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Petroleum and natural gas industry - 659 entries found

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CIS 86-698 Evaluation of the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to humans - Polynuclear aromatic compounds, Part 4, Bitumens, coal-tars and derived products, shale-oils and soots
Conclusions of a meeting of experts (Lyon, France, Feb. 1984). There is sufficient evidence that bitumens (asphalts) contain substances that are carcinogenic in animals, but inadequate evidence that bitumens alone are human carcinogens. Although roofers have shown increased risk of certain cancers, there has been no epidemiological study of workers exposed to bitumens alone. There is sufficient evidence that coal-tar pitches are carcinogenic in humans, as well as animals, and limited evidence for the carcinogenicity of coal-tar-derived creosotes. There is limited-to-sufficient evidence that shale oils and various derivatives are carcinogenic in animals, and sufficient evidence that the oils themselves are human carcinogens. There is sufficient evidence for the carcinogenicity of coal-soot and shale-oil-soot extracts in animals and of soot in humans; there is limited-to-inadequate evidence for the carcinogenicity of other soots and soot extracts in animals. An appendix lists some case reports of skin cancer in workers exposed to the title substances.
International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 cours Albert-Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 2, France, Jan. 1985. 271p. Illus. Bibl. Price: US$25.00; SF.70.00.

CIS 86-548 Safe well stimulation by acidizing
This data sheet describes a technique in which acid solutions are injected into oil wells in carbonate formations to dissolve some of the carbonate and thereby increase the flow capacity of the wells. The acids used most commonly are hydrochloric, hydrofluoric, acetic, and formic. Other aspects covered: safe acidizing procedures; transporting acid in bulk for offshore operations; personal protective equipment; first aid.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Ave., Chicago, IL 60611, USA, 1985. 4p. Illus. Bibl.

CIS 86-454 Nelson N.A., Barker D.M., Van Peenen P.F.D., Blanchard A.G.
Determining exposure categories for a refinery retrospective cohort mortality study
2 methods used to assign exposure categories to 10,766 petroleum refinery employees included in an epidemiological study are described and compared. The first scheme (OR) grouped individuals into 6 organisation job groups (administrative, maintenance, operations, laboratory, general and other). In the second scheme (IH), "most common job title" and "most common plant location" were used to group the workers into 4 categories (job type, contact with refinery processes, exposure to light aromatics and exposure to heavy oils). While OR grouping was acceptable for employees clearly in managerial, maintenance or operations positions, IH codes provided more precise exposure profiles for these 3 groups and also for the group with less definable tasks.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1985, Vol.46, No.11, p.653-657. 6 ref.

CIS 86-10 Milon R.C.
Explosive atmospheres: what zones to determine in a refinery
Atmosphères explosives: quelles zones déterminer dans une raffinerie [in French]
Analysis of the international and French regulations on the identification of danger zones for the location of electrical equipment in refineries.
Journal de l'équipement électrique et électronique, 14 Oct. 1985, No.530, p.23 and 25. Illus.

CIS 86-225 Hunter P.C.
Safety requirements for fixed offshore oil and gas installations
This guide to offshore safety in the United Kingdom covers: a survey of legislation in force; types of offshore installation; towing out and positioning; hooking up and commissioning; simultaneous operations (drilling, production and construction).
Safety Practitioner, Aug. 1985, Vol.3, No.8, p.12-15. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 85-1822
European Federation of Chemical Engineering
The assessment and control of major hazards
Proceedings of a symposium organised by the Institution of Chemical Engineers in association with the Safety and Reliability Society and held at the University of Manchester, United Kingdom, 22-24 April 1985. Aspects covered: integrity and reliability of plants; assessment of consequences; risk analysis and case studies.
Pergamon Press Ltd., Headington Hill Hall, Oxford OX3 OBW, United Kingdom, 1985, 454p. Illus. Bibl. Price: £30.00.

CIS 85-2040 Rom W.N., Krueger G., Zone J., Attfield M.D., Costello J., Burkart J., Turner E.R.
Morbidity survey of U.S. oil shale workers employed during 1948-1969
Evaluation of the health status of 325 workers employed at the Anvil Points, Colorado, demonstration facility from 1948 to 1969. 323 Utah coal miners were used as controls. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms among smokers in the 2 groups was similar. 4 cases of skin cancer were found in the oil shale workers against 8 cases in the control group. Skin disorders were similar in both groups (nevi, telangiectasiae, pigment changes, papillomata) except for actinic keratoses which were more prevalent in the oil shale workers. The prevalence of pulmonary cytology metaplasia was associated with years of oil shale work both among smokers and non smokers. Comprehensive medical surveillance of these workers is recommended.
Archives of Environmental Health, Jan.-Feb. 1985, Vol.40, No.1, p.58-62. 24 ref.

