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Petroleum and natural gas industry - 659 entries found

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2007

CIS 08-1413 Robson J.K.
Health and Safety Executive
Overview of TEMPSC performance standards
In the majority of offshore emergency scenarios on the United Kingdom Continental Shelf, totally enclosed motor-propelled survival craft (TEMPSC) are relied upon as the secondary means for evacuation, after helicopters. Although TEMPSC are subject to performance standards laid down by the International Maritime Organisation, in particular with respect to launch systems, these standards address issues that primarily concern the carriage and use of lifeboats on ships rather than on offshore installations. Furthermore, a number of accidents have been reported that can be attributed to shortcomings in the design, use or maintenance of TEMPSC. This study investigated the current regulatory regime as applied to TEMPSC and its relevance to the use of these craft on offshore installations.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. vi, 77p. Illus.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr599.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-1372
Health and Safety Executive
Assessment of the benefits to the offshore industry from new technology and operating practices used in the shipping industry for managing collision risk
This report provides an overview of the latest technologies being adopted within the maritime industry for avoiding collision risk, having the potential to benefit the offshore oil and gas industry. The technologies include: radar; automatic identification system (AIM); aid to navigation information service (ANIS); electronic chart display and information system (ECDIS); e-navigation; long-range identification and tracking (LRIT); IMO routeing measures; systems for alerting fishing vessels to fixed obstructions.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. iv, 70p. Illus. 4 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr592.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-1412 Robson J.K.
Health and Safety Executive
Analysis of ERRV trials data from ERRVA and Seacroft
This study involved the analysis of data collected over a number of years concerning the frequency, circumstances and prevailing conditions when emergency response rescue vessels (ERRVs) on the United Kingdom Continental Shelf carried out trials with their rescue craft. Wind and wave conditions, trial conditions and seasons were taken into account. Findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. viii, 125p. Illus.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr569.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-1411 Royle M., Willoughby D., Brueck E., Patel J.
Health and Safety Executive
Measurement of acoustic spectra from liquid leaks
Acoustic leak detectors (ALDs) are being used increasingly on offshore platforms as a means of detecting leaks of flammable gases. They detect a leak through the ultrasonic sound produced by the escaping gas jet during leaks of liquids under high pressure. These sensors have been shown to perform well under the conditions experienced on offshore platforms. HSE recognizes the benefits of using such devices possibly in conjunction with line-of-sight sensors to detect gaseous releases. The objectives of this study were to develop spectra of the sound produced from pressurized releases of liquids under a variety of realistic release scenarios, to analyse the responses of selected ALD sensors positioned at different locations relative to the point of release and to collect information for producing guidance on using ALD sensors for protection against leaks of liquids under pressure.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. iv, 69p. Illus. 1 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr568.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-1346
Health and Safety Executive
Accident statistics for floating offshore units on the UK Continental Shelf 1980-2005
In 1999, four databases holding information about United Kingdom Continental Shelf semi-submersible flooding incidents were interrogated. The survey revealed that none of them had a complete recording of such incidents. Consequently, the event frequencies being obtained varied with the availability of sources. Furthermore, it was identified that there were incidents which were not recorded in any of these sources. There was no reason to believe that the situation and figures for other types of events on floating units should be any different. Hence, it was decided to carry out a study on the frequencies of accidents on floating units, based on a critical review of the coding of incidents in the existing databases. This report consists of the results of this analysis.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. iv, 32p. 2 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr567.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-1345
Health and Safety Executive
Accident statistics for fixed offshore units on the UK Continental Shelf 1980-2005
This project was undertaken with the purpose of obtaining accident statistics for offshore floating units on the United Kingdom Continental Shelf (UKCS). In this respect, four databases holding information about incidents having occurred on floating units on the UKCS were interrogated. Investigations revealed that none of them had a complete recording of such incidents. Consequently, the event frequencies being obtained varied with the availability of sources. There was no reason to believe that the situation for fixed installations should be any different. Hence, it was decided to carry out a study on the frequencies of accidents on fixed units, based on a critical review of the coding of incidents in the existing databases. This report consists of the results of this analysis.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. iv, 24p. 1 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr566.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-897 Concawe Review 16:2
Topics addressed in this review of CONCAWE activities: future demand and composition of fuels for road transport, including biofuels; software tool to assist enterprises comply with the information dissemination requirements of the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register Regulation (E-PRTR); challenges in accurate measurements of particulate matter (PM10) in diesel emissions; assessing the environmental sensitivity of petrol stations across Europe with respect to leaks and groundwater protection.
CONCAWE Review, 2007, Vol.16, No.2. p.1-21 (whole issue). Illus.

