Livestock rearing - 310 entries found
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Choudat D., Goehen M., Korobaeff M., Boulet A., Dewitte J.D., Martin M.H.
Respiratory symptoms and bronchial reactivity among pig and dairy farmers
This study assessed respiratory manifestations and bronchial reactivity among French pig and dairy farmers. It involved 102 pig farmers, 51 dairy farmers and 81 controls (all male). Pulmonary function tests were performed before and after a methacholine challenge (cumulative doses 80, 240, and 560µg). Airborne dust, ammonia and CO2 were measured inside 28 pig confinement buildings. The pig farmers were exposed to a total dust level of 2.41mg/m3, with a low level of respirable particle concentration. Farmers had significantly higher prevalence of cough and morning phlegm than controls. Before the methacholine challenge, the dairy farmers had non-significantly lower mean lung function values than the other groups. Among non-asthmatic subjects, non-specific bronchial hyperreactivity was significantly higher among farmers than among controls. The reduction in FEV1 was greater than 10% in 6.7% of the controls, 17.9% of the swine workers and 35.6% of the dairy farmers. Respiratory symptoms were significantly more common among pig farmers without original lung function impairment. However, all farmers showed increased bronchial reactivity.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Feb. 1994, Vol.20, No.1, p.48-54. Illus. 36 ref.
Patussi V., Mazzucato S., Lorusso A., Collareta A., Chermaz E., Buttazzi P., Fiorito A.
Storage mites and their role in the onset of asthma and oculorhinitis among cattle farmers in North-East Italy
Epidemiological study of 149 cattle farmers and 148 controls. A significantly larger degree of sensitization to storage mites was found among the cattle farmers than among the controls, well correlated with the mite species identified in the barns in which the farmers worked. However, there was also frequent co-sensitization to the mite Dermatophagoides, a mite normally found in mattresses (and not in barns).
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 1994, Vol.85, No.5, p.402-411. Illus. 27 ref.
Smid T., Heederik D., Houba R., Quanjer P.H.
Dust- and endotoxin-related acute lung function changes and work-related symptoms in workers in the animal feed industry
Reported respiratory and related symptoms during work were compared between 265 exposed animal feed workers and a control group consisting of 175 external controls and non-exposed workers in the animal feed industry. Symptoms indicating respiratory and nasal irritation were significantly increased. In 119 workers, a total of 457 across-shift spirometric lung function changes were measured. The effect of endotoxin was stronger than that of dust, both in magnitude and significance. A significant across-week decrease in lung function was also detected.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 1994, Vol.25, No.6, p.877-888. Illus. 30 ref.
Hayes M., Cooper R.A.
Cryptosporidiosis. Hidden in name and nature
The nature of the human diarrhoeal disease cryptosporidiosis is explained along with the need for health education among workers. Cryptosporidiosis is caused by ingestion of oocysts of a protozoan Cryptosporidium parvum; the parasite is predominantly waterborne, but may also be transmitted from animals and other people. Since no effective vaccine is yet available and oocysts are resistant to traditional methods of water sanitation and to many disinfectants, all workers in environments subject to faecal pollution (workers in close contact with animals, water sanitation personnel) should be advised of the risks.
Safety and Health Practitioner, Aug. 1994, Vol.12, No.8, p.16-20. Illus. 14 ref.
Zejda J.E., Barber E., Dosman J.A., Olenchock S.A., McDuffie H.H., Rhodes C., Hurst T.
Respiratory health status in swine producers relates to endotoxin exposure in the presence of low dust levels
The respiratory health status of 54 male swine producers was assessed through questionnaires and spirographic measurements. The producers were between 25 and 48 years old and had worked an average 10.7 years in the industry, with an average of 4.7 h/day in the swine barns. Atmospheric contaminants were measured including carbon dioxide, ammonia, total dust, respirable dust, and airborne endotoxin. Endotoxin related to forced vital capacity and endotoxin times h/day was related to forced vital capacity and to forced respiratory volume in 1 second. Respiratory symptoms and lung function did not relate to categories of low, medium and high exposure to respirable dust. However, categories of endotoxin exposure related to respiratory symptoms. Thus, respiratory health status relates to endotoxin level but not to dust level at low dust levels. Control measures should aim to reduce the levels of endotoxins as well as those of dust.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1994, Vol.36, No.1, p.49-56. Illus. 31 ref.
Dalphin J.C., Debieuvre D., Pernet D., Maheu M.F., Polio J.C., Toson B., Dubiez A., Monnet E., Laplante J.J., Depierre A.