CIS 85-2036 Gratt L.B.
Risk analysis of hazardous materials in oil shale
A future oil shale industry will be a massive solids-handling industry generating large amounts of hazardous materials. A risk analysis performed on a hypothetical industry producing 1 million barrels/day to aid in the formulation and management of research is described. Model data indicate that the potential impact on a semi-arid, high altitude ecosystem would be minimal. Only aquatic systems would be potentially threatened under extreme conditions. Occupational and public health risks are also evaluated.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, July 1985, Vol.10, Nos.2+3, special issue, p.317-350. 77 ref.

CIS 85-1378 Arnold I.M.F., Dufresne R.M., Alleyne B.C., Stuart P.J.W.
Health implication of occupational exposures to hydrogen sulfide
Retrospective study of 250 Canadian workers who submitted compensation claims in Alberta between 1979-1983, following exposure to hydrogen sulfide (H2S). 54% of these workers became unconscious after exposure. Symptoms with a neurological component accounted for the largest group of clinical findings. Other major symptoms were respiratory and ophthalmologic disorders. The overall fatality rate was 2.8%, significantly lower than that reported (6%) a decade earlier. This is attributed to improved first-aid and increased awareness of the dangers of H2S. Traumatic injury as a result of a fall after exposure was noted in 31 cases.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, May 1985, Vol.27, No.5, p.373-376. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 85-1439 Rosenberg M.J., Wyrobek A.J., Ratcliffe J., Gordon L.A., Watchmaker G., Fox S.H., Moore D.H., Hornung R.W.
Sperm as an indicator of reproductive risk among petroleum refinery workers
A cross-sectional evaluation of sperm concentration and of the proportion of sperm with abnormal morphology in 34 men exposed to organic compounds in the wastewater treatment plant of a petroleum refinery and in 74 controls. No significant spermatogenic effects were found among the exposed workers.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1985, Vol.42, No.2, p.123-127. 17 ref.

CIS 85-1000 Summerlin J., Prichard H.M.
Radiological health implications of lead-210 and polonium-210 accumulations in LPG refineries
Evaluation of the hazards associated with gamma emitting long-lived daughters of radon-222 (Pb-210, Bi 210, and Po-210) that are deposited on the inner surfaces of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) concentration process equipment. Radon-222 is a common contaminant in natural gas. Breathing zone measurements made during the clean-up of a pump impeller showed that an inhalation exposure equivalent to breathing Po-210 at the maximum permissible concentration for 60h could be delivered in <30min. The potential radiological health problem related to LPG equipment maintenance and repair and the appropriate preventive measures are discussed.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1985, Vol.46, No.4, p.202-205. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 85-1136 McCraw D.S., Joyner R.E., Cole P.
Excess leukemia in a refinery population
A retrospective mortality study of white male employees of a U.S. oil refinery revealed a statistically significant excess number of deaths due to leukaemia. None of the workers deceased were exposed to benzene, and work history data did not provide any clue to causes of the excess observed.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Mar. 1985, Vol.27, No.3, p.220-222. 14 ref.


CIS 06-514 Petroleum (Safety Measures) Act 1984 [Malaysia]
This law (gazetted on 27 June 1984) provides for the safe transportation, storage, handling and use of petroleum (the definition includes both liquid and gas petroleum products). All means of transportation are covered, including pipelines. Separate sections cover: safe use of new and existing equipment, materials, plant, appliances, buildings, structures and installations.
Internet document, 1984. [in English]

CIS 87-453 Safronova N.A.
Protective clothing and safety footwear for workers of the chemical petroleum refining and petrochemical industries
Specodežda i specobuv' dlja rabotnikov himičeskoj, neftepererabatyvajuščej i neftehimičeskoj promyšlennosti [in Russian]
Aspects covered in this training manual: classification of personal protective equipment (clothing, shoes, boots, gloves, helmets, barrier creams) protecting against water, bases, acids, petroleum, petroleum products, heat, cold, static electricity, vibration, mechanical hazards, and explosion hazards; materials used for manufacturing, maintenance of personal protective equipment, a procedure for providing enterprises with this equipment.
Izdatel'stvo Himija, Stromynka 21, 107076 Moskva, USSR, 1984. 175p. Illus. 12 ref. Price: Rbl.0.55.

