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Livestock rearing - 310 entries found

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CIS 04-361 Hoffmann H.J., Iversen M., Brandslund I., Sigsgaard T., Omland Ø., Oxvig C., Holmskov U., Bjermer L., Jensenius J.C., Dahl R.
Plasma C3d levels of young farmers correlate with respirable dust exposure levels during normal work in swine confinement buildings
Work in swine confinement buildings may lead to an inflammatory response and may be associated with increased levels of acute phase proteins. This study compared the inflammatory response of former farm workers who had previously developed respiratory symptoms of wheeze, cough, tightness of the chest during work in swine confinement buildings and had stopped work because of these symptoms, with that of age-matched former farm workers who were known not to have developed such symptoms. Both groups were subjected to an experimental exposure in a swine confinement building for three hours. Complement activation and acute phase proteins were measured in blood samples and broncho-alveolar lavage. Plasma C3d levels correlated significantly with respirable dust. There was complement activation in response to respirable dust, more so among cases than in the control group. It is concluded that acute occupational exposure to organic dust containing endotoxin leads to a weak systemic inflammatory response.
AAEM - Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 2003, Vol.10, No.1, p.53-60. Illus. 48 ref. [in English]

CIS 03-1946 Coutarel F., Daniellou F., Dugué B.
Design of a system for the prevention of musculoskeletal diseases: Example of a duck meat cutting factory
Concevoir le système pour prévenir les troubles musculo-squelettiques: l'exemple d'une salle de découpe de canards gras [in French]
An ergonomic improvement programme currently underway at a duck abattoir and meat processing factory aimed at the prevention of musculoskeletal diseases is described. The programme is managed by a steering committee and involves the participation of groups of operators and managers. Tasks include general and systematic job studies, interviews, video recordings, questionnaires and visits to sites having adopted best practices. Results are still provisional, but a number of positive aspects are already observable both in workers' health and in the productivity of the enterprise.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Apr. 2003, Vol.64, No.2, p.89-99. Illus. 28 ref.

CIS 03-1187 Rammeh H., Ajroudi F., Abdelwaheb R., Annabi F., Hammami H., Daly L., Nouaigui H., Ben Laïba M., Ben Khedher A.
Study of respiratory morbidity among poultry farm workers
Etude de la morbidité respiratoire chez les éleveurs de volailles [in French]
Poultry farm workers are at risk of respiratory allergies as a consequence of their exposure to droppings, feathers and fine epidermal desquamations. This cross- sectional study was carried out at three Tunisian poultry farming enterprises employing a total of 129 exposed workers. Concentrations of respirable dust and harmful chemicals were determined, and workers were subjected to medical examinations. Dust and chemicals were below permissible levels. Chronic cough and/or bronchorrhoea was present among 8.6% of the study population, and asthma among 4%. Taken together, respiratory diseases including cough, dyspnoea and rhinitis were found among 12.5% of the subjects. Finally, radiographic anomalies typical of allergic alveolitis were found in 5.4% of subjects.
SST - Santé et Sécurité au Travail, Oct. 2003, No.27, p.14-17. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 03-1427 Rautiala S., Kangas J., Louhelainen K., Reiman M.
Farmers' exposure to airborne microorganisms in composting swine confinement buildings
Exposure to airborne microorganisms was studied in 12 composting swine confinement buildings and in seven buildings with traditional slatted-floor pit systems. Airborne cultivable mesophilic, xerophilic, and thermotolerant fungi, mesophilic bacteria and thermophilic actinobacteria were determined using a six-stage impactor. Total concentrations of microorganisms were determined with filter sampling and direct counts using a microscope. In swine confinement buildings where the composting system was functioning properly, the concentrations of microorganisms were 10-1000 times higher than in traditional swine buildings. High concentrations were found of thermotolerant fungi and thermophilic actinobacteria (up to 105CFU/m3), considered to be the main causative agents of farmer's lung, in the composting swine confinement buildings that were studied. Therefore, personal protection is strongly recommended in composting swineries, especially during the turning of the compost bed.
AIHA Journal, Sep.-Oct. 2003, Vol.64, No.5, p.673-677. 25 ref.

CIS 03-666 Blasco Mayor A.
Prevention of occupational hazards in the livestock rearing sub-sector
Prevención de riesgos laborales en el subsector de ganadería [in Spanish]
Following an outline of working conditions in the livestock rearing sector in Spain, this article specifies the main risk factors, which include: risk of traumatic accidents; posture and physical workload; biological agents; chemicals and other substances (dusts, aerosols); exposure to natural phenomena (solar radiation); excrement (manure pits); risks due to the growing, processing and storage of fodder (mechanical and fire hazards, toxic gases, physical workload and posture). Finally, it proposes solutions for improving safety and health in this sector. The variety of animal species and modes of farming would require a plethora of preventive measures. Recommendations are therefore limited to several general approaches aimed at improving prevention, including: epidemiological studies; creating databases of good work practices; promoting prevention measures in the form of guides and other documents; research activities; inspection programmes for ensuring the safety of products and machinery; prevention programmes and systems for ensuring the compliance with occupational safety and health legislation.
Prevención, Jan.-Mar. 2003, No.163, p.18-34. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 03-936 Ruiz Figueroa M.J., García Puente N.E.
Prevention of biological hazards in livestock rearing
La prevención del riesgo biológico en la ganadería [in Spanish]
The livestock rearing sector is subject to the provisions of Royal Decree 664/1997 of 12 May on the protection of workers against biological hazards (see CIS 98-411). Following a brief overview of legal requirements with respect to the prevention of biological hazards in livestock rearing and a presentation on the current situation of the sector in Spain (types of farms and production data), this document, aimed at occupational health services goes on to provide information enabling the qualitative evaluation of biological hazards and the control of preventive measures in the sector. Topics covered: definitions of biological pathogens, risk groups and occupational risk classification; tables showing the hazards associated with certain tasks in various sectors mentioning the biological hazards to which workers are exposed, the hazard group and the disease caused; clinical, biological or functional diagnosis of all diseases caused by biological agents; technical and medical prevention measures for various biological hazards; recommendations for the prevention of hazards in livestock rearing.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2003. 140p. Illus. 83 ref. Price: EUR 3.44.