Prevalence and risk factors for chronic bronchitis and farmer's lung in French dairy farmers
The prevalence of chronic bronchitis and of clinical farmer's lung was studied in 30 districts of the French Doubs département in relation to individual (age, sex, smoking habits) and geographical (altitude) factors. 5,703 dairy farmers exclusively (response rate 83%) participated in the study by answering a medical questionnaire. Prevalences of chronic bronchitis and clinical farmer's lung were 9.3% and 1.4% respectively. A logistic regression model was used to evaluate risk factors for chronic bronchitis and clinical farmer's lung. A risk of chronic bronchitis was associated with the male sex (p<10-4), age (p<10-4), smoker category (p<10-4), and altitude (p<10-4). A risk of clinical farmer's lung was associated with non-smokers (p<0.05), and linearly with altitude (p<10-4). There was also a strong positive relation between chronic bronchitis and clinical farmer's lung (odds ratio 19.5 (95% CI: 12.1-31.4)) after adjustment for confounding variables. The main finding of this study was the highly significant increase of prevalence of the diseases in relation to altitude.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1993, Vol.50, No.10, p.941-944. 15 ref.
Safety of household and similar electrical appliances. Part 2: Particular requirements for electrical heating appliances for breeding and rearing animals
Sécurité des appareils électrodomestiques et analogues. Partie 2: Règles particulières pour les appareils de chauffage électrique destinés à la reproduction et à l'élevage des animaux [in French]
International Electrotechnical Commission, 3 rue de Varembé, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 1st ed., June 1993. 33p. ###
Zejda J.E., Hurst T.S., Rhodes C.S., Barber E.M., McDuffie H.H., Dosman J.A.
Respiratory health of swine producers - Focus on young workers
The report compares the respiratory health of 249 swine producers, 251 grain farmers, and 263 non-farming control subjects. Swine producers had significantly more symptoms of chronic bronchitis (15.3%) than did grain farmers (7.2%) or non-farming men (5.7%). After controlling for age, height, and smoking, the functional indices of airflow were slightly but significantly lower in swine producers than in grain farmers. In comparison with non-farming subjects, some of the functional indices were significantly lower in swine producers. Respiratory symptoms were associated with the number of hours of work per day. This indirect index of exposure was also inversely associated with FVC (p<0.01) and FEV1 (p=0.06), after adjustment for age, height, smoking, and dust mask usage. A relative excess of respiratory symptoms and lower lung function variables were found in swine producers aged 26 to 35 years.
Chest, Mar. 1993, Vol.103, No.3, p.702-709. 28 ref.
Reynolds S.J., Milton D.K.
Comparison of methods for analysis of airborne endotoxin
As part of a study of respiratory hazards in the turkey breeding industry, replicate samples from two types of barns were assayed by two laboratories using different Limulus-based methods. The study found that Limulus assays may not detect all of the endotoxin present in an environmental sample, and that endotoxin and culturable bacteria do not necessarily correlate. These discrepancies may help to explain why in some studies a strong correlation between airborne endotoxin and respiratory health has been found, and in others it has not. Future epidemiological studies should employ more than one method and should compare the relative utility of various methods for predicting the respiratory toxicity of inhaled endotoxin.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Sep. 1993, Vol.8, No.9, p.761-767. Illus. 42 ref.
Reynolds S.J., Parker D., Vesley D., Smith D., Woellner R.
Cross-sectional epidemiological study of respiratory disease in turkey farmers
This study was a cross-sectional epidemiological investigation of respiratory disease in farmers involved in the turkey growing industry. Pulmonary function tests and health history questionnaires were administered to a total of 95 turkey farmers throughout Minnesota. Respiratory symptoms were most common during the winter months when exposure to environmental agents was highest. Prevalence of symptoms was higher for smokers, personnel who worked in hen barns, and for persons who had worked in the turkey growing industry for more than 10 years. Pulmonary function was found to decrease during the work day. Also, pulmonary function was lowest for personnel working in hen barns, and for persons who had been employed in the industry for more than 10 years. These data support the association between respiratory disease and exposure to the environment in confinement farm buildings.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 1993, Vol.24, No.6, p.713-722. 23 ref.
Linnainmaa M., Louhelainen K., Eskelinen T.
Effect of ventilation on ammonia levels in cowhouses
Report on survey of ammonia concentration in Finnish cowhouses (cowsheds). Diffusion tubes were used to measure ammonia levels and were found to be reliable and sensitive for field purposes. The correlation between ventilation rates and ammonia concentration was generally poor, indicating that other factors are also important. Nevertheless, it is recommended to improve ventilation rates in order to reduce air impurities and relative humidity. Supply air should also be warmed in winter.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov.1993, Vol.54, No.11, p.678-682. Illus. 12 ref.
Gordon R.L., Rhodes S.
Injuries to workers in a swine confinement facility
Animal confinement facilities are used to increase efficiency by capitalizing from economies of scale. Investigations of the major health effects of these facilities usually focus on the respiratory symptoms of their workers. The study hypothesized that injury may also be a significant health issue for workers. The incidence and patterns of injury during a three-year period in a large, midwestern swine confinement facility was studied. A high incidence of injury (up to 65 injuries per 100 employee work-years) was found, with bruises, strains and sprains and needle stick injuries being most prominent.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, May 1993, Vol.35, No.5, p.518-521. Illus. 7 ref.
