Livestock rearing - 310 entries found
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Clark S., Rylander R., Larsson L.
Airborne bacteria, endotoxin and fungi in dust in poultry and swine confinement buildings
Airborne concentrations of total and gram-negative bacteria in swine and poultry confinement units were as high, or higher, than the levels found in waste water treatment plants and cotton cardrooms. Airborne endotoxin concentrations in the swine units (average 0.12µg/m3) and poultry units (average 0.31µg/m3) were in the range where clinical effects have occurred in other populations.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1983, Vol.44, No.7, p.537-541. 22 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
This videotape describes the main safety and health hazards (accidents, zoonoses) that can affect livestock farmers raising cattle, pigs, sheep and horses.
CFL Vision, P.O. Box 35, Wetherby LS23 7EX, United Kingdom, 1982. Videotape. Length: 22min. Price: GBP 28.68 (hire), GBP 85.10 (sale). ###
Solal-Céligny P., Laviolette M., Hébert J., Cormier Y.
Immune reactions in the lungs of asymptomatic dairy farmers
Bronchioalveolar lavage was performed in: 7 subjects with acute farmer's lung; 10 asymptomatic farmers with serum precipitins to Micropolyspora faeni; 9 healthy farmers without serum precipitins. Farmer's lung sufferers had high levels of lymphocytes and immunoglobulins A and G (given as IgG/albumin ratios). 6 of those with serum precipitins had an increased number of cells and a high percentage of lymphocytes, as did 2 of those without serum precipitins. Circulating immune complexes were increased only in subjects with acute farmer's lung. Thus, 8 of 19 normal farmers showed slight signs of alveolitis in their lavage fluid, whether or not precipitins were present.
American Review of Respiratory Disease, Dec. 1982, Vol.126, No.6, p.964-967. Illus. 21 ref.
Little pigs have it easy - but the dust!
Grisar tar livet lugnt - men de dammar [in Swedish]
Dust is generated in the large batteries in which pigs are raised; the dust comes from feed, from the concrete floors and from the animals' skins when they scratch themselves. Dust formation is often promoted by the dehumidifiers installed to combat the high humidity produced by the animals' perspiration. These dusts can produce allergic reactions in sensitive persons. Also, the acaricidal powder applied 2-3 times per year to prevent mange is toxic. After trying different dust masks, one allergic breeder found that an air-supplied helmet, with filtered air forming a curtain in front of the face, offered the best protection.
Arbetsmiljö, 1982, No.12, p.14-18. Illus.
The formation of nitrous gases in fodder silos
De vorming van nitreuze gassen in kuilen [in Dutch]
Crops in silos may release nitrous gases, i.e. nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide. When these gases are inhaled, they will react with the water contained in the lungs and form nitric and nitric acids which, in turn, cause damage to the lung tissues. Inhalation of nitric oxide affects the oxygen transport by the red blood cells. Activating and inhibiting factors, such as the presence of bacteria, pH, percentage of dry matter and presence of oxygen, are also dealt with. Results of comparative laboratory studies involving fresh and partially dried crops are reproduced. There will be large amounts of nitric oxide if the crop has a high nitrate content, if there is little dry matter and if the silo is not quickly sealed off with an air-tight cover.
De veiligheid, June 1982, Vol.58, No.6, p.27-29. Illus.
Lutsky A., Bar-Sela S.
Northern fowl mite (Ornithonyssus sylviarum) in occupational asthma of poultry workers
Results of prick skin tests with 6 poultry antigens in 16 poultry farmers with a history of allergic rhinitis, 13 of whom had bronchial asthma and 27 controls, are reported. The greatest incidence of positive reactions was highly significant in the poultry workers. Environmental controls of workplaces confirmed the presence of mites and mite parts in poultry house dust. The results, together with specific IgE assays and clinical findings, establish O. sylviarum as a cause of allergic respiratory disease in poultry workers.
Lancet, 16 Oct. 1982, Vol.II, No.8303, p.874-875. 3 ref.
Gillians J.A., Palmer H.W., Dyte P.H.
Follicular dermatitis caused by Salmonella Dublin
The clinical record and bacteriological findings in a case of follicular skin infection in a dairy farmer who had assisted the delivery of a calf without wearing gloves are presented. Possible hazards for veterinary practitioners and public health are discussed.
Medical Journal of Australia, 1 May 1982, Vol.1, No.9, p.390-391. 15 ref.
Romaguera C., Lecha M., Grimalt F., Muniesa A.M., Mascaro J.M.
