure of various parts of the system. It is a complex industry, presenting various hazards and requiring high levels of competence and responsibility.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 05409-002, Brazil, 2003. xxi, 156p. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 03-1495 Wright M., Bendig M., Hopkins C., Gall B., Holmes J., Landles L.
Health and Safety Executive
The promotion of human factors in the onshore and offshore hazardous industries
The HSE, in recognition of the role of human error in major accidents, aims to promote the application of human factors in the onshore and offshore chemical, oil and gas hazardous industries. This study explored duty holders awareness and attitudes towards human factors so as to understand how best to promote integration of human factors into major accident prevention. 141 structured phone interviews were carried out among operators and support service enterprises of hazardous onshore installations and offshore oil and gas platforms. It was found that duty holders lack a consistent understanding of human factors, mostly relying on intuitive presumptions of what is meant by "human factors". It is recommended that the HSE place more emphasis on human factors in their future guidance.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2003. viii, 121p. Illus. Price: GBP 20.00. [in English]

CIS 03-1403 Jenman C.A.
Health and Safety Executive
Report on trends in shuttle tanker incidents 1998-2001
This report reviews the progress made with respect to the safety of tanker off-take on the United Kingdom continental shelf, based on the results of an earlier report covering the years 1997-1998 together with an analysis of the data from 1998 to 2001. It calculates of the hours of exposure and the frequencies of incident types. It concludes that there has been a 59% reduction in the expected frequency of collision between a shuttle tanker and floating production, storage and off-loading (FPSOs) platforms and floating storage units (FSUs). Nevertheless, there is clearly underreporting and blurring of the lines between normal operational procedures and emergency procedures on some vessels with respect to accidental disconnections.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2003. vi, 16p. Illus. 3 ref. Price: GBP 10.00. [in English]

CIS 03-1217 Mearns K., Whitaker S.M., Flin R.
Safety climate, safety management practice and safety performance in offshore environments
Safety climate surveys were conducted on 13 offshore oil and gas installations in consecutive years, with nine installations common to both years. In addition, data on safety management practices were collected by questionnaire from senior management on eight of these installations. The association between management practices and climate scores with official accident statistics and self-reported accident involvement was examined using a series of hypotheses. Significant correlations were found between certain safety climate scales and official accident statistics and also the proportion of respondents reporting involvement in an accident in the previous 12 months. Proficiency in some safety management practices was associated with lower official accident rates and fewer respondents reporting accident involvement.
Safety Science, Oct. 2003, Vol.41, No.8, p.641-680. Illus. 55 ref.

CIS 03-642 Eglund M., Risberg J.
Self-reported headache during saturation diving
Headache is a frequent symptom among divers, but there is limited knowledge of the incidence and clinical characteristics of such headaches. During 2001, a questionnaire was distributed to divers working in offshore diving operations on the Norwegian continental shelf. Questions included past and present headache symptoms, with pain intensity indicated visual analog scale (VAS) from zero to ten. A total of 56 divers from two diving contractors participated in the study, during which 67 saturation dives were registered. The divers estimated a higher frequency of headaches in connection to saturation diving than to other activities of everyday life. One third of the divers reported experiencing headache after they finished decompression. There was a significant increase in reports of headache on the last day of decompression and on the first day post-saturation compared with the start of decompression. Median headache duration was 6h and median pain score estimated on a VAS was 2.5, equivalent to moderate intensity.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2003, Vol.74, No.3, p.236-241. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 03-736 Concawe Review 12:1
Topics covered in this review of CONCAWE's activities relate mainly to the limitation of CO2 emissions. Contents: the "well-to-wheels" study, aimed at establishing the energy and greenhouse-gas balances for a number of fuel and power train combinations; new technologies for sulfur-free fuels; emissions from modern gasoline-engine vehicles; update of the model of the European refining industry; establishing air quality limit values; oil in water analysis; exposure of asphalt workers to bitumen fumes; trends in the reduction of occupational exposure to gasoline vapours.
CONCAWE Review, Apr. 2003, Vol.12, No.1, p.1-24. Illus.


