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Livestock rearing - 310 entries found

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CIS 90-977 Weinreich W.
Calculation and evaluation of electric fence impulses
Berechnung und Bewertung von Elektrozaunimpulsen [in German]
A circuit is outlined to simulate electric fences. The diagramme of the IEC Publication 479-2 of 1987 is presented, with which the efficiency in keeping animals away can be determined. Impulses no larger than 5Ws may be applied for reasons of safety to man and animals. The trend towards higher impulses (up to 20Ws) to prevent plant overgrowth is considered dangerous.
E T Z, 1988, Vol.109, No.18, p.840-843. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 90-1031 Gustafsson B.
Work posture and diseases - Example: dairy farming
Arbeitshaltung und Erkrankungen - Beispiel Milchviehhaltung [in German]
Postures at work were evaluated by recording the positions of the arms, legs, back and head at certain intervals, i.e. 4 back positions, 3 arm, 7 leg and 5 head positions. The determined postures were then classified according to 4 strain categories. Results of posture recordings during milking, animal feeding and cleaning operations are presented.
Landtechnik, 1988, Vol.43, No.7/8, p.346-349. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 90-867 Barss P., Ennis S.
Injuries caused by pigs in Papua New Guinea
Detailed case studies of 20 injuries (many serious and 1 fatal) caused by domestic and wild pigs in a tropical environment. Both surgical problems and secondary infections are discussed. Safer methods for the hunting of pigs are proposed.
Medical Journal of Australia, 5-19 Dec. 1988, Vol.149, No.1112, p.649-656. Illus. 34 ref.

CIS 89-1552 Uecker E.
Safety in animal production. 2 - pigs
Arbeitsschutz bei der Tierproduktion 2 - Schwein [in German]
Fundamental safety rules and managerial measures in pig production are stated. Instructions on how to avoid injury by pigs follow. Technical measures and safe behaviour in order to prevent mechanical injuries and infection in feeding, faeces removal and animal transport, breeding and veterinary operations are outlined. Hints for small farmers are included. Annexed is a list of typical occupational diseases, exposures and necessary fitness examinations as well as relevant legal documents and other references. Addressed to those engaged in practical animal husbandry.
Verlag Tribüne, Am Treptower Park 28/30, DDR-1193 Berlin, 1988. 93p. Illus. Bibl.

CIS 89-180 Piotrowsky J.
Preventing accidents in cattle sheds. Improved occupational safety on farms becomes increasingly more important
Unfälle im Stall vermeiden - Verbesserte Arbeitssicherheit in Haus und Hof wird immer wichtiger [in German]
In the Federal Republic of Germany approximately two thirds of the reported accidents in agriculture take place in livestock rearing. The majority of accidents is blamed on the lack of space for dairy cows. In addition, accidents are frequently due to modern equipment that does not quite fit into outdated facilities on farms. The accident prevention measures discussed include for example the elimination of stairs and doorsteps, the appropriation of more space in dairy farming and the use of safe milking platforms. A low-cost, space-saving milking platform is illustrated. It fulfills all safety requirements for the protection of personnel.
Sicher Leben, Mitteilungsblatt der Land- und Forstwirtschaftlichen Berufsgenossenschaft Darmstadt, 1988, Vol.24, No.1, p.4-5.


CIS 89-1993 Louhelainen K., Vilhunen P., Terho E.O., Kangas J., Husman K., Kalliokoski P.
Dust exposure and its reduction in farmers engaged in the raising of pigs and cows
Lypsykarjan ja sikojen hoitotöiden pölyt ja pölyaltistumisen vähentäminen [in Finnish]
Breathing-zone samples in sow units contained dust equivalent to levels of 7.9mg/m3; in pig fattening units the levels averaged 8.6mg/m3, while in cow units they were 2.2mg/m3. The mass median aerodynamic diameter of the particles was 11µm in the piggeries and 7µm in the cow units. Mean breathing-zone concentrations of dust during fodder milling averaged 33mg/m3, with a particle diameter of 12µm. There was no difference in dust exposure between healthy cattle tenders and those with allergic disorders. Whereas the dust levels in piggeries exceeded exposure limits, and the high dust concentration was the major health hazard, the main problem in the cow units was fungal spores from hay and from straw bedding. Dust control in the piggeries was hard to achieve by technical means. Length of exposure to spores in cow units could be reduced by proper work organisation. Dust exposure in milling was reduced by enclosures.
Työterveyslaitos, Julkaisumyynti, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, 00250 Helsinki, Finland, 1987. 57p. + appendices. Illus. 84 ref. Price: FIM 20.00.