Photocontact dermatitis to cobalt salts
Report of 4 cases of chronic photocontact dermatitis due to cobalt salts (from cement in 2 bricklayers and pig fodder in 2 agricultural workers). Only 2 of the workers had standard patch test positive reactions to chromate and cobalt, but all showed positive photo-patch tests to cobalt. Photo-oxidation tests proved that cobalt salts are photosensiting.
Contact Dermatitis, Nov. 1982, Vol.8. No.6, p.383-388. 13 ref.
Miettinen U., Rytkönen E., Husman K.
Exposure of farmers to noise
Maanviljelijän melvaltistus [in Finnish]
Report of a study on the measurement of noise exposure in 4 farmers for a period of 1 year (2 dairy farmers, 1 poultry farmer with 5000 fowl and 1 pig farmer with 50 sows). All farmers had noise exposure exceeding Leq = 85dB(A) and to suffer from slight hearing loss. Tractors accounted for < 50% of the noise. Use of circular saws, chain saws, power grinders, combine harvesters, grain dryers and field choppers produced definite beaks in daily and weekly Leq value variations. No clear seasonal variations in noise exposure levels were apparent.
Työterveyslaitos, Laajaniityntie 1, 01620 Vantaa 62, Finland, 1982. 31p. Illus. Price: Fmk.15.00.
Donham K.J., Knapp L.W., Monson R., Gustafson K.
Acute toxic exposure to gases from liquid manure
Report on 6 cases of poisoning following acute exposure to gases from liquid manure in industrial livestock production facilities. In the storage of liquid manure, the activity of anaerobic and facultative microbes results in the production of various gases as metabolic by-products, including CH4, NH3, CO2 and H2S. In the cases in question, H2S appears to have been the main toxic substance involved, and agitation of the liquid manure was important in creating an acute, highly toxic environment. Preventive measures include worker education about the danger of gaseous emanation from liquid manure and limitation of exposure (covers or lids on manure pits, adequate ventilation, etc.).
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1982, Vol.24, No.2, p.142-145. 20 ref.
Ikeda T., Nakamura M., Yukawa K., Hirata H., Ishihara Y., Sugawara M., Chirifu H., Morimoto K., Noda N., Tsuchimoto M., Sugawara K.
Physical workload of farmers raising silkworms
Working hours, energy expenditure and fatigue were studied in members of 3 families engaged principally in sericulture. The average energy expenditure of the most busy day (14h) was 3,150kcal in males and 2,340kcal in females. Changes in critical flicker fusion frequency, patellar reflex, Donaggio's urine reaction and urine Na/K ratio indicated a very heavy physical workload in the busy season.
Journal of the Japanese Association of Rural Medicine, Dec. 1981, Vol.30, No.4, p.763-772. Illus. 17 ref.
Mönnich H.T., Zärtner H., Teutloff H.J.
Health hazards of gases produced by the fermentation of green fodder silage
Gesundheitsgefährdung durch Gärgase bei der Grünfuttersilierung [in German]
Carbon dioxide and, occasionally, nitrogen oxides are the main constituents of the fermentation gases given off in silos of green fodder. The silage technique is described and the results are given of gas concentration measurements made in horizontal and vertical silos (max. 85% by volume of CO2 and 22,700mg of nitrogen oxides per m3 of air). Forced ventilation of the silo is preferable to the use of respiratory protective equipment as a safety measure. Results of trials using a radial fan.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, Mar. 1981, Vol.27, No.3, p.183-186. Illus.
Thiele W., Bergmann K.C., Lehnigk K., Thiele E., Wittig M.
Airborne organic dust in animal sheds - a risk factor in the occurrence of occupational diseases in animal husbandmen
Organische Stäube der Stalluft als Risikofaktor für die Entstehung arbeitsbedingter Erkrankungen bei Werktätigen der Tierproduktion [in German]
Research in the German Democratic Republic has shown chronic non-specific pulmonary disease to the more common among animal husbandmen than in the population as a whole, indicating the role of occupational factors, especially organic dusts, in the aetiopathogenesis. The methodology and results of a health survey in industrial pig fattening plants are described: microclimate, dust counts and particle size analyses, pathogenesic bacteria counts, pathogen counts in relation to climatic factors and dust levels, precipitating antibodies and degree of sensitisation. There is a need to analyse organic dust composition when assessing the health conditions and the medical supervision of exposed workers.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, Mar. 1981, Vol.27, No.3, p.180-182.
Havel V., Zimová M., Škranc O.