CIS 87-714 Moors S., Van Gasse J.
Monograph of ergonomic research results. At the control centre of an automated petroleum refinery. A socio-technical approach
Monographie de réalisations ergonomiques. Au pupitre d'une raffinerie de pétrole commandée par ordinateur. Une approche socio-technique [in French]
Chapter 1 describes the processes involved in petroleum refining. Chapter 2 is concerned with the problems of automated control of a refinery. Part 3 analyses the work at the control centre as perceived by the operator.
Institut pour l'amélioration des conditions de travail, 60 rue de la Concorde, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium, 1984. 110p. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 86-1144 Bard V.L., Kuzin A.V.
Accident prevention in petroleum refineries and petrochemical plants
Predupreždenie avarij v neftepererabatyvajuščih i neftehimičeskih proizvodstvah [in Russian]
This guide includes a summary and analysis of the causes of industrial accidents (fire, explosions), recommendations on safe working conditions and main trends in accident prevention. Contents: general requirements for fire and explosion protection in the processing of petroleum and petroleum products; errors in plant design and construction, and ways of preventing them; typical accidents and safety of processes and equipment (accidents in processes, safety requirements for operation of some types of technological equipment, safe transport and storage, prevention of accidents caused by electrostatic charges, monitoring equipment and automatic safeguards, flare systems); accident prevention in the repair of equipment and piping (causes of accidents associated with repairing; safety requirements for preparation and organisation of repair of equipment and piping; work inside columns, vessels and collectors; repair of heat exchangers, pumps and compressors, reservoirs, gas holders and piping).
Izdatel'stvo "Himija", Stromynka 13, 107076 Moskva, USSR, 1984, 247p. Illus. 55 ref. Price: Rbl.1.80.

CIS 85-2035
Canadian Royal Commission on the Ocean Ranger Marine Disaster
First report: Loss of the semi-submersible drilling rig Ocean Ranger and its crew
La perte de l'installation de forage semi-submersible Ocean Ranger et de son équipage: rapport premier [in French]
Report of the inquest into the sinking of the semi-submersible drilling platform "Ocean Ranger" on 15 Feb. 1982, 170 nautical miles east of St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada. The crew of 84 died in the accident. Aspects covered: description of the platform, its equipment and its personnel; events before and after the sinking; causes of the loss of the platform (results of inspection and tests, tests on models); evaluation of rescue efforts; conclusions and recommendations.
Publications Distribution Centre, Supply and Services Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0S9, Canada, 1984. 420p. Illus. 17 ref. Appendix. Glossary. Price: Can.$29.75 (Can.$35.70 outside Canada).

CIS 85-1751 Holden P.L.
Difficulties in formulating risk criteria
Any framework of risk criteria must use measures of risk which provide sufficient information to ensure that consistent decisions can be taken. The advantages and difficulties associated with the various approaches for interpreting risk estimates are discussed. Aspects covered: adequate description of the risk and approaches to risk criteria (target setting, risk-benefit criteria, cost-benefit techniques, decision analysis, hazard warning structure).
Journal of Occupational Accidents, Oct. 1984, Vol.6, No.4, p.241-251. 26 ref.

CIS 85-1749 Khatib A.R.
Health at work
This comprehensive textbook on occupational health and safety is an English translation of a book written in Arabic and intended for workers in the Arab world. Specific aspects covered: industrial health; texts of the Arab Convention No.7 and Recommendation No.1 of 1977 concerning occupational health and safety, Convention No.13 and Recommendation No.5 of 1981 concerning the work environment; list of occupational diseases common to Arab countries. The hazards from several chemical and physical agents are described, and a chapter is devoted specifically to the petroleum exploration and refining industries.
Arab Labour Office, Arab Institute of Occupational Health and Safety, P.O. Box 5770, Damascus, Syria, 1984. 331p. Illus. Bibl.

CIS 85-1662 Ahlström R., Berglund B., Berglund U., Lindvall T., Nyberg L., Petterson S., Wallin M., Wennberg A., Åström H.
Olfactory deficits in tank cleaners
Luktnedsättning hos tankrengörare [in Swedish]
The olfactory perception of 20 workers exposed to petroleum products (while cleaning oil tanks) was examined. Office workers and watchmen were used as controls. They were matched with regard to sex, age and smoking habits. Odour detection thresholds and the perceived odour strength of pyridine, dimethyl disulphide (DMDS), n-butanol and heating oil fume were determined. The petroleum workers had higher absolute thresholds for n-butanol and oil fumes than the controls. Petroleum workers displayed an odour deficit analogous to the hearing loss known as "loudness recruitment", i.e., normal perception of loud stimuli but impaired perception of soft stimuli. This odour deficit was therefore designated "odour strength recruitment". The petroleum workers were subdivided into 3 groups according to the number of exposure-free days before examination of their odour sense. The greatest odour deficit was found in the group with not more than one exposure-free day. This suggests that the effect of exposure may be wholly or partially acute (i.e., transient).
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1984. 38p. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 85-1134 Yungblut P.G.R.
East Coast offshore safety and emergency response capability - Overview report
Description of changes and improvements in the emergency response installations and equipment implemented along the Canadian east coast following the Ocean Ranger drilling platform disaster. Outlines of personnel safety training courses are included.
Canadian Petroleum Association, Offshore Operators Division, Nov. 1984. 60p. Appendices. Charts.