CIS 89-1017 Botham P.A., Davies G.E., Teasdale E.L.
Allergy to laboratory animals: a prospective study of its incidence and of the influence of atopy on its development
The incidence pattern of allergy to laboratory animals (ALA) was studied prospectively in 383 individuals occupationally exposed to rodents and rabbits. Incidence of the disease after 1yr of exposure to animals fell from 37% in 1980 to 20% in 1982, 10% in 1983, and 12% in 1984. A similar reduction was noted after 2 and 3yrs of exposure in the 1982 and 1983 cohorts. Although rats were believed to be the major cause of the disease, objective measurements of IgE antibody against rat urine allergen were positive in only half the symptomatic individuals. Symptoms were generally mild and affected mainly the nose, eyes, and skin. A study of the influence of atopy on the development of ALA showed that after 1yr of exposure a significantly greater proportion of atopic individuals became symptomatic (19-43% compared with 3-6%). After 2 and 3yrs of exposure, however, this discrepancy was not maintained, with more non-atopic individuals developing the disease.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 1987, Vol.44, No.9, p.627-632. 15 ref.

CIS 89-179 Kalhoule T.
Risks in agriculture, forestry and animal husbandry
Les risques agro-sylvo-pastoraux [in French]
Analysis of the hazards to which rural workers in West Africa are exposed in agriculture, forestry and animal husbandry. The main risks are: commuting accidents, fatigue, poor working postures (backache), respiratory diseases, infections and parasitic diseases, chemical hazards. The chief preventive strategies are: safety education and training, the development of safety consciousness, the installation of hygienic facilities and the elaboration of specialised legislation.
Korosi - Revue Burkinabč de prévention des risques professionnels, 1987, No.1, p.25-27.

CIS 88-1909 Bongers P., Houthuijs D., Remijn B., Brouwer R., Biersteker K.
Lung function and respiratory symptoms in pig farmers
Pulmonary function tests and a questionnaire for respiratory symptoms were used in a pilot study to investigate the health effects of swine confinement work on the respiratory tract. Data were gathered for 132 owners of fattening, breeding, or closed pig farms. All measured pulmonary function values, except the FVC, were on average lower than the reference values of the European Committee for Coal and Steel. About 28% of the farmers had respiratory or flu-like symptoms after confinement work; 14% reported symptoms 4-8h after work. For the fattening farm the following elements of confinement management were negatively correlated with pulmonary function: fully slatted floor, an automatic feeding system, natural ventilation, and the use of dust masks. A significant association between lung disease in pigs and reduced pulmonary function in pig farmers was observed.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 1987, Vol.44, No.12, p.819-823. 25 ref.

CIS 88-1987 Wakatsuki T.
Comprehensive study of the effects of agricultural chemicals on human bodies
Nōgyō kagaku busshitsu ni yoru jintai e no eikyō ni kansuru sōgōteki kenkyū [in Japanese]
This is a report on the findings of a comprehensive study done by the Pesticide Poisoning Study Team of the Japanese Association of Rural Medicine in 1983-85. In the three years, 416 cases were treated at 35 medical institutions. In comparison with past findings, there was no decrease in accidents, the incidence was greatest among people in their fifties and herbicides were the principal problem. As regards organochlorine pesticides in the fat tissue of human bodies, 0.3ppm of total DDT and 0.2ppm of total BHC were detected. The amount of mercury in hair was 4.4-5.8ppm for men and 3.2ppm for women. In experimental studies on the chronic effects of pesticides, animals fed with low-protein forage were readily poisoned by organophosphorus compounds. Among experimental animals painted with paraquat or exposed by inhalation, it was detectable for 17 days in excreta in the former case and for 10 days in the latter. No lung fibrosis was observed.
Journal of the Japanese Association of Rural Medicine, Mar. 1987, Vol.35, No.6, p.1021-1026. Illus.

CIS 88-1197 Attwood P., Brouwer R., Ruigewaard P., Versloot P., De Witt R., Heederik D., Boleij J.S.M.
A study of the relationship between airborne contaminants and environmental factors in Dutch swine confinement buildings
A total of 171 swine confinement buildings were studied to determine the concentrations of airborne total dust and dust with an average diameter ≤8.5µm, total and gram-negative bacteria, bacterial endotoxin and ammonia. The concentrations of these airborne contaminants then were correlated statistically to environmental factors such as feeding practices, number of animals and ventilation parameters. Airborne dust, endotoxin, bacteria and ammonia are commonly at levels where health effects have been observed in other studies. Correlation of these airborne contaminants with environmental factors showed that while ventilation is an important criterion there are farming practices that significantly contribute to the levels of airborne contaminants currently found. Pearson correlations indicate a number of important criteria that the industrial hygienist should measure when faced with problems in agricultural confinement buildings.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1987, Vol.48, No.8, p.745-751. 29 ref.