CIS 06-80 Wang J.
Offshore safety case approach and formal safety assessment of ships
To maximize marine and offshore safety, risk modelling and decision-making tools need to be developed and applied in a practical environment. This paper describes both the offshore safety case approach and the formal safety assessment of ships with particular reference to the design aspects. Current practices and the latest developments in safety assessment in both the marine and offshore industries are described. The relationship between the offshore safety case approach and formal ship safety assessment is described and discussed. Three examples are used to demonstrate the two approaches and recommendations are made with respect to further work required.
Journal of Safety Research, 2002, Vol.33, No.1, p.81-115. Illus. 37 ref.

CIS 03-1943 Parkes K.R.
Shift work and age as interactive predictors of body mass index among offshore workers
This survey examines shift patterns (day shifts versus day-night rotation) and its interaction with age and shift work exposure as predictors of body mass index (BMI). Data were collected from offshore personnel working day shifts (787 workers) or day-night shifts (787 workers); information was obtained about shift pattern and years of shift work exposure, height, weight, demographic factors and smoking habits. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to test a model in which BMI was predicted by additive and interactive effects of shift pattern, age and exposure years, with control for confounding variables. The significant interaction effects found were consistent with the view that continued exposure to day-night shift work gives rise to increases in BMI, over and above the normal effects of ageing on BMI shown by day shift workers.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Feb. 2002, Vol.28, No.1, p.64-71. Illus. 49 ref.

CIS 03-1670 Sorahan T., Nichols L., Harrington J.M.
Mortality of United Kingdom oil refinery and petroleum distribution workers, 1951-1998
The mortality experienced by cohorts of 28,630 oil refinery workers and 16,480 petroleum distribution workers has been investigated. Study subjects were all male employees first employed in the period 1946-1974 at one of eight UK oil refineries or at one of 476 UK petroleum distribution centres. When compared with national mortality rates, the resultant standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were significantly below 100 for all causes, in both oil refinery workers (SMR=88) and petroleum distribution workers (SMR=94). Significantly elevated SMRs were shown in oil refinery workers for cancer of the gall bladder (SMR=172), cancer of the pleura (SMR=254) and melanoma (SMR=162). Significantly elevated SMRs were not found in petroleum distribution workers for any site of cancer. SMRs for selected causes of death were calculated by period from commencing employment, by year of hire and by job type. The only findings that suggested the presence of an occupational cancer hazard were an excess of mesothelioma in oil refinery workers and an excess of leukaemia in petroleum distribution workers, both excesses occurring in long-term follow-up for workers first employed >30 years ago.
Occupational Medicine, Sep. 2002, Vol.52, No.6, p.333-339. 11 ref.

CIS 03-1337 Prasad R.
Fire prevention and protection at the plant level
This article presents the fire prevention efforts undertaken by a major oil products supplier in India, in particular during the design, construction and operation of oil refineries. A box includes the company's safety, health and environmental policy.
Industrial Safety Chronicle, Oct.-Dec. 2002, Vol.XXXIII, No.3, p.68-74. Illus.

CIS 03-735 Concawe Review 11:2
Contents of this review of CONCAWE's activities: report on progress on key issues in which CONCAWE is currently involved; research on road transport and alternative fuels; aromatics in automotive fuel specifications; AIRNET, a network of researchers and organizations working towards the improvement of air quality in Europe; trends in refinery sulfur emission in Europe; report on the 6th CONCAWE pipeline seminar.
CONCAWE Review, Oct. 2002, Vol.11, No.2, p.1-21. Illus.

CIS 03-734 Concawe Review 11:1
Topics covered in this review of CONCAWE's activities relate mainly to emission reduction. Contents: economic aspects of biofuel production; SO2 emissions from ships in Europe; the refinery best available technique (BAT) reference document; emissions from modern diesel engines; specifications for non-road diesel fuel use; 30 years of spillage performance monitoring in Western European oil pipelines.
CONCAWE Review, Apr. 2002, Vol.11, No.1, p.1-24. Illus.

