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Petroleum and natural gas industry - 659 entries found

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1988

CIS 91-279 Holden P.L.
Safety and Reliability Directorate
Assessment of missile hazards: Review of incident experience relevant to major hazard plant
The main part of this paper is devoted to a review of experience of incidents in which pressure vessels containing liquefied gases have suffered major failure. The modes and patterns of failure, which dictate whether fragments are projected and how many pieces the vessel break into, are discussed. The incident experience covers major failures of 138 vessels, the majority due to flame impingement. The information available varies from knowledge only of whether fragments were projected to virtually complete details of the failure circumstances, number, range and direction of projected fragments. This data has been analysed with a view to providing information which may be useful in assessments of major hazard plant.
United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Risley, Warrington WA3 6AT, United Kingdom, 1988. 177p. Illus. Bibl. Price: GBP 9.00.

CIS 90-1928 Susbielles G.
Safety in the petroleum industry (prevention of hazards)
La sécurité dans l'industrie pétrolière (prévention des dangers) [in French]
This report presents the essential safety problems in the petroleum industry and the ways in which they are attacked. Identification of hazards by risk analysis is described for exploratory drilling, production, transport, storage, and refining. Other topics discussed are: acceptance of risk; methods of risk analysis; databases on equipment and process reliability and on accidents; human factors; differences between the petroleum industry and the nuclear power industry or air transport; the dangers of air-hydrocarbon mixtures; heavily industrialised areas such as the Chemical Corridor south of Lyon in France; attitudes of some other countries and international organisations toward the safety of petroleum industry installations; research organisations and activities in the petroleum industry.
Institut français du Pétrole, B.P. 311, 92506 Rueil-Malmaison Cedex, France, 1988. 415p. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 90-1332
Department of Energy
Escape II. Risk assessment of emergency evacuation of offshore installations
This publication, which is part of a series of reports to the UK Department of Energy, further develops a previous computer based model of the various factors affecting the success of emergency evacuations from offshore installations and aims at improving their safety, especially in emergency situations.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1988. 86p. Illus. Price: GBP 27.50.

CIS 90-1247 Šaripov A.H., Gulja Ju. S.
Occupational safety and health in gas-lift well operation
Ohrana truda pri gazliftnoj ėkspluatacii skvažin [in Russian]
This reference manual is intended for gas-lift facility operators and young workers newly employed by these undertakings. Contents: basic provisions of the Soviet labour code; equipment, processes and production structure; working conditions (working environment and control of worker exposure to workplace hazards; electric power and protection against electric current; manual work and mechanisation); safe worker behaviour on gas-lift facility territory (general requirements; safety signs and colours, written instructions, posters, sound and light signalling; safe transportation of personnel by various types of vehicles; materials handling and lifting; safety requirements for hand tools; requirements for the safe execution of hazardous operations involving gases; chemicals (methanol); pressure vessels; machinery and mechanisms; general electrical safety requirements; fire safety); occupational hygiene and sanitation (welfare facilities; ventilation; lighting; food provision, catering; personal protective equipment); occupational injuries and first aid (hypothermia, frostbites and freezing; hyperthermia, heat strokes and burns; chemical and food poisoning; electrical injuries; wounds; fractures; ligament sprains, joint dislocations, contusions; traumatic shock; artificial respiration).
Izdatel'stvo Nedra, pl. Belorusskogo vokzala 3, 125047 Moskva, USSR, 1988. 57p. Illus. Price: SUR 0.20.

CIS 90-582 Weaver N.K.
Occupational medicine - The petroleum industry
Collection of major review articles, each accompanied by many references. Contents: a historical perspective; occupational medicine in the 1980s; composition, analysis and processing of petroleum; occupational exposures to potentially hazardous agents in the petroleum industry; toxicology of petroleum hydrocarbons; epidemiological studies of the industry; carcinogenic potential of some petroleum-derived products; nonneoplastic kidney effects of hydrocarbon exposure; contact dermatitis and related dermatoses associated with petroleum recovery and use; neurotoxic and neurobehavioural effects of organic solvents on the nervous system; benzene toxicity; health effects of petroleum distillate ingestion; health-related research at the American Petroleum Institute.
Hanley and Belfus Inc., P.O. Box 1377, Philadelphia, PA 19105, USA, July-Sep. 1988. p.371-586. Bibl. Index. Price: USD 29.00 (outside the US: USD 34.00, airmail: USD 44.00).