CIS 89-675 Rautalahti M.
Effect of dairy farming on the health of farmers - Spirometric, serological, and allergological study of the effects of the indoor cattle-feeding season
Karjanhoitotyön vaikutus viljelijöiden terveyteen - Spirometrinen, serologinen ja allergologinen tutkimus karjan sisäruokintakauden vaikutuksista [in Finnish]
The study group consisted of 91 randomly selected, healthy, non-smoking dairy farmers and 90 controls (teachers). A 6-month follow-up showed a significant deterioration of mean forced vital capacity in the farmers, suggesting the development of a restrictive defect of lung function. There were no significant changes in the controls. The mean titres of antibodies to Aspergillus umbrosus in the farmers was significantly higher than in the controls. Mean titres of antibodies to Micropolyspora faeni, Thermoactinomyces vulgaris and Aspergillus fumigatus did not differ between study groups. This confirmed that Aspergillus umbrosus is one of the most important sources of mould exposure in dairy farming in Finland. Skin test reactivity to cow epithelium and oat pollen was greater among the farmers than among the controls, implying that these 2 allergens are work-related in dairy farming. The study shows the need for minimising exposure to biological dust during the indoor feeding season, e.g. by using efficient personal dust respirators.
Työterveyslaitoksen tutkimuksia lisänumero 3.1986, Työterveyslaitos, Haartmaninkatu 1, 00290 Helsinki, Finland, 1986. 98p. 244 ref. Price: FIM 80.00.

CIS 88-1596 Kosbab P., Lehnigk K.
Quantitative and selected qualitative dust measurements in animal production
Quantitative und ausgewählte qualitative Staubmessergebnisse in der Tierproduktion [in German]
In order to characterise the occupational dust exposure of hog farmers, dust concentration analyses were carried out with an SPG 10 gravimeter in various swine production units. Bacteria and fungi were also counted. The mean vaues of the dust concentration ranged between 2.0 and 5.5mg/m3 and did not exceed the permitted maximal workplace concentration of 10mg/m3.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, 1986, Vol.32, No.1, p.22-23. 11 ref.

CIS 87-1296 Attwood P., Versloot P., Heederik D., De Wit R., Boleij J.S.M.
Assessment of dust and endotoxin levels in the working environment of Dutch pig farmers: A preliminary study
This study quantified the levels of airborne dust and endotoxins present in pig confinement buildings. The dust was separated into 3 size fractions, ≤3.5, ≤8.5 and <51.2µm by means of cyclone pre-separators and a modified cassette holder for total dust. There is a large day-to-day variation in total dust determined in a single confinement building and the smallest fraction (≤3.5µm) varies from building to building but not in a single building. The levels of endotoxin were similar to those found in other studies but indicated that there is a significant enrichment of endotoxin in the size fraction 3.5-8.5µm. The implications from this are that the assessment of the potential health risk to the farmer from endotoxin present in the airborne dust must be assessed by using a biologically relevant criterion based on particle penetration into the thoracic region of the exposed farmer's lung. The current methods of looking at endotoxin levels in respirable and total dust give little information in regard to the potential health risk.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1986, Vol.30, No.2, p.201-208. 21 ref.

CIS 87-697 Camarasa J.G.
Contact eczema from cow saliva
A 40-year-old herdsman and farm worker had chronic eczema on both hands and both forearms for more than 3 years. Patch testing showed cow saliva to be the agent responsible. Reports of allergy to saliva are rare.
Contact Dermatitis, Aug. 1986, Vol.15, No.2, p.117. 5 ref.

CIS 87-344 Waitkins S.A.
Leptospirosis as an occupational disease
Leptospirosis is a febrile disease caused by bacteria of the genus Leptospira. It is relatively common in Great Britain (48-120 confirmed cases annually in the period 1980-1985), and it can be fatal. Its changing epidemiology is discussed - the new emerging hazard is exposure to cattle leptospirosis by dairy workers.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1986, Vol.43, No.11, p.721-725. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 86-2024 Skilbeck H.W., Miller G.T., Hodgen A.N., Stuckey M.S.
A serological survey of leptospirosis in Gippsland dairy farmers; Leptospirosis in Western Australia, 1983-1984
Article 1 reports on the results of serological testing of 1074 farmers and dairy workers without clinical symptoms of leptospirosis. High rates of positive serological reactions were noted against certain Leptospira interrogans serogroups (particularly, against serovar Hebdomadis). The milking of dairy cows was a major risk factor in the development of positive reactions. Article 2 reports on the presence of leptospiral antibodies (with or without attending clinical symptoms) among farmers and meatworkers in the State of Western Australia.
Medical Journal of Australia, 26 May 1986, Vol.144, No.11, p.565-569. 16 ref.