CIS 85-839 Christie D., Robinson K., Gordon I., Rockett I.
"Health Watch": the Australian petroleum industry health study surveillance programme
This ongoing programme involves all employees of the Australian petroleum industry (excluding head office staff) whose work site employs at least 10 workers. A questionnaire was filled out by approx. 11,600 of the workers (a 92% response rate) during 1981-1983, answering questions on occupational category, smoking and drinking habits, age, etc. By 31 Dec. 1983, 33 of the male and none of the female workers had died, showing a significantly reduced death rate when compared with the Standardised Mortality Ratio of the general Australian population. More complex epidemiological data will be analysed in the future.
Medical Journal of Australia, 15 Sep. 1984, Vol.141, No.6, p.331-334. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 85-477 Savitz D.A., Moure R.
Cancer risk among oil refinery workers - A review of epidemiologic studies
The evaluation of 8 epidemiological studies indicates that while the results are markedly inconsistent across studies, there is some suggestion of excess risk for melanoma and for brain, stomach, kidney, and pancreatic cancers.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1984, Vol.26, No.9, p.662-670. 37 ref.

CIS 85-531 Methodologies for hazard analysis and risk assessment in the petroleum refining and storage industry - Parts I and II
This report, prepared by the Ad-Hoc Risk Assessment Group of the Oil Companies' International Study Group for Conservation of Clean Air and Water in Europe (CONCAWE), provides an overview of methodologies which can supplement risk management practices with particular reference to major hazards. Aspects covered: hazard analysis, risk assessment and the causes of incidents; management of risk; analytical procedures; assessment of the consequences; practical applications; conclusions and recommendations. A glossary provides definitions of the technical terms used.
Fire Technology, Part I. Aug. 1984, Vol.20, No.3, p.23-38; Part II. Nov. 1984, Vol.20, No.4, p.43-56. Bibl.

CIS 85-225 Occupational health in the chemical industry
Aspects covered in the proceedings of this 11th International Congress held in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 26-29 Sep. 1983: occupational health and toxicological problems in the petroleum, gas and petrochemical industries; emergencies in the chemical industry, assessment and intervention; applications of computer technology in occupational health; current occupational health problems in the chemical industry.
Medichem Calgary '83 Association, 10709 Jasper Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, T5J 3N3, Canada, 1984. 517p. Bibl.

CIS 85-222 Wen C.P., Tsai S.P., Gibson R.L., McClellan W.A.
Long-term mortality of oil refinery workers. II. Comparison of the experience of active, terminated and retired workers
Mortality experience was examined by following a cohort of 12,526 white male refinery workers between January 1937 and January 1978. Standardised mortality ratios (SMR) for all causes of death were 0.68, 1.04 and 0.89 for active, terminated and retired groups of workers, respectively, and for all cancer, 0.85, 0.98 and 1.05. Significantly decreased SMR found for most of the causes in the active worker group were attributed to the healthy worker effect. The retirees experienced no significant excess mortality for any causes, although a subgroup of early retirees did reveal a significant excess of death from diseases of the nervous system and sense organs. The group of terminated workers contributed 41% of the person-years, 49% of the total number of individuals and 38% of the deaths, but did not demonstrate a significantly adverse mortality experience when compared with the general population. The advantages and disadvantages of studies involving only one of these groups of workers are discussed.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1984, Vol.26, No.2, p.118-127. 13 ref.