CIS 89-822 Norman J.N., Brebner J., Whyte P.J.
Remote health care
A series of articles dealing with the problems of health care in remote workplaces: offshore drilling platforms (the medical consequences of a rig abandonment are described in detail), research stations in Antarctica, industrial diving, very hot natural environments.
Occupational Health, July/Aug. 1988, Vol.40, No.7-8, p.598-614. Illus.

CIS 89-235 Barker E.H.H.
Fire protection for offshore installations
Description of fire protection systems on oil production platforms: fire water mains, water deluge systems, automatic sprinkler systems, foam systems, inert gas systems, passive fire protection elements (fire walls), fire and gas detection systems.
Safety Practitioner, Jan. 1988, Vol.6, No.1, p.18-22. Illus. 5 ref.

1987

CIS 99-1760 The Offshore Installations (Safety Zones) Regulations and The Offshore Installations (Safety Zones) (No.48) Order 1987 [United-Kingdom]
Regulation and Order made pursuant to the Petroleum Act 1987 (CIS 99-1759). Topics: law; offshore oil extraction; restricted areas; safe distances; ships; United Kingdom.
HMSO Publications, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1987. 5p.

CIS 99-1759 Petroleum Act 1987 [United-Kingdom]
Section 23(1) of this Act, concerning safety zones around offshore installations, has given rise to the Offshore Installations (Safety Zones) Regulations of 1987 (CIS 99-1760). Topics: approval; assembly and disassembly; demolition; law; offshore oil extraction; safe distances; safety planning; shutdown procedure; transport by pipeline; United Kingdom.
In: Public General Acts and Measures, Part I, 1987. p.75-113.

CIS 90-1539 Izmerov N.F.
Guide to occupational hygiene
Rukovodstvo po gigiene truda [in Russian]
Second of 2 volumes addressed to industrial physicians, specialists in occupational medicine, plant physicians and other medical personnel. Vol.2 is arranged in 16 chapters devoted to occupational hygiene problems in the following industries: mining; coal-mining (opencast and underground); iron and steel (sintering and iron-ore pellet plants, cakes and by-products, blast-furnace processes, steelmaking, ferroalloy smelting processes etc.); non-ferrous metals (manufacturing of alumina, aluminium, copper, lead, mercury, zinc etc.); machinery (foundry, press forging, heat-treating, machine shops etc.); electronics; chemicals; oil and gas extraction and refining; microbiology; synthetic polymers (plastics, man-made fibers, synthetic rubber, rubber products); construction and building materials; asbestos processing; textiles and light industry (textile, clothing, leather goods, shoe making); wood, pulp and paper, woodworking; printing; work with ionising radiation (nuclear power plants, radioactive sources, x-ray equipment, particle accelerators, etc.).
Izdatel'stvo "Medicina", Petroverigskij per. 6/8, 101000 Moskva, USSR, 1987. Vol.2, 446p. 58 ref. Price: SUR 1.90.

CIS 90-436 Basic concepts of industrial safety and health
Nociones fundamentales de seguridad e higiene industrial [in Spanish]
Advanced-level textbook (aimed principally at members of OSH committees), accompanied by exercises. Contents: the legal framework of OSH in Mexico and OSH organisation within PEMEX (the Mexican National Petroleum Corporation); systems of OSH; the work process; working conditions and the working environment; industrial safety and health (exposures, chemical and biological agents); evaluation and control of hazards in the workplace; administration of safety and health.
División Editorial, Subdirección General de Capacitación y Desarrollo Profesional, Instituto Mexicano de Petróleo (PEMEX), Ciudad de México, Mexico, 1987. 160p. Illus. 64 ref.

CIS 90-383
Nuclear Regulatory Commission
Final Rule - Licenses and radiation safety requirements for well logging [USA]
These amended regulations specify radiation safety and licencing requirements for the use of radioactive materials in well logging. In well logging, instruments are lowered into a drilled hole to obtain information on underground rock formations (type of rock, porosity, density, hydrocarbon content) in order to locate hydrocarbon and other mineral deposits. Extensive background information is given. The adoption of uniform radiation safety requirements is promoted.
Federal Register, 17 Mar. 1987, Vol.52, No.51, p.8225-8241.

CIS 89-1556
Health and Safety Commission; Oil Industry Advisory Committee
The preparation and operation of contracts in the petroleum industry - Health and Safety Guidelines
This document provides guidance on the arrangements which should be made between a principal and his contractors to enable them to understand their responsibilities to each other and to their employees when defining their safety obligations. It deals principally with requirements designed to protect the health and safety of people, but also considers measures which affect the safety of the workplace. Content: scope; definitions; legal requirements; selection and assessment of contractors (overview of the selection of contractors; assessment of management attitude and health and safety performance and policy; liaisons with tenderers); preparation of a contract (responsibilities of each party; conditions of contract; general matters of contract); control of contractors' activities (responsibilities; safety audits; exchange of information; training of contractors; specialist contract work); subcontractors.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1987. 6p. Price: GBP 3.25.