CIS 08-179 Abbasi T., Abbasi S.A.
The boiling liquid expanding vapour explosion (BLEVE): Mechanism, consequence assessment, management
Among the most devastating of accidents likely in chemical industry is the boiling liquid expanding vapour explosion (BLEVE). It is accompanied by highly destructive blast waves. In most situations there is also a fireball or a toxic gas cloud. The damaging effect of these accidents is reflected in the fact that the 80-odd major BLEVEs that have occurred between 1940 and 2005 have claimed over a 1000 lives and have injured over 10,000 persons besides harming property worth billions of dollars. Releases of toxic chemicals like chlorine and phosgene from BLEVEs have damaged large chunks of areas surrounding the sites. This article presents an overview of the mechanisms, causes, consequences and preventive strategies of BLEVEs.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Mar. 2007, Vol.141, No.3, p.489-519. Illus. 131 ref.

CIS 08-184 Pérez Suárez R.
Advantages of an integrated environmental management and response system based on centres for emergency intervention
Beneficios de una gestión integral ambiental y de repuesta mediante centros de atención de emergencias [in Spanish]
An early response in the event of an oil spill can help mitigate the environmental damage caused by such accidents. This article explains the functions of centres for emergency intervention integrating a proactive approach and how they should be organized for maximum effectiveness. Such centres should consist of integrated systems that include a logistical chain of support with clear responsibilities and defined areas of specialization, working as a pluridisciplinary team. They should be staffed by persons having backgrounds in particular in nautical sciences, safety engineering, biology, geology and oceanography.
Protección y seguridad, July-Aug.2007, Vol.53, No.314, p.60-61. Illus.

CIS 08-158 Controlling the safety management of oil spills
Control de gestión de la seguridad en los derrames [in Spanish]
This article is based on the IPIECA report entitled "Guidelines for oil spill waste minimization and management". It explains the waste generation implications of different oil spill clean-up techniques and describes best practice options for oiled waste management, which in many countries is strictly regulated. Contents: site safety and health plan; safety communications and information meeting; hazard evaluation; chemical safety with respect to the spilled product and the agent used for the clean-up; flammability; explosive vapours; toxicity; hydrogen sulphide; oxygen deficiency; slippery environment; equipment used for air monitoring and record keeping; use of personal protective equipment to avoid contact of hydrocarbons with the skin; chemicals and cleaning agents used for the clean-up.
Protección y seguridad, July-Aug.2007, Vol.53, No.314, p.52-59. Illus.

CIS 08-178 Vargas M., Salazar J., Rondón D., Montaña J.
Philosophy of protection of oil installations
Filosofía de protección de instalaciones petroleras [in Spanish]
This article addresses the issue of the hazards caused by atmospheric electrical discharges to existing oil installations and fuel storage sites, this natural phenomenon being one of the main causes of fire and damage to electronic control systems, resulting in major economic losses as well as fatalities and injuries among workers and neighbourhood populations. Contents: introduction and background; general aspects and mechanisms of the causes of damages and fires; integral protection system and risk reduction (external protection, internal protection, personal safety guide, alarm systems).
Protección y seguridad, July-Aug.2007, Vol.53, No.314, p.46-51. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 07-1362 Hale A., Kirwan B., Kjellén U.
Safety by design based on a workshop of the new technology and work network
Topics addressed in this full issue on safety by design: liability and its influence on designing for product and process safety; contribution of faulty design to accidents; statistics of design error in process industries; design error in process plant design; safety in the design of off-shore platforms; safety by design knowledge transfer from one industry to another; safety in the design of printing machinery, traffic, gas lamps and medical equipment; psychology applied to design processes; future trends.
Safety Science, Jan.-Feb. 2007, Vol.45, No.1-2, p.1-327 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 07-1385 Baverstock S., Gennart J.P., King D., Money C., Phillips R., Taalman R., Urbanus J.
Report of a workshop on environment and health: Air quality research needs in the EU 7th Framework Programme of Research, 15-16 January 2007
Report on a conference on air quality research needs held in Brussels, Belgium, on 15-16 January 2007, organized with the collaboration of the European Commission's Directorate General Research. The aims were to foster a multidisciplinary approach to identifying research needs, serve as a forum for international exchange and provide the opportunity for participants to reveal gaps in order to identify areas for future studies. Topics addressed included studies of the mortality and morbidity in the European population, the impact of traffic emissions on public health, elucidating the mechanisms of toxic action, development of toxicity screening tests and impact of particulate matter metrics on human health. The complete proceedings and conference materials are included in the accompanying CD-ROM in PDF format.
CONCAWE, Boulevard du Souverain 165, 1160 Brussels, Belgium, May 2007. iv, 28p. + CD-ROM
http://www.concawe.org/DocShareNoFrame/Common/GetFile.asp?PortalSource=156&DocID=11743&mfd=off&pdoc=1/ [in English]