CIS 84-1818 Mañas Lahoz J.L.
Static electricity in the solvent and flammable products industry
La electricidad estática en la industria de productos inflamables y disolventes [in Spanish]
Explosion and fire hazards from static discharge sparks are identified and preventive measures proposed. Aspects covered: generation of static electricity; dangers and uses; instruments for the detection of static electricity; conditions favouring eplosions or fires and prevention of ignition sparks; classification of work areas in refineries; general preventive measures (earthing, improvement of materials and equipment conductivity, control of ambient humidity, neutralising of static charges); conductive clothing and shoes. Ignition energy and specific conductivity are given for 60 compounds commonly used or produced at refineries.
Salud y trabajo, Jan.-Feb. 1984, No.41, p.38-47; Mar.-Apr. 1984, No.42, p.61-70. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 84-1607 Buchet J.P., Van Eyken J., Lauwerys R.
Evaluation of exposure to benzene by workers on a gasoline loading platform of a refinery
Evaluation de l'exposition au benzène des travailleurs préposés aux quais de chargement de l'essence dans une raffinerie [in French]
Benzene concentration in air inhaled by these workers was evaluated using 4 passive diffusometers and one dynamic sampler using activated charcoal tubes. The average exposure during the working day did not exceed 1ppm, with occasional peaks over 5ppm. Only one of the passive samplers gave results similar to those of the dynamic sampler, for both short-term and long-term sampling periods.
Cahiers de médecine du travail - Cahiers voor arbeidsgeneeskunde, 1984, Vol.21, No.1, p.25-27. 1 ref.

CIS 84-1285 Sherwin A.G.
Neutron shielding - some recent developments
Description of shielding devised against intense neutron sources, such as americium-beryllium sources used in oil exploration (aboard offshore drilling platforms, with a shield weight limit of 5 tonnes), and proton cyclotrons used for neutron therapy in hospitals. An inner core of lead shielding surrounded by a layer of a new product (KAYDEX LS), containing a high level of lithium and rich in hydrogen and having a total weight of 2 tonnes, was adequate protection against neutrons and secondary radiations from americium-beryllium sources. Earth materials and a labyrinth-like arrangement of treatment areas was the preferred solution for neutron-therapy areas in hospitals.
Radiological Protection Bulletin, Mar. 1984, No.57, p.19-24. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 84-803 Mills P.K., Newell G.R., Johnson D.E.
Testicular cancer associated with employment in agriculture and oil and natural gas extraction
This analysis of the occupation of testicular cancer victims compares the occupations of 347 sufferers of the disease with those of matched controls suffering from other disorders. The odds ratios for farming (6.27) and work in petroleum and natural gas extraction (2.29) show a significant association between these occupations and testicular cancer. Possible aetiologies for the association with farming are proposed.
Lancet, 28 Jan. 1984, No.8370, p.207-209. 31 ref.


CIS 05-141 Safety and health in the construction of fixed offshore installations in the petroleum industry. Code of practice
Keselamatan dan kesehatan kerja pada konstruksi instalasi tetap pengeboran minyak lepas pantai [in Indonesian]
Indonesian version of the ILO Code of Practice prepared by a meeting of government, employer and worker experts (Geneva, 1-10 Dec. 1980; see CIS 82-845). Contents: definitions and scope; general obligations of employers and workers, permits-to-work, training, safety committees, employment of young persons; access, egress, lighting, housekeeping, manual lifting and carrying, record keeping; diving, scaffolding and staging; toxic and hazardous substances and agents; personal protective equipment; welding and flame cutting; machinery, pressure plant and tools; electricity; noise and vibration; lifting appliances and lifting gear; living accommodation; medical supervision; health and first aid; life-saving appliances; helicopters; alarms, means of escape and fire-fighting equipment; emergency procedures and drills. Appendix: living accommodation, messrooms, sanitary and changing facilities.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1983. xii, 150p.

CIS 91-869 Cloe W.W.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
Selected occupational fatalities related to oil/gas well drilling and servicing as found in reports of OSHA fatality/catastrophe investigations
This study examines 445 cases involving 459 fatalities occurring between 1977 and 1981. Case reports include, in varying amounts of detail, description of incident, statement of witnesses, other supporting documents and a list of citations issued. The data are analysed using classification systems based on the type of accident, type of incident and employee activity at the time of injury. 93% of the fatal incidents resulted from operation procedural problems, or were material/equipment/facility related, or were caused by environmental conditions. Tables summarise numbers of fatalities for each type of accident. Glossary of terms used in the industry.
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington D.C. 20402, USA, Dec. 1983. 304p.

CIS 86-835 Recommendations for the safe handling of hand tools and equipment used by well drilling or repair teams
Recomendaciones para el manejo seguro de herramientas manuales y mecánicas en equipos de perforación y de reparación de pozos [in Spanish]
This illustrated booklet describes the safe use of hand tools such as wrenches and pliers and other equipment used by workers around oil drilling rigs. A second booklet using a comic strip format to popularise the information is included.
Petróleos Mexicanos, Av. Marina Nacional No.329, Edif. A. Colonia Huasteca, México, D.F., C.P. 11311, Mexico, 1983. 33p.