CIS 03-394 Doolette D.J., Gorman D.F.
Evaluation of decompression safety in an occupational diving group using self reported diving exposure and health status
The aim of this study was to evaluate tuna farm occupational diving practice against existing decompression models and to describe a method for collecting and modelling self reported field decompression data. Objective depth/time profiles were obtained from depth/time recorders worn by tuna farm professional divers. The health status of divers was measured at the end of each working day using a self-administered health survey that produces an interval diver health score (DHS) with possible values ranging from 0 to 30. Depth/time profiles were analysed according to existing decompression models. The mean risk of decompression sickness was calculated as 0.005. The mean DHS following diving was 3 and following non-diving activities was 1. After accounting for between diver variability, DHS was found to increase by one unit for every 1% increase in the risk of decompression sickness. This method for the collection and analysis of self-reported objective decompression data from occupational diving groups can potentially be used as the basis for development of purpose designed occupational diving decompression schedules.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2003, Vol.60, No.6, p.418-422. Illus. 13 ref.


CIS 03-1663 Lee E., Burnett C.A., Lalich N., Cameron L.L., Sestito J.P.
Proportionate mortality of crop and livestock farmers in the United States, 1984-1993
An analysis of death certificate data from 26 U.S. states for the years 1984-1993 was conducted to test the hypothesis that livestock farmers are more likely to be exposed to a variety of different farming hazards than crop farmers. Cause-specific proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs) were determined using a NIOSH computer program designed to calculate sex and race specific PMRs for various occupations and industries. Among white male (WM) livestock farmers, there was a significantly higher mortality from cancer of the pancreas, prostate and brain, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, multiple myeloma, acute and chronic lymphoid leukaemia and Parkinson's disease. WM crop farmers showed significantly higher mortality risk for cancer of the lip, skin, multiple myeloma and chronic lymphoid leukaemia. Results suggest that livestock farmers might be more exposed to carcinogens than crop farmers.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 2002, Vol.42, No.5, p.410-420. 48 ref.

CIS 03-1712
Health and Safety Executive
Keeping cattle in fields with public access
The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 (CIS 02-1507) require that employers and the self-employed assess the risks from their work activities to which employees or others are exposed. This information sheet describes the major potential hazards associated with keeping cattle, including bulls, in fields with public access. Contents: legal aspects; planning and actions to be taken before putting cattle in fields with public access; signs to inform the public when a bull is in the field. Update of CIS 98-181.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, May 2002. 2p. [in English]

CIS 03-1931
Health and Safety Executive
Avoiding ill health at open farms - Advice to teachers
This information sheet provides advice to teachers on how to reduce health risks to children during visits to open farms. The main hazard is a transmission of animal microorganisms to humans; E. coli O157 in particular can cause severe illness in young children. Contents: precautions to be taken before the visit (reading and understanding the advice in the main information sheet aimed at farmers (CIS 01-580), making provisions for the proper supervision of children during the visit); precautions to be taken during and after the visit (preventing children from touching animals, washing of hands, eating arrangements, supervision of children). Reprinted with updated references (replaces the supplement sheet analysed as part of CIS 01-580).
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Sep. 2002. 1p. [in English]

CIS 03-433 Larsson B.M., Larsson K., Malmberg P., Palmberg L.
Airways inflammation after exposure in a swine confinement building during cleaning procedure
The purpose this study was to investigate health effects during cleaning of a pigsty and to evaluate the effect of respirators. Sixteen volunteers were exposed for three hours during cleaning of a pigsty with a high pressure waterjet cleaner. Seven were equipped with a mask. The bronchial responsiveness increased in all subjects following exposure, significantly more in the group exposed without respirators. The cell concentration (mainly neutrophilic granulocytes) in nasal lavage fluid as well as the concentration of interleukin-8 increased significantly only in those subjects without respirators. In peripheral blood, an increase of neutrophilic granulocytes was observed in both groups, although it was significantly higher in the group without mask. The inhalable and respirable dust levels were 0.94mg/m3 and 0.56mg/m3 respectively.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 2002, Vol.41, No.4, p.250-258. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 03-307 Jamal G.A., Hansen S., Pilkington A., Buchanan D., Gillham R.A., Abdel-Azis M., Julu P.O.O., Al-Rawas S.F., Hurley F., Ballantyne J.P.
A clinical neurological, neurophysiological, and neuropsychological study of sheep farmers and dippers exposed to organophosphate pesticides
The objective of this study was to highlight clinical diseases of subjects with abnormal indices of peripheral neuropathy identified in an earlier field study of sheep farmers exposed to organophosphate pesticides during dipping. This case-control study (79 subjects) was nested within the cross sectional study (685 subjects) of sheep farmers from the field study. Subjects were divided into three groups on the basis of the absence, possibility or certainty of signs of neuropathy. The incidence of clinical neuropathy based on nerve conduction measurements was 7% in the "without neuropathy" group and 52% in the probable or definite neuropathy group. Sensory abnormalities were found more often than motor deficits. Small diameter nerve fibres were also affected more than large fibres. Increasing severity of neuropathy was associated with anxiety and depression as measured in the neuropsychological tests.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2002, Vol.59, No.7, p.434-441. 28 ref.