CIS 07-1194
Health and Safety Executive
Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore
This guide is aimed at persons involved in the supply, operation and control of lifting equipment used in the offshore environment. Its purpose is to assist them in the safe operation of this equipment and in complying with legal requirements, in particular with the Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations 1998 (LOLER 98, see CIS 99-1428) and the Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998 (PUWER 98, see CIS 99-1429). Contents: general considerations on the selection and operation of equipment; types of offshore lifting equipment; equipment for lifting people; drilling equipment; guidance on compliance with LULER and POWER. Revised version of the document indexed under CIS 02-936.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2nd ed., 2007. iii, 56p. Illus. 23 ref. Price: GBP 16.50.

2006

CIS 08-924 Hamdan F.
Health and Safety Executive
Structural strengthening of offshore topsides structures as part of explosion risk reduction methods
Reassessment of offshore structures are often necessary for a variety of reasons: many existing offshore structures are being used well beyond their original design life, which necessitates the assessment of state of the structure in case of any deterioration; continuous advances being made in the field of safety of offshore structures against the risks of fires and explosions, which necessitates the re- assessment of the structure taking into account new data related to gas and explosion loading and response models; HSE requires the duty holder to carry out an assessment to demonstrate that risks have been reduced to as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP). This report deals with the re-assessment and strengthening methods for blast walls, decks and floors of offshore structures.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2006. vi, 145p. Illus. 93 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr489.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-875 Randle I., Smith C.
Health and Safety Executive
Manual handling incidents database - A compilation and analysis of offshore industry reports
Analysis of a sample of 126 recent manual handling incident reports from the offshore industry indicated a variety of root causes, the most common being poor workplace design, poor equipment design and the use of inappropriate equipment. Inadequate risk assessment was found to be a root cause in only 5% of incidents. Other findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2006. vi, 56p. Illus. 3 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr500.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-921 Ho E.
Health and Safety Executive
Elastomeric seals for rapid gas decompression applications in high-pressure services
Seal damage and gas leaks caused by rapid gas decompression have been reported in many types of equipment in the oil and gas industry. These failures have had costly financial, safety and environmental implications for the operators and equipment suppliers. The aim of this report is to provide designers, engineers and plant managers with a systematic approach for the prevention of decompression damage in elastomeric seals, to provide advice on the selection of equipment and materials; advise the oil and gas industry on methods and procedures available to protect against decompression damage, to make production engineers aware of operating scenarios where damage may have occurred even though its effects are hidden, and finally to raise awareness of rapid gas decompression in the industry in general.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2006. viii, 63p. Illus. 19 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr485.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-951
Health and Safety Executive
Review of issues associated with the stability of semi-submersibles
This study was undertaken to compare stability standards specified for intact and damaged semi-submersible units. It involved reviewing relevant published literature, HSE and United Kingdom Department of Energy reports, past incidents involving loss of stability of semi-submersibles and issues associated with alternative uses of semi-submersible units. A key recommendation resulting from this study is that the HSE should investigate further the practicality of reconciling traditional prescriptive stability standards with a risk-based approach.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2006. vi, 83p. Illus. 92 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr473.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-950 Tromans P., Swan C., Masterton S.
Health and Safety Executive
Nonlinear potential flow forcing: The ringing of concrete gravity based structures - A summary report
This report represents the research work carried out on the nonlinear potential flow loads acting on single and multiple column structures. It involved both theoretical modelling and experimental observations. The key findings are that both single and multiple column structures may be subjected to unexpected high-frequency forces. These are entirely dependent upon conditions at the water surface, and are associated with the unexpected scattering of high-frequency waves that cannot be predicted by existing diffraction solutions. Other findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2006. viii, 109p. Illus. 43 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr468.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-923 Bulat J., Long D.
Health and Safety Executive
Use of 3D seismic data as a substitute for high-resolution seismic surveys for site investigation
3D seismic data are routinely used in deep-water exploration areas for site investigation work as well as for basic production prospect evaluation, as this helps to reduce costs. This report presents the critical parameters that influence the suitability of 3D surveys for site investigation work. Published guidelines and industry practice suggest that where 3D surveys specifically target the seabed and near-seabed sections, a vertical resolution of 6m and finer are possible in water depths greater than 500m. This is comparable to a conventional site survey vertical resolution of 4-5m. However, 3D surveys where the seabed is not a target possess significantly lower vertical resolutions and are not fit as a substitute for site surveys.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2006. iv, 28p. Illus. 30 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr459.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-556 Brownless G., Paterson J.