Blanchin N., Abadia G., Leprince A.
Risk of infection associated with the management and handling of experimental animals in animal facilities
Risques infectieux liés à la maintenance et à la manipulation des animaux de laboratoire pour le personnel travaillant dans les animaleries [in French]
Contents of this information sheet on the risk of infection associated with the handling of laboratory animals: 1. main infectious agents of animal origin which are pathogenetic in men (table on the use of vertebrate animals in 1990); 2. real risks in relation to the animals handled and their sources (table of bacterial, viral, parasitic, ectoparasitic and fungal diseases, with information on: name of the aetiological agent, degree of pathogenicity in man, animal vectors, mode of contamination diagnosis and treatment); 3. guidelines for the prevention of infectious risks in laboratory animal facilities (vaccinations, safety precautions in case of a bite or any other contaminating incident, training and information of employees).
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 1993, No.53, p.3-23. 61 ref.
Leptospirosis; Leptospirosis in pigs
Two safety brochures devoted to leptospirosis (also known as Weil's disease and swineherds' disease), a common zoonosis caught from cattle, pigs, deer and some wild animals. Symptoms, means and spread of infection, persons at risk and preventative measures are described.
Occupational Safety and Health Service, Department of Labour, P.O. Box 3705, Wellington, New Zealand, [1993?]. 2 brochures of 2p. each. Illus.
Zejda J.E., Hurst T.S., Barber E.M., Rhodes C., Dosman J.A.
Respiratory health status in swine producers using respiratory protective devices
A cross-sectional survey on respiratory health in swine producers showed that 30% of 301 men examined usually used a dust mask when working inside a barn. They did not differ significantly from non-users of dust masks in respect of respiratory symptoms and lung function. This analysis was undertaken to determine whether the respiratory health of dust mask users was associated with reasons for their having started to use individual respiratory protection. The subjects were recontacted in order to identify those who started using a mask deliberately to prevent symptoms (42 men) and those who started using protection because of pre-existing respiratory symptoms (44 men). Not unexpectedly, between-group comparisons of respiratory symptoms and lung function suggest that swine producers who wear dust masks for preventive purposes have better respiratory health than those who wear dust masks because of symptoms or those who do not use individual respiratory protection. Further studies are needed to evaluate the full impact of respiratory protection in these workers.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1993, Vol.23, No.5, p.743-750. 14 ref.
Sessink P.J.M., De Roos J.H.C., Pierik F.H., Anzion R.B.M., Bos R.P.
Occupational exposure of animal caretakers to cyclophosphamide
The study examined environmental contamination with cyclophosphamide (CP) in an animal laboratory where mice were injected with this compound. Also studied was the contamination of gloves, sleeve protectors, and masks for personal protection. Analysis of air-circulation system filters revealed amounts of CP corresponding to <0.1-1.0µg/day. Wipe samples taken from different objects and surfaces were also analysed. The presence of CP was not only observed in the room where the mice were housed and treated but also in adjacent rooms (<0.02-44ng/cm2). The gloves used during CP injection were always contaminated (2-199µg/pair), although no penetration was established. The sleeve protectors were incidentally contaminated (<0.3-10µg) and no CP was found on the masks (<0.2µg). Eighty-seven urine samples from four animal caretakers were analysed for unmetabolised CP. CP was detected (0.7µg) in one sample. The results of this study show that animal caretakers are exposed to CP in their work.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1993, Vol.35, No.1, p.47-52. 15 ref.
This information sheet provides practical guidance on health and safety in deer farming. Contents: avoidance of personal injury to stockmen during handling and routine husbandry tasks; precautions in the use of veterinary products and tranquillisers; safe methods of removing antlers, managing stock stags and hinds, deer slaughtering; precautions against disease; risks to the general public from public access.
HSE Information Centre, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, 1993. 4p. Illus. 5 ref.
The veterinary assistant
L'auxiliaire vétérinaire [in French]
Contents of this occupational data sheet devoted to veterinary assistants: definition; characteristics of the occupation; description of activities: normal work areas, tools, equipment, machinery, products used, hand movements and postures; risks and stresses of the job (connected with the environment, the equipment, the products used, the working hours, the physical and mental workload); occupational diseases and accidents; prevention of hazards (collective, personal, vaccination schedules, blood monitoring for toxoplasmosis in women of childbearing age, specific first aid measures); regulations applicable in France; particular health conditions to watch. Final remarks: it is recommended that the occupational physician should monitor first-aid recommendations, enforce vaccination schedules, and ensure the testing of radiological equipment, the wearing of protective equipment and the systematic use of restraining apparatus.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 1992, Vol.32, No.3. Insert.