CIS 88-1365 Blasco J.M., Marín C.M.
Brucellosis - Study of a plan for elimination in ruminants
Brucelosis - Estudio de un plan de erradicación en rumiantes [in Spanish]
The incidence of brucellosis in humans is directly associated with its existence in animals, particularly cows, sheep and goats. Prophylaxis is carried out in Spain by vaccinating female animals bred for reproduction with B-19 or Rev 1 vaccine. This system is slow and expensive and its applicability in Spain in the case of small ruminants is doubtful. The authors of this article propose massive vaccination of adult cattle in areas with a high risk of contagion using reduced doses (5 x 108) of B-19 vaccine. In animals bred for reproduction, vaccination should be continued using standard doses. For sheep and goats massive vaccination with live vaccine Rev 1 (5 x 108 doses) is proposed. Standard vaccination with Rev 1 should be continued and even extended to 3 to 5 months old males bred for reproduction.
Mapfre seguridad, 3rd Quarter 1985, Vol.5, No.19, p.3-10. Illus. 28 ref.

CIS 88-1031 Jiménez Barca M.A., Juan Sanz M.J.
Brucelosis/Brucelosis [in Spanish]
The first part of this article is a review of the causes, pathology, epidemiology and socio-economical aspects of this contagious bacterial disease transferred from domestic animals or animal products to man. The second part is a presentation of an epidemiologic study of 651 cases of brucellosis from 1978 to 1982 in the province of Soria, Spain. The number of cases increased considerably during the period but this could be due to better diagnostic methods and greater awareness and knowledge concerning the disease and its symptoms. The disease affected more men (73.57%) than women, and preferentially young adults. In 44.76% of the cases the disease was transmitted directly from animals and in 12.06% of the cases through food.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Jan.-Mar. 1985, Vol.32, No.126, p.3-15. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 88-514
Health and Safety Executive
Safe custody and handling of bulls at agricultural shows, markets and similar premises off the farm
This guidance note describes the minimum standards to be adopted by exhibitors, organisers and others during the time bulls are being handled and housed at agricultural shows, markets and similar premises off the farm and it gives advice concerning the training of animal handlers.
HM Stationery Office, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, June 1985. 6p. Illus.

CIS 88-513
Health and Safety Executive
Safe custody and handling of bulls on farms and similar premises
This guidance note describes the minimum standards for keeping and handling bulls on farms and similar premises such as artificial insemination centres. It is concerned with animals reared for their meat within buildings and with the custody of bulls in fields and areas to which the public may have access. Safety signs.
HM Stationery Office, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, June 1985. 8p. Illus.

CIS 88-512 Safety with farm animals
Data sheet on animal facilities, human factors, animal health and hygiene, zoonoses, personal protective equipment, and safety reminders.
Farm Safety Association, Unit 22, Woodlawn Road West, Guelph, Ontario, Canada, Sep. 1985. 4p. Illus.

CIS 87-1497 Vyskočil J., Čermáková E., Makešová D., Sklenský B., Tačeva J., Šimordová M.
Repeated examination of dairy cow attendants with emphasis on respiratory illness over a 10-year period
Opakovaná vyšetření v průběhu 10 let u ošetřovatelek dojnic se zaměřením na onemocnění dýchacího ústrojí [in Czech]
In the course of 10 years, 92 dairy attendants, mean age 54 years, were repeatedly examined. They had been engaged in this work for about 17 years in 18 large-scale cow farms. The environment in the cowsheds with regard to dust, CO2, H2S and NH3 was satisfactory, but microbial contamination of the air was considerable. In a four-row shed the mean number of microorganisms was 152,000 per m3, which increased to 1,419,000 per m3 during cleaning and bedding with straw. Micromycetes predominated over mesophilic coliform bacteria and actinomycetes. In two-row cowsheds the amount of microbial contamination was even greater. In an examination after 10 years, 21% of the women examined had chronic bronchitis and 31% frequent acute catarrh of the respiratory system. There were no distinct signs of bronchial asthma or extrinsic allergic alveolitis. Nonetheless, there were a number of positive laboratory tests indicating sensitisation to substances in the work environment.
Československá hygiena, Aug. 1985, Vol.30, No.6, p.354-360. 11 ref.

