Livestock rearing - 310 entries found
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Guo H.R., Gilmore R., Waag D.M., Shireley L., Freund E.
Prevalence of Coxiella burnetii infections among North Dakota sheep producers
A total of 17 cases of Coxiella burnetti infection were identified among 496 sheep producers, their family members and hired helpers in North Dakota, USA. The number of sheep raised was a good predictor of infection. Lambing outdoors and frequent physical contact with sheep during lambing were associated with higher risk. Q fever is now a reportable disease in this area. Topics: epidemiologic study; immunization; infectious diseases; livestock rearing; North Dakota; notification of occupational diseases; Q fever; risk factors; serological reactions; zoonoses.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 1998, Vol.40, No.11, p.999-1006. 55 ref.
Von Essen S.G., Scheppers L.A., Robbins R.A., Donham K.J.
Respiratory tract inflammation in swine confinement workers studied using induced sputum and exhaled nitric oxide
In a study of 24 swine confinement workers and 14 urban normal control subjects, the swine confinement workers were significantly more likely to report wheezing, cough and sinusitis symptoms than were controls. Macrophages were significantly elevated in the induced sputum samples of the swine confinement workers compared to controls, while there was no difference in numbers of neutrophils. A small elevation in mean exhaled nitric oxide was seen in the swine confinement worker compared tocontrols. Spirometry values did not differ between the two groups. These two techniques, induced sputum and exhaled nitric oxide, may be used to study airway inflammation in swine confinement workers. Topics: agriculture; nitric oxide; cross-sectional study; determination in exhaled air; livestock rearing; respiratory diseases; sinusitis; sputum cytology; swine; ventilatory capacity.
Journal of Toxicology - Clinical Toxicology, Oct. 1998, Vol.36, No.6, p.557-565. Illus. 26 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Veterinary medicines - Safe use by farmers and other animal handlers
Update of document abstracted under CIS 93-961. Topics: agriculture; data sheet; disposal of harmful waste; drugs; handling of animals; harmful substances; legislation; livestock rearing; medical supervision; notification of accidents and diseases; occupational hygiene; qualifications; safe working methods; storage; United Kingdom; veterinary services.
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Jan. 1998. 16p. 15 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Topics: agricultural equipment; disposal of harmful waste; infection control; livestock rearing; medical supervision; notification of occupational diseases; pesticides; protective clothing; respirators; safe working methods; safety by design; United Kingdom.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Mar. 1998. 15p. Illus.
NIOSH Alert - Preventing asthma in animal handlers
Topics: allergies; asthma; data sheet; experimental animals; handling of animals; livestock rearing; medical supervision; protective clothing; textile, garment and related trades workers; USA; ventilation design; veterinary services.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226-1998, USA, Jan. 1998, 11p. Illus. 33 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Avoiding ill health at open farms - Advice to farmers (with teachers' supplement)
Topics: agriculture; biological hazards; children; data sheet; hazard evaluation; infection control; information of personnel; legislation; livestock rearing; neighbourhood protection; personal hygiene; United Kingdom; washing facilities.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Mar. 1998. 4 + 1p.
Nonvenomous animal-related fatalities in the United States workplace, 1992-1994
Topics: agriculture; fatalities; handling of animals; occupational accidents; survey; USA.
Journal of Agromedicine, 1998, Vol.5, No.1, p.5-16. 42 ref.
Alonso Espadalé R.M., Martí Solé M.C., Constans Aubert A.
Work with experimental animals
Trabajo con animales de experimentación [in Spanish]
Topics: biological hazards; data sheet; experimental animals; genetically modified organisms; handling of animals; health hazards; infectious diseases; safe working methods; Spain; vaccination; zoonoses.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1997. 6p. Illus. 9 ref.
Uitti J., Nordman H., Halmepuro L., Savolainen J.
Respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function and allergy to fur animals among fur farmers and fur garment workers
Rhinitis symptoms and eye complaints were significantly more common among fur garment workers than among a control group unexposed to fur. Symptom prevalence did not differ significantly between fur farmers and controls. Smoking explained the lower forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in one second of the fur garment workers. The prevalence of positive skin tests did not differ significantly between theexposed groups and the controls. Skin tests showed cross-reactivity between antibodies to fur and domestic animal allergens. Fur garment workers have an excess of rhinitis and eye symptoms which primarily appear to be nonimmunologic. Topics: allergens; allergies; animals; asthma; epidemiologic study; eye irritation; fur industry; furs; hypersensitivity; livestock rearing; maximal expiratory flow; one-second forced expiratory volume; pulmonary function; respiratory diseases; rhinitis; smoking.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Oct. 1997, Vol.23, No.6, p.428-434. 18 ref.
Commission Directive 97/65/EC of 26 Nov. 1997 adapting, for the third time, to technical progress Council Directive 90/679/EEC on the protection of workers from risks related to exposure to biological agents at work [European Communities]
Directive 97/65/CE de la Commission du 26 nov. 1997 portant 3e adapt. au progrès technique de la direct. 90/679/CEE concernant la protection des travailleurs contre les risques liés à l'exposition à des agents biologiques au travail [Communautés européennes] [in French]
This Directive (entry into force 26 Dec. 1997) should be introduced into national legislation by 30 June 1998. It modifies annex III of Directive 90/679/EEC (CIS 91-29) and concerns the transmissibility of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent to humans.
Journal officiel des Communautés européennes - Official Journal of the European Communities, 6 Dec. 1997, No.L 335, p.17-18.
Health and Safety Executive (HSE)
Health and safety on floating fish farm installations
This safety and health brochure gives advice on the design, construction and safe use of floating fish farm installations including fish pens or cages, gangways, vehicle ways, land access ways, shelters and associated equipment. Main topics covered: construction and maintenance of installations; provision of guardrails, foot rails and safe working surfaces; safety and rescue equipment; clothing for wet and/or cold weather; shelter; light; electricity; lifting operations and manual handling; welfare facilities; first aid; health risks (dust, veterinary medicines, leptospirosis); diving operations; training and supervision; navigation markers; boats; relevant legislation.
HSE Books, P.O.Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1997. 14p. Illus.
The marine environment
These eight chapters in a major new survey of OSH examine health and safety issues in offshore operations and on vessels: management of offshore oil and gas installations; risk and emergency preparedness analysis; blowout; mechanization and automation as environmental factors; accidents and accident prevention; divers; safety on vessels; the fishing fleet and fish farming.
In: The Workplace (by Brune D. et al., eds), Scandinavian Science Publisher as, Bakkehaugveien 16, 0873 Oslo, Norway, 1997, Vol.2, p.767-848. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Neumann-Haefelin D., Schweizer M.
Nonhuman primate spumavirus infections among persons with occupational exposure - United States, 1996
A serosurvey of workers potentially exposed to simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV) identified SIV seroreactivity in samples from three workers who had worked with nonhuman primates for several years. Laboratory findings and case reports of the three infections are presented. Results indicate that SIVs from nonhuman primates can persistently infect exposed humans and may or may not cause disease or be transmitted among humans. Article reproduced from MMWR 1997; 46:110-111 of the US Centers for Disease Control.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 12 Mar. 1997, Vol.277, No.10, p.783-785.
O'Sullivan J.D., et al.
Fatal encephalitis due to novel paramyxovirus transmitted from horses
A case study is presented of a man who developed aseptic meningitic illness shortly after caring for two horses that died from equine morbillivirus (EMV) infection. He also assisted at their necropsies without using a protective mask or gloves. 13 months later, he suffered severe encephalitis, characterized by uncontrolled focal and generalized epileptic activity. He died 14 days after hospitalization. The results of serology, electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry suggest that EMV was the cause of the encephalitis.
Lancet, 11 Jan. 1997, Vol.349, No.9045, p.93-95. Illus. 5 ref.
Boyle D., Gerberich S.G., Gibson R.W., Maldonado G., Robinson R.A., Martin F., Reiner C., Amandus H.