CIS 03-25 Minimum Requirements for Safety and Health at Work (Extractive Industries Through Drilling) Regulations of 2002 [Cyprus]
Oi perí Eláhistōn Prodiagrafṓn Asfáleias kai Ugeías stēn Ergasía (Exoruktikés diá Geōtrḗseōn Biomēhaníes) Kanonismoí tou 2002 [in Greek]
These regulations were issued under the authority of the 1996 Act concerning safety and health at work (see CIS 98-5), as modified by 2002. Detailed safety rules are provided for the extractive industries that rely on drilling. Implementation in Cyprus of Council Directive 92/91/EEC of 3 November 1992 concerning the minimum requirements for improving the safety and health protection of workers in the mineral-extracting industries through drilling (see CIS 93-23).
Episêmos Efêmeris tês Dêmokratias, 7 June 2002, No.3610, p.2659-2727.

CIS 03-263
Health and Safety Executive
A guide to the Offshore Installations and Pipeline Works (Management and Administration) Regulations 1995
This guide presents the text of the Offshore Installations and Pipeline Works (Management and Administration) Regulations 1995 (see CIS 95-804) along with appropriate guidance. Main provisions concern: definition of offshore installations; places and activities to which the Regulations apply; notification of authorities; duties and rights of installation managers; co-operation requirements; record keeping; permits to work; requirements for written health and safety instructions; arrangements for effective communication; safety of helicopter deck operations; operational information requirements; health surveillance; supply drinking water and other provisions; identification of the offshore installation; employers' liability. Replaces CIS 95-1717.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2nd ed., Sep. 2002. iv, 48p. Illus. 24 ref. Price: GBP 10.50.

CIS 02-1994 Johnson R., Hughes G
Health and Safety Executive
Evaluation report on OTO 1999/092 - Human factors assessment of safety critical tasks
This report describes an assessment of safety critical tasks for the development of the Leadon field, which uses a purpose-built FPSO (Floating Production, Storage and Offloading) offshore platform. It constitutes the first step in a joint industry project to evaluate the methodology presented in offshore technology report OTO 1999/092, "Human factors assessment of safety critical tasks". Among the aspects considered: usability of the methodology; benefits of its use; typical costs to implement; modifications to the methodology; opportunities for further development. It concludes that this tool has many applications for both onshore and offshore installations, including maintenance activities, safety related critical roles and occupational health and safety.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. vi, 25p. Illus. 3 ref. Price: GBP 10.00. [in English]

CIS 02-1746 The promotion of good industrial relations in oil and gas production and oil refining
La promotion de bonnes méthodes de relations professionnelles dans le secteur du raffinage du pétrole et de la production de pétrole et de gaz [in French]
El fomento de buenas relaciones laborales en la producción de petróleo y gas y en las refinerías de petróleo [in Spanish]
The aim of this report was to provide background information and a basis for discussions for delegates attending a tripartite meeting on the promotion of good industrial relations in oil and gas production and oil refining held at the ILO in Geneva, Switzerland, 25 February - 1 March 2002. The purpose of the meeting was to review different approaches to promoting good industrial relations in a variety of geographical, cultural, political, economic and technical circumstances, and to adopt conclusions that include proposals for action by governments, by employers' and workers' organizations at the national level and by the ILO. Contents of the report: recent trends in oil and gas production and oil refining industries; freedom and restrictions of association; ILO approach to industrial relations; collective bargaining; social dialogue. As appendices: structure and goals of works councils of selected oil and gas companies; comparison of codes of conduct of four oil and gas companies.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2002. iv, 64p. Illus. Price: CHF 15.00.

CIS 02-936
Health and Safety Executive
Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore
This guide is aimed at persons involved in the supply, operation and control of lifting equipment used in the offshore environment. Its purpose is to assist them in the safe operation of this equipment and in complying with legal requirements, in particular with the Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998 (PUWER 98, see CIS 99-1429) and the Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment regulations 1998 (LOLER 98, see CIS 99-1428). Contents: general considerations on the selection and operation of equipment; types of offshore lifting equipment; equipment for lifting people; drilling equipment; guidance on compliance with LULER and POWER.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. iv, 72p. Illus. 21 ref. Price: GBP 15.00.