Work with liquid manure [Sweden]
Arbete med flytgödsel [in Swedish]
This recommendation supersedes Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen's Direction No.72 (CIS 77-508). It covers: background information; composition and properties of gases released from liquid manure in livestock stalls (hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, carbon dioxide); development of gases in different types of stables; measures to reduce gases in stables; systems to remove manure from stables and design of manure containers; design of ventilation; methods for checking the ventilation and gas concentrations; young employees; personal protective equipment; fire and explosion hazards.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, Box 1300, 171 25 Solna, Sweden, 1992. 19p. Illus.
Health and Safety Executive
Veterinary medicines - Safe use by farmers and other animal handlers
This guidance note provides practical advice on the storage and use of veterinary medicines by farmers, veterinary surgeons and other animal handlers. Contents: definition of a veterinary medicine; legal obligations; principles for safe use; effective planning and preparation; competence of users; suitable storage and transport; safe use (hygiene, health surveillance, action in the event of an accident, accident reporting); proper disposal; maintenance of accurate records. Relevant legislation is summarised.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1992. iii, 16p. Illus. 26 ref. Price: GBP 3.50.
Injuries to farmers and farm families in a dairy state
This study examined injuries among farmers and their families treated at two rural Vermont hospitals. Most involved dairy farming and woodlot activities. Livestock accounted for 38% of injuries among dairy farmers. Other injuries involved a variety of events, including equipment repair and use, haying, chemicals and biological products, falls, and contacts with fixed objects. Half of woodlot injuries involved chainsaws. On average, livestock-related injuries resulted in 21.5 days of disability for work during the first six months after injury, whereas those not involving livestock averaged 16.2 days of disability. On dairy farms 14% of farming injuries were to family members, and at least one-third of all injuries to farm family members were work related. Insurance coverage for medical care was sparse for all rural persons treated for injury, especially for woodlot operators.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1992, Vol.34, No.4, p.414-421. 13 ref.
Das R., Tager I.B., Gamsky T., Schenker M.B., Royce S., Balmes J.R.
Atopy and airways reactivity in animal health technicians - A pilot study
Smoking, response to allergen skin testing, and non-specific airways reactivity in student animal health technicians (AHT) were studied to determine whether such persons provide a suitable cohort to overcome the selection biases accompanying investigations of occupational asthma. Previous occupational exposure to animals (65%) was associated positively with allergic symptoms but negatively with skin response to animal allergens and to airway hyperreactivity (AR). AHTs remaining in the programme were more likely than drop-outs to have: (1) worked with animals; (2) positive skin responsiveness to animal allergens; (3) AR. The latter was significantly associated with positive skin-test responses to animal allergen testing. This study demonstrates that significant exposure to animals may have occurred among workers entering animal-handling careers. Additionally, competing "healthy" and "resistant" worker effects operate among AHTs to influence the prevalence of occupational asthma in this population.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1992, Vol.34, No.1, p.53-60. 56 ref.
Vinzents P., Nielsen B.H.
Variations in exposures to dust and endotoxin in Danish piggeries
Two surveys studied day-to-day variations in exposures to dust and endotoxin and those caused by different tasks and the content of fat in the feed. The exposure to "total" particulate matter (TMP) was just below (in one study) and at the same level as (in the second study) the Danish occupational exposure limit of 5.0 mg/m3 for organic dust. No variation with task distance from the animals was found, but the results indicated decreased exposure when fat was added to the feed. The endotoxin exposure level was lower than previously reported. High correlations were found between TPM, respirable dust, and endotoxin.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1992, Vol.53, No.4, p.237-241. 21 ref.
Müller E., Wittig M.
Is chlamydia still an important pathogen to man? A case study
Chlamydien als Infektionserreger für den Menschen noch von Bedeutung? Eine Fallbeschreibung [in German]
A case of interstitial pneumonia was traced to Chlamydia ovis as causative agent. A female patient had worked three weeks before the outbreak of the disease on a temporary basis in a laboratory where chicken eggs were inoculated with Chlamydia ovis for producing a vaccine against the pathogen. Symptoms and treatment are described. A literature survey of known cases of infections with Chlamidiaceae reveals among other things birds and cattle as carriers of the pathogen. The importance of work history, serum diagnosis and chest radiography is stressed.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, Apr. 1991, Vol.26, No.4, p.153-156. 18 ref.
Crook B., Robertson J.F., Glass S.A.T., Botheroyd E.M., Lacey J., Topping M.D.