Workload in various types of cowshed
Zátěž obsluhy v různých typech stájí dojnic [in Czech]
Measurement of physical workload in 50 women and 23 men employed in 3 old cowshedss and 3 modern cowsheds using different working procedures. With increasing cowsheds mechanisation, energy expenditure in tending the animals falls to as low as 15% of previous values, especially amongst milkers whose work had become monotonous and involved only a small number of muscle groups. Due to an increase in the number of shifts, annual energy expenditure had risen above permissible limits. Even in cowshedss using the same technology, energy expenditure varied from one shift to another depending on variations in job content, especially among male workers.
Pracovní lékařství, Oct. 1981, Vol.33, No.9, p.326-329. 16 ref.
Katila M.L., Mäntyjärvi R.A., Ojanen T.H.
Sensitisation against environmental antigens and respiratory symptoms in swine workers
Study on 20 workers in pig houses and 18 controls who were tested for sensitisation against dusts encountered there. Immunoprecipitation and enzyme-linked immuniassay (ELISA) were used to test for IgG antibodies; IgE antibodies against swine epithelium were tested using solid-phase radioimmunoassay. Precipitins against swine antigens were found in 2 swine workers, and ELISA revealed sensitisation in 6 workers. Sensitisation against swine antigens correlated with exposure but not with the presence of symptoms. No IgE antibodies were found. Precipitins against feed antigens were found in 12 workers (in 9 of the 12 symptomatic and 3 of the 8 asymptomatic workers). No single antigen was of special importance as an inducer of sensitisation. In cases of persistent symptoms, IgG class antibodies may be used as corroborative evidence of an occupation-associated disease. A large panel of antigens should be used in testing for sensitisation because of the many immunogenic dusts present in the air of pig houses.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1981, Vol.38, No.4, p.334-338. Illus. 9 ref.
Robertson M.H., Clarke I.R., Coghlan J.D., Gil O.N.
Leptospirosis in trout farmers
5 cases of leptospirosis, ranging in severity from an influenza-like illness to a fatality, are documented. Leptospiral antibodies were found in these workers. Pond water or trout food contaminated with rat urine is believed to have caused the outbreak. An additional case, at a different location, resulted from a fish farmer wading in rat polluted water with defective rubber boots.
Lancet, 19 Sep. 1981, Vol.II, No.8247, p.626-627. 5 ref.
Andrews B.E., Major R., Palmer S.R.
Ornithosis in poultry workers.
An outbreak of ornithosis in duck workers is reported. A serological survey showed that 61% of them (compared with 23% of control workers) had chlamydia group antibody titres of ≥ 1:8. 9% of duck workers had antibody titres ≥ 1:32 and a clinical illness suggestive of ornithosis. The proportions of seropositive tests and clinical attack rates were highest in workers eviscerating ducks and lowest in farm workers.
Lancet, 21 Mar. 1981, Vol.I, No.8221, p.632-634. 8 ref.
Veien N.K., Hattel T., Justesen O., Nørholm A.
Occupational contact dermatitis due to spiramycin and/or tylosin among farmers.
Of 9 farmers examined all had strongly positive patch tests to one or both of these antibiotics. The clinical picture is described. The eczema was typically on the hands, face and neck, and was generalised in 2 patients. Avoidance of the substances or the use of gloves cleared the eczema.
Contact Dermatitis, Oct. 1980, Vol.6, No.6, p.410-413. 4 ref.
Terho E.O., Lammi S., Heinonen O.P.
Seasonal variation in the incidence of farmer's lung.
78 consecutive cases were studied statistically. There was a highly significant cyclic trend, with the greatest incidence falling in late April. The reasons for the seasonal variation appear to be the nature of the disease, climatic conditions, and cattle-raising methods.
International Journal of Epidemiology, Sep. 1980, Vol.9, No.3, p.219-220. 8 ref.
USSR State Standards Committee (Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po standartam)
Machines and equipment for livestock rearing and the production of animal feeds - General safety rules
Mašiny i oborudovanie dlja životnovodstva i kormoproizvodstva - Obščie trebovanija bezopasnosti [in Russian]
Contents of this standard (effective 1 Jan. 1981): general specifications; required characteristics of machine parts (working elements, control and signalling systems, pressure systems, means of access); safety rules for heat generators (boilers, dryers, mixer-cookers); electrical safety rules; ergonomic aspects (occupational health measures, machine design, workplace design and layout); requirements to be met by machinery guarding devices (guards, locking devices, local exhaust ventilation, thermal insulation, etc.); special rules for storage, preparation, transport, and drying equipment; safety rules for repair work, manual handling; enforcement of the standard.