Injury from dairy cattle activities
This case-control study aimed to identify which dairy cattle operation activities are associated with an increased or decreased risk of injury for farm household members. Milking, followed by trimming and treating hooves (for both the control of growth and for medical reasons), were found to be the most important sources of occupational injury in agricultural workers working with cattle.
Epidemiology, Jan. 1997, Vol.8, No.1, p.37-41. 25 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Keeping cattle in fields with public access
Data sheet on keeping cattle in fields with public access (United Kingdom), 1996. Topics: agriculture; data sheet; livestock rearing; neighbourhood protection; United Kingdom; warning notices.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, July 1996. 2p.
Vogelzang P.F.J., van der Gulden J.W.J., Preller L., Heederik D., Tielen M.J.M., van Schayck C.P.
Respiratory morbidity in relationship to farm characteristics in swine confinement work: Possible preventive measures
Topics: agriculture; asthma; chronic bronchitis; disinfectants; dyspnoea; livestock rearing; natural ventilation; Netherlands; pulmonary function; questionnaire survey; respiratory diseases; risk factors; smoking; swine; wood dust.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1996, Vol.30, No.2, p.212-218. 25 ref.
Ejlertsen T., et al.
Pasteurella aerogenes isolated from ulcers or wounds in humans with occupational exposure to pigs: A report of 7 Danish cases
A case report on seven Danish patients employed in livestock rearing who were bitten by pigs. Seven strains of Pasteurella aerogenes, rarely isolated from humans, were found in samples taken from the bite sites. Most bite wounds were located on the lower lateral part of the thigh. Abscess formation was the rule. Incision, drainage and antibiotic treatment were usually necessary.
Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, 1996, Vol.28, No.6, p.567-570. 16 ref.
Beekeeping: Training module (5); Trainer's manual (6); Training manual (7)
Apicultura: Módulo de formação (5); Guia de apoio ao formador (6); Manual de formação (7) [in Portuguese]
Three-volume training manual devoted to safety and health in beekeeping. The Training module contains the outline of a suggested course on OSH aimed at beekeepers. The Trainer's manual provides detailed instructions to trainers as to how to teach such a course. The Training manual contains the actual course contents. The work operations involved in beekeeping are subdivided into four main activity groups: I - installation (preparation, handling and maintenance; cleaning; installation of support equipment; distribution and movement of hives); II - Inspection of hives; III - Transportation of hives; IV - Honey extraction. For each operation, the equipment needed, the hazards and their prevention are outlined. Glossary of specialized terms used. A set of slides accompanies the materials.
Instituto de Desenvolvimento e Inspecção das Condições de Trabalho (IDICT), Av. República, 84 - 4°, 1600 Lisboa, Portugal, 1996. 3 vols. (35+39+63p.) Illus. 2 ref.
Occupational exposure and malignant lymphoma
Review of epidemiologic studies concerning the association between malignant lymphoma and exposures in a number of occupations: woodworking; farming and pesticide use; welding and related occupations; meat workers and veterinarians; and occupations involving exposure to solvents, wood preservatives, hairdyes, and rubber chemicals. The studies indicate that occupational factors, especially exposure to solvents, phenoxy herbicides and wood, play a role in the epidemiology of malignant lymphoma.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1996, Vol.9, No.4, p.309-321. 119 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Cattle associated leptospirosis and human health
This data sheet outlines the United Kingdom legal requirements for controlling the risk of cattle associated leptospirosis in humans, describes how the disease may be transmitted to humans, and provides guidance on precautions: assessing and controlling the risk; personal protective equipment; personal hygiene; correct design of milking parlours; reporting of incidents.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Dec. 1996. 2p. 3 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Common zoonoses in agriculture
This data sheet describes United Kingdom legal requirements to control the risk of zoonoses in humans, and provides guidance on precautions: occupational hygiene practices when working with livestock; use of personal protective equipment; provision of separate washing and eating facilities for farm visitors. Symptoms, treatment and control of some common zoonoses are outlined.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Dec. 1996. 3p. 3 ref.