Airborne dust, ammonia, microorganisms, and antigens in pig confinement houses and the respiratory health of exposed farm workers
The study investigated the environmental conditions on pig farms and the respiratory health of pig farmers and their immunological response to airborne contaminants. Airborne concentrations of dust and ammonia were measured in 20 pig houses. Twenty-nine farm workers completed a questionnaire and underwent lung function tests; 24 provided blood samples for the measurement of specific IhE and IgG antibody to extracts of pig squames and urine, feed components, and bacterial isolates. Work-related respiratory symptoms were reported by 23 workers. The presence of specific IgE in some workers with wheeze suggested the possibility of them having an allergic response. This highlights the need to limit exposure to airborne dusts associated with pig farming, and this in some cases may be achieved by changing work practices such as the methods of feed delivery or ventilation.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1991, Vol.52, No.7, p.271-279. Illus. 30 ref.
Bronchial symptoms during work in a group of 124 Danish pig farmers
Bronchiale Symptome während der Arbeit in einer Gruppe von 124 dänischen Schweinezüchtern [in German]
A questionnaire survey of 124 randomly selected Danish pig farmers (average age 43, average exposure 12yrs) revelead that 48 suffered from work-related respiratory symptoms such as coughing, shortness of breath and asthma. In this group 33% were smokers whereas in the group of 76 farmers without respiratory symptoms 12% were smokers. Symptoms were found to develop in 75% within the first hour of work. In 50% they persisted up to 1h after work. The average exposure time to the appearance of first symptoms was 7 years. The percentages of non-smoking and smoking farmers with respiratory symptoms rose within the last six years prior to the study by 200 and 300%.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz, Prophylaxe und Ergonomie, Nov. 1991, Vol.41, No.11, p.419-423. Illus. 16 ref.
Brison R.J., Pickett C.W.L.
Nonfatal farm injuries in Eastern Ontario - A retrospective survey
A one-year retrospective survey was conducted to study the incidence of, and potential risk factors for, farm-related injuries. 113 dairy and beef farms were surveyed using personal interviews. The crude rate of injury was 9.6 per 100 person years. Significantly higher rates of injury were found for: owner-operators of farms (RR = 2.9; p<0.001); male sex (RR = 3.8; p<0.001); living/working on a beef farm as opposed to a dairy farm (RR = 2.3; p = 0.01); farm owners in the age groups of <30 and >70 years (p = 0.05); full-time as opposed to part-time beef farm owners (RR = 4.2; p = 0.02); and full-time owners of beef farms as opposed to a dairy farms (RR = 2.4; p = 0.03). Common patterns of injury included accidental falls; lacerations, bruises and crush injuries from working with cattle or from agricultural machinery; and foreign body injuries to the eye. Few injuries were associated with the use of tractors or power take-offs.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, Dec. 1991, Vol.23, No.6, p.585-594. 27 ref.
Zejda J.E., Dosman J.A.
Respiratory disorders in agriculture from an epidemiologic perspective
Epidemiologic studies show a relative excess of respiratory symptoms in persons dwelling in farming communities. An association of respiratory health with work conditions in agriculture has been suggested by investigations into chronic bronchitis, bronchial asthma, extrinsic allergic alveolitis, organic dust toxic syndrome and airflow limitation. The occurrence and determinants of these diseases have been recognised for selected exposure categories. The evident lack of adequate information for a majority of agricultural respiratory hazards and respiratory responses invites further epidemiologic, experimental and clinical research into this major industry.
Polish Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1991, Vol.4, No.1, p.11-19. 57 ref.
Risk of appendicectomy in occupations entailing contact with pigs
A questionnaire survey among pig farmers, abattoir workers, and farmers not exposed to pigs was conducted to determine the prevalence of appendicitis in these occupations. The author concludes the biological basis of an increased risk of appendicitis in occupations entailing close contact with pigs might be explained by Yersinia bacteria whose presence is common in pigs.
British Medical Journal, 10 Aug.1991, Vol.303, No.6798, p.345-346. 5 ref.
Fanning A., Edwards S.
Mycobacterium bovis infection in human beings in contact with elk (Cervus elaphus) in Alberta, Canada
Following an epizootic of M. bovis infection in domesticated elk, in Alberta, Canada, 466 human contacts of elk herds were identified, of whom 394 were assessed. Of 81 contacts whom were tuberculin skin-test positive, 50 had been in contact with culture-positive animals. The mode of transmission of M. bovis from these farm animals to man is likely to be aerosolisation of infected particles. Because of the apparent susceptibility of farmed Cervidae (deer) to M. bovis infection, and the evidence of spread to man, control measures to prevent human infection should be developed.
Lancet, 16 Nov. 1991, Vol.338, No.8777, p.1253-1255. 8 ref.
Virokannas H., Anttonen H., Pramila S.
Combined effect of hand-arm vibration and smoking on white finger in different age groups
An epidemiological study was made of 2705 reindeer herders exposed to hand-arm vibration. Vibration, the amount of smoking and age were found to be significant factors for white finger, with vibration and the amount of smoking having a hyperadditive combined effect. It was found that the lifetime amount of smoking had a stronger effect on white finger than current smoking habits. The effect of smoking was significant when the amount of smoking was more than 20 cigarettes a day during 20 years. The effect of age on white finger was mainly additive.