Izdatel'stvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per.3, 123557 Moskva, USSR, 5 Dec. 1979. 24p. Prix: Rbl.0.10.
Hoskin A.F., Miller T.A.
Farm accident surveys: A 21-State summary with emphasis on animal-related injuries.
Farm accident surveys were conducted in 21 states of the USA using standardised definitions, forms and sampling techniques. The pooled data included 24,703 farms on which 4,176 injuries or illnesses were recorded. Information on exposure to farm work was also collected and used to calculate detailed work injury rates. An overall rate of 18.8 work injuries (mainly related to handling cattle) per million man-hours exposure was found. Of the 2,760 work injuries, 18% were animal-related and 414 in-depth reports on these injuries were available for analysis. A computer programme was used to identify characteristics and circumstances of accidents involving animals that occur with statistically significant frequency.
Journal of Safety Research, Spring 1979, Vol.11, No.1, p.2-13. 18 ref.
McDonald J.A., Li F.P., Mehta C.R.
Cancer mortality among beekeepers.
Carcinogenic effects of bee venom were evaluated in a retrospective mortality study of 580 beekeepers. Deaths from cancer were slightly lower than expected. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma developed in 4 persons (2 expected). Analysis of 377 men showed no substantial differences in distribution of causes of death. Neither adverse nor beneficial effects of intense exposure to bee stings appear to occur.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Dec. 1979, Vol.21, No.12, p.811-813. 18 ref.
Zoonoses: Animal diseases and man.
The most important zoonoses are listed with infectious agent, transmitting animal, symptoms in humans including mortality, occurrence (place and number of cases), and treatment of: anthrax, brucellosis, ornithosis, rabies, swine erysipelas, tetanus and trichinosis. Other possible occupational diseases are mentioned.
Professional Safety, June 1979, Vol.24, No.6, p.15-17. 9 ref.
Petro W., Bergmann K.C., Heinze R., Müller E., Wuthe H., Vogel J.
Long-term occupational inhalation of organic dust - Effect on pulmonary function.
Report on pulmonary function studies in 42 poultry farm workers, all exposed to organic dust (mean exposure 7,5 years) and sensitised to poultry antigen. A disorder of pulmonary function was recordable in 40 individuals, charcterised by obstruction of the larger airways and slight inhomogeneity. The severity of obstruction was related to the degree of sensitisation. Typical signs of bird fancier's lung were recorded in 2 persons: obstruction of larger airways with concomitant restriction, marked inhomogeneity, disorder of diffusion, hypoxaemia. Results are discussed and compared with studies by other authors. The functional abnormalities in sensitised workers are likely to assume more severe forms and extrinsic allergic alveolitis. Such asymptomatic sensitised individuals, therefore, require periodic medical examination.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 15 Nov. 1978, Vol.42, No.2, p.119-127. Illus. 32 ref.
Device for controlling the concentration of toxic gases
Ustrojstvo dlja regulirovanija koncentracii jadovityh gazov [in Russian]
An air-conditioning installation for cattle sheds and poultry farms which automatically regulates air temperature and humidity has been equipped with a gas analyser which, by means of a relay, switches on ventilation fans as soon as the atmospheric concentration of ammonia in the premises exceeds the displayed threshold. Description of the regulatory system which includes safety relays to prevent excessive lowering of the air temperature, and an acoustic warning signal which sounds if the threshold concentration is considerably exceeded. The electrical system is reproduced, together with the equations used for calculating the values to be regulated and a graph illustrating the response of the regulator. The principle described can be applied to other toxic gases.
Mehanizacija i ėlektrifikacija socialističeskogo sel'skogo hozjajstva, Dec. 1978, No.12, p.46-48. Illus. 3 ref.
Renoux G., Renoux M.
Passive haemoagglutination in the individual or epidemiological diagnosis of human brucellosis
Hémagglutination passive appliquée au diagnostic individuel ou épidémiologique de la brucellose humaine. [in French]
Coupling of an extract of Brucella abortus 99 to sheep red blood cells by chromium chloride is the basis for a highly specific and sensitive, passive haemoagglutination test. Out of 778 men with established or suspected brucellosis, results were positive in 153 in whom agglutination or complement fixation was positive and in 21 cases with a negative reaction to the usual tests. Passive haemoagglutination allowed hitherto undiagnosed Brucella infections to be identified in 28.6% of 18,367 persons examined in rural areas. Simple to perform, it can replace a whole battery of tests for individual and epidemiological studies.