Safety in operations of animal feed delivery
Sécurité des opérations de livraison d'aliment du bétail [in French]
This article deals with safe working methods in the transport and delivery of cattle food. Preventive measures against electrocution, falls from heights and mechanical hazards are given.
Travail et sécurité, Oct. 1996, No.553, p.52-58. Illus.
Clark K.L., Wills W., Tedders S.H., Williams D.C.
Ticks removed from dogs and animal care personnel in Orangeburg County, South Carolina
Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) were collected from animals and workers at veterinary clinics and animal shelters in Orangeburg County, South Carolina, USA from April to December 1994. A total of 623 ticks were collected; 21 from humans and 602 from dogs and cats. The most common species collected was Dermacentor variabilis, the American dog tick, known to be associated with various diseases including tick-borne rickettsial fever and tick paralysis. The medical and veterinary importance of the most frequently occurring species are discussed.
Journal of Agromedicine, 1996, Vol.3, No.4, p.45-55. 44 ref.
Langley R.L., Morrow W.E.M.
A survey of personal and occupational health and safety training for US and Canadian veterinary schools
A survey of 18 veterinary schools in the USA and Canada revealed a high incidence of scalpel/knife cuts, needlestick injuries, bites, scratches and kicks, suggesting that training in occupational safety and health could be improved. Recommendations include: development of a uniform curriculum for occupational safety and health in veterinary schools; provision of a mechanism for reporting of student injuries and illnesses; development of procedures for student immunization and physical examination; provision of training in basic first aid; and provision of information on potential health risks associated with animal handling.
Journal of Agromedicine, 1996, Vol.3, No.4, p.23-35. 39 ref.
Occupational Medicine, Hygiene and Ergonomics Society of Western France - Meetings of 16 and 17 November 1995
Société de médecine du travail, d'hygiène industrielle et d'ergonomie de l'Ouest - Séances des 16 et 17 novembre 1995 [in French]
Main subjects dealt with in papers presented at the 16-17 November 1995 meeting of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Hygiene and Ergonomics of Western France: risk of encephalopathy due to prions when performing autopsies; skin diseases in fish farming; skin diseases in hairdressing; carpal-tunnel syndrome in hairdressing; skin allergies in the rubber industry; prevention of eye injuries due to laser radiation in the aircraft industry; skin burns due to handling of vitamin K3; hospital hygiene in medical students; biological risk control in laboratory work; personnel in establishments for retired people; immune-allergic pulmonary pathology due to shiitake (mushroom from East-Asia).
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Sep. 1996, Vol.57, No.5, p.384-398.
Escande F., Bailly A., Bone S., Lemozy J.
Actinobacillus suis infection after a pig bite
A brief case report is presented of a farmer with a purulent discharge from a knee wound following a pig bite. Bacteriological testing identified the microorganism causing the infection as Actinobacillus suis, a strain rarely isolated from humans. The importance of obtaining swabs to identify the microorganism in severe infections is stressed.
Lancet, 28 Sep. 1996, Vol.348, No.9031, p.888. 5 ref.
Young G.R., Fletcher N.A., Zeidler M., Estibeiro K.L., Ironside J.W.
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in a beef farmer
This brief communication describes the diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in a beef farmer in the United Kingdom in 1995. The patient presented with visual disturbances and later developed generalized myoclonic twitching; he died three months after the onset of symptoms. A single case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) had occurred in a cow on the farm in 1991, but it was not known to what extent the farmer had been in contact with the infected cow. The case is consistent with sporadic CJD.
Lancet, 31 Aug. 1996, Vol.348, No.9027, p.610-611. 5 ref.
Kordysh E., Goldsmith J.R.
Some communicable diseases and reproductive disorders in selected Negev kibbutzim: Occupational and other environmental factors
Significant positive correlation was found between work with animals and the frequency of spontaneous abortions as well as acute upper respiratory tract infections. Women with field or orchard work history had more frequent ectopic pregnancies; such work increased also the incidence of jaundice.