Health and Safety Executive
Complex and contentious risk based decision-making in the field of health, safety and the environment: Comparative analysis of two UK examples
HSE's Risk Policy Unit assisted by the Health and Safety Laboratory and several other partners submitted a proposal to the European Commission to study innovative processes in the governance of hazardous activities in the chemical and nuclear industries. Nine cases were studied and used as the basis for identifying the key features of innovative governance systems. This report aims presents the two United Kingdom case studies in detail.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2006. xii, 55p. Illus. 13 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr448.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-706 Block M.
Health and Safety Executive
Fast rescue craft recovery by installation crane: Phase 2 study
This project is a continuation of a previous study which reviewed the possibility of using existing offshore pedestal type cranes for the launch and recovery of fast rescue craft. The earlier study concentrated mainly on the environmental and operational problems associated with launch and recovery of the craft. One concept studied was the permanent stationing of a fast rescue craft on a fixed offshore installation that could be launched and recovered by the platform cranes for emergency rescue and other forms of installation support. The present study focuses in more detail on the issue of the suitability of existing pedestal cranes on fixed installations to safely launch and recover fast rescue craft.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2006. viii, 15p.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr447.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-705
Health and Safety Executive
Floating production system: JIP FPS mooring integrity
The main objective of this project was to improve the integrity of the mooring systems on floating production platforms, by helping persons who live and work on these structures to become more involved in the vital task of their surveillance and maintenance. The feedback provided on the actual performance of mooring systems should assist designers and manufacturers to improve mooring system designs. The report identifies gaps in existing knowledge of mooring behaviour and components which will orient future research.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2006. 281p. Illus. 74 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr444.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-704 McCann P., Smith D.T.
Health and Safety Executive
Axial fatigue tests on wire rope slings used for offshore containers
The offshore industry uses a variety of containers for the transportation of equipment. These containers are permanently fitted with their own lifting attachments, which are subjected to repeated dynamic loading in a hostile corrosive environment. In the United Kingdom, five-legged wire rope sling sets are used, while in other countries, chain attachments are prevalent. The Health and Safety Laboratory measured the dynamic loads on steel wire ropes resulting from various lifting operations between a semi-submersible installation and a supply vessel. Measurements were deliberately taken in heavy seas to identify the worst loading conditions which could occur. Findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2006. vi, 13p. Illus. 7 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr434.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-678 Wall M., Lee R., Frost S.
Health and Safety Executive
Offshore gas turbines (and major driven equipment) integrity and inspection guidance notes
Gas turbines are widely used offshore for a variety of purposes including power generation, compression, pumping and water injection. This report is primarily designed to provide information for HSE inspectors in safety assessments, incident investigations and prior to site visits. It provides a detailed assessment of gas turbines and major driven equipment installed on offshore installations, focussing on maintenance issues. The applications, systems and components of gas turbines are reviewed. Guidance is given on maintenance issues typical for different systems. Summaries are given of database information on the turbines installed on installations in the British sector of the North Sea, together with recent incident and accident data. Recent experience and information from operators is also reviewed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2006. x, 135p. Illus. 38 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr430.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-387 Cable J.
The silent killer
Nitrogen is an invisible, tasteless and odorless gas that comprises about 78 percent of the air we breathe, but its potential to kill workers in or near confined spaces should never be underestimated. This article describes a fatal nitrogen asphyxiation accident having occurred in an oil refinery, the common causes of accidents involving 80 fatalities and 50 injuries having occurred in the United Stated between 1992 and 2002 and the good practices to adopt for preventing these accidents (alarm systems, continuous atmosphere monitoring, ventilation with fresh air, rescue organization, training).
Occupational Hazards, Sep. 2006, p.40-43. Illus.

CIS 08-396 Rømyhr O., Nyfors A., Leira H.L., Smedbold H.T.
Allergic contact dermatitis caused by epoxy resin systems in industrial painters
A group of 2236 industrial painters employed in six companies of the Norwegian oil industry was followed between 1997 and 2001 to assess the incidence of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) caused by exposure to epoxy resin systems. Commercially-available patch test series were supplemented with a series based on known or suspected sensitizers present at the workplaces. Of 57 patch-tested workers, 23 with ACD caused by epoxy resin systems were found, indicating an incidence rate of 4.5/1000 person years. Positive patch tests to 2,4,6-tris-(dimethylaminomethyl)phenol (tris-DMP) and m-xylene-α,α'-diamine (XAD) were seen in seven and eight workers, respectively, indicating that both chemicals are important sensitizers in industrial painters. They are, however, not classified as skin sensitizers according to the European regulations on the classification and labelling of dangerous chemicals.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 2006, Vol.55, No.3, p.167-172. 22 ref.