Semaine des hôpitaux, 8-15 Dec. 1978, Vol.54, No.43-44, p.1337-1342. 10 ref.
Pérez González M.L.
Disinfection of animal housing quarters
Desinfección de alojamientos ganaderos [in Spanish]
General considerations on disinfection procedures are followed by a review of natural disinfectants (sunshine, microorganisms), dry or damp heat, chemical disinfectants (conditions for effective use; selective action; gradual effect; temperature and dilution coefficients; effects of organic matter); phenols and derivatives, cresols, alcohols, formaldehyde, halogens (chlorine, iodine), sodium carbonate, ammonia, quicklime, slaked lime); gas or aerosol fumigation (formaldehyde, formalin vapour, sulfur dioxide); liquid aerosols; ionising or ultraviolet radiation. The procedure for disinfection of buildings before and after an epizootic is described.
Salud y trabajo, Dec. 1978, No.16, p.16-22. Illus.
Lehnigk K., Thiele E.
Overview of occupational exposure to microbial agents in the air of animal housing quarters
Übersicht zur berufsbedingten Exposition für Werktätige der Tierproduktion gegenüber mikrobiellen Noxen in der Stalluft [in German]
The veterinary and occupational medical literature, above all of Eastern European origin, on microbiological agents in the air of poultry, swine and cattle housing quarters is collected and evaluated from the occupational hygiene viewpoint. It has not yet been established in what measure microorganisms represent a hazard for animal husbandry workers. Aspects considered: air pollution of animal housing quarters by microorganisms, factors influencing the microbial content, determination of bacterial counts, findings for various types of animal quarters, types of organism, use of nutrient antibiotics and bacterial resistance, respiratory tract diseases. The main areas of occupational hygiene and medical research in this field are outlined.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, May 1978, Vol. 24, No.5, p.331-335. 95 ref.
Affeldt K.H., Richter G., Thiele R., Ullrich G.
Occupational safety and health in animal husbandry - 1. Cattle
Arbeitsschutz bei der Tierproduktion - 1. Rind [in German]
Manual labour is increasingly being replaced by mechanised systems in industrial cattle breeding practice, with resulting changes in the requirements and implementation of occupational safety and health measures. Aspects dealt with: requirements for worker's health status; safe work with cattle; infections transmissible from animals to man; hazards of gas, dust, etc.; protective clothing and personal protective equipment; sanitary facilities; man-animal-machine relations; mechanisation and automation; special problems in cattle breeding; responsibility in occupational safety and health; list of laws, regulations and standards in force in the German Democratic Republic.
Reihe Arbeitsschutzpraxis, Verlag Tribüne, Am Treptower Park 28-30, DDR-1193 Berlin, 1978. 64p. Illus. Price: M.1.00.
D'Andrea F., Apostoli P., Menestrina F.
Systemic virosis in poultry-breeding workers
Virosi sistemica in lavoratori addetti all'allevamento di polli [in Italian]
Two cases are reported of workers with lymphoadenomegaly. The work history, laboratory and special tests, and historical biopsy findings from a cervical lymph node suggested virosis transmitted by poultry.
Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1978, Vol.69, No.4, p.537-541. Illus. 9 ref.
Tennstedt D., Dumont-Fruytier M., Lachapelle J.M.
Occupational allergic contact dermatitis to virginiamycin, an antibiotic used as a food additive for pigs and poultry.
A case is reported in a warehouseman exposed to dust from the feed additive, who developed a pruritic eruption of the face. Allergy to virginiamycin and a related antibiotic, pristinamycin, is reviewed.
Contact Dermatitis, June 1978, Vol.4, No.3, p.133-134. 7 ref.
Van Peenen P.F.D., Gundelfinger B.F., Koesharjono C., See R.
Seroepidemiological evidence for occupational exposure to Q fever in Indonesia.
Sera from 1,181 healthy volunteers were studied. Titres of ≥ 1:8 of phase I antibodies were found in 4 persons, and of phase II antibodies in 25% of all sera, with considerable variation according to province, sex, occupation, age and residence (migrant or native). Results from male slaughterhouse and animal husbandry workers were subjected to full analysis. Both showed high prevalences, the highest being in persons associated with animal husbandry.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, July 1978, Vol.20, No.7, p.488-489. Illus. 6 ref.
TGL 30125/01 to 08, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Food Industry (Ministerium für Land-, Forst- und Nahrungsgüterwirtschaft), Berlin, Dec. 1977.