CIS 89-1235
Health and Safety Commission; Oil Industry Advisory Committee
Guidelines for occupational health services in the oil industry
These guidelines give advice to employers, employees and occupational health staff on developing appropriate arrangements for the effective health care of people at work in the oil industry. The guidelines are not concerned with advice on when an occupational health service should be established. Contents: objectives; functions; activities (prevention, education and provision of information, clinical services, records); personnel and facilities; consultative arrangements. In the annexes: occupational health records; UK specialist qualifications; suggestions for an onshore occupational health centre.
HMSO Publication Centre, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1987. 12p. Bibl. Price: GBP 4.50.

CIS 89-838 Barrett B., Howells R., Hindley B.
Safety in the offshore petroleum industry: The law and practice for management
Aspects covered in this textbook: legislative framework (1958 Geneva Convention on the Continental Shelf); the petroleum industry in the offshore environment; relationship between petroleum and shipping activities; responsibilities; enforcement of legislation; licensing and approval; safe systems in construction and on-board installations, plant and equipment, workforce, qualifications and training, health provisions; welfare and terms of employment; damage control.
Kogan Page Ltd., 120 Pentonville Road, London N1 9JN, United Kingdom, 1987. 253p. Bibl.

CIS 89-999
Health and Safety Executive
Cable laid slings and grommets
This is a revision of Guidance Note PM 20, originally published in 1982 (see CIS 82-1513). It gives advice on the construction, rating, testing, certification and examination of cable-laid slings and grommets of 100mm diameter and over developed for use in the offshore oil industry. Such slings and grommets are too large for testing by existing equipment. In the appendices: methods for calculating minimum breaking loads; sample test, conformity and examination certificates; guidance on how to assess the condition of the sling or grommet, and on when to discard such equipment; combinations of lay directions and lay factors for cable-laid slings.
HMSO Publication Centre, P.O. Box 276, London, SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, Rev.ed., Oct. 1987. 12p. Illus. 5 ref. Price: GBP 2.50.

CIS 89-187 International Labour Conference - Seventy-fourth (Maritime) Session, Geneva 1987. Record of Proceedings
Conférence internationale du Travail - Soixante-quatorzième session (maritime), Genève 1987. Compte rendu des travaux [in French]
Compendium of ILO instruments relating to seamen, and working papers of the conference at which they were adopted: Convention 173 and Recommendation 173 concerning Seafarer's Welfare at Sea and in Port, Convention 162 Concerning Health Protection and Medical Care for Seafarers, Convention 165 Concerning Social Security for Seafarers (Revised), Convention 166 (Revised) and Recommendation 174 Concerning the Repatriation of Seafarers.
International Labour Office, ILO Publications, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1988. Approx. 440p. Price: CHF 47.50.

CIS 88-1757 Safety, Health and Welfare (Offshore Installations) Act, 1987 [Ireland]
An Act to provide for the safety, health and welfare of persons on installations concerned with the exploration for or exploitation of petroleum or other minerals in the waters in or surrounding Ireland, and for the safety of such installations and the prevention of accidents on or near them. It covers: definitions and general information; notice of establishment or removal of offshore installations; requirements to be complied with by offshore installations; role of the installation manager; safety and discipline on offshore installations; prohibition of employment; keeping of records; safety, health and welfare regulations; safety representatives and committees; notification of accidents; offences, legal proceedings and penalties.
Number 18 of 1987, Government Publications Sale Office, Sun Alliance House, Molesworth Street, Dublin 2, Ireland, 1987. 42p. Price: IEP 4.10.

CIS 88-1174 Thomas T.L., Stewart P.A., Stemhagen A., Correa P., Norman S.A., Bleecker M.L., Hoover R.N.
Risk of astrocytic brain tumors associated with occupational chemical exposures
A case-referent study was conducted on the risk of brain tumours among workers exposed to organic chemicals in petroleum refining and chemical manufacturing. The cases (N = 300) were white men aged ≥ 30 years with a confirmed diagnosis of glioblastoma multiforme, astrocytoma, or a mixed glioma with astrocytic cells. The referents (N = 386) were white men who died from causes other than brain tumour, epilepsy, cerebrovascular disease, suicide, or homicide and were frequency-matched with the cases on age at death, year of death, and study area. No statistically significantly elevated odds ratios were associated with employment in the chemical industry. The risk of astrocytic tumours was elevated among the subjects with production or maintenance jobs in petroleum refining; however, it decreased with length of employment. There were nonsignificant excess risks of astrocytic tumours among the men exposed to cutting fluids or organic solvents and also among the subjects exposed to lubricating oils, organic solvents, or cutting fluids for ≥ 20 years.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Oct. 1987, Vol.13, No.5, p.417-423. 29 ref.