CIS 02-1932 Goodno L.E., Stave G.M.
Primary and secondary allergies to laboratory animals
Although laboratory animal allergy (LAA) is a significant occupational hazard among workers exposed to laboratory animals, few studies have evaluated long-term risks to workers. In this study, surveillance data from a ten-year LAA prevention programme were analysed to estimate incidence rates of primary and secondary LAA and to evaluate the effectiveness of the prevention programme in reducing the development of primary LAA. The ten-year incidence rates of primary and secondary LAA were 1.34 and 11 cases per 100 person-years, respectively. The annual incidence of primary LAA was reduced from 3.6% to 0% in the first five years and did not rise above 1.2% over the remaining years, whereas the incidence of secondary LAA was greater than 8% in most years. These findings suggest that programmes effective at preventing primary LAA may need to be evaluated for their effectiveness at protecting against further risk.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2002, Vol.44, No.12, p.1143-1152. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 02-945
Health and Safety Executive
Common zoonoses in agriculture
This data sheet describes United Kingdom legal requirements for the control of the risk of zoonoses in humans, and provides guidance on precautions: occupational hygiene practices when working with livestock; use of personal protective equipment; provision of separate washing and eating facilities for farm visitors. Symptoms, treatment and control of some common zoonoses are outlined. Replaces CIS 01-883.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Feb. 2002. 6p. 3 ref.

CIS 02-953 Payne W., Culvenor J., Lawrance M., Harvey J., Cowley S., Stuart D., Williams R.
Reducing the energy cost of dragging sheep during sheep shearing
The task of dragging sheep into position for shearing has been reported by shearers as the most physically demanding and one of the highest injury risk aspects of shearing, particularly with regard to back injury. This study aimed to identify which of the currently used drag paths induced the lowest energy consumption and risk of injury. The drag path with the lowest work economy (oxygen cost per sheep dragged per minute) and highest injury risk is used by left-handed shearers who are shearing from a workstation which is designed for right-handed shearers. Significantly, there were no observable differences in the work economy of the two drag paths which were used most frequently and which involved the lowest injury risk. These data have been used in advocating the adoption of simple shearing shed design solutions to assist in the control of injury risk and energy expenditure in the wool industry.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Apr. 2002, Vol.18, No.2, p.173-179. Illus. 10 ref.


CIS 06-869 Guidelines on occupational safety and health in fishing and aquaculture operation
Detailed safety guide to safety and health in fishing and aquaculture work.
Department of Occupational Safety and Health, Ministry of Human Resources, Aras 2, 3 dan 4, Blok D3, Parcel D, Pusat Pentadbiran Kerajaan Persekutuan, 62502 Putrajaya, Malaysia, 2001. 67p. [in English]

CIS 03-929 Pelle-Duporte D., Gendre J.C.
Outbreaks of ornithosis in a poultry processing plant
Epidémies d'ornithose dans un abattoir de volailles [in French]
Psittacosis or ornithosis, also known as avian chlamidiosis, is an infectious zoonosis caused by Chlamydia psittaci bacteria, of which birds are the usual vectors. In humans, it causes pneumopathy and other flu-like symptoms. The two outbreaks described in this article occurred in a poultry processing plant in the west of France. Thanks to their knowledge of the work environment, occupational physicians were able in both cases to establish a diagnosis and to coordinate the inquiry among workers and their physicians, thereby enabling a prompt and efficient treatment of the affected workers. These two outbreaks are not isolated cases, other instances having occurred in the poultry industry.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 2001, No.85, p.49-57. 22 ref. [in French]

CIS 02-675 Radon K., Weber C., Iversen M., Danuser B., Pedersen S., Nowak D.
Exposure assessment and lung function in pig and poultry farmers
To describe the relation between spirometric observations, farming characteristics and variables of exposure to organic dust measured during work in animal buildings, 40 pig farmers in Denmark and 36 poultry farmers in Switzerland were chosen randomly and assessed during one working day. It was found that mean baseline spirometric results in pig farmers were higher than in poultry farmers (forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) = 108.3, standard deviation (SD) = 16.7, compared to 100.2, SD=14.2). Baseline lung function results were significantly associated with ventilation of the animal houses. Furthermore, temperature was related to spirometric findings in pig farmers.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2001, Vol.58, No.6, p.405-410. 28 ref.