Work with breeding and domestic animals in agriculture
Umgang mit landwirtschaftlichen Zucht- und Nutztieren [in German]
These standards (effective 1 Sep. 1978) set out general requirements (definitions, general safety requirements, safe work practices), and specific requirements relating to cattle, pigs, horses, sheep, dogs, fur-bearing animals, and beekeeping.
Staatsverlag der DDR, Postfach 1068, 7010 Leipzig, German Democratic Republic, 1977. 18p.
Matuszewski M., Pokora J.
Hepatic function tests and morphological examinations in chronic brucellosis
Ocena czynnościowa i morfologiczna wątroby w brucelozie przewlekłej u ludzi [in Polish]
Evaluation of the results of liver function tests in 55 agricultural workers with chronic brucellosis. The most useful results were obtained with flocculation reaction (MacLagan's thymol-turbidity test), determination of glutamopyruvic transaminase activity, prothrombin levels and the sodium bromsulphalein (BSP) test. The dynamics of functional changes were observed in 10 patients over 6 years; no significant changes were observed. Liver biopsy tests showed inflammatory changes but no granuloma.
Medycyna Wiejska, Oct.-Dec. 1977, Vol.12, No.4, p.221-228. 45 ref.
Stahuljak-Beritić D., Dimov D., Butković D., Štilinović L.
Lung function and immunological changes in poultry breeders.
Skin hypersensitivity tests, blood analysis for precipitins, lung function tests, and lung diffusion studies, were performed in 61 workers exposed to chicken droppings. There was a very high prevalence of positive early and late skin reactions. The highest percentage of precipitins was found in permanently exposed women. Lung function values were significantly lower than normal. All permanently exposed subjects had significantly increased residual volume. Lung diffusion capacity was normal. Acute respiratory symptoms indicative of allergic alveolitis were significantly more frequent in permanently than in intermittently exposed workers.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 9 Nov. 1977, Vol.40, No.2, p.131-139. 39 ref.
Workload, stress, occupational disease and accident hazards in livestock rearing
Beanspruchung, Erkrankungs- und Unfallgefahr am Arbeitsplatz in der Tierproduktion [in German]
Review of the health hazards arising from conditions prevailing nowadays in livestock rearing; increased productivity, specialisation, technical progress; physical workload and mental stress, vacations, overwork, job satisfaction, odours (stables, byres, pigsties, etc.); epidemiology; disease of the circulatory and locomotor systems; respiratory disease; zoonoses; statistical data (absolute figures) of accidents and accident causes in Germany (Fed.Rep.).
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Prophylaxe, July 1977, Vol.27, No.7, p.157-164. Illus. 31 ref.
Meissner G., Anz W.
Sources of Mycobacterium avium complex infection resulting in human diseases.
This article presents a literature survey of this question and analyses a 20-year ongoing study in the Fed.Rep. of Germany to elucidate the ecologic and epidemiologic characteristics of human disease due to organisms in the Mycobacterium avium complex. Organisms included in the investigation were cultured from man, from domestic and wild animals and fowl, and from a variety of environmental sources. In addition to the usual taxonomic studies of these bacilli, infrasubspecific typing by seroagglutination enabled identification of 3 distinct serogroups: the classical Mycobacterium avium strains, an intermediate group, and less frequently encountered organisms. Analysis of the number of strains in each of the 3 serogroups, derived from man, animals, and the environment, respectively, enabled the authors to draw some conclusions regarding reservoirs and sources of human infection with these agents (cattle, pigs, domestic fowl, plants and grasses used for animal food and bedding, insects under the bark of felled trees, sawdust for animal bedding, etc.).
American Review of Respiratory Disease, Dec. 1977, Vol.116, No.6, p.1057-1064. 30 ref.
Wardrop V.E., Blyth W., Grant I.W.B.
Farmer's lung in a group of Scottish dairy farms.
The microbiology of the air of byres and bruising sheds and of hay, grain and dust from bruising machines was studied at 12 dairy farms, 7 of which had one known case of farmer's lung disease (FLD) and 5 farms no known cases. Concentrations of mesophilic organisms and of thermotolerant and thermophilic fungi were similar but concentrations of thermophilic actinomycetes and bacteria, especially M. faeni, were higher on FLD farms. Results of serological studies are given.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1977, Vol.34, No.3, p.186-195. Illus. 25 ref.
Donham K.J., Rubino M., Thedell T.D., Kammermeyer J.
Potential health hazards to agricultural workers in swine confinement buildings.