CIS 86-1414
Tjurar [in Swedish]
These regulations (effective: 1 Jan. 1986) apply to the precautions to be taken when bulls and bullocks of 6 months and older are handled: information of all persons concerned about these regulations; providing all breeding bulls with a nose ring; dehorning of difficult-to-handle animals; tethering; loading and unloading by at least 2 persons; lay-out of barns and outdoor premises (at least 2 escape routes). Detailed commentaries.
LiberDistribution, 162 89 Stockholm, Sweden, 21 Mar. 1985. 15p.

CIS 86-1077 Konishi K., Komuro A., Itoh H., Kokubu K., Ninomiya Y., Murakami S., Mohri T., Tamura M.
Clinical and epidemiological study of 17 cases of farmer's lung disease
Clinical characteristics of 17 patients with farmer's lung disease were investigated. All patients were engaged in dairy farming and the average history of dairy labour was 12.6 years. The onset of symptoms was concentrated in winter when they fed stored hay to their cattle. Eleven patients had antibodies against Micropolyspora faeni and 8 had antibodies against Thermoactinomyces vulgaris (5 patients tested were positive for both organisms). Epidemiological studies concerning farmer's lung disease were investigated in the dairy farming population in the northern part of Iwate prefecture. The prevalence of antibodies to farmer's lung antigens was 3.5% and the most prevalent antibody type was against Micropolyspora faeni. Precipitin-positive farmers had greater numbers of cattle than did precipitin-negative farmers.
Japanese Journal of Thoracic Diseases, June 1985, Vol.23, No.6, p.679-690. Illus. 33 ref.

CIS 86-785 Loriot J., Bousquet J., Achard M.O., Guirauden M., Michel F.B.
Beekeeping and allergic reactions to hymenoptera venom
Apiculture et allergie au venin d'hyménoptčres [in French]
Results of an epidemiological investigation of allergic reactions to hymenoptera venom (symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, prevention and compensation).
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1985, Vol.46, No.5, p.348-350. 1 ref.

CIS 86-784 Loriot J., Jean-Pierre J., Achard M.O., Perrusset F., Guirauden M.
Beekeeping and occupational medicine
Apiculture et médecine du travail [in French]
There are 100,000 beekeepers in France. This article describes their different tasks and it evaluates the work load involved. Risks are enumerated: allergic reactions (including anaphylactic shock) resulting from bee-stings, risks of exposure to mirbane oil (a bee repellent, essentially nitrobenzene), risks due to the handling of heavy loads. Technical and medical preventive methods.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1985, Vol.46, No.4, p.271-273. 2 ref.

CIS 86-503 Electrofishing
Electrofishing is used by fisheries biologists to shock fish in order to survey fish populations. Aspects covered in this data sheet: accident potential (electrical shock); description of equipment and its safety features; safe operating procedures; protective equipment; weather conditions.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Ave., Chicago, IL 60611, USA, 1985. 6p. Illus. Bibl.

CIS 86-497 Donham K.J., Popendorf W.J.
Ambient levels of selected gases inside swine confinement buildings
The air in confinement structures on 21 randomly selected swine producing farms in Iowa, USA, was evaluated for selected gases. The gases measured (mean concentration) included ammonia (34ppm), hydrogen sulfide (1.4ppm), carbon monoxide (9.1ppm), and carbon dioxide (1640ppm). Ammonia most commonly exceeded the ACGIH TLV. Buildings housing younger animals were more likely to have hazardous gas levels than buildings housing older animals. These data suggest that research is needed to reduce the potential health hazards to the 400,000 workers employed in the swine industry.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1985, Vol.46, No.11, p.658-661. 12 ref.

CIS 86-149 Malanin G., Kalimo K.
Facial dermatitis from epoxy resin in a helmet
A female farmer who raised pigs developed facial dermatitis several days after beginning to wear an air-fed helmet. The helmet was intended to protect her against allergens in pig fodder. Patch testing revealed an allergy to epoxy compounds. Several seams in the helmet were found to be sealed with an epoxy resin that contained low-molecular-weight epoxy compounds. The dermatitis improved on cessation of exposure.
Contact Dermatitis, Apr. 1985, Vol.12, No.4, p.221. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 85-1989 Slovak A.J.M., Orr R.G., Teasdale E.L.
Efficacy of the helmet respirator in occupational asthma due to laboratory animal allergy (LAA)
The Racal Airstream helmet respirator was evaluated on 10 subjects, 8 of them suffering from asthma and 2 from severe rhinitis. Objective evidence of good protection was obtained in 6 of the subjects. The helmet alleviated partially the symptoms of subjects with rhinitis. Asthmatic workers using this type of respirator should be provided with regular medical monitoring.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1985, Vol.46, No.8, p.411-415. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 85-1956 Borredon J.J.
Poisoning due to carbon disulfide - a powerful disinfectant
Un désinfectant radical ou une intoxication par le sulfure de carbone [in French]
Case study of carbon disulfide poisoning due to the use of a disinfectant in the cleaning of incubators. The subject was suffering from chronic carbon disulfide poisoning followed by treatment and, after a 1-year interruption of exposure, by an episode of acute poisoning brought on by renewed exposure. Chronic poisoning can result in psychological disturbances, anorexia, weight loss, diarrhea, and ultimately in sensomotor polyneuritis and in retrobulbar optic neuritis. The symptoms of acute poisoning are psychological, neurological and digestive problems. The disease is recognised as an occupational disease in France. This product (Lomasept) is still used in the silk industry and in agriculture as an insecticide.
Le concours médical, 20 Apr. 1985, Vol.107, No.16, p.1569-1570. 1 ref.