CIS 03-1448 Rodrigues V.F., Fischer F.M., Brito M.J.
Shift work at a modern offshore drilling rig
The objective of this study was to evaluate how offshore drilling workers perceived shift work and its impact on their living and working conditions. Comprehensive interviews were conducted among 51 shift workers employed in the studied offshore unit. The main features of offshore shift work schedules are long time on board (14 to 28 days), extended shifts (12 hours or more per day), slow rotation (7 to 14 days in the same shift), long sequence of days on the night shift (7 to 14 days in a row) and the extra-long extended journey (18 hours) on shift change and landing days. Interviews revealed a wide range of stressors caused by the offshore shift work, as well as difficulties to conciliate work with family life. The major stressors for the offshore drilling workers were role conflicts and social isolation resulting from changes of the family model, work in hazardous environments, poor sleep when working at night and the imbalance between the expected and actual rewards.
Journal of Human Ergology, Dec. 2001, Vol.30, No.1-2, p.167-172. 14 ref.

CIS 03-733 Concawe Review 10:2
Topics covered in this review of CONCAWE's activities relate mainly to improvements of air quality. Contents: future EU air legislation; implications of the revised large combustion plant directive for the EU refining industry; automotive particulate emissions; impact of the use of hydrogen on CO2 emissions; comment on the "whole effluent assessment" concept; downstream industry safety statistics; CONCAWE's role in the reorganization of the European Union.
CONCAWE Review, Oct. 2001, Vol.10, No.2, p.1-24. Illus.

CIS 03-732 Concawe Review 10:1
Topics covered in this review of CONCAWE's activities relate mainly to air quality. Contents: validity of model predictions for air quality confirmed by measurements in London; update of a report on motor vehicle emission regulations and fuel specifications; automotive emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; effect of tougher specifications on diesel supply; health issues of oil industry and products; hearing trends in noise-exposed oil refinery workers; dangerous preparations directive; integrity of pipelines in Western Europe.
CONCAWE Review, Apr. 2001, Vol.10, No.1, p.1-24. Illus.

CIS 03-200 Wong O., Harris F., Rosamilia K., Raabe G.K.
Updated mortality study of workers at a petroleum refinery in Torrance, California, from 1959 to 1997
This cohort study involved 3328 workers employed at a refinery for at least one year between 1959 and 1997, with an observation period from 1960 to 1997. Mortality data were analysed in terms of cause-specific standardized mortality ratios with expected deaths based on US national data. The overall mortality of the cohort was significantly lower than expected. Overall cancer mortality was also lower than expected, with significant mortality deficits being observed for certain specific sites. For other diseases, no significant increases were observed, with specific mortality deficits for ischaemic heart disease, chronic endocardial disease and other myocardial insufficiencies, all other heart disease, and influenza and pneumonia. Detailed analysis by length of employment did not reveal any significant mortality excess or upward trend. Analyses of male employees by job classification (process and maintenance) showed significantly elevated mortality from cirrhosis of the liver and suicide among maintenance workers.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2001, Vol.43, No.12, p.1089-1102. 15 ref.

CIS 02-1740 Slatin C.
Health and safety organizing: OCAW's worker-to-worker health and safety training program
The Oil, Chemical, and Atomic Workers International Union (OCAW) developed a hazardous waste worker and hazardous materials emergency responder health and safety training programme that was specific to its members in the represented industries. The objective of the programme is to develop worker-trainers to conduct the training using the Small-Group Activity Method, to participate in curriculum development, and ultimately to use health and safety training as a vehicle for identifying, developing, and mobilizing health and safety activists among the membership.
New Solutions, 2001, Vol.11, No.4, p.349-374. 32 ref.

CIS 02-236 Lo Presti E., Sperati A., Rapiti E., Di Domenicantonio R., Forastiere F., Perucci C.A.
Mortality by cause among workers of a refinery in Rome
Mortalità per causa dei lavoratori della raffineria di Roma [in Italian]
Mortality was evaluated among blue-collar and white-collar workers employed in an oil refinery plant in Rome (Italy). Age- and sex-adjusted comparison was made with mortality data for the general population of the Lazio region. 682 subjects were followed up since their employment in the plant up to July 1999 and for analyses of selected cancer sites. There were 94 deaths (100.8 expected) among blue-collar and 16 deaths (31.7 expected) among white-collar workers. There was a significant increase in the number of deaths due to cancer of the lung and the bladder and from tumours of the brain. The lower mortality from cardiovascular disease (SMR 0.60 for blue-collar and 0.18 among white-collar workers) indicates the presence of a strong "healthy worker effect".
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 2001, Vol.92, No.5, p.327-337. 52 ref.