Description of hazards: toxic gases (animal wastes, heating units), methane explosion hazard, acute toxic situations (hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia (NH3), carbon dioxide (CO2)), particulate matter. Studies at 30 swine confinement units are reported. The TLV for CO was exceeded in 3 units in winter; that for CO2 in 10 units in winter; for NH3 in 2 units in summer and in 12 in winter; for H2S in 2 in both summer and winter. Much of the dust was respirable and a large proportion of workers presented respiratory symptoms. Examination of 2 workers did not clarify the pathogenesis of their symptoms. 35 veterinarians (average time spent at the units, 7h/week) were also interviewed: 32 reported adverse effects, which are listed.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, June 1977, Vol.19, No.6, p.383-387. 24 ref.
Notification No.29/1976 concerning occupational safety in the use of mechanical conveyors for manure removal
Meddelelse nr. 29/1976 om sikkerhedsforanstaltninger ved udmugningsanlæg [in Danish]
These directives (entry into force: 1 July 1977) prescribe the following safety measures for scraper (chain or bar) conveyors for the mechanical removal of manure from cowsheds, pigstyes, etc.: fixed guards on all mechanical parts where there is a crushing hazard; location of on/off control at a point where the entire installation is visible; safe distances and bevelling of scraper ends to eliminate crushing zones; bevelling of conveyor bars to avoid jamming or packing of solid manure and litter; design of walkways above the conveyor; protection against falls, etc.
Directorate of Labour Inspection (Direktoratet for arbejdstilsynet), Rosenvængets Allé 16-18, 2400 København, Denmark, 21 Dec. 1976. 12p. Illus. Gratis.
Zaynoun S., Johnson B.E., Frain-Bell W.
The investigation of quindoxin photosensitivity.
Quindoxin (quinoxaline di-N-oxide) was used as a pig feed additive until its withdrawal in 1973. This article reports studies of 8 individual cases of photosensitivity, observing the changes occurring in the action spectrum with time, and reporting the skin responses to photopatch testing. There was evidence of persistent light reaction and photoallergy, probably to the parent substance, with clinical and photobiological similarities to idiopathic photosensitivity dermatitis and the actinic reticuloid syndrome.
Contact Dermatitis, Dec. 1976, Vol.2, No.6, p.343-352. Illus. 12 ref.
Dermatosis in poultry farm workers
O zabolevanijah koži u rabočih pticefabrik [in Russian]
Results of dermatological examinations in 628 poultry farm workers exposed to various hazards (air polluted by ammonia, carbon dioxide, dust, bacteria and viruses; skin microtrauma during preparation of food or at slaughter). 177 cases of dermatosis were seen: mycosis (37%), allergy (49%), pyoderma (11%), sebaceous gland disorders (8%), etc. Certain dermatomycoses, like bacterial and viral aerosols, are an additional source of sensitisation. Mechanisation or automation of work involving exposure to the above hazards and protection of the hands against humidity, contact with food and microtrauma are recommended.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Feb. 1976, No.2, p.45-47. 6 ref.
Smith T.F., Burgert E.O., Dowdle W.R., Noble G.R., Campbell R.J., Van Scoy R.E.
Isolation of swine influenza virus from autopsy lung tissue of man
Case report of a boy who until 5 days before his death from respiratory failure due to Hodgkin's disease had worked on a farm where swine were raised. Swine influenza virus was isolated from lung specimens at autopsy. The possibility that both the Hodgkin's disease, and the chemotherapy for it, had modified his resistance to infection by impairing immunological responses is discussed.
New England Journal of Medicine, 25 Mar. 1976, Vol.294, No.13, p.708-710. Illus. 15 ref.
Flytgödsel [in Swedish]
These directives entered into force on 1 Jan. 1976. Contents: emanations of flammable (methane, hydrogen sulfide) and toxic (ammonia, hydrogen sulfide) gases; design and construction of installations for liquid manure storage (drainage systems in stables, pumping pits, ventilation systems, tanks, etc.); execution of work in such installations (monitoring of toxic gases, forced ventilation, safe methods of work in confined spaces); trailer tanks (construction, precautions); first aid. The text of Swedish regulations concerning power take-off guards is appended.
Anvisningar nr.72, Swedish National Occupational Safety and Health Board (Kungliga Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen), Fack, 100 26 Stockholm 34, Sweden, June 1975 (revision). 20p. Illus. 6 ref. Price: Swe-cr.6.40.