Israel Journal of Occupational Health, 1996, Vol.1, No.2, p.155-159. 13 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Occupational health risks from cattle
This data sheet describes occupational risks from the cattle disease bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and from zoonoses. Contents: occurrence of BSE and limiting the spread of the disease; the risk to humans (Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease); exposure to BSE and zoonoses at work; precautions against zoonoses (avoiding cuts or puncture wounds, use of personal protective equipment); safe cleaning of bins which have contained meat and bone meal.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Sep. 1996. 3p. 1 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
This data sheet provides practical advice on health and safety in deer farming. Topics covered: deer handling and restraint; using veterinary products and tranquillizers; removing antlers; managing stock stags and hinds at calving time; slaughter; precautions against disease; risks to the public. Replaces CIS 93-879.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Aug. 1996. 4p. Illus. 4 ref.
Kacergis J.B., Jones R.B., Reeb C.K., Turner W.A., Ohman J.L., Ardman M.R., Paigen B.
Air quality in an animal facility: Particulates, ammonia, and volatile organic compounds
This study measured concentrations of ammonia, volatile organic compounds, particles and mouse allergen in an animal facility. Ammonia concentrations averaged less than 1ppm; volatile organic compounds were in the 5-15µg/m3 range (only the terpenes a-pinene and a-terpinol were consistently present in concentrations greater than in outdoor air). The primary air contaminant of known pathological significance was the mouse allergen Mus mI. A particle counter was used effectively in this animal facility to identify specific activities that generate high levels of both particles and allergens. To reduce exposure to allergen during cage changing, which is the major activity for an animal caretaker, a capture-type ventilated changing table was designed and tested. Exposure to allergen was thus reduced in the workers' breathing zone from 4.9±1.1 to 2.1±0.3ng Mus mI/m3, a level comparable to background levels.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1996, Vol.57, No.7, p.634-640. Illus. 24 ref.
Health and Safety Commission, Advisory Committee on Dangerous Pathogens
BSE (bovine spongiform encephalopathy) - Background and general occupational guidance
This booklet describes the nature and causes of BSE, occupational risks, possible routes of transmission and control measures. Basic precautions for occupational groups at risk (farmers, veterinary surgeons, slaughterhouse workers) include avoidance of cuts, abrasions or puncture wounds, use of protective clothing, face protection, personal hygiene, cleaning of work areas and equipment, and appropriate waste disposal.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk, CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Aug. 1996. 10p. 14 ref. Price: GBP 5.50.
Gómez E., García R., Galindo P.A., Feo F., Fernández F.J.
Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from sunflower
A 62-year old cowherd, with a previous history of hay fever, presented forehead dermatitis of two months standing. He had frequently handled cattle fodder over the previous six months and was also exposed to Helianthus (sunflower) plants while taking care of the livestock. Topical corticosteroids gave complete relief with rapid relapse when stopped. He was patch tested with the European standard series, an additional Compositae plant series, a cosmetics series, Helianthus pollen, the cattle fodder (composed of sunflower plants) and sunflower leaves. Only sunflower leaves and the cattle fodder gave positive results. The leaves were tested in seven controls with negative results. The patient showed negative prick tests to sunflower pollen. Specific Ig E for pollens was positive, whereas total Ig E was normal.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 1996, Vol.35, No.3, p.189-190. 8 ref.
Sigler L., Abbott S.P., Gauvreau H.
Assessment of worker exposure to airborne molds in honeybee overwintering facilities
Air samples were collected inside ten overwintering buildings at different beekeeping facilities in Alberta (Canada) both before and during routine beekeeping activities. Samples were also collected from 15 sites used for annual equipment cleaning. High levels of airborne moulds were identified, especially during cleaning activities; potentially toxic, pathogenic or allergenic moulds were recovered at all sites. Measures to help minimize worker exposure are outlined.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, May 1996, Vol.57, No.5, p.484-490. 39 ref.
Bukowski J., Brown C., Korn L.R., Meyer L.W.