CIS 85-959 Lysjanyj G.N., Bondarčuk G.A., Kurtov V.D.
Protection from noise and vibration in oil and gas well drilling
Zaščita ot šuma i vibracij pri burenii neftjanyh i gazovyh skvažin [in Russian]
To reduce total vibration levels to permissible values, it is proposed to mount motors and pumps on wooden platforms which rest on rubber cylinders cut from worn-out separators from the compensators of drilling pumps. To reduce heat loss from workers' hands, which is a predisposing factor of vibration disease, it is recommended to fit the handles of the drilling winch with wooden covers. The direction of prevailing winds should be kept in mind when laying out drilling sites, so that the quarters of the drilling crew will be placed up-wind from the hole. Proper siting of diesel equipment, and the use of adequate mufflers, can permit the distance between the borehole and workers' quarters to be reduced while maintaining acceptable noise levels in the quarters.
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, Aug. 1983, No.8, p.42-43.

CIS 85-811 Alekperov I.I., Melkumjan A.N., Zamčalov A.I., Glikštejn M.D., Ali-Zade K.A., Vinokurova M.I.
Hygienic assessment of the working conditions and health status of workers engaged in drilling very deep boreholes
Gigieničeskaja ocenka uslovij truda i sostojanie zdorov'ja rabotajuščih pri burenii sverhglubokih skvažin [in Russian]
Summary of observations at a 15,000m exploratory well at Saatly, in the Kura Depression of Azerbaidzhan. The use of modern equipment, high drilling speeds, noise and unusual operations that require a degree of continuous close attention to the work result in psychological stress. This psychological stress affects not only the central nervous system but also the cardiovascular and neuromuscular systems. The effects are more pronounced in the workers at the wellhead than in their helpers or in support workers employed elsewhere. The effects also become more pronounced with increasing length of service. Technical measures to reduce such stress factors as noise, frequent workbreaks and a more relaxed emotional atmosphere on the worksite are recommended.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Dec. 1983, No.12, p.8-12. 8 ref.

CIS 85-656 Alieva R.H.
Hygienic assessment of noise and vibration in the mineral oil industry
Gigieničeskaja ocenka šuma i vibracii v neftjanoj promyšlennosti [in Russian]
Oil drilling crews are exposed simultaneously to high noise levels, vibration and hydrocarbon vapours. The highest levels (110-113dB(A) in the mean frequency range of 1000-4000Hz) were measured at the mud pump; 93dB(A) was measured at the central control panel and in the compressor plant. Diesel-powered drill equipment radiated higher noise levels (1-23dB(A) above the permissible level) than electrically driven equipment (95dB(A). The highest vibration energy levels (101dB at 16Hz and 120dB at 31.5Hz) were found at the power station and the mud pump, respectively. The medical examination of the exposed workers revealed cardiovascular disorders, nerve lesions and noise-induced occupational hearing loss.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, June 1983, No.6, p.21-24. 4 ref.

CIS 85-532 Comprehensive safety recommendations for land-based oil and gas well drilling
The magnitude of the occupational safety problem is defined through the development of data estimating the injury and illness incidence rates for the industry. A detailed analysis of 738 accident case histories from Federal and State OSHA investigations as well as worker's compensation injury reports was used to identify the tasks, tools and equipment which were most hazardous to the worker and the way in which the worker is injured during well drilling operations. Recommendations are presented for engineering controls and operational safe work practices to reduce hazards.
NIOSH, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, Sep. 1983. 159p. Illus. 91 ref.

CIS 84-2036
Commission of the European Communities
Safety and health in the oil and gas extractive industries
La sécurité et l'hygiène dans les industries d'extraction du pétrole et du gaz [in French]
Proceedings of an international symposium organised by the CEC (Luxembourg, 19-20 April 1983). The main themes of the programme were to evaluate the real risk of accident, to review the legislation existing in Europe, to see how the accident risk can be reduced by training, to examine the physical and psychological health hazards, to consider the problems of responsibility, legislation and inspection, to review emergency procedures.
Graham & Trotman Ltd., Sterling House, 66 Wilton Road, London SW1V 1DE, United Kingdom, 1983. 434p. Illus. Bibl.

CIS 84-1436 Futagaki S.K.
Petroleum refinery workers exposure to PAHs at field catalytic cracker, coker, and asphalt processing units
Personal and area samples were collected at the fluid catalytic cracking units (FCCU) and delayed coker units and area samples at the asphalt processing units in 9 petroleum refineries to determine worker inhalation exposure to polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Workers at FCCU and delayed coker units were exposed to an average of 10 and 11 PAH respectively at mean concentrations of 11.4 and 11.1µg/m3. Light molecular weight PAH were found in the highest concentrations. Production of needle coke was associated with higher PAH exposures. PAH collected at the FCCU and the asphalt processing units were associated with respirable fraction particulates. Tobacco smoke did not influence the results of this study.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, NIOSH, Robert A. Taft Laboratories, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, May 1983. 208p. 47 ref.