Work with grass silos
Arbeid i grassiloer [in Norwegian]
These directives were drawn up to reduce the number of accidents which still occur in work with grass silos. They prescribe safety rules fulfilling the requirements laid down in the Norwegian Act of 19 Dec. 1958 concerning the conditions of work of agricultural workers. Contents: clamp and tower silos; handrails; walkways and platforms; access (ladders, steps); suspended loads; silage unloading; lifting and handling equipment; percolating juice pits; poisoning or asphyxiation hazards (carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides); detector tubes; rescue harness and respirators.
Veiledning nr.13, Directorate of Labour Inspection (Direktoratet for arbeidstilsynet), Postboks 8103, Oslo-Dep., Norway, Apr. 1975. 18p. Illus. Gratis.
Kos J.B., Kos D.
Epidemiological and clinical aspects of leptospirosis
Niektóre aspekty epidemiologiczne i kliniczne leptospiroz [in Polish]
An analysis of 20 patients (1961-70) with leptospirosis showed that lack of observation of principles of hygiene was the principal cause of infection during contact with soil containing animal faeces. In only 1 of the 20 patients was the disease diagnosed correctly in its initial phases because of the variety and variability of clinical manifestations. There appears to be no connection between occurrence of pathological manifestations and the serotype of leptospira causing the disease. Cerebrospinal meningitis is frequently involved in the disease. Abstracts in English and Russian are appended.
Medycyna Wiejska, 1975, Vol.10, No.1-2, p.61-70. 8 ref.
Noise control at rotary drying machines
Wyciszanie hałasu w suszarniach bębnowych [in Polish]
Description of a new noise control system for rotary fodder and potato dryers, approved by the Polish Ministry of Agriculture. The system comprises sandlime-brick or concrete enclosures and walls to isolate the chief sources of noise, and readily erected and dismantled panels of a rubber- and asbestos-based fireproof material to damp vibration from the main exhaust duct. The system reduces the noise level by several decibels over the entire frequency range to values below the maximum tolerable limits, and at the same time helps to improve the environmental heat and dust conditions.
Bezpieczeństwo pracy, Jan. 1975, No.1, p.6-7. Illus.
Notification No.7/1975 concerning protection of machines for the preparation of feeds for fur-bearing animals, etc.
Meddelelse nr.7/1975 om sikring af maskineri til tilberedning af pelsdyrfoder m.v. for leverandører, opstillere og brugere [in Danish]
Description of some protective devices for screw-fed mincers and grinder-mixers, to prevent accidental contact of the fingers with the grinding and mixing elements (screw, blades).
Directorate of Labour Inspection (Direktoratet for Arbejdstilsynet), Upsalagade 20, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, 23 Apr. 1975. 4p. Illus. Gratis.
Barrière H., Litoux P., Morin O., Géraut C.
Suppurative trychophytoses of animal origin - A review of 38 recent cases
Les trichophyties suppurées d'origine animale - A propos de 38 observations récentes. [in French]
Analysis of 38 cases of tinea capitis (kerion) and barbae (sycosis) collected in a rural area, of occupational (farmers or workers in contact with animals) or other origin, and the results of an epidemiological study undertaken with the aid of veterinary surgeons of the infested region, showed an increasing incidence of the animal infection (calves) favoured by changes in animal husbandry methods. Report on the clinical, parasitological, immunological, therapeutic and occupational study of this condition, which is almost always associated with infestation of the body and head hair by various species of Trichophyton.
Semaine des hôpitaux, 1975, Vol.51, No.8, p.539-548. Illus.
Meneghini C.L., Lospalluti M., Angelini G.
Cutaneous anthrax: observations in 18 cases.
Short communication about 18 cases of anthrax from rural areas in Italy observed between 1967 and 1971. Most of the patients had occupational contact with infected animals or animal products. Symptoms, swab culture test results and treatment are outlined.
Berufs-Dermatosen, Nov.-Dec. 1974, No.6, p.233-237. Illus. 7 ref.
Zenkov V.G., Zemcov V.A.
Lighting in breeding farms
Osveščenie pomeščenij životnovodčeskih kompleksov [in Russian]
Recommendations for mixed lighting of large-surface sheds, stables, and pigsties. The article reproduces equations for calculating natural lighting (from above and the side) and gives advice on the installation of additional artificial lighting. Table comparing the minimum illumination levels laid down in national standards (USSR, USA, United Kingdom, France, Fed.Rep. and Dem.Rep. of Germany, Poland) for different types of breeding farms.
Mehanizacija i ėlektrifikacija socialističeskogo sel'skogo hozjajstva, Oct. 1974, No.10, p.22-24. Illus. 17 ref.
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