CIS 88-1317 Case study - Fire at LPG recovery installation of a refinery
The butane fire and explosion at a refinery are described. Covered are: description of the installation; initiation of the incident; escalation; shut-down of the units; fire fighting; causes of the butane release; ignition of the release; installation improvements.
Loss Prevention Bulletin, Oct. 1987, No.077, p.27-34. Illus.

CIS 88-1315 Major LPG fire at a US refinery
The explosion and fire of liquefied petroleum gas at a USA refinery are described. Covered are: the site, circumstances leading to the incident; the incident; damage caused; causes of the incident.
Loss Prevention Bulletin, Oct. 1977, No.077, p.11-16. Illus. 1 ref.

CIS 88-1314 The Feyzin disaster
The explosion and fire at the Feyzin (France) refinery in 1966 are re-examined. Covered are: general site layout; main liquefied petroleum gas storage; sampling; operations and instructions; circumstances leading to the fires; fire fighting; explosions; extent of damage; causes of the incident; escalation; lessons learned.
Loss Prevention Bulletin, Oct. 1987, No.077, p.1-9. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 88-983 Værnes R.J., Aarli J.A., Kløve H., Tønjum S.
Differential neuropsychological effects of diving to 350 meters
Investigation of neuropsychological effects of deep-sea diving (to depths below 150m, necessary in pipe-laying work in the North Sea oil industry) revealed increased tremor, reduced hand-grip strength and foot-tapping speed, lowered automatic reactivity and memory problems. There were some post-dive residual effects, but in 3 out of 10 divers tested these were not present 1 month later.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 1987, Vol.58, No.2, p.155-165. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 88-673 Kirwan B.
Human reliability analysis of an offshore emergency blowdown system
An offshore platform depressurisation (blowdown) system was designed in such a way that control in emergencies necessitated operator action over a short space of time. A human reliability analysis identified several ways in which human actions could lead to system failure (flare overload), and in a total risk analysis these errors were found to dominate the risk picture. The causes of the human error related primarily to the design of the interface and co-ordination/communication problems previously unaddressed by the design process. Recommendations were made to reduce error potential based on the causes and mechanisms of error identified in the analysis, and several of these recommendations were included in the final design of the system.
Applied Ergonomics, Mar. 1987, Vol.18, No.1, p.23-33. Illus. 28 ref.

CIS 87-948 Mueller B.A., Mohr D.L., Rice J.C., Clemmer D.I.
Factors affecting individual injury experience among petroleum drilling workers
To identify factors affecting the number of injuries experienced by petroleum drilling workers, a 44-month incidence density study was carried out on a cohort employed in January 1979 on mobile drilling units in the Gulf of Mexico. To control for job-related hazards, a standardised ratio of observed to expected injuries for each worker was computed based on his job history. The effect of personal and work history factors was then examined using analysis of variance. Age, rate of job changes, and rate of rig transfers had independent effects on injury rates. Length of service had little effect when age was controlled. The findings suggest that younger workers under stress such as job change may be more susceptible to injury than older workers, regardless of job. If so, targeted changes in procedures and environment which protect workers of all ages are important alternatives to reliance on supervision and experience in injury reduction.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1987, Vol.29, No.2, p.126-131. 17 ref.

CIS 87-947 Cooper G.L., Sutherland V.J.
Job stress, mental health, and accidents among offshore workers in the oil and gas extraction industries
Psychological and occupational stressors among 194 male employees on drilling rig and production platform installations in the United Kingdom and Dutch sectors of the North Sea were studied. Mental well-being and job satisfaction were also assessed, with attention to the incidence of accidents offshore. Workers in this occupational group were found to be much less satisfied with their jobs than their onshore counterparts. Although overall mental well-being compared favourably with that of the general population, levels of anxiety were significantly higher. Multivariate analyses showed "relationships at work and at home" to be a strong predictor of both job dissatisfaction and mental ill-health. Type A coronary-prone behaviour was also found to be a significant predictor of reduced mental well-being and increased accident rates offshore.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1987, Vol.29, No.2, p.119-125. 18 ref.