CIS 84-1472 Koller M.
Health risks related to shift work - An example of time-contingent effects of long-term stress
300 matched cases of permanent shift workers, day workers and drop-outs at a petroleum refinery were studied. Health deteriorated with age, but to a different degree in the shift and day workers. In the former there were increases in absences from work due to gastrointestinal and cardiovascular diseases, and unspecific complaints. In drop-outs with considerable prior exposure to shift work there were strikingly high absenteeism rates and excess rates of cardiovascular diseases. Proposals are made to prevent adaptation disturbances and adverse health effects: advisory support during the initial years of shift work, preventive medical care during the sensitisation phase, and preventive measures for gastrointestinal and cardiovascular disturbances after 20-25 years of shift work.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nov. 1983, Vol.53, No.1, p.59-75. Illus. 44 ref.

CIS 84-1338 Rushton J., Alderson M.R.
Epidemiological survey of oil distribution centres in Britain
A mortality study covering 23,306 workers employed for at least one year between 1950 and 1975 at 3 oil companies is reported. Expected mortality rates in England and Wales as a whole served as reference. Overall mortality, and that from stroke, hypertensive disease, bronchitis, pneumonia, all neoplasms and lung cancer, were considerably lower than expected in the oil workers. Ischaemic heart disease showed an approximately equal incidence overall, although its mortality was raised in several subgroups of workers of one company. Mortality from myelofibrosis and disease of lymphatic and haematopoietic tissue was slightly increased.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1983, Vol.40, No.3, p.330-339. 29 ref.

CIS 84-1071 Tsai S.P., Wen C.P., Weiss N.S., Wong O., McClellan W.A., Gibson R.L.
Retrospective mortality and medical surveillance studies of workers in benzene areas of refineries
Study in 2 parts. Retrospective mortality studies from 1952 to 1978 of all workers at a large refinery working directly on the benzene, ethylene, aromatic distillate hydrogenation (ADH) or cumene units (454 workers, 5,900 person-years) showed no excess in overall general or cancer mortality compared with the general US population or an internal control group. 84% of all benzene exposures were <1ppm. There were no deaths from leukaemia. Part 2 describes a medical surveillance programme for benzene workers, with special emphasis on laboratory screening. There were no significant changes in blood indices of workers over a 21-year period.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1983, Vol.25, No.9, p.685-692. 20 ref.

CIS 83-2024 Occupational safety in the North Sea. A review of fatalities, injuries and reporting procedures in offshore exploration and production 1975-1981
This review describes and analyses data on personal injuries associated with offshore operations in the North Sea and examines the methods of recording and presenting the data. Data from the United Kingdom, Norwegian, Danish and Dutch sectors are not directly comparable because the national safety agencies concerned use different reporting systems. The data nonetheless show that fatality rates in the UK and Norwegian sectors declined in the period 1975-1981, that common factors determined the pattern of accidents in the UK and Norwegian sectors, that fatalities in the Danish and Dutch sectors appear to be contained, that the proportion of the total working population killed or seriously injured has generally been lower than in several onshore industries and that the ratio of fatalities to serious injuries is higher offshore than onshore. Because accurate and authoritative information requires uniform definitions of accident types and severity, as well as reliable man-power data, it is suggested that industry take the initiative in promoting collaboration between national governmental agencies and industrial concerns.
The Oil Industry International Exploration and Production Forum, 37 Duke Street, St. James's, London SW1Y 6DH, United Kingdom, Feb. 1983. 30p. Illus.

CIS 83-804 Dubourg A.
Conditions of work, life and medical practice on an offshore oil rig
Conditions de travail, de vie et d'exercice sur une plate-forme de forage pétrolier en mer [in French]
This MD thesis deals with the particular and difficult conditions in offshore oil production. Study of working conditions on an oil rig: hours of work, climatic conditions, transport of personnel, problems specific to certain workstations and risks common to all. Risks run are numerous: operational, identical to those run in similar circumstances on land; risks linked with the climatic and oceanological environment and with diving; general risks common to all ships. Living conditions on board, circumstances of offshore disasters and aproppriate intervention are dealt with (examples are given). Organisation of medical help and surveillance on board. Problem of aptitude of offshore workers, their training in safety and survival.
Université de Paris VI, Faculté de médicine Saint-Antoine, Paris, France, 1983. 118p. 84 ref.