CIS 01-1094 Parkes K.R., Byron J.
Health and Safety Executive
Work, health, and safety in the UK oil and gas industry - A survey of onshore sites, and comparison with offshore installations
Data from a survey of 909 persons employed at eight United Kingdom oil and gas processing sites are reported. The survey included a range of psychosocial measures including physical environment and job characteristics (workload, autonomy, task/skill variety, clarity), safety measures and procedures, job satisfaction and future job prospects, and mental and physical health. The different shift rotation patterns practiced at the sites participating in the study are analysed in terms of job satisfaction, work-family conflict, perceived performance impairment and sleep quality. Finally, data from offshore and onshore personnel are compared.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2001. vi, 111p. Illus. 62 ref. Price: GBP 20.00.

CIS 01-609 Health and Safety - The Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 (Application outside Great Britain) Order 2001 [United Kingdom]
This Order revokes and re-enacts with amendments the 1995 Order (see CIS 98-1064), which extended the coverage of the Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 (see CIS 74-2099) to certain premises and activities (offshore installations, wells, pipelines, mines, construction and other ancillary activities) in the territorial seas adjacent to Great Britain. The major change with respect to the previous Order is the inclusion of diving projects, energy-producing structures (fixed or floating structures producing energy from wind or water) and the transfer of people or goods to or from structures associated with offshore activities.
HMSO Publications Centre, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 2001. 7p. Price: GBP 2.00.


CIS 03-730 Concawe Review 9:1
Topics covered in this review of CONCAWE's activities relate mainly to emissions of petroleum products and their possible adverse effects on human health and the environment. Contents: the complexity of legislation on refineries; carbon, sulfur and hydrogen in oil refineries; estimating the implications of road fuel quality changes on the EU refining industry; the impact of Auto/Oil I and II on refinery costs and global CO2 emissions; trends in European air quality; personal exposure to air pollutants; global harmonized system of hazard communication for chemicals; MTBE in gasoline.
CONCAWE Review, Apr. 2000, Vol.9, No.1, p.1-24. Illus.

CIS 03-293 Wong O., Raabe G.K.
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and exposure to benzene in a multinational cohort of more then 308,000 petroleum workers, 1937 to 1996
To determine the risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in petroleum workers, cohorts of petroleum workers in the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Italy, and Finland were identified. The combined multinational cohort consisted of more than 308,000 workers, and the observation period covered an interval of 60 years from 1937 to 1996. A total of 506 NHL deaths were observed, compared with 561.68 expected. Analyses of Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMRs) were performed by type of facility and industrial process. SMRs were 0.96 for US refinery workers, 1.12 for non-US refinery workers, 0.64 for gasoline distribution workers, and 0.68 for crude oil workers. Results from individual studies, as well as from the pooled analysis, indicated that petroleum workers were not at an increased risk of NHL as a result of their exposure to benzene or benzene-containing petroleum products in their work environment.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2000, Vol.42, No.5, p.554-568. Illus. 94 ref.

CIS 02-1296
Health and Safety Commission
Health care and first aid on offshore installations and pipeline works - Approved Code of Practice and guidance
The Offshore Installations and Pipeline Works (First-Aid) Regulations 1989 require employers to ensure adequate first-aid and basic health-care provision for all their personnel. This guidance document takes into account the amendments to the regulations in 1993, 1995 and 1999, and includes a revised Code of Practice. It replaces the guidance of 1990 (see CIS 91-12). Contents: comments on the regulations and Code of Practice with emphasis on the responsibilities of the person in control, followed by guidance on the following topics: assessment of first aid and basic health care needs; roles and responsibilities of offshore medical practitioners; roles and responsibilities of offshore first-aid personnel; training objectives for offshore medical practitioners; competencies for offshore first-aid personnel; criteria for the approval of training providers.
HSE Books, P.O.Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2nd ed., 2000. vi, 30p. 20 ref. Price: GBP 6.00.