1986

CIS 90-2054 Smith T.A.
Safety and Reliability Directorate
An analysis of a 100 te propane storage vessel
This report describes a fracture mechanics assessment of a storage tank capable of holding 100t of LPG. The object of the analysis is to review the possibility of cold whole vessel failure and to establish whether a leak-before-break condition is more likely than catastrophic failure. Three fracture mechanics concepts were used to establish critical crack sizes using available information on storage conditions, manufacturing standards and material data. Details are given of the vessel design and its manufacture and testing, requirements of relevant design codes for pressurised components, material and mechanical properties, and calculations of stress levels and critical crack sizes. The calculations are also applied to a more typical thin-walled vessel.
United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Wigshaw Lane, Culcheth, Warrington WA3 4NE, United Kingdom, Mar. 1986. 49p. Illus. 17 ref. Price: GBP 5.00.

CIS 89-1899 Wright C.
Routine deaths: Fatal accidents in the oil industry
This paper is a study in the relatively neglected field of the sociology of accidents and is concerned with fatalities in the offshore oil industry in the United Kingdom. The paper demonstrates the social and organisational causes of these accidents. Common sense and expert opinion both present industrial accidents as products of extra-organisational abnormality but evidence from this research locates the causes of accidents in work organisation and dependence on bureaucratic rationality. It is shown that the hazardous situations in which the accidents occurred were themselves largely the products of two aspects of the formal organisation of work, the "speed-up" and the practice of "sub-contracting". It is demonstrated that the common sense equation of the "normal" and the "routine" inhibited recognition of the organisational causes of these accidents. Finally it is argued that since there is little support for the view that the accidents were produced by the unique working conditions in the offshore industry, it is likely that the causes of accidents in this industry will be found to exist in other industries.
Sociological Review, May 1986, Vol.34, No.2, p.265-289. 11 ref.

CIS 88-1776
Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po standartam
Blowout prevention equipment. Safety requirements [USSR]
Oborudovanie protivovybrosovoe [in Russian]
This standard (effective from 1 Jan. 1988 to 1 Jan. 1998) applies to new and renovated hydraulic equipment for sealing the mouths of boreholes to prevent blowouts. It sets safety standards for their construction. Contents: requirements applying to the basic equipment; requirements applying to safety devices designed into the equipment; special requirements for assembly, repair, transportation and storage; verification of compliance.
Izdatel'stvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per. 3, 123840 Moskva, GSP, USSR, 1986. 5p. Price: SUR 0.03.

CIS 87-1310 MacKinnon B., Evans R.G., Fox D., Dwarkin J., La Bella F., Tait M., Ottery J., Ferris R.
An analysis of the WCB claims experience and potential health hazards in the Alberta oil sands industry, 1978-1983
This report describes briefly the oil sands industry, oil production, and its future. The claims, claim rates, characteristics of the claims, fatalities, health implications, toxicity of the oil sands and related products, and potential hazards of vanadium extraction are given. The claims experience of the workers appears to be relatively low compared to the provincial average.
Alberta Community and Occupational Health, Research Branch, OHS Division, 10709 Jasper Ave., Edmonton, Alberta T5J 3N3, Canada, 1986. 65p. Illus. 4 ref. Glossary. Appendices.

CIS 87-1320 A guide to the principles and operation of permit-to-work procedures as applied in the UK petroleum industry
This guide defines permit-to-work and explains why and when they are needed. The main types of permit-to-work in the petroleum industry are outlined. Included are: responsibilities of employers, occupiers, operators, contractors, supervisors, and individuals; legal requirements; check lists for assessment of procedures; and addresses for further information.
Health and Safety Executive, St. Hugh's House, Stanley Precinct, Trinity Road, Bootle, Merseyside L20 3QY, United Kingdom, 1986. 7p. Appendices. Price: £3.00.

CIS 87-1052 Henry P.
Noise and vibration on offshore petroleum installations
Bruits et vibrations sur les plates-formes pétrolières [in French]
Study of 2 important occupational hazards to which offshore petroleum installation workers are exposed to: noise and vibration. Recommendations for harmonisation of regulations on an international basis, for medical supervision of personnel and for the adoption of protective equipment that does not interfere with communication and alarm systems.
Revue française de santé publique, 1986, No.34, p.36-39.

CIS 87-544 Sutherland V.J., Cooper C.I.
Man and accidents offshore - an examination of the costs of stress among workers on oil and gas rigs
This study investigated the sources of psychosocial and occupational stress among 194 workers on 31 installations by interviews and questionnaires. An assessment was made of mental well-being, job satisfaction and certain personality characteristics, with a focus on offshore accidents. Factor analysis was used to identify sources of stress. Chapters include: rationale for the study literature review, what is stress, research model of stress, methodology, results, discussion, conclusions and recommendations.
Lloyd's of London Press Ltd., Sheepen Place, Colchester, Essex CO3 3LP, United Kingdom, 1986. 207p. Illus. Bibl. ref. Index.