CIS 86-1119 Day J.H.
Bee sting hypersensitivity
418 subjects involved with various aspects of the honey industry were studied from 1981 to 1983 in Alberta, Canada. An index of reactivity to bee stings, ranging from non-responsiveness to distinct likelihood of systemic reaction, was established.
Alberta Workers' Health, Safety and Compensation, Occupational Health and Safety Division, 10709 Jasper Ave., Edmonton, Alberta T5J 3N3, Canada, Mar. 1984. 118p. Illus. Bibl. Appendices.

CIS 86-791 Manual of accident prevention in livestock raising
Manual de prevençăo de acidentes na pecuária [in Portuguese]
This illustrated manual, written in simple language, is aimed at workers directly working with farm animals (mainly, cattle and horses) in Brazil. Chapter 2 covers the main sources of risk: accidents during the handling of animals; diseases transmitted by animals (brucellosis, foot and mouth disease, anthrax, tuberculosis, rabies, leptospirosis, hydatid disease (echinococcosis), cysticercosis, tetanus); risks associated with the administration of drugs and vaccines to animals; inadequate buildings used for animal housing; exposure to animal excrement; exposure to dangerous chemicals; hand tools; machinery and equipment; electricity; horse- and ox-drawn transportation. Chapter 3 covers general and specific first-aid measures: artificial respiration; cardiac arrest; injuries; fracture; burns; poisoning (tables present symptoms and treatment connected with commonly used pesticides and herbicides, and with commonly ocurring poisonous plants); stings and bites by poisonous animals (spiders, bees, wasps, snakes); transport of the injured. Chapter 4 covers the accident insurance coverage of rural workers in Brazil.
Fundacentro, C.P. 11484, CEP 05499 Săo Paulo, SP, Brazil, 1984. 73p. Illus. 36 ref.

CIS 86-27 Vyskočil J.
Effect of agricultural dust including microbial contamination on the respiratory system
Vliv zemědělského prachu včetně mikrobiálního znečištění na dýchací ústrojí [in Czech]
In the course of 10 years, groups of agricultural workers were examined repeatedly. Feed mixers most often showed chronic bronchitis; tenders of cows and poultry showed bronchial catarrhs. In none of these groups were there definite signs of bronchial asthma or extrinsic allergic alveolitis, though laboratory tests indicated sensitisation to organic dust and fungal microorganisms.
Praktický lékař, 1984, Vol.64, No.9, p.358-359. 9 ref.

CIS 85-1401 Occupational safety and health and the working environment in agriculture and livestock raising in the Arab world
Arab Conference on Occupational Safety and Health and the Working Environment in Agriculture and Livestock Raising (Damascus, Syria, 1984). Situation of the working force in agriculture, physical environment, use of machinery and the principles of protection, dangerous products handled and prevention, diseases and hazards in connection with work with animals and their prevention. General recommendations on training, on the organisation of occupational health services, first aid, obligations of employers and workers, child labour, work by women.
Arab Institute for Occupational Health and Safety, P.O. Box 5770, Damascus, Syria, 1984. 192p. Illus.

CIS 85-1221 Electrical installations of buildings - Part 7: Requirements for special installations or locations; Section 705 - Electrical installations of agricultural and horticultural premises
Installations électriques des bâtiments - Septičme partie: Rčgles pour les installations et emplacements spéciaux; Section 705 - Installations électriques dans les établissements agricoles et horticoles [in French]
The particular requirements of this part of the international standard supplement the general requirements of IEC Publication 364. They apply to fixed installations of agricultural and horticultural premises outdoors and indoors and to locations where livestock are kept (stables, chicken-houses, lofts, barns for hay and straw) and concern: protection against electric shock, protection against fire, devices for isolation and switching.
International Electrotechnical Commission, 3 rue de Varembé, 1211 Genčve 20, Switzerland, 1984. 9p. Price: SF.16.00.