CIS 02-289 Major J., Jakab M.G., Tompa A.
HPRT mutation frequencies in benzene-exposed oil refinery workers during an eleven-year-long follow-up study
Mutation and variant frequencies (VF) of the hypoxanthine-guanine-phosphoribosyl-transferase (HPRT) loci of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of 43 occupationally benzene-exposed, 30-40-year-old workers with increased chromosome aberration frequencies were investigated by autoradiography in an eleven-year-long follow-up study in order to assess the cancer risk. Data were compared to those of 87 age-matched controls. Ambient air benzene concentrations were measured with gas chromatography. Compared to the controls, the values of the labelling indices in PBLs of the exposed donors were decreased indicating a reduced response to lectine stimulation in the genotoxicologically compromised cells. In the years 1992-1993, the mean hprt VFs of the exposed workers were significantly higher than those of the controls, but not in the previous or subsequent years. The distribution of the individual VFs also indicated exposure-related increases in the years 1991-1993. The data indicate that occupational exposure to benzene can increase the cell mutation frequencies.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 2000, Vol.6, No.4, p.288-299. Illus. 45 ref.

CIS 01-1432 Lewis R.J., Gamble J.F., Jorgensen G.
Mortality among three refinery/petrochemical plant cohorts - I. 1970 to 1982 active/terminated workers; II. Retirees
This study updates mortality rates for 19,075 workers at three refinery and petrochemical plants in the United States. Results indicated deficits of deaths for all causes, all malignant neoplasms, and respiratory and prostate cancer. A significant increase in leukaemia among male subjects (standardized mortality ratio (SMR) = 181) was found for one of the locations, which showed trends of increasing SMRs with increasing tenure. This excess was largely due to increased chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (SMR 351). The rate of kidney cancer also remained elevated among male subjects at one of the locations, but this finding was no longer significant, and there were no patterns in SMRs by tenure and latency. Mesothelioma was increased at two locations (SMR 198 and 246). A second part of the study updates mortality data for 6238 retirees from the same three plants. Almost 90% of the cohort was deceased. Deaths from all causes (SMR 104) and all cancers (SMR 109) were elevated. Increased deaths due to kidney cancer, mesothelioma, and other lymphatic and haemopoietic tissue cancers were also observed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2000, Vol.42, No.7, p.721-729; p.730-736. 53 ref.

CIS 01-799 Downstream oil industry safety statistics: Industry safety performance continues to improve
Oil industry safety statistics over 1993 to 1999 show an improvement in safety performance. The number of lost workdays per 1 million hours worked (4.3) is slightly lower than those recorded for the last four years and the average number of lost days per incidents (severity) has been steadily decreasing. The road accident rate has also improved over the years. The most notable feature of the 1999 statistics is the fatal accident rate which is the lowest ever recorded (1.8), which indicates that oil industry has developed procedures to reduce the risks from flammability and explosions hazards to a low level.
CONCAWE Review, Oct. 2000, Vol.9, No.2, p.24. Illus.

CIS 01-792 Farooqui A.
Safety, health and environment challenges of oil and gas industry in Pakistan
Hazards affecting the oil and gas industry are reviewed. BLEVE (boiling liquid evaporative vapour explosion) is associated with highly volatile liquid hydrocarbons such as LPG (liquid petroleum gas). Workers' health may be affected by acute or chronic exposures to toxic gases, such as hydrogen sulfide, which are often associated with oil or natural gas. Exposure to radioactive materials used for radiographic inspection, or from naturally-occurring radioactive elements during drilling may cause health problems. Methods for controlling these hazards through proper design, maintenance and inspection procedures are discussed. Reference is made to Pakistani laws on employee and environmental protection. It is desirable to have company-level safety, health and environmental (SHE) programmes that extend beyond the basic legal requirements. In Pakistan, improved awareness has resulted over the years in substantial reductions in injury rates and resulting lost workdays.
Industrial Relations Journal, July-Aug. 2000, Vol.17, No.4, p.11-13; 15-16.

CIS 01-905 Cox S.J., Cheyne A.J.T.
Assessing safety culture in offshore environments
A collaborative industry and government research project in the United Kingdom on the assessment of safety culture in offshore oil extraction industry environments is presented. It describes a Safety Climate Assessment Toolkit: a safety culture assessment methodology based on a systems approach to organizational culture, combining a number of assessment methods including questionnaires, focus groups, behavioural observations and situational audits, in order to describe and explore the efficacy of health and safety management systems. The evidence produced by these methods are complementary and provide different views of organizational health and safety culture by tapping many aspects of the organisation's structure, function and behaviour.
Safety Science, Feb.-Apr. 2000, Vol.34, No.1-3, p.111-129. Illus. 42 ref.