CIS 08-395 Gennaro V., Montanaro F.
Pleural mesothelioma among asbestos-exposed workers in petroleum refineries: A work-related disease and a sentinel event
Il mesotelioma pleurico nei lavoratori esposti ad amiento nelle raffinerie du petrolio: malattia professionale ed evento sentinella [in Italian]
Petroleum refinery workers were not considered at risk for asbestos-related pathologies, in spite of the documented presence of asbestos at their place of work. This article reports the findings of epidemiological studies which demonstrate a high risk of pleural mesothelioma and point to the occupational origin of some asbestos-related pathologies among the maintenance staff of the refineries. Case-control and cohort studies, conducted in Italy and Canada, analysed the subgroup most heavily exposed to asbestos (maintenance staff) and the control groups not exposed (office staff and the general population). Relative risk (RR) and attributable risk (AR) were estimated using Poisson regression. The studies on maintenance staff showed a very high AR for pleural mesothelioma (96-100%) and lung cancer (42-49%), and an excess of mortality due to all neoplastic and non-neoplastic causes.
European Journal of Oncology, Sep. 2006, Vol.11, No.3, p.185-191. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 07-1019 Parker D., Lawrie M., Hudson P.
A framework for understanding the development of organisational safety culture
A framework for the development and maturation of organizational safety culture is described. The content of the framework was informed by 26 semi-structured interviews with experienced oil and gas company executives. The form of the framework is based on earlier studies of the typology of organizational cultures. The result is a set of short descriptions of each of a number of aspects of organizational safety at each of five levels of safety culture advancement. The framework was assessed for validity. Theoretical implications and possible applications of the framework are discussed.
Safety Science, July 2006, Vol.44, No.6, p.551-562. 32 ref.

CIS 07-1081 Gun R.T., Pratt N., Ryan P., Roder D.
Update of mortality and cancer incidence in the Australian petroleum industry cohort
The objective of this study was to update an earlier study of mortality and cancer incidence among workers in the Australian petroleum industry (for a previous update, see CIS 03-1626). Cause-specific mortality and cancer incidence for workers employed between 1981 and 2001 were compared with those of the Australian population by means of standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs). Associations between increased incidence of specific cancers and employment in the petroleum industry were tested by trends according to period of first employment, duration of employment, latency, and hydrocarbon exposure, adjusting for smoking. There was a significant elevation of the incidence of mesothelioma (SIR 1.77), melanoma (SIR 1.37) and prostate cancer (SIR 1.18). Tanker drivers had a significantly elevated incidence of kidney cancer (12 cases v 5.84 expected, SIR 2.05). Lung cancer incidence was significantly reduced (SIR 0.69). Other findings are discussed. Most cases of mesothelioma are probably related to past exposure to asbestos in refineries.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2006, Vol.63, No.7, p.476-481. 28 ref.

CIS 07-492 Khan F.I., Amyotte P.R., DiMattia D.G.
HEPI: A new tool for human error probability calculation for offshore operation
Offshore operations are particularly susceptible to human error because of the complex working environment. There is a need to provide techniques of human error quantification that can be embedded in the main framework of quantitative risk assessments. This article describes a new human error probability index (HEPI) based on the SLIM (success likelihood index methodology) approach. The application of HEPI could be used to limit the opportunities for human error occurrence and mitigate the results of such errors through changes in training, design, safety systems and procedures, resulting in a more error tolerant design and operation. Its application is illustrated through a case study of an incident in the offshore sector.
Safety Science, Apr. 2006, Vol.44, No.4, p.313-334. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 07-477 Meshkati N.
Safety and human factors considerations in control rooms of oil and gas pipeline systems: Conceptual issues and practical observations
Oil and gas pipeline systems are run by human controllers who use computer-based workstations in control rooms. This article reviews human factor elements that could contribute to the lack of controller success in preventing or mitigating pipeline accidents. These elements exist in the work environment (e.g. shift hours, shift length, circadian rhythms, fatigue, ergonomics, workplace distractions) and in the design and operation of the computer system. This article discusses the critical effects of human and organizational factors and highlights the role of their interactions with automation in the safe operation of complex, large-scale pipeline systems. A case study demonstrates the critical role of human organizational factors in the control room of an oil and gas pipeline system.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 1st quarter 2006, Vol.12, No.1, p.79-93. 49 ref.