CIS 85-1400 Lepeškina T.R.
Physiological and hygienic characteristics of the working conditions of women employed on modern dairy farms
Fiziologo-gigieničeskaja harakteristika uslovij truda ženščin, zanjatyh na sovremennyh moločnotovarnyh fermah [in Russian]
A questionnaire survey of 700 women on 15 dairy farms in the Ukraine was followed by measurements of temperature, humidity, noise, lighting and air contaminants on the farms, and by physiological studies on 55 women at 3 of the enterprises. Many operations involved heavy and/or prolonged physical labour. Temperatures were often extreme, and the air of the workplace was often contaminated by gases and microorganisms. Long workdays combined with household duties produced sleep disturbances and poor dietary habits. Morbidity was due to respiratory diseases, injuries, and musculoskeletal and dermatological problems. Working conditions would be improved by greater cleanliness, mechanisation of laborious operations and introduction of a 2-shift work schedule.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Feb. 1984, No.2, p.30-32. 6 ref.

CIS 85-799 Congo-Crimean hemorrhagic fever - Republic of South Africa
Case reports transmitted by the Centers for Disease Control (Atlanta, USA) involving 7 cases of severe illness in South Africa (1 death). 6 of the victims had worked with cattle, the 7th with sheep. The disease was identified by immunofluorescence assay testing as Congo-Crimean haemorrhagic fever, a disease spread from cattle to man directly or by ticks.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 9 Nov. 1984, Vol.252, No.18, p.2533-2537. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 85-496 Jones W., Morring K., Olenchock S.A., Williams T., Hickey J.
Environmental study of poultry confinement buildings
Air samples taken in 3 poultry confinement buildings in North Carolina (USA) yielded average levels of 4.4mg/m3 total dust and 0.24mg/m3 respirable dust. Ammonia levels averaged 25ppm in the active areas of the buildings. CO2 levels ranged from 0.05 to 0.1%. Levels of CO, H2S, NO2, NOx, CH4, mercaptan, formaldehyde and hydrocarbons were all below the limit of detection for indicator tubes. Concentration of bacteria and fungi averaged 1.5 x 105 and 1.0 x 104 colony forming units/m3 respectively. Endotoxin levels ranged from 0.77 to 61ng/m3 for total dust and from 0.71 to 15ng/m3 for respirable dust. The fungal levels were higher than those resulting from previous studies.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1984, Vol.45, No.11, p.760-766. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 85-192 Donham K.J., Zavala D.C., Merchant J.A.
Respiratory symptoms and lung function among workers in swine confinement buildings: A cross-sectional epidemiological study
A cohort of 24 swine confinement workers was matched for age, sex and smoking history with non-confinement swine producers. Pulmonary function studies and a survey questionnaire for chronic respiratory disease symptoms were performed on both groups. 58% of the confinement group had chronic bronchitis, based on the definition of chronic phlegm production with cough, compared with 21% of the control group. There were no significant differences in baseline pulmonary functions between the 2 groups. These findings indicate an emerging occupational concern for an estimated 500,000 persons working in swine confinement operations and 500,000 additional persons working in poultry, veal, beef or dairy confinement operations in the USA.
Archives of Environmental Health, Mar.-Apr. 1984, Vol.39, No.2, p.96-101. 10 ref.

CIS 85-180 Livestock handling
This data sheet intended for farm workers points out the hazards to which livestock handlers are exposed.
Manitoba Workplace Safety and Health Division, Suite 1000, 330 St. Mary Ave., Winnipeg, Manitoba R3C 3Z5, Canada, 1984. 7p.

CIS 84-2016 Garcia Fernández A.
Brucellosis: prophylaxis and control of the disease
Brucelosis: profilaxis y lucha contra la enfermedad [in Spanish]
Review of the brucellosis problem in Spain. Aspects covered: statistics and geographical distribution; description of the disease and its symptoms; routes and mechanisms of propagation; infection routes in man; prophylaxis and control of the disease (zootechnical, hygienic and health measures, vaccination); bacteriological testing; safety standards for shipping biological samples; safety standards in laboratories.
Salud y trabajo, May-June 1984, No.43, p.33-48. Illus. Bibl.

CIS 84-1713
Health and Safety Executive
Health and safety hazards associated with pig husbandry
This note covers: selection and training of pig handlers; safe handling of pigs; standards for buildings housing pigs and for bulk feed hoppers; manure and waste food handling; machinery, electricity and heaters; health and diseases; dust; legal requirements.
Health and Safety Executive Sales Point, St. Hugh's House, Stanley Precinct, Bootle, Merseyside L20 3QY, United Kingdom, Feb. 1984. 6p. 20 ref. Price: Ł1.00.