CIS 02-708 Mustajbegovic J., Zuskin E., Schachter E.N., Kern J., Vrcic-Keglevic M., Vitale K., Ebling Z.
Respiratory findings in livestock farmworkers
The prevalence of acute and chronic respiratory symptoms and lung function were investigated in 236 (169 male and 67 female) livestock farm workers. The prevalence of acute and chronic respiratory symptoms was recorded by means of a questionnaire. Lung function was measured by recording the maximum expiratory flow-volume curves. There was a high prevalence of almost all chronic respiratory symptoms in farmers: highest among men for chronic cough (27.2%) and highest among women for dyspnoea (28.3%). Occupational asthma was diagnosed in 3.6% of the men and 1.5% of the women. A large number of workers of both sexes complained of acute work-related symptoms, highest for dry cough (52.2%) and shortness of breath (44.9%). Lung function data among these workers demonstrated a trend toward lower lung function in general. Analysis reveals significant effects of length of employment and smoking in male and length of employment in female livestock farm workers.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2001, Vol.43, No.6, p.576-584. 51 ref.

CIS 02-257 Evaluation of occupational hazards in slaughterhouses - Guide to self-evaluation in cattle and swine rearing
Evaluation des risques professionnels en abattoir - Guide d'autodiagnostic en bouverie-porcherie [in French]
The high level of occupational accidents and the growing occurrence of occupational diseases in the meat sector has lead to an industry-wide approach to evaluate occupational hazards, in order to implement improvements in working conditions, safety and health. The purpose of this guide is to enable enterprises in the meat sector to conduct a self-evaluation of the hazards and to implement corrective measures. The following aspects are covered through examples, questions and checklists: how to identify critical hazards; analysing critical hazards and searching for solutions; developing and implementing a safety and health plan within the enterprise.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 2001. 71p. Illus.

CIS 01-1781 Jackson C.A., Spurgeon A.
Health and Safety Executive
Symptom-reporting following occupational exposure to organophosphate pesticides in sheep dip
The aim of the study was to investigate whether the acute symptoms reported by farmers less than 24 hours after dipping with organophosphates (OPs) could be grouped into distinct symptom categories. Re-analysis of the symptom data obtained in the Health and Safety Executive's Contract Research Report 74/1995 (see CIS 95-1450) was performed in order to identify recognizable cluster of core symptoms in exposed subjects, and to evaluate if exposed and control subjects differed in their pattern of symptom reporting. The core symptom groups were also analysed alongside a surrogate of exposure data to assess if significant increases in reporting of any core symptoms were dose-related.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2001. viii, 35p. Illus. 8 ref. Price: GBP 10.00.


CIS 02-1933 Duchaine C., Grimard Y., Cormier Y.
Influence of building maintenance, environmental factors, and seasons on airborne contaminants of swine confinement buildings
Eight pigpens were visited twice during winter and once during summer to measure the concentrations of biological and chemical contaminants. For each of the premises, the cleanliness, number of ventilators, air temperature, number of animals and building size were noted. Air samples were taken to measure relative humidity, CO2, ammonia, total dust, microbiological counts and endotoxin levels. Significant decreases in bacterial levels, dust, ammonia and CO2 were observed during summer sampling when compared with winter levels. Mould counts were positively correlated with dirtiness scores, while bacterial counts were negatively correlated with this parameter. Bacteria and endotoxins were correlated with the number of animals. Ambient gases (CO2 and ammonia) correlated with each other. Bacteria were the most important contaminant in swine confinement buildings, and endotoxin levels found were also very high.
AIHA Journal, Jan.-Feb. 2000, Vol.61, No.1, p.56-63. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 01-1782 Pilkington A., Cowie H.A., Kidd M., Lancaster R.J., Buchanan D.
Health and Safety Executive
Risk perception of sheep dippers
This study is a follow-up to an earlier study of farm workers involved in sheep dipping sessions, which suggested that certain tasks and behaviours were associated with high body intake of organophosphorus compounds (OPs) as measured by urinary metabolites. The study was designed to explore the factors which determine behaviour during sheep dipping, and involved 60 farmers who had participated in the earlier study. Data was collected using self-administered questionnaires on knowledge about OPs, safe working practices, perception of risk and attitudes towards risk taking. It was found that lack of knowledge on the safe handling of concentrate, routes of exposure and effective personal protective equipment were the most important factors contributing towards unsafe behaviour. The implications of these findings are discussed, in particular with respect to training needs.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2000. iv, 41p. 17 ref. Price: GBP 10.00.

CIS 01-1153 Donham K.J., Cumro D., Reynolds S.J., Merchant J.A.
Dose-response relationships between occupational aerosol exposures and cross-shift declines of lung function in poultry workers: Recommendations for exposure limits
Previous dose-response research on swine workers has resulted in US exposure limit recommendations of 2.5mg/m3 for total dust, 0.23mg/m3 for respirable dust, 100EU/m3 for endotoxin and 7ppm for ammonia. No similar recommendations had been reported previously for poultry workers. Therefore, a study was conducted to examine dose-response relationships of bioaerosol exposures and worker respiratory health in this industry. 257 poultry workers were studied for respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function and exposure to dust (total and respirable), endotoxins and ammonia. The relationships between exposures and response were studied by correlation and multiple regression. Significant dose-response relationships were observed between exposures and pulmonary function decrements over a work shift. Exposure concentrations associated with significant pulmonary function decrements were 2.4mg/m3 for total dust, 0.16mg/m3 for respirable dust, 614EU/m3 for endotoxins and 12ppm for ammonia.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2000, Vol.42, No.3, p.260-269. Illus. 36 ref.