Archives of Complex Environmental Studies, Mar.-Aug. 1991, Vol.3, No.1-2, p.7-12. Bibl.ref.
Occupational diseases affecting persons who work in contact with animals and their products and wastes
Al-amrāḍ ul-mihniyya allati tasaadifu ladaa l-aškhaas allathiina yu(amaluun bi tamaass ma(a l-hayawaanaat wa muntajaatiha wa fadlaatiha [in Arabic]
Review emphasising the infectious diseases associated with animal husbandry. The diseases, the causative organisms, routes of infection and preventive measures are mentioned.
Arab Labour Office, Arab Institute for Occupational Health and Safety, P.O. Box 5770, Damascus, Syria, 1991. 34p.
Schottland J.R., Kirschberg G.J., Fillingim R., Davis V.P., Hogg F.
Median nerve latencies in poultry processing workers: An approach to resolving the role of industrial "cumulative trauma" in the development of carpal tunnel syndrome
The study attempts to discover an association between stressful repetitive motion at the work site and the development of carpal tunnel syndrome. Median nerve motor and sensory latencies were measured in a random sample of employees in an industry suspected to be associated with the emergence of carpal tunnel syndrome. A control group made up of job applicants was used. No association between employment experience and the development of slowing of the median motor latency was encountered in any group. No association was discovered for sensory latencies for men or for the left hands of women. A small association was discovered for the sensory latency in right hands of long-term female employees. This was similar in magnitude to the increased risk of prolongation associated with aging. The data provide very little evidence for the concept of cumulative trauma as a prominent cause of carpal tunnel syndrome in American industry. These results are discussed in light of the recent Australian false epidemic of repetitive strain injury.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, May 1991, Vol.33, No.5, p.627-631. Illus. 39 ref.
Purification and characterisation of cocoon chrysalis, a causative antigen of sericultural asthma
Yōsan zensoku no kiin kōgen no bunri seisei to sono men'eki kagakuteki kenkyū [in Japanese]
Sericultural asthma is an occupational disease caused by inhalation of the body components of silkworm: cocoon chrysalis, moth scales, dried mature larva urine and sericin. Partial purification and characterisation of cocoon chrysalis antigens were preformed. Two main antigenic fraction, FIV-1 and FIV-2 were obtained from cocoon chrysalis by gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography. FIV-1 was 5.32-fold higher in allergenicity than crude extract. The molecular weight of FIV-1 was 80,000 while that of FIV-2 was 48,000. FIV-1 was composed of 16 amino acids, but contained no tryptophan or cysteine. The ratio between basic and acidic amino acid was 1:1.9. FIV-2 was similar in amino acid composition to FIV-1 and contained no cysteine. The ratio was 1:2.1.
Kita-Kantō Igaku (Kita-Kantō Medical Journal), Jan. 1991, Vol.41, No.1, p.51-64. Illus. 24 ref.
Morris P.D., Lenhart S.W., Service W.S.
Respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function in chicken catchers in poultry confinement units
In order to evaluate the respiratory consequences of working in poultry confinement units, a cross-sectional epidemiologic study of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function in 59 chicken catchers was carried out. The results were compared to a published reference standard of non-exposed blue-collar workers. Chicken catchers reported a high rate of acute symptoms associated with work in poultry houses. They also reported statistically significant higher rates for chronic phlegm (39.0%) and chronic wheezing (27.1%) than non-exposed blue-collar workers. Chicken catchers had significant decrements over a work shift in forced vital capacity (2.2%) and forced expiratory volume in 1sec (-3.4%). These results indicate that chicken catchers are at risk for respiratory dysfunction and emphasise the need to develop measures to minimise their exposure to respiratory toxicants in poultry confinement units.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1991, Vol.19, No.2, p.195-204. 24 ref.
The respiratory health of Victorian broiler growers
A survey of chicken meat farmers in Victoria, Australia indicated that respiratory symptoms were common with 77% reporting some symptoms of cough, sputum or wheeze; almost 12% had chronic bronchitis. The prevalence of eye irritation was also high. After adjusting for other factors, increased prevalences of cough and/or sputum, chronic bronchitis and wheeze were found for smokers, those with a family history of atopy, and those with greater cumulative time spent inside chicken sheds. It is concluded that chicken farming is associated with respiratory symptoms suggestive of asthma and chronic bronchitis, especially in smokers and subjects with a family history of atopy.
Medical Journal of Australia, 21 May 1990, Vol.152, No.10, p.521-524. 24 ref.
Iversen M., Takai H.