CIS 06-835 Mancera Fernández M., Jaramillo M., Conde L.E., Ríos Hoyos M.L., Eastmond H.
Safety in the oil sector
Seguridad sector petrolero [in Spanish]
This collection of articles addresses the current situation and future prospects with respect to safety in the Columbian oil sector. Contents: new trends in occupational safety and health in the hydrocarbons sector; various types of fuel and their effects on the environment; development of a standard aimed at improving the safety of workers and reducing the number of fatal or injury-causing accidents; importance of integrated management systems in the oil industry.
Protección y seguridad, Jan.-Feb. 2006, Vol.52, No.305, p.41-71. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 06-688
Health and Safety Executive
A guide to the Offshore Installations (Safety Case) Regulations 2005
This guidance concerns the preparation of safety cases (detailed safety plans) to be submitted by the operator or owner of every offshore installation, including those used for production, drilling, exploration or providing accommodation. Guidance is given on each of the Regulations and Schedules including: duties of licensee; design and relocation notifications; safety cases for production and non-production installations and for dismantling fixed installations; duty to conform with the safety case. Replaces CIS 00-214.
HSE Books, P.O.Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 3rd ed., 2006. iv, 90p. 30 ref. Price: GBP 15.50.

CIS 06-685 The safe isolation of plant and equipment
This guidance describes procedures for the safe isolation of process plant and equipment in the onshore and offshore oil and gas industry, in chemical manufacturing and in pipelines associated with these industries. The procedures are designed to reduce the risk of releasing hazardous substances during intrusive activity such as maintenance and sampling operations. Contents: management of isolations; safe systems of work for isolation activities; key stages of process isolation; isolation conditions requiring specific considerations.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 2nd ed., 2006. iv, 57p. Illus. 33 ref. Price: GBP 12.95.

CIS 06-83 Ads S.
Petroleum - Health hazards and occupational safety
Al-bitrūl - Maẖātiruhu al-sihhiya wa al-salama al-mihniya [in Arabic]
Contents of this publication on health hazards and occupational safety in the petroleum industries in Egypt: products and processes in the petroleum industries and their effects on workers' health; chemical and other hazards; hazard prevention and protective measures; first aid; protective clothing; industrial safety procedures.
Egypt, c1996. 87p. 9 ref.

2005

CIS 08-1148 Rouilleault H., Grandjacques B., Alour C., Sarazin B., Ackermann C., Paljkovic G., Dolladille O.
Major hazards and occupational hazards: Uniting against dangers
Risques technologiques et risques professionnels: s'unir face au danger [in French]
Collection of articles on the prevention of major hazards. Topics addressed: major hazard prevention strategies; opinions of several experts on collaborative approaches; approaches adopted by enterprises in the oil and chemical industries, a mechanical engineering workshop and a natural gas utility; main points to consider with respect to the prevention of major hazards; review of a publication on the prevention of major hazards; further reading.
Travail & changement, Sep.-Oct. 2005, No.304, p.1-15 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.
http://www.actal.aract.fr/RessourcesSite/TC/TC304.pdf [in French]

CIS 08-677 Glass A.W.
Health and Safety Executive
High pressure, high temperature developments in the United Kingdom Continental Shelf
This report discusses the safety aspects of high-temperature and high-pressure (HTHP) oil extraction techniques to be used in the United Kingdom continental shelf (UKCS). Contents: summary of the scope for HPHT developments in the UKCS; review of HPHT incidents and definition of the associated safety issues; review of the engineering and management solutions implemented by the UKCS industry; conclusion that although the UKCS industry is on the right track, a number of issues still need to be solved. Based on workshop discussions, a number of collaborative research and development projects are identified, together with other issues that require attention.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2005. xii, 47p. Illus. 40 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr409.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-689 Sanders C.J., Ivings M.J.
Health and Safety Executive
Natural ventilation of offshore modules
Natural ventilation is a common method for mitigating the hazard posed by gas and vapour leaks on offshore platforms. Openings in wind walls and doors allow the wind to blow through a module and hence the ventilation is not generally dependent on the operation of any devices such as mechanical fans. This report investigates the effectiveness of natural ventilation of offshore platforms, focusing on the non-uniformity of the ventilation within a module and its dependence on the wind conditions.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2005. x, 82p. Illus. 13 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr402.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-702 Venugopal V., Wolfram J., Linfoot B.T.
Health and Safety Executive
The properties of extreme waves
In the safety assessment of both fixed and floating offshore structures, it is necessary to ensure that the structure has sufficient strength to withstand the most extreme combination of environmental loads likely to be experienced during the design life. However significant uncertainties remain concerning the characteristics of real, extreme, three-dimensional waves. The research described in this report focused upon wave crest heights and the potential loss of air gap for fixed structures by examining the distribution of wave crest elevations in storms, together with the directional spreading of wave energy by examining the wave spreading factor.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2005. viii, 80p. Illus. 62 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr401.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-679
Health and Safety Executive
An evaluation of current legislative requirements for verification of elements critical to the safety of offshore installations
This report presents and discusses research undertaken to evaluate the effects of the amendment made in 1996 to the Offshore Installations (Safety Case) Regulations (1992) which introduced a requirement for the verification of the safety-critical elements of an offshore installation by an independent and competent person. Prior to the introduction of verification, offshore installations were required to have a Certificate of Fitness. The present work attempted to determine the difference in cost-benefit terms between the two regimes. However, there were insufficient cost data available to allow a meaningful quantitative comparison. Therefore, a revised methodology was implemented and qualitative data were collected by means of interviews and analysed to allow a subjective comparison of the two regimes. Recommendations for improvement of the verification process are proposed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2005. xvi, 26p. Illus. 3 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr397.pdf [in English]