CIS 01-1152 Gallo R., Cozzani E., Brusati C., Guarrera M.
Ewe milker's hand dermatitis
Case study of a non atopic 25-year-old Sardinian shepherd with recurrent hand dermatitis. Three months after having started sheep breeding, he developed an itchy, fissured hand dermatitis which lasted for the whole lambing and milking season. The eczema was exacerbated by the activity of milking the ewes and partially cleared in summer. Patch testing was negative. After applying wet ewe wool on the palm for 20 minutes, whealing was visible at the site of application.
Contact Dermatitis, June 2000, Vol.42, No.6, p.361-362. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 01-1151 Kanerva L., Alanko K., Pelttari M., Estlander T.
Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from Compositae in agricultural work
A 36-year-old non atopic man working as an agricultural substitute worker fir the past 12 years developed severe vesicular dermatitis on the back of his hands and milder dermatitis on his lower arms, upper chest and face. In his work, he had fed cattle with hay contaminated with weeds such as Compositae (Asteraceae), and had also been exposed to many agricultural chemicals. Away from work he was symptom-free. Patch tests with various Compositae showed a strong positive reaction. It was concluded that the patient had occupational allergic contact dermatitis from Compositae and it was recommended that he should change to a job where no exposure to such substances would occur.
Contact Dermatitis, Apr. 2000, Vol.42, No.4, p.238-239. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 01-883
Health and Safety Executive
Common zoonoses in agriculture
This data sheet describes United Kingdom legal requirements for the control of the risk of zoonoses in humans, and provides guidance on precautions: occupational hygiene practices when working with livestock; use of personal protective equipment; provision of separate washing and eating facilities for farm visitors. Symptoms, treatment and control of some common zoonoses are outlined. Replaces CIS 97-1012.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Rev.ed., Nov. 2000. 6p. 2 ref.

CIS 01-790 Sprince N.L., Lewis M.Q., Whitten P.S., Reynolds S.J., Zwerling C.
Respiratory symptoms: Associations with pesticides, silos, and animal confinement in the Iowa Farm Family Health and Hazard Surveillance Project
A population-based study was carried out in the state of Iowa (United States) in order to assess associations between symptoms of airway disease and several farm exposures, including to pesticides, grain dust, substances encountered in connection with animal confinement and in silos. A total of 385 farmer participants provided questionnaire responses concerning demographic, respiratory symptom, smoking and exposure information. The most frequently reported respiratory symptoms were flu-like symptoms in connection with dusty work (22%), dyspnoea (21%) and phlegm (15%). Applying pesticides to livestock was associated with significantly increased odds of phlegm (OR=1.91), chest ever wheezy (OR=3.92) and flu-like symptoms (OR=2.93). Conventional vertical silos were significantly associated with increased odds of chest ever wheezy (OR=2.75) and flu-like symptoms (OR=2.40). There were also significant associations between several respiratory symptoms and the presence of animal confinement facilities on the farm.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2000, Vol.38, No.4, p.455-462. 19 ref.

CIS 01-580
Health and Safety Executive
Avoiding ill health at open farms - Advice to farmers; Advice to teachers
This information sheet provides advice to farmers and others responsible for open farms on how to reduce health risks to visitors, particularly to children. A supplementary sheet is aimed at teachers. The main hazard is a transmission of animal microorganisms to humans; E. coli O157 in particular can cause severe illness in young children. Main topics covered: legal requirements for open farms; risk assessment; risk control; farm layout and access areas to visitors; animal contact; eating areas; washing facilities; visitor information and signs; staff training and supervision; livestock management procedures; manure and compost; laying out a "no contact" farm. Additional sources of advice to farmers are provided. Replaces CIS 98-676.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, June 2000. 4p. + 1p. (Supplement). [in English]

CIS 01-52
Health and Safety Executive
Health and safety on floating fish farm installations
This booklet provides guidance on the design, construction and safe use of floating fish farm installations, including fish pens or cages, walkways, gangways, vehicle ways, land access ways and shelters. Topics covered include: construction and maintenance of installations; guardrails and working surfaces; safety and rescue equipment; weather protective clothing; shelters; lighting; electrical hazards; radio communications; manual handling; lifting operations; facilities; first aid; health hazards; diving operations; training and supervision; sea conditions; navigation markers; boats; legislation applicable in the United Kingdom. Replaces CIS 97-1476.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2nd ed., Feb. 2000. 14p. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 00-1330 Radon K., Garz S., Schottky A., Koops F., Hartung J., Szadkowski D., Nowak D.
Lung function and work-related exposure in pig farmers with respiratory symptoms
To evaluate characteristics of pigsties associated with the development of respiratory morbidity among 100 pig farmers with work-related respiratory symptoms, a standardized questionnaire was used, and lung function assessed immediately before and after pigs feeding. Exposure to dust and endotoxins was determined by personal sampling. Among these farmers, baseline lung function results were shown to be negatively associated with duration of employment, number of pigs on the farm, manual feeding and ventilation. The decrease in forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second over the feeding period was negatively correlated with air velocity, whereas respirable dust concentrations were shown to be significant predictors of maximal midexpiratory flow (MMEF25/75) decline. In conclusion, among symptomatic pig farmers, those with higher numbers of pigs and longer duration of employment are at highest risk for developing functional impairment.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2000, Vol.42, No.8, p.814-820. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 00-658 Occupational safety and health in agriculture, forestry and livestock rearing
This CD-ROM includes articles related to agriculture, forestry and livestock rearing from the ILO Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety (see CIS 99-1860), articles on the safety and health of workers in these branches of activity from national and international institutions, ILO codes of practice and booklets on forestry and agriculture and on topics such as chemicals and ergonomics that are critical for safety and health in these industries. It also includes international safety cards on agrochemicals, indexed in alphabetical order, by CAS number and by the risks involved from the chemicals, 3D animations on tractor safety, a video on safety in forestry operations as well as hundreds of photographs, drawings and charts.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2000. CD-ROM for at least 12-speed CD-ROM drive, Windows 95, 98, 2000 or NT, Internet Explorer 4.x or Netscape Navigator 4.6 (or any later version; a copy of Internet Explorer is provided).