CIS 85-109
Clayton Environmental Consultants Inc.
Medical management of chemical exposures in the petroleum industry
An introduction and description of the petroleum industry is followed by general recommendations for employee health evaluation and medical surveillance, industrial record-keeping and reporting, and data sheets for more than 90 substances which cover: physical data and properties; synonyms; degree of health hazard; exposure limits; toxicity; medical treatment and follow-up; additional comments; biological monitoring.
Publications and Distribution Dept., American Petroleum Institute, 2101 "L" Street Northwest, Washington, DC 20037, USA, 1982. 211p. Bibl. Price: US$14.75.

CIS 84-1717 Mines, quarries and oilwells: a sector monograph
Mines, carrières et puits de pétrole: monographie sectorielle [in French]
This monograph covers the socio-economic and health aspects of this economic area. Contents: description of the industries (production, establishments, workers, employer and worker associations); compensated occupational injuries (morbidity and fatality rate); list of the main health hazards; statistics of occupational accidents and diseases.
Quebec Occupational Health and Safety Commission, 1199 rue de Bleury, Montréal, Québec H3B 3J1, Canada, 1982. 124p. Bibl.

CIS 84-233 Antipov A.N.
Sealing boreholes during raising and lowering operations
Germetizacija ust'ja skvažiny pri spusko-pod"emnyh operacijah [in Russian]
Drilling crews are protected from outflows of hydrogen sulfide during movement of the drilling tube by sealing off the space below the rotor with a specially designed seal, for which a drawing is given. The space below the seal is vented to a flare where hydrogen sulfide is destroyed. Besides combining features of packed and mechanical seals, the new design includes a reservoir of a recently formulated proprietary solution for neutralisation of hydrogen sulfide.
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, Mar. 1982, No.3, p.44. Illus.

CIS 83-1119 Najem G.R., Louria D.B., Seebode J.J., Thind I.S., Prusakowski J.M., Ambrose R.B., Fernicola A.R.
Life time occupation, smoking, caffeine, saccharine, hair dyes and bladder carcinogenesis
75 subjects with bladder cancer and 142 controls were studied. Statistically significant associations with bladder cancer were found for cigarette smoking and for working in dye, petroleum (fuel) and plastics industries. Risk ratios were also high for workers in rodenticide and printing industries, cable workers and the spouses of bladder cancer patients.
International Journal of Epidemiology, Sep. 1982, Vol.11, No.3, p.212-217. 26 ref.

CIS 83-907 Hobot'ko V.I., Ėstrin R.Ja., Sulejmanov M.M.
Fire protection in the petroleum industry
Protivopožarnaja bezopasnost' i zaščita na predprijatijah neftanoj promyšlennosti [in Russian]
Sections cover: typical fire hazards in the petroleum industry (causes of fires, sources of ignition, flammability characteristics); general fire protection regulations in the USSR; fire safety requirements to be met by facilities and equipment (USSR standards); regulations governing the protection against electrostatic discharges; safe working rules; fire prevention and fire fighting in the course of production processes, during welding and flame cutting, and when working in explosive atmospheres.
Izdatel'stvo "Nedra", Tret'jakovskij proezd 1/19, 103633 Moskva K-12, USSR, 1981. 284p. Illus. Price: Rbl.1.80.

CIS 83-532
USSR State Standards Committee (Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po standartam)
Women's suits for protection against petroleum and petroleum products - Technical specifications
Kostjumy ženskie dlja zaščity ot nefti i nefteproduktov - Tehničeskie uslovija [in Russian]
This standard (effective 1 Jan. 1983) applies to suits consisting of jackets and trousers. Sections cover: types and basic sizes; specifications (materials, appearance, cutting and sewing requirements); acceptance tests and quality control; marking, packing, shipment and storage. Dry-cleaning and washing instructions are appended.
Izdatel'stvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per.3, 123557 Moskva, USSR, 23 Feb. 1982. 16p. Illus. Price: Rbl.0.05.

CIS 83-531
USSR State Standards Committee (Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po standartam)
Men's suits for protection against petroleum and petroleum products - Technical specifications
Kostjumy mužskie dlja zaščity ot nefti i nefteproduktov - Tehničeskie uslovija [in Russian]
This standard (effective 1 Jan. 1983) applies to suits consisting of jackets and trousers. Sections cover: types and basic sizes; specifications (materials, appearance, cutting and sewing requirements); acceptance tests and quality control; marking, packing, shipment and storage. Dry cleaning and washing instructions are appended.
Izdatel'stvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per.3, 123557 Moskva, USSR, 23 Feb.1982. 14p. Illus. Price: Rbl.0.05.

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