CIS 87-313 Pipeline radiography
Covered are: equipment; hazards of exposure to ionising radiation; safety measures (reducing time of exposure, distance, shielding); area survey meters and personal dosimeters; qualification of radiographers.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611, USA, 1986. 4p. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 87-27 Regulation made under the Occupational Health and Safety Act: Oil and Gas - Offshore [Canada - Ontario]
Applies to all work done offshore on or from a rig. This includes any rotary drilling ship, cable tool ship, barge, platform or other rig used for offshore oil or gas exploration, development, production, maintenance, workover, capping, plugging or abandonment operations.
Ontario Gazette - Gazette de l'Ontario, 15 Nov. 1986, Vol.119-46, p.2282-2294.

CIS 86-2047 Stallard C.W.
Use of SOHIO's health information system
A computerised system using concepts of profiling and problem orientation is described and examples of its use demonstrated. The system contains or accesses files on employee demography, job history and current task lists, inventory of workplace risks categorised as physical, chemical and functional, a master chemical inventory, and individual exposure records. By using systematised Nomenclature of Medicine codes, a complete medical file catalogues all physiological and pathological variables, disease states, and functional responses. Profiling exposures and medical conditions enhances inquiry of the large data base that is accumulated.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1986, Vol.28, No.8, p.684-686.

CIS 86-1746 Hargis K.M., Tillery M.I., Ettinger H.J., Brandt M.T., Sherman R.J., Wheat L.D.
Industrial hygiene study of a true in situ oil shale retorting facility
Air samples were collected for analysis of dust and a number of selected gases and vapours. Limited monitoring was conducted for noise and limited dust monitoring was also conducted during the drilling of blast holes for a 3rd retort. Very low concentrations of dusts, gases and vapours were observed in most areas above the operating oil shale retorts. Observed breathing-zone concentrations were below the 8h exposure limits. Low levels of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons were easured. High concentrations of dust were measured during the drilling of blast holes in the immediate vicinity of the drilling operation, but personal sampling indicated that worker exposure was still below the acceptable limits. Noise levels generally exceeded the limits in the immediate vicinity of blowers.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1986, Vol.47, No.8, p.455-464. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 86-1366 Chaiyuth C., Takala J., Vilert J., Sumale C.
Major accident hazards in chemical industries in Thailand
Report of a survey carried out in Thailand and covering 27 chemical industries (pesticides, basic chemicals, paints, explosives, matches, natural gas, gas bottling). Aspects covered in the report: major accident hazards (international background, classification of chemicals, accidents, regulations); survey in Thailand (methodology, statistics); identification and classification of hazardous substances and recommendations for control of major hazards in Thailand.
National Institute for the Improvement of Working Conditions and Environment, c/o ILO Office in Bangkok, UN Building, Rajdamnern Avenue, Bangkok 10200, Thailand, 14 Mar. 1986. 151p. 16 ref. Appendices.

CIS 86-834 Wong O., Morgan R.W., Bailey W.J., Swencicki R.E., Claxton K., Kheifets L.
An epidemiologic study of petroleum refinery employees
Report on a cohort of 14,179 current and former employees at 2 petroleum refineries in California (USA). The cohort included every employee who had worked at either refinery for at least 1 year. For the entire cohort, mortality from all causes was 72.4% of that expected, a statistically significant deficit. Significantly lower mortality was observed also for all cancers combined, digestive cancer, lung cancer, heart disease, non-malignant respiratory disease, diseases of the digestive system, and accidents. Only lymphopoietic cancer (but not Hodgkin's disease or leukaemia) caused more than the expected number of deaths, and even there only at one of the refineries, and only among workers hired before 1948. A case analysis of deaths from lymphatic cancer failed to identify a common exposure pattern.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 1986, Vol.43, No.1, p.6-17. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 86-789 Sewell C.M., Castle S.P., Hull H.F., Wiggins C.
Testicular cancer and employment in agriculture and oil and natural gas extraction
This letter to the editor follows up on a topic reported on under CIS 84-803. In a case-control study of 81 fatal cases of testicular cancer and of 311 controls (other cases of fatal cancer), all in the state of New Mexico (USA), no significant association was found between the disease and employment either in agriculture or in the oil and natural gas extracting industry.
Lancet, 8 Mar. 1986, Vol.1, No.8480, p.553. 4 ref.