CIS 00-478 de Cock P., van Ginkel C.J.W., Faber W.R., Bruynzeel D.P.
Occupational airborne allergic contact dermatitis from sawdust in livestock sheds
Report of two cases: a 21-year-old farmer's son working week-ends on his parents' pig and cattle farm who developed dermatitis on the face and forearms and a 43-year old dairy farmer with eczema of the hands. Both had positive patch tests to colophony. The dairy farmer also showed a positive reaction to penicillin. It was concluded that they had occupational airborne allergic contact dermatitis from the colophony in sawdust in livestock sheds. An allergic contact dermatitis to penicillin was also diagnosed for the dairy farmer.
Contact Dermatitis, Feb. 2000, Vol.42, No.2, p.113. 5 ref.

CIS 00-475 Golbabaei F., Islami F.
Evaluation of workers' exposure to dust, ammonia and endotoxin in poultry industries at the province of Isfahan, Iran
This study was conducted to assess various environmental exposure measurements (total dust, ammonia and endotoxin) of an unspecified number of workers in 13 poultry barns in the province of Isfahan, Iran. The results show that the workers who worked in enclosed systems of parent stock barns have the highest exposure to total and respirable dust: 21.3 ± 3.2 and 4.6 ± 0.9mg/m3, respectively. In comparison with different ages of chicken, the highest concentration of total and respirable dust were 5.4 ± 0.7 and 3.3 ± 0.7mg/m3 in the 45th day. In the above-mentioned situation, the results of endotoxin concentrations were 20.6 ± 1.1, 23.6 ± 2.2, 21.3 ± 1.2 and 26.8 ± 1.8ng/m3 respectively. Ammonia concentrations had the highest rate in enclosed systems of laying hens in winter and the 45th day of chicken age, measuring 33.2 ± 5.2 and 20.2 ± 3.0mg/m3, respectively.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2000, Vol.38, No.1, p.41-46. Illus. 22 ref.


CIS 02-307 Pomorska K.
General evaluation of risk associated with the use of pesticides and other chemical substances on animal breeding and plant production farms
The general characteristics of chemical risk on farms in Poland are presented. The paper describes the risk associated with the natural occurrence of chemicals (such as ammonia and hydrogen sulfide) in the process of animal breeding and the risk connected with the use of artificial fertilizers and pesticides. Pesticides are briefly described taking into consideration toxicity classes and toxic effects. Exposure to pesticides is presented for individual methods and related activities. Finally, the risk of exposure to pesticides in orchards and greenhouses is discussed.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 1999, Vol.5, No.3, p.449-457. 17 ref.

CIS 01-1531 Crépy M.N.
Contact dermatitis from proteins - An underestimated occupational skin disease
Dermatite de contact aux protéines - Une dermatose professionnelle sous-estimée [in French]
Occupational contact dermatitis from proteins concerns mainly workers in restaurants, in the food industry or in contact with animals. Responsible substances can include protein-rich fruit and vegetables, animal proteins, flour and enzymes. Contents: physiopathology; diagnosis in an occupational setting; diagnosis techniques (skin tests, IgE determination); prevention; compensation.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 1999, No.79, p.249-253. 31 ref.

CIS 01-261 Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (B virus) infection resulting from ocular exposure
Persons in contact with macaque monkeys are at risk of infection from Cercopithecine herpesvirus (B virus). These infections can be fatal, approximately 40 known cases of fatal human B virus infections being described in medical literature. This information sheet describes the case of a scientific research worker having been infected by a monkey through liquid entering her eye, with a fatal outcome. It describes preventive measures that need to be taken by persons exposed to macaque monkeys, with emphasis on eye protection.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, May 1999. 4p.

CIS 01-247
Health and Safety Executive
Handling and housing cattle
Handling cattle involves risks of injury from crushing, kicking or butting. Between 1994 and 1996, 23 persons were killed by cattle in the United Kingdom, and nearly one in 15 reported non-fatal injuries in agriculture involved cattle. This information sheet provides general advice for farmers on the safe handling of adult cattle. Contents include legal requirements in the United Kingdom, risks of injury, requisites of persons handling cattle, handling facilities and equipment and the types of animals, with emphasis on the particular risks from bulls.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Nov. 1999. 4p. 2 ref.

CIS 01-246
Health and Safety Executive
Preparing cattle for slaughter
In order to minimize risks of meat contamination with bacteria such a E. coli O 157, farmers are required to ensure that cattle sent to slaughterhouses are in a state of cleanliness compatible with hygiene standards. This may require clipping, which involves risks of crushing, kicking or butting. This information sheet provides general advice to livestock farmers on how to keep cattle clean by applying good husbandry techniques, thereby reducing the need for clipping, and on controlling the risks should clipping be necessary.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, July 1999. 2p.