Prevalence of and potential risk factors for symptoms associated with insecticide use among animal groomers
In a survey of animal groomers and pet-animal veterinarians in New Jersey, USA, approximately 36% of respondents indicated that during the 1994 flea season, they had experienced at least one of 17 symptoms associated with insecticide application. Most frequently reported were central nervous system symptoms (headache, dizziness, confusion) and skin symptoms (skin rash, numbness/tingling). Potential risk factors were identified as number of applications per season, years as an applicator, certain hygiene variables (washing hands and showering within 8 hours), certain classes of products, and status of applicator (veterinary or nonveterinary).
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 1996, Vol.38, No.5, p.528-534. 16 ref.
Preller L., et al.
Determinants of dust and endotoxin exposure of pig farmers: Development of a control strategy using empirical modelling
Personal exposure to dust and endotoxin was measured among 198 Dutch pig farmers. For each participant 8h measurements were made twice, once in the Summer of 1991 and once in the Winter of 1992. Empirical statistical modelling was applied to identify activities and farm characteristics associated with exposure. Aspects of hygiene and feeding were major characteristics associated with dust exposure. Flooring and feeding were predominant characteristics explaining variation in endotoxin exposure. Activities performed frequently, like feeding and controlling, cleaning activities and activities in which very active animals were involved, such as teeth cutting and ear tagging, were associated with exposure to dust and endotoxin. The models were used to set priorities for the development of control measures to eliminate the dust and endotoxin hazard of pig farmers.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Oct. 1995, Vol.39, No.5. p.545-557. 42 ref.
Amadori D., Nanni O., Falcini F., Saragoni A., Tison V., Callea A., Scarpi E., Ricci M., Riva N., Buiatti E.
Chronic lymphocytic leukaemias and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas by histological type in farming-animal breeding workers: A population case-control study based on job titles
A population based case-control study was conducted in an agricultural area in Italy in order to evaluate the association between farming and animal breeding and the risk of developing non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). Occupational histories and other data were collected by personal interview on 164 NHLs, 23 CLLs, diagnosed in 1988-90, and 977 controls. The article only reports the results of the analysis relative to the coding of job titles through the modified International Labour Office (ILO) classification. Estimates of odds ratios for occupational variables were calculated after adjustment for sex, age, altitude of municipality, first degree familiarity and previous Herpes zoster infection. Subjects working in agriculture associated with animal breeding are at high risk of NHL/CLLs, particularly CLLs and low grade NHLs. This finding could be related to the use of chemicals in agriculture or to exposure to animal-transmitted diseases or specific chemicals used in animal breeding.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 1995, Vol.52, p.374-379. 38 ref.
Botham P.A., Lamb C.T., Teasdale E.L., Bonner S.M., Tomenson J.A.
Allergy to laboratory animals: A follow up study of its incidence and of the influence of atopy and pre-existing sensitisation on its development
This follow-up prospective study investigated the incidence of allergy to laboratory animals (ALA) during the first two years of employment, and the effect on ALA of atopy and sensitization. The incidence of the disease during the first year of employment has remained at about 10% since the mid-1980s. The reduction in incidence and its maintenance at a lower level is thought to be due to the introduction and management of improved engineering controls, working practices, and educational programmes designed to reduce exposure to allergens from laboratory animals. The underlying incidence of immunological sensitization to animals (the presence of immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies to animal allergens) is much higher (40% after one and 53% after two years of exposure). Both atopic diathesis and pre-sensitization to laboratory animals increased the likelihood that a person would develop ALA. Neither factor predicted the disease accurately, therefore their use should be restricted to the identification of people who may be more susceptible to the development of ALA.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 1995, Vol.52, No.2, p.129-133. Illus. 13 ref.
Warts in aquarium industry workers
Case studies of two marine aquarium shop workers with common warts on the hands are described. Both workers handled aquarium gravel and sharp-edged coral skeletons, and the hands were frequently wet with cuts and abrasions. Possible causes of the warts in these workers and workers in other industries are discussed.
Contact Dermatitis, Nov. 1995, Vol.33, No.5, p.348-349. Illus. 10 ref.
Sanderson W.T., Weber A., Echt A.