CIS 86-702 Schultz S.A., McNichols C.W., Kotrla C.J.
A prototype microcomputer-based decision support system for industrial hygienists
A prototype industrial hygiene decision support system was designed and implemented in a microcomputer environment using an integrated knowledge management system as the implementation vehicle. The heart of the system is a relational database designed to minimize redundant data entry and to support flexible retrieval. An industrial hygienist's routine and ad hoc requirements for information retrieval and analysis support are met by screen displays, printed reports, and graphical summaries which may be presented on the screen, in a printed form, or as multicolored plots. A petroleum refinery was selected as the application environment for the prototype system because of the variety of processes, agents, and sampling methodologies involved.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1986, Vol.47, No.2, p.124-134. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 86-831 Petroleum Committee - General Report
Commission du pétrole - Rapport général [in French]
Aspects covered in this report: action taken in various countries in the light of conclusions and resolutions adopted at previous sessions of the Committee; action taken by the ILO; activities of the ILO and other international organisations of interest to the Petroleum Committee; recent events and developments in the petroleum industry. In each chapter, occupational health and safety problems and solutions concerning the industry are discussed extensively.
Report I, Petroleum Committee, International Labour Organisation, 10th session, Geneva, 1986, International Labour Office, 1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland, 1986. 164p. Appendix. Price:SF 22.50.

CIS 86-830 Occupational safety and health and the working environment in the petroleum industry
La sécurité et l'hygiène du travail et le milieu de travail dans l'industrie du pétrole [in French]
This report supplies information to serve as the basis of discussions at the 10th session of the Petroleum Committee. Contents: Chapter I - Diversity of the industry and its impact on safety and health; Chapter II - Accident statistics; Chapter III - Safety and health legislation in the oil and gas extractive industries; Chapter IV - Protection and prevention. The topics covered are summarised in a list of 14 points suggested for discussion.
Report II, Petroleum Committee, International Labour Organisation, 10th session, Geneva 1986, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1986. 43p. Price: SF.10.00.

1985

CIS 87-450 Volkov A.S., Dolgov B.P., Tevzadze R.N.
Labour protection in drilling wells
Ohrana truda pri burenii skvažin [in Russian]
This manual for students of vocational education schools and workers covers the main aspects of labour protection, safety in loading and unloading, transport of materials and persons, assembly of prefabricated elements and skidding drilling rigs, drilling wells; fire protection, accident elimination and well abandonment; industrial hygiene in drilling operations, protection of the environment, safety services.
Izdatel'stvo Nedra, Tret'jakovskij pr.1/19, 103633 Moskva, USSR, 1985. 127p. Illus. 11 ref. Price: Rbl.0.20.

CIS 86-2029 Osborne R., Fischbach T.
Causes of disability in employees of the mining industry: analysis of social security disability benefit awards and allowances to workers 1969-1973, 1975-1976
Age-adjusted proportional morbidity ratios (PMRs) were calculated for white males for 67 causes of disability in 6 occupations in 4 extractive industries. Elevated PMRs were found for respiratory diseases in all groups outside the oil and gas extraction industry. Musculoskeletal diseases caused disproportionately high disability among employees of the oil and gas extraction industry. When the PMRs were recalculated after excluding diseases of the respiratory system, high values were found for accidents, poisoning, violence and musculoskeletal disease. The results agree with previous morbidity and mortality studies and illustrate the utility of routinely collected disability data in the surveillance of occupational disease and injury.
US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Division of Surveillance, Hazard Evaluations and Field Studies, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, Apr. 1985. 87p. 62 ref.

CIS 86-2025 Report of a Meeting on Health of Offshore Oil Drillers (Tunis, 6-10 May 1985)
A general survey of offshore oil drilling operations is followed by a survey of risks to which workers on these installations are exposed: fires and explosions; noise; toxic substances; heat stress; lack of reliable communications with the shore in the case of emergencies; hazardous transfer of supplies and workers; danger of collision with other vessels; accidents during the drilling itself; psychosocial aspects of offshore work; strange work schedules and shift hours; diving operations. Separate chapters are devoted to the control of these hazards and their consequences, to offshore health services and to total disaster evacuation procedures. Conclusions and recommendations of the meeting are summarised in 10 points. Annexes give: the content of the pre-employment examination; impediments to offshore employment; programme of the meeting; a list of participants.
World Health Organization, Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean, P.O. Box 1517, Alexandria 21511, Egypt, 1985. 50p. 29 ref.