CIS 00-434 Tripp R.S., Olson D.K., Shutske J., Schermann M.
Health and safety issues in hog production: A review of the literature
The industrialization of pork production is a gradual process. While operators are focussed increasingly on production which is efficient and of high quality, they must also be aware of the potential costs to their employees. The use of confinement facilities exposes workers to health and safety risks, which in turn may increase operating costs through increased health care and insurance expenses. Respiratory problems in hog confinement workers as well as exposure to toxic gases and physical injuries related to the handling of and the caring for livestock are well documented. In order to protect their employees, employers need to know about these risks, their impact on the operation and the methods of preventing injuries and illnesses. As the number of employees increases, operators also become subject to OSH regulations.
Journal of Agromedicine, 1999, Vol.6, No.2, p.3-23. 63 ref.

CIS 00-134 Radon K., Opravil U., Hartung J., Szadkowski D., Nowak D.
Work-related respiratory disorders and farming characteristics among cattle farmers in Northern Germany
1,735 farmers were visited on their farms in Northern Germany and interviewed using a standardized questionnaire on work-related respiratory symptoms and farming details. 84.6% of the farmers were cattle farmers. The prevalence of work-related respiratory symptoms was 40.3%. A low prevalence of work-related respiratory symptoms were shown to be significantly associated with ventilation via the wall of the cattle house (dds ratio = 0.57), feeding of cattle once daily (OR = 0.53), and plant crop (OR = 0.75). Farmers living inland showed a significantly higher prevalence of work-related respiratory symptoms (OR = 1.34). The use of ventilation via the wall might be recommended for new cattle houses in regions with warm winters.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1999, Vol.36, No.4, p.444-449. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 00-166 Compston J.E., Vedi S., Stephen A.B., Bord S., Lyons A.R., Hodges S.J., Scammell B.E.
Reduced bone formation after exposure to organophosphates
In an earlier study, agricultural workers with chronic exposure to organophosphates (OPs) through sheep-dipping showed lower bone mineral density compared to normal values. In this study, bone biopsy samples were obtained from 24 agricultural workers seeking litigation for ill-health caused by chronic exposure to OPs, and compared with 24 controls, both groups having participated in the earlier study. Histomorphometric analysis showed significantly lower bone formation at tissue and cellular level than in healthy controls. The presence of acetylcholinesterase in the bone matrix provides a possible explanation for the OP-induced effects in bone.
Lancet, Nov. 1999, Vol.354, No.9192, p.1791-1792. 5 ref.

CIS 99-1275 Larsson B.M., Larsson K., Malmberg P., Mårtensson L., Palmberg L.
Airway responses in naive subjects to exposure in poultry houses: Comparison between cage rearing system and alternative rearing system for laying hens
34 previously non-exposed subjects were exposed for 3h in confined poultry houses in three groups: one in a building with a cage rearing system and two in buildings with a cage-less system with either young hens and fresh bedding material or with older hens and old bedding material. Inhalable dust levels were approximately 4mg/m3 in the buildings with the cage-less system and 2mg/m3 in the building with cage rearing system; the endotoxin concentration was approximately 100ng/m3 in both systems. Bronchial responsiveness to methacholine increased approximately fivefold in all groups following exposure. The concentration of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 increased in nasal lavage fluid and in peripheral blood as a result of exposure. The number of leukocytes in peripheral blood increased only in the groups exposed among loose laying hens. Results indicate that among previously non-exposed subjects, that 3h exposure in confined buildings for egg production induces an acute inflammatory reaction in the upper airways and increased bronchial responsiveness. Topics: airborne dust; bacterial toxins; bronchial diseases; confined spaces; epidemiologic study; exposure evaluation; inflammations; interleukins; organic dust; poultry farming; pulmonary function; upper respiratory diseases.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1999, Vol.35, No.2, p.142-149. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 99-841 Hofer L.
Agricultural tasks, exposures and diseases
Arbeiten, Expositionen und Krankheiten in der Landwirtschaft [in German]
Travaux, expositions et maladies dans l'agriculture [in French]
Topics: agricultural operations; agriculture; allergies; bacterial toxins; biological hazards; bovine spongiform encephalopathy; dairy farming; eczema; farmer's lung; fodder silos; grain dust; handling of animals; hay; health hazards; immunoglobulins; liquid manure; livestock rearing; moulds; noise; occupation disease relation; organic dust; poultry farming; swine; toxic gases; zoonoses.
Informations médicales - Medizinische Mitteilungen, Spring 1999, No.71, p.80-98 (French), p.79-96 (German). Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 99-1008 Kimbell-Dunn M., Bradshaw L., Slater T., Erkinjuntti-Pekkanen R., Fishwick D., Pearce N.
Asthma and allergy in New Zealand farmers
The prevalence of symptoms of asthma and allergy was studied in 1,706 farmers from different farming groups throughout New Zealand. The 12-month period prevalence of current asthma was 11.8% overall, compared with 15% in the general population. Asthma prevalence was higher for horse breeders/groomers, pig farmers, poultry farmers, and those working with goats. Asthma was also significantly elevated among those working with cleaning powders. Women were more likely to report current asthma than were men. Hay fever was significantly higher in deer and crop farmers, and farmers working with horses and goats; eczema was higher for goat and deer farmers. The lower overall prevalence of asthma in farmers may be due to the healthy worker effect. Topics: agriculture; allergic respiratory disorders; allergies; asthma; eczema; frequency rates; grain dust; handling of animals; healthy worker effect; livestock rearing; New Zealand; poultry farming; questionnaire survey; sex-linked differences; swine.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 1999, Vol.35, No.1, p.51-57. 40 ref.