CIS 06-1253 The Offshore Installations (Safety Case) Regulations 2005 [United Kingdom]
These Regulations implement in Great Britain certain provisions of Council Directive 92/91/EEC (see CIS 93-23). They define "safety case" as a document containing specified information relating to the management of health and safety and the control of major accident hazards. Such documents must be prepared and submitted to the appropriate authority before any operators of offshore installations are allowed to function. The Regulations replace S.I. 1992 No.2885 on the same subject.
TSO Online Bookshop, https://www.tsoshop.co.uk/, 2005. 31p. Price: GBP 5.50.
http://www.opsi.gov.uk/si/si2005/20053117.htm [in English]

CIS 06-1377 Larivé J.F.
European downstream oil industry safety performance: Statistical summary of reported incidents 2004
This report presents data on safety performance and accidents for 2004 in the European downstream oil industry. It includes trends from 1993 and some comparative figures for other industry sectors. Overall, the 2004 performance appears slightly improved compared to previous years and there is a low level of accidents compared to other industries in Europe. The fatal accident rate has, however, been steadily increasing in recent years, road accidents accounting for nearly 50% of all fatalities.
CONCAWE, Boulevard du Souverain 165, 1160 Bruxelles, Belgium, Dec. 2005. 16p. Illus. 12 ref.
http://www.concawe.org/DocShareNoFrame/Common/GetFile.asp?PortalSource=259&DocID=8459&mfd=off&pdoc=1 [in English]

CIS 06-1117 Valentić D., Stojanović D., Mićović V., Vukelić M.
Work related diseases and injuries on an oil rig
This analysis of diseases and injuries among workers on an American oil rig, operating in the Mediterranean Sea, was carried out over a 12-month period (1996-1997). Altogether 518 medical examinations of sick and injured workers were conducted. The leading causes of morbidity were injuries and poisonings (26.7% of all registered cases), followed by musculoskeletal (17.5%), respiratory (14.2%) and gastro-intestinal diseases (12.1%), mental disorders (10.3%) and diseases of the nervous system (9.2%), skin (6.5%), genito-urinary system (2.9%) and circulatory system (0.6%). Among injuries, hand and finger injuries (48.3%) were most frequent, followed by injuries of the leg (13.4%), eye (11.3%), head and neck (10.1%), arm (7.9%), foot (6.7%) and trunk (2.3%). To reduce the incidence of diseases and injuries, special attention should be paid to the workers' basic medical education, to protective measures and to providing first aid at the work site.
International Maritime Health, 2005, Vol.56, No.1/4, p.56-66. 39 ref.

CIS 06-842 Sarmiento M.
Results for the period 1998-2005: Uniform registry for the evaluation of occupational safety and health and environmental protection systems for enterprises in the hydrocarbons sector
Resultados de la operación 1998-2005: Registro Uniforme de Evaluación de Sistema de Salud Ocupacional y medio ambiente para contratistas del sector de hidrocarburos (RUC) [in Spanish]
This article presents an analysis of the data collected from the 688 Columbian enterprises of the hydrocarbons sector, affiliated to the uniform register for the evaluation of programmes pertaining to safety, health and environmental protection (RUC) between 1998 and 2005. Improvements planned for 2006 are also discussed.
Protección y seguridad, Nov.-Dec. 2005, Vol.51, No.304, p.36-39. Illus.