CIS 84-1754 Holler A.C.
Occupational hazards of farriers
Description of the hazards encountered in the shoeing of horses. These include noise, exposure to metal and welding fumes, ergonomic problems, zoonoses. An example of the survey questionnaire to evaluate farrier's health hazards is provided.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1984, Vol.45, No.1, p.34-38. Illus. 12 ref.


CIS 90-364
Ministerium für Land -, Forst- und Nahrungsgüterwirtschaft
Occupational safety and health. Work with domestic animals in agriculture [German Democratic Republic]
Gesundheits- und Arbeitsschutz - Umgang mit landwirtschaftlichen Zucht- und Nutztieren [in German]
This standard (effective 1. Jan. 1984 sets out general requirements (definitions, general safety requirements, safe work practices), and specific requirements relating to cattle, pigs, horses, sheep, dogs, fur-bearing animals and bees.
Verlag für Standardisierung, Postfach 1068, 7010 Leipzig, German Democratic Republic, Feb. 1983. 12p. Bibl.

CIS 85-320
Electric fences
Elektrische schrikdraadinstallaties [in Dutch]
This directive for dairy farmers points out that electric fences present unappreciated hazards and have been the cause of fatal accidents. Contents: rules for inspection and approval (distances to be maintained from high- or low-voltage overhead electric lines, prohibition of attachment of electric fence supply lines to power poles); pulse generators (installation, earthing, connections, lightning protection); installation of pulse generators inside buildings; stringing of fences (choice of wire, insulators, tensioners, posts, special fences, insulating handles for gates, warning signs); risks associated with battery-powered pulse generators.
Directoraat-Generaal van de Arbeid, Postbus 69, 2270 MA Voorburg, Netherlands, 1983. 10p. Illus. Price: Glds.0.50.

CIS 84-944 Mouret D., Petitot M.
Noise reduction in a poultry processing plant
Réduction du bruit dans un atelier d'éviscération de volailles [in French]
A sonometric and dosimetric study was conducted in the eviscerating room of a turkey processing plant (sound level 90-100dB(A)), in order to determine the sources of noise. This room is next to a plucking room, where machine sound levels are so high that maintenance workers must wear acoustic helmets. Satisfactory and workable solutions are suggested, taking into consideration the requirements of the veterinary service and the realities of the economic situation.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1983, Vol.44, No.8, p.601-603. Illus.

CIS 84-1042 Vézina N., Beauvais A., Mergler D.
Warts: an occupational disease
Les verrues: une maladie professionnelle [in French]
The aim of this survey was to evaluate the prevalence of warts among workers in 8 poultry slaughterhouses in Quebec and to determine the specific environmental factors that could favour the development and propagation of the viruses causing warts. The distribution by age, seniority and sex of those responding to the questionnaire (569) was similar to that of those sent the questionnaire (1194). The prevalence of warts among the workers was 28.5% (Papilloma virus), while only 5.9% had warts before their employment in slaughterhouses. In the general population, the prevalence of warts is between 7 and 10%, with a peak around the age of 14 years. In poultry slaughterhouses, the highest incidence (38.17%) occurs among workers of 25-29 years. Among workers with 4-6 years of seniority, the incidence is 40.6%. Factors significantly associated with warts are: high humidity, wearing of steel-mesh gloves that were too large, work with saws and the handling of cold objects.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1983, Vol.44, No.8, p.551-558. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 84-460 Swart K.S., Wilks C.R., Jackson K.B., Hayman J.A.
Human leptospirosis in Victoria
Over a 2-year period leptospirosis was diagnosed in specimens from 208 of 2516 patients with suggestive symptoms. The most common serological reactions were with serovars hardjo, pomona and tarassovi. There was a clear association between infection and occupation in 101 farmers, 44 meat workers and 11 meat inspectors. Leptospirosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with pyrexia who have occupational contact with animals, and the appropriate serological and culture examinations carried out.
Medical Journal of Australia, 14 May 1983, Vol.1, No.10, p.460-463. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 84-228 Clark S., Rylander R., Larsson L.
Airborne bacteria, endotoxin and fungi in dust in poultry and swine confinement buildings
Airborne concentrations of total and gram-negative bacteria in swine and poultry confinement units were as high, or higher, than the levels found in waste water treatment plants and cotton cardrooms. Airborne endotoxin concentrations in the swine units (average 0.12µg/m3) and poultry units (average 0.31µg/m3) were in the range where clinical effects have occurred in other populations.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1983, Vol.44, No.7, p.537-541. 22 ref.

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