CIS 01-108 Vancraeynest D., Lardot C., Huaux F., Lison D.
Evaluation of nasal lavage as a possible tool in occupational medicine for the diagnosis of inflammatory diseases of the respiratory system
Evaluation du lavage nasal comme outil possible pour le dépistage de pathologies inflammatoires du système respiratoire en médecine du travail [in French]
Occupational exposure to laboratory animals can cause an inflammatory reaction of the respiratory tract. The present study assessed the value of nasal lavage (NAL) to detect an early inflammatory reaction. NAL was performed in 10 volunteers from a research laboratory; five of them had been repeatedly exposed to laboratory animals and five others had not. Except for one subject who did not participate in the last examination, all subjects were lavaged on four different occasions over a period of 3 months. Analysis of NAL fluid included cellular parameters and inflammatory mediators. Before each lavage the main factors that may have influenced nasal inflammation were recorded. Cellular parameters showed large inter- and intra-individual variability and were barely contributive. Inflammatory mediators were more influenced by smoking and upper airway diseases than by exposure to laboratory animals. The heterogeneity of the studied population, which is comparable to what is commonly encountered in occupational settings, together with the variability of inflammation of the upper respiratory tract render the interpretation of the results difficult. It is concluded that NAL cannot be recommended for the periodical examination of workers potentially exposed to irritants and/or sensitising agents.
Médecine du travail & Ergonomie / Arbeidsgezondheitszorg & Ergonomie, 1998, Vol.35, No.4, p.169-182. Illus. 42 ref.

CIS 00-1760 Brunet C.
Monkey alert
Alerte aux macaques [in French]
Topics: experimental animals; fatalities; handling of animals; primates; virus diseases; zoonoses.
Travail et santé, Sep. 1998, Vol.14, No.3, p.38-40, 42. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 00-1331 Laraqui C.H., Caubet A., Harourate K., Mehdaoui Z., Laraqui O., Verger C.
Prevalence of respiratory disorders among poultry retailers
Prévalence des troubles respiratoires chez les marchands de volailles [in French]
A retrospective cohort survey was used to evaluate the prevalence of clinical symptoms, skin reactions and respiratory disorders among subjects exposed to poultry in comparison with unexposed individuals. Among the exposed cohort, 77% had clinical symptoms compared with 46% among the unexposed controls. Rhinitis, asthma, dermatitis, conjunctivitis, cough and bronchitis were significantly more frequent among those exposed than the controls. The cause of respiratory disorders was exposure to poultry, as shown by the fact that its prevalence was 1.8-fold higher among non-smokers exposed to poultry than among non-smokers unexposed to poultry. A variable degree of respiratory obstruction was found among 40% of the exposed individuals versus 14% in the unexposed individuals. Skin tests were positive in 22 % of the exposed compared with 15% of the unexposed. Among the 22 exposed individuals with positive skin tests, 6 had allergic reactions to feathers, 7 to moulds and 1 to cereals. These alarming results emphasize the importance of adopting medical and technical prevention measures.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Dec. 1998, Vol.59, No.8, p.574-580. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 99-1683 Ng T.P.
Occupational asthma caused by orangutan in a zoo animal handler
A zoo animal handler developed bronchial asthma for the first time from handling orangutans (Pongo pygmaes). He had prior allergic reactions (rhinoconjunctivitis and urticarial rash), but no asthma, to deer and other hoofed animals in the zoo. In a worksite challenge, immediate and late onset of asthmatic symptoms and airflow obstruction were provoked by carrying a baby orangutan for about 20 minutes. Topics: allergic asthma; case study; handling of animals; maximal expiratory flow; zoological gardens.
Singapore Medical Journal, 1998, Vol.39, No.3, p.127-128. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 99-920 Vogelzang P.F.J., van der Gulden J.W.J., Folgering H., van Schayck C.P.
Longitudinal changes in lung function associated with aspects of swine-confinement exposure
A cohort of 171 pig farmers was observed for three years. Mean decline in lung function was 73mL/year for forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and 55mL/year for forced vital capacity (FVC). A longitudinal decline in FEV1 was associated with the use of quaternary ammonium compounds as disinfectants and also with the use of an automated dry feeding system. The impact of these characteristics in a longitudinal study provides stronger evidence for causal inference than that shown in previous cross-sectional designs. This may be useful in promoting preventive measures. Topics: cohort study; confined spaces; disinfectants; livestock rearing; one-second forced expiratory volume; pulmonary function; quaternary ammonium compounds; swine; ventilatory capacity; vital capacity.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 1998, Vol.40, No.12, p.1048-1052. 30 ref.

CIS 99-1006 Guo H.R., Gilmore R., Waag D.M., Shireley L., Freund E.
Prevalence of Coxiella burnetii infections among North Dakota sheep producers
A total of 17 cases of Coxiella burnetti infection were identified among 496 sheep producers, their family members and hired helpers in North Dakota, USA. The number of sheep raised was a good predictor of infection. Lambing outdoors and frequent physical contact with sheep during lambing were associated with higher risk. Q fever is now a reportable disease in this area. Topics: epidemiologic study; immunization; infectious diseases; livestock rearing; North Dakota; notification of occupational diseases; Q fever; risk factors; serological reactions; zoonoses.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 1998, Vol.40, No.11, p.999-1006. 55 ref.

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