Lung function studies in farmers during work in swine confinement units
Pulmonary function parameters were measured in 31 pig farmers before and after work. Five of these used a respirator on some days of the study. Average organic dust concentrations in the breathing zone of the farmers were 0.35-0.91mg/m3. 17 of 26 farmers had either shortness of breath or wheezing during work in swine confinement buildings; 9 of 16 were asymptomatic. Symptomatic farmers showed significant decreases in one-second forced expiratory volume (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC), asymptomatic farmers in FEV1. The respirators had a slight positive effect.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz, Prophylaxe und Ergonomie, 1990, Vol.40, No.8, p.236-242. Illus. 25 ref.
de Groot A.C., Conemans J.M.H.
Contact allergy to furazolidone
A case of occupational contact allergy to furazolidone, used as an animal feed additive and as an antimicrobial drug in veterinary medicine, is described. The patient did not react to furazolidone 2% pet. Using PEG-400 and alcohol as patch test vehicles resulted in positive patch test reactions. No cross-reactions were observed to other nitrofuran derivatives (nitrofurazone, nitrofurantoin) or to furfural. The literature on contact allergy to nitrofurans is reviewed.
Contact Dermatitis, Apr. 1990, Vol.22, No.4, p.202-205. 20 ref.
Fish farming [Norway]
Havbruk [in Norwegian]
Under the provision of the Working Environment Act (CIS 85-593), paragraphs 8 and 9, this directive presents guidelines for safe working conditions for fish farming plants at sea. Contents: the floating equipment (construction, stability, written instructions, antislip floors, dimension requirements, railings and other safety devices, ladders, rescue equipment, lighting, avoidance of solitary work, boats, rest rooms and diving); health hazards associated with the substances used for this kind of work; preventive measures; requirements of the Working Environment Act; relevant Norwegian directives; a glossary of fish farming vocabulary.
Direktoratet for arbeidstilsynet, Postboks 8103 Dep., 0032 Oslo 1, Norway, 3rd ed. Apr. 1990. 19p. Illus.
Occupational phenoxyethanol neurotoxicity: A report of three cases
2-Phenoxyethanol, used as an anaesthetic for handling small fish at a salmon hatchery, caused 3 women to experience headache and symptoms of intoxication during use, followed by diminished sensation and strength of hands and fingers, worse in the preferred hand. Persistent neuropathy did not develop in any of them. After 1 to 2 years of exposure, the women manifested gradual onset of symptoms of cognitive impairment with an inability to work. Neuropsychologic testing verified that all 3 had focal cognitive impairments that persisted. One also had documented labyrinthine hypo-function, which originated during this exposure. The immediate and delayed effects of 2-phenoxyethanol on the central nervous system resemble those of other organic solvents.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1990, Vol.32, No.1, p.42-45. 7 ref.
Chappel R.J., Prime R.W., Cutler R.S., Jones R.T., Millar B.D., Adler B.
Antileptospiral antibodies in Australian pig farmers
Letter to the editor. Serum samples from 140 Australian pig farmers were tested for antibodies to Leptospira interrogans, the organism responsible for hte disease leptospirosis. 11 (8%) showed microscopic agglutination test reactions to one of the 2 serovars known to cause the disease in Australia. No high titres were obtained. The importance of swine vaccination is stressed.
Medical Journal of Australia, 15 Jan. 1990, Vol.152, No.2, p.105. 4 ref.
Siracusa A., Verga A., Bacoccoli R., Fabbri A., Felicioni D.
Asthma caused by Lucilia Caesar "green bottle" larvae - Clinical and immunological study
L'asma da Bigattini (larve della mosca carnaria) - Studio clinico e immunologico [in Italian]
Case study of asthma caused by exposure to the larvae of the "green bottle" (Lucilia Caesar), an insect widely used as fish bait. Exposure could be either occupational (on a fish bait farm or in a shop for fishermen) or non-professional (by anglers).
Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 1989, Vol.80, No.6, p.489-497. Illus. 19 ref.
Electric barriers for indoor application [Netherlands]
Elektrische schrikdraadinstallaties: toepassing binnen gebouwen [in Dutch]
This directive specifies the safety requirements of an electric cow restraint installed inside a building. The electric cow restraint consists basically of an electrified wire fitted 3 to 4cm above the cow's withers, and is used for ensuring that the cow's excreta are deposited in the dung channel. Subjects dealt with include: installation, earthing, connecting, insulation, screws for tightening, and maintenance.
Labour Inspectorate, Directorate-General of Labour (Arbeidsinspectie, Directoraat-Generaal van de Arbeid), Postbus 69, 2270 MA Voorburg, Netherlands, 5th ed., 1989. 9p. Illus. 3 ref.