CIS 01-287 Duljasova M.V., Habibullina Z.I.
Psychological reserves of increase of reliability in oil-processing and petrochemical enterprises
Psihologičeskie rezervy povyšenija nadežnosti neftepererabatyvajuščih i neftehimičeskih predprijatij [in Russian]
This article explores the potential for psychological resources in accident prevention in industries such as petroleum refining and petrochemicals, which involve working with dangerous and toxic materials. Human factors may account for up to 70% of accidents. Therefore, personal traits such as memory, attention, sensorimotor capacity, sense of responsibility, care, competence and self-control are evaluated as to their importance for machine operators, engineers and foremen. Insufficiencies in some of theses traits may lead to occupational diseases and accidents, to poor work achievements and to high staff turnover.
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, Mar. 2000, No.3, p.46-47.


CIS 01-1694 Maniscalco P., Lane R., Welke M., Mitchell J.H., Husting L.
Decreased rate of back injuries through a wellness program for offshore petroleum employees
High rates of injury, particularly those for back injuries, at an offshore petroleum unit were addressed through an intensive occupational hygiene programme initiated in 1991. The number of all types of injuries, including back injuries, decreased between 1991 and 1995. The number of back injuries decreased from nine in 1987 to four in 1992 and zero in 1993. Although there are inadequate data to provide significant results, other criteria suggest a causal relationship. The results are consistent with the few published studies that suggest a decrease in the number of injuries in association with exercise and perhaps with modification of psychosocial risk factors. Calculations suggest a cost savings of over USD 800,000 and a return on investment of USD 2.51 on the dollar.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 1999, Vol.41, No.9, p.813-820. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 01-466 Martin D.E.
European downstream oil industry safety performance - Statistical summary of reported incidents - 1998
This report includes safety statistics for the year 1998 concerning the refining and distribution activities notified by 27 companies, which account for 90% of European refining capacity. Overall, the reported hours worked by company employees and contractors were approximately 470 million. The average Lost Workday Injury Frequency (LWIF) was 4.5, similar to those of previous years which ranged from 4.0 to 4.7. Statistics are also provided for injury severity, injury frequency, road accidents and fatalities. Despite the intrinsic hazards of the materials and the operations carried out, the level of accidents is low when compared to other industries in Europe.
CONCAWE, Madouplein, 1210 Brussels, Belgium, July 1999. iv, 15p. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 01-204 Andreeva N.N., Sitenkov V.T.
Selection of an accident development scenario in an oil plant
Vybor scenarija razvitija avarii na neftjanom promysle [in Russian]
This article examines theoretical and practical aspects of explosion hazards in a refinery. A basic assumption is that the plant can be divided into blocks that can be shut off in the case of malfunctions such as leakage. From any one block, the potential energy release should not exceed 3GJ. Safety equipment should match up to category 3 explosion hazard requirements. Two major explosion hazards are mentioned: firstly, explosive mixtures may form within a block during maintenance downtime, a situation which cannot be automatically controlled; secondly, fire may lead to an explosion hazard in a block that has been closed off in response to a malfunction; in this case, provision must be made for pressure release.
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, July 1999, No.7, p.17-20. Illus.

CIS 01-84 Šatalov A.A., Lugovskoj A.I., Karabanov Ju.F.
Basic trends of improving the system of control of plant safety of enterprises with the example of Rjazan NPZ
Osnovnye napravlenija soveršenstvovanija sistemy upravlenija promyšlennoj bezopasnost'ju predprijatij na primere Rjazanskogo NPZ [in Russian]
The article describes the experience acquired during three years of intense plant safety efforts in the Rjazan oil refinery in Russia. Technical inspections aiming at determining the residual lifetime of equipment for safe operation were multiplied, and performed systematically and rigorously. All events of disregard of safety instructions are followed up by briefings and re-examinations. Technical training of all staff was performed in a systematic and thorough way and its success confirmed by tests. Strong emphasis is placed on personal responsibility. Planned preventive maintenance and renewal of equipment are performed. Many additional signalling and measuring points were set up. Despite the plant's age, the safety and downtime records were significantly improved.
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, July 1999, No.7, p.6-10. Illus.

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