Case reports: Epidemic eye and upper respiratory irritation in poultry processing plants
Case studies conducted at 6 US poultry processing plants revealed that processors and inspectors experienced acute eye and upper respiratory irritation associated with their work. More than 90% of the workers reported having symptoms in the hanging, evisceration, and inspection areas at one plant. These outbreaks were all associated with problems or changes in the plants' water chlorination and super-chlorination processes. The inception of complaints at three of the plants was closely associated with the switch to chloramination as a method of disinfection by the local water companies. Chloramination has been reported to produce and release the gas trichloramine, a mucous membrane irritant. Chlorine levels were also measured in water and at times were found to range well above the 20ppm concentration required by the US Department of Agriculture for sanitizing the evisceration machines. Methods used by the companies to control or eliminate the complaints are described.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Jan. 1995, Vol.10, No.1, p.43-49. Illus. 23 ref.
Donham K.J., Reynolds S.J., Whitten P., Merchant J.A., Burmeister L., Popendorf W.J.
Respiratory dysfunction in swine production facility workers: Dose-response relationships of environmental exposures and pulmonary function
In a study of 207 swine producers using intensive housing systems, positive correlations were observed between change in pulmonary function over a work period and exposure to total dust, respirable dust, ammonia, respirable endotoxin and the interactions of age-of-producer and dust exposure and years-of-working-in-the-facility and dust exposure. Correlations between exposure and response were stronger after six years of exposure. Total dust and ammonia were identified as the two primary environmental predictors of pulmonary function decrements. Exposure concentrations of no greater than 2.8mg/m3 for dust and no greater than 7.5ppm for ammonia are recommended.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 1995, Vol.27, No.3, p.405-418. Illus. 29 ref.
Bartelink A.K.M., van Kregten E.
Streptococcus suis as threat to pig-farmers and abattoir workers
This communication briefly reports two cases of septic shock following infection with Streptococcus suis in man: an abattoir worker who died following the infection, and a pig farmer who suffered multiple organ failure and recovered after intensive therapy. Human beings usually develop meningitis following S. suis infection. Septic shock is rare but commonly fatal; early recognition in pig farmers and abattoir workers is essential.
Lancet, 23/30 Dec. 1995, Vol.346, No.8991/8992, p.1707. 4 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Personal buoyancy equipment on inland and inshore waters
This data sheet concerns the use of personal buoyancy equipment at fish farms, floating cage units, estate fisheries and similar establishments. Contents: causal factors in accidental drowning; legal requirements for hazard evaluation and risk control; selecting, using and maintaining personal buoyancy equipment; operating automatic inflation mechanisms; role of management; worker training; care of equipment (pre-wear checks, inspection and testing, storage).
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1995. 4p. Illus. 5 ref.
Nielsen B.H., Breum N.O.
Exposure to air contaminants in chicken catching
The job of a chicken catcher in the modern poultry industry is to catch the chickens (raised in chicken houses housing up to 50,000 birds) by hand and place them in cages for transportation by truck to a processing plant. Two methods are used for loading birds into cages: the drawer method (DM) (loading birds into cages mounted in a rack standing on the floor) and the truck method (TM) (loading birds into cages on a trailer truck parked inside the chicken house). According to this Danish study, DM catchers are exposed to higher concentrations of hazardous substances (endotoxins, viable bacteria, viable fungi) than TM catchers, except for ammonia. Full-shift dust exposure exceeded the Danish occupational exposure limit of 3mg/m3 by at least a factor of 2 (the concentration of respirable dust ranged from 18% to 28% of the total dust concentration). Bacterial endotoxin concentrations in total dust were also 4-8 times higher than the 10ng/m3 limit recommended for poultry processing workers in the US. Exposure to microorganisms was also very high. In light of the high levels of exposure to airborne contaminants, the development of preventive measures is recommended.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1995, Vol.56, No.8, p.804-808. Illus. 12 ref.
A rash and chemical burns in a cowboy exposed to permethrin
A case report is presented of a cowboy suffering from eczema and chemical burns on his arm and shoulder following misuse of a fly spray containing the pesticide permethrin. The patient used an underdiluted formulation and wore a long sleeve shirt which became soaked during the spraying. The case highlights the need to ascertain the history of a patient presenting with a rash and to ask about chemical exposure.