CIS 86-1440 Sorokin Ju.G., Sibilev M.S.
Labour protection in the petroleum refining and petrochemical industry. Rules and standards
Ohrana truda v neftepererabatyvajuščej i neftehimičeskoj promyšlennosti - Pravila i normy [in Russian]
This manual for engineering staff and occupational health services of manufacturing, research and design organisations includes major extracts from safety regulations and requirements in the title industry. It covers: quotations from safety regulations of gas and petroleum refining enterprises, synthetic rubber, synthetic ethyl alcohol, organometallic compound, schist reprocessing and asbestos plants; safety requirements for design of ventilation; operation of pressure vessels; operation, inspection and repair of safety valves; design of steel piping; fire protection requirements for design of petroleum refineries and petrochemical enterprises.
Izdatel'stvo Himija, Stromynka 21, 107076 Moskva, USSR, 1985, 380p. Illus. Price: Rbl.1.90.

CIS 86-1418 Antonov V.F., Rjabcev G.A.
Increased safety in drilling oil and gas wells
Povyšenie bezopasnosti rabot pri burenii neftjanyh i gazovyh skvažin [in Russian]
Description of new gear which mechanises the process of setting up drill pipe stands and moving them to the hoist, and as a result reduces the time required to raise and lower the drill string. The gear is made up of a rig frame with a platform which can be horizontally rotated 170° in either direction. An extension jib with a grip is mounted on the platform. The jib extends up to 2600mm to the centre of the drilling derrick, takes hold of drill pipe stands and places them anywhere in the setback area. The gear is complete with interlocks, guards and travel-limiting devices. Technical characteristics are given. The gear has been stand-tested and adopted by drilling crews.
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, July 1985, No.7, p.45-47. Illus.

CIS 86-1148 Faramazov S.A.
Labour protection in the use and repair equipment in chemical enterprises and petroleum refineries
Ohrana truda pri ėkspluatacii i remonte oborudovanija himičeskih i neftepererabatyvajuščih predprijatij [in Russian]
This manual for the engineering staff of chemical and petroleum refining enterprises includes: general issues in labour protection, industrial hygiene (requirements for workplace air, ventilation, vibration, noise, etc.), saety of processes and in the use of equipment, safety engineering in the assembly, use and repair of specific types of equipment, safety in the use of piping, fitting and electrical equipment; protection of equipment against fire and explosions.
Izdatel'stvo Himija, Stromynka 21/2, 107076 Moskva, USSR, 1985. 220p. Illus. 54 ref. Price: Rbl.0.85.

CIS 86-783 Ponomarev B.G., Ioakimis Ė.G., Mongajt I.L.
Purification of waste water from petroleum refineries
Očistka stočnyh vod neftepererabatyvajuščih zavodov [in Russian]
This guide contains: characteristics of wastewater produced by basic processes (dehydration and desalination of oil, primary recovery of oil, thermal cracking, catalytic cracking, hydrorefining, delayed coking, etc.), mechanical purification (sand traps, oil traps, hydrocyclones, settling equipment), physical and chemical purification of petroleum-containing wastewater (coagulation and flocculation of effluents, reagents, mixers and flocculating tanks, flotation, electrochemical purification, sorption purification), biological treatment, local purification, sewer systems and diagrammes, closed-circuit water supply and sewer systems; rendering sludge harmless; technical and economical assessment of plans, equipment and methods of wastewater purification.
Izdatel'stvo "Himija", Stromynka 21, 107076 Moskva, USSR, 1985. 255p. Illus. 132 ref. Price: Rbl.1.30.

CIS 86-698 Evaluation of the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to humans - Polynuclear aromatic compounds, Part 4, Bitumens, coal-tars and derived products, shale-oils and soots
Conclusions of a meeting of experts (Lyon, France, Feb. 1984). There is sufficient evidence that bitumens (asphalts) contain substances that are carcinogenic in animals, but inadequate evidence that bitumens alone are human carcinogens. Although roofers have shown increased risk of certain cancers, there has been no epidemiological study of workers exposed to bitumens alone. There is sufficient evidence that coal-tar pitches are carcinogenic in humans, as well as animals, and limited evidence for the carcinogenicity of coal-tar-derived creosotes. There is limited-to-sufficient evidence that shale oils and various derivatives are carcinogenic in animals, and sufficient evidence that the oils themselves are human carcinogens. There is sufficient evidence for the carcinogenicity of coal-soot and shale-oil-soot extracts in animals and of soot in humans; there is limited-to-inadequate evidence for the carcinogenicity of other soots and soot extracts in animals. An appendix lists some case reports of skin cancer in workers exposed to the title substances.
International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 cours Albert-Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 2, France, Jan. 1985. 271p. Illus. Bibl. Price: US$25.00; SF.70.00.

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