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe Australia)
Diseases acquired from animals
This safety guide to zoonoses is aimed principally at farmers, abattoir workers, food processing workers, health workers in contact with animals, biological researchers, livestock handlers, workers in the pet industry and workers in wildlife parks, circuses and zoological gardens. Contents: identification of zoonoses; basic information on the most commonly seen zoonoses in Australia (Murray Valley fever, Q fever, psittacosis, acute gastroenteritis, leptospirosis, ringworm, hydatid disease, brucellosis, orf, anthrax); prevention and management of exposure to zoonoses in an occupational setting.
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, Dec. 1989. 30p. Illus. 8 ref. Price: AUD 5.95.
Psittacosis (Ornithosis) - A summary of the occupational health concern
La psittacose (ornithose) - Résumé des risques sur le plan professionnel [in French]
Psittacosis is an occupational health hazard for those whose work brings them into contact with birds. It is primarily a lung disease caused by inhalation of airborne microorganisms or by handling an infected bird. Preventive measures include proper feeding of birds, avoidance of overcrowding and adequate ventilation systems.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, June 1989. 4p. 9 ref.
Zuskin E., Mataija M., Pokrajac D., Schachter E.N., Witek T.J.
Respiratory function in animal food processing workers
A group of 71 men employed in animal food processing was studied to assess the prevalence of acute and chronic respiratory symptoms and the presence of lung function abnormalities (control group - 55 unexposed men). A significantly higher prevalence for most of the chronic respiratory symptoms was found among the exposed workers compared to the controls. There were significantly lower measured values for FVC, FEV1 and FEF50 in the exposed group compared to predicted lung function values. Our data indicate that exposure to dust in the animal food industry may be associated with the development of acute and chronic respiratory symptoms and the impairment of lung function. Smoking, in this setting, appears to aggravate these changes.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1989, Vol.16, No.2, p.179-187. Bibl.
Fish-cage farming [Sweden]
Kassodling av fisk [in Swedish]
General safety recommendations on pisciculture using fish cages, published as an ordinance. Advice is given on how to avoid slipping and drowning accidents and on materials handling (transportation of feed and fish). It is stated that boats and rafts used for transport purposes should have hold designs compatible with suitable work postures and that solitary work should be avoided in certain situations. Safety and rescue equipment should be provided.
LiberDistribution, 162 89 Stockholm, Sweden, 15 Sep. 1989. 14p. Illus.
Rylander R., Donham K.J., Hjort C., Brouwer R., Heederik D.
Effects of exposure to dust in swine confinement buildings - A working group report
Pulmonary and other symptoms among workers in swine confinement buildings were evaluated by an international working group. In several studies in five different countries about 2000 workers were studied in clinical and epidemiologic investigations. Symptoms indicative of acute and chronic airway inflammation were widespread, as were systemic reactions characteristic of organic dust toxic syndrome. The base line, and across workshift, pulmonary function changes were moderate. There was no evidence that antigen-antibody reactions were important in the pathogenesis. Longitudinal studies are recommended to establish the relationship between acute and chronic symptoms and end stage disease.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Oct. 1989, Vol.15, No.5, p.309-312. 22 ref.
Donham K., Haglind P., Peterson Y., Rylander R., Belin L.
Environmental and health studies of farm workers in Swedish swine confinement buildings
The relation between the health of workers and the environment in swine confinement buildings was investigated in a study of 57 workers on 30 swine farms in southern Sweden and 55 matched controls. Swine workers reported significantly higher frequencies of respiratory symptoms, more frequent colds and absence due to chest illness, and a history of pneumonia. The increased frequency of symptoms of respiratory disease was related to the number of years and length of the day spent working with swine. Symptoms were also associated with respirable dust, total dust, endotoxin in total dust, and number of microbes in the air of the work environment. In a multiple regression analysis of the relation between 16 different environmental parameters to work period shifts of 5 pulmonary function parameters, endotoxin was found to be significantly related to the FEV1 in a dose dependent way.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 1989, Vol.46, No.1, p.31-37. Illus. 29 ref.
Chemicals handling at fish farms: A survey
A number of fish farms in the West of Scotland were visited in order to review current practices with regard to the general handling of chemicals. A wide variety of toxic and corrosive/irritant substances was found to be used, including antibiotics, tranquilising agents, disinfectants and antifouling agents. Potential risks from handling these substances are assessed and basic precautions given for their safe storage and use. Results are also given of a microbiological examination of 5 samples of fish food.
Health and Safety Executive, Information Centre, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, 1988. 11p.
Calculation and evaluation of electric fence impulses
Berechnung und Bewertung von Elektrozaunimpulsen [in German]
A circuit is outlined to simulate electric fences. The diagramme of the IEC Publication 479-2 of 1987 is presented, with which the efficiency in keeping animals away can be determined. Impulses no larger than 5Ws may be applied for reasons of safety to man and animals. The trend towards higher impulses (up to 20Ws) to prevent plant overgrowth is considered dangerous.
E T Z, 1988, Vol.109, No.18, p.840-843. Illus. 5 ref.
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