CIS 06-440 How offshore helicopter travel is regulated
This leaflet describes the functions of the Health and Safety Executive and the Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) in the UK with respect to helicopter safety, and outlines the responsibilities of helicopter operators, flight crews and installation operators. Relevant legislation is also outlined. It replaces the 1996 leaflet on the same subject (CIS 97-654).
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, rev.ed., 2005. 8p. Illus.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/indg219.pdf [in English]

CIS 06-492 Gordon R., Flin R., Mearns K.
Designing and evaluating a human factors investigation tool (HFIT) for accident analysis
In an attempt to improve the investigation of the human factors causes of accidents in the United Kingdom offshore industry, a Human Factors Investigation Tool (HFIT) was developed. It collects four types of human factors information: action errors occurring immediately prior to the incident; error recovery mechanisms, in the case of near misses; thought processes which lead to the action error; underlying causes. The tool was evaluated on the basis of an inter-rater reliability assessment, usability assessment, case studies and an established evaluation method. Although there is a need for further validation and analysis of HFIT using more realistic accident scenario exercises, it was found to be useful for the development of remedial actions, one of the main objectives of the tool.
Safety Science, Mar. 2005, Vol.43, No.3, p.147-171. Illus. 38 ref.

CIS 06-264 Adie W., Cairns J., Macdiarmid J., Ross J., Watt S., Taylor C.L., Osman L.M.
Safety culture and accident risk control: Perceptions of professional divers and offshore workers
This study investigated the perception of the significance of safety culture in achieving accident risk control among workers in the offshore industry. Participants consisted of 212 male professional divers (70% with offshore diving experience and 30% who had not dived offshore) and 108 male offshore platform workers. Participants rated likelihood of an accident given varying levels of safety culture, supervisory quality, worker competency and time/financial pressure. Statistical analysis was used to estimate the relative importance of each attribute in accident control. All four attributes significantly affected the perception of accident risk but offshore divers gave less weight to safety culture in controlling accident risk than did offshore platform workers or non-offshore divers. This may reflect less exposure to the safety culture of the enterprise, as this group mostly consists of short-term contract workers.
Safety Science, Feb. 2005, Vol.43, No.2, p.131-145. 25 ref.

CIS 05-710 Harper M.F.
Health and Safety Executive
Acoustic monitoring of the hulls of floating production storage and offshore facilities (FPSOs) for corrosion and damage
This project explored means of monitoring the structural integrity of floating production, storage and offshore facilities (FPSOs) using structural acoustics. It involved a review of published literature and a series of interviews with experts involved in the design, construction, operation, maintenance and inspection of FPSOs. It was concluded that there are only two technologies that have a realistic chance of reaching practical application: acoustic emission monitoring and sparse-array monitoring using guided waves (Lamb waves). The former is applicable to monitoring crack growth and the latter to crack detection and corrosion monitoring.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2005. ii, 45p. 55 ref. Price: GBP 10.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr328.pdf [in English]

CIS 05-319 Hoet P., Grosjean M., Somaruga C.
Factors potentially affecting the hearing of petroleum industry workers
This report outlines the physiology of hearing and the mechanisms and types of hearing loss and summarizes factors affecting hearing: age, noise exposure, diseases and chemical exposure. It focuses on the potential ototoxic effects of organic solvents and reviews results of studies of hearing loss among exposed workers in the petroleum, petrochemical and other industries. Also examines the possible synergistic effects of noise and chemical exposure on hearing loss.
CONCAWE, Boulevard du Souverain 165, 1160 Bruxelles, Belgium, June 2005. vi, 66p. 144 ref.
http://www.concawe.org/DocShareNoFrame/Common/GetFile.asp?PortalSource=156&DocID=7776&mfd=off&pdoc=1 [in English]

CIS 05-349
Health and Safety Executive
Guidance on permit-to-work systems - A guide for the petroleum, chemical and allied industries
This document describes good practice in the use of permit-to-work systems, and as such may be useful to operators using permit-to-work systems as part of a demonstration that risks have been reduced to as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP). The guidance is applicable to the onshore and offshore petroleum industry, onshore chemical and allied industries and other industries where permit-to-work systems are used. Topics addressed: definition of a permit-to-work system; when permit-to-work systems are required; harmonizing roles within permit-to-work systems; responsibilities; training and competence; layout of a permit-to-work; work planning and risk assessment; monitoring, audit and review of permit-to-work systems. Appendices include relevant legal requirements and assessment and monitoring checklists. Replaces the previous edition (CIS 97-1210).
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2005. vi, 29p. Illus. 26 ref. Price: GBP 8.95.

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