Journal of Agromedicine, 1995, Vol.2, No.3, p.25-28. 7 ref.
Stephens R., Spurgeon A., Beach J., Calvert I., Berry H., Levy L., Harrington J.M.
Health and Safety Executive
An investigation into the possible chronic neuropsychological and neurological effects of occupational exposure to organophosphates in sheep farmers
A study was made of mood, symptoms, cognitive functioning, psychiatric state and neurological symptoms in a group of 146 male sheep farmers and farm workers exposed to organophosphates through sheep dipping. Acute, delayed and chronic effects were assessed by means of questionnaire, neuropsychological tests and neurological examination. The study confirmed the occurrence of subtle chronic effects on the nervous system in exposed individuals; further analysis indicated that these effects occurred in individuals with only two years of exposure. Although the effects identified are not severe, results suggest that exposure to organophosphates should be reduced by encouraging the use of protective clothing and appropriate dipping equipment.
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1995. xiv, 187p. Illus. 66 ref. Price: GBP 35.00.
Salmon farming: occupational health in a new rural industry
Salmon farming techniques are outlined and medical problems associated with marine safety, fish husbandry, fish-farm diving and fish disease treatments are described. Recommended protective measures include: use of oilskins and thermal protection to prevent hypothermia; lifejackets to prevent drowning; safe handling of pesticides and use of personal protective equipment; safe procedures during fish immunization to prevent needlestick injuries.
Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1995, Vol.45, No.2, p.89-92. 7 ref.
Carvalheiro M.F., Peterson Y., Rubenowitz E., Rylander R.
Bronchial reactivity and work-related symptoms in farmers
Work-related respiratory symptoms and bronchial reactivity were studied in 76 never-smoking farmers and in a control group not exposed to organic dusts. The farmers were divided into those working with vegetables or grain crops, with animals but not swine, and with swine. The extent of symptoms was evaluated with a specific organic dust questionnaire. Bronchial reactivity was assessed with the methacholine challenge test. An increased incidence of organic dust toxic syndrome, mucous membrane irritation (MMI) and chronic bronchitis (CB) was found among farmers working with swine or other animals. Pulmonary function baseline values were normal. Bronchial reactivity was increased and related to subjective symptoms of MMI and CB. There was also a relation between fatigue at work and bronchial reactivity.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 1995, Vol.27, No.1, p.65-74. Illus. 21 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Videotape on the hazards of exposure to sheep dipping chemicals (pesticides).
CFL Vision, P.O. Box 35, Wetherby LS23 7EX, United Kingdom, 1994. Videotape. Length: 22min. Price: GBP 11.49 (hire), GBP 38.30 (sale). ###
Choudat D., Goehen M., Korobaeff M., Boulet A., Dewitte J.D., Martin M.H.
Respiratory symptoms and bronchial reactivity among pig and dairy farmers
This study assessed respiratory manifestations and bronchial reactivity among French pig and dairy farmers. It involved 102 pig farmers, 51 dairy farmers and 81 controls (all male). Pulmonary function tests were performed before and after a methacholine challenge (cumulative doses 80, 240, and 560µg). Airborne dust, ammonia and CO2 were measured inside 28 pig confinement buildings. The pig farmers were exposed to a total dust level of 2.41mg/m3, with a low level of respirable particle concentration. Farmers had significantly higher prevalence of cough and morning phlegm than controls. Before the methacholine challenge, the dairy farmers had non-significantly lower mean lung function values than the other groups. Among non-asthmatic subjects, non-specific bronchial hyperreactivity was significantly higher among farmers than among controls. The reduction in FEV1 was greater than 10% in 6.7% of the controls, 17.9% of the swine workers and 35.6% of the dairy farmers. Respiratory symptoms were significantly more common among pig farmers without original lung function impairment. However, all farmers showed increased bronchial reactivity.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Feb. 1994, Vol.20, No.1, p.48-54. Illus. 36 ref.
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