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CIS 05-30 Vinogradov A., Jennings N.S., Påsche A., Risikko T., Mäkinen T., Hassi J., Abraham P.P., Yakovlev S.Y.
Construction, mining and fishery
Collection of articles on construction, mining, fishing in the Nordic countries and Russia. Topics covered: ILO perspective on standards in mining safety and health; occupational health in the fish processing industry; assessment and management of cold risks in the construction industry; international comparison of occupational injuries among commercial fishermen in selected Northern countries and regions; occupational safety and industrial safety.
Barents - Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, 2001, Vol.4, No.1, p.3-39 (whole issue). Illus. 65 ref. [in English]

CIS 03-1660 Paredes Martínez D.J.P.
Occupational hazards and work incapacity among trawler fishermen
Riesgos laborales e incapacidades en los marineros de buques de pesca [in Spanish]
After describing the various types of fishing, the main tasks carried out on trawlers and the associated hazards, this article goes on to discuss the most frequent pathologies observed in the general working population together with their effects on the working capacity in this occupational group. Contents: description of the various types of fishing; description of the tasks; general hazards and hazards specific to the type of fishing; description of diseases and the limitations they cause (rheumatoid arthritis; arthrosis and lumbar diseases; bronchial asthma; pulmonary arterial hypertension; cardiac insufficiency; cardiac ischaemia; vascular diseases; ulcerative colitis; chronic hepatitis; chronic renal insufficiency; epilepsy; multiple sclerosis; mental disorders; deterioration of central visual acuity and of peripheral vision; hearing and speech disorders; chronic leukaemia; diabetes; psoriasis; allergic contact dermatitis; malignant tumours and diseases; benign tumours).
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, 2001, Vol.XLVIII, No.190, p.73-92. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 02-1267 Jin D., Kite-Powell H., Talley W.
The safety of commercial fishing: Determinants of vessel total losses and injuries
This study investigates determinants of vessel total losses and number of fatal and non-fatal crew injuries resulting from commercial fishing vessel accidents in the United States. An injury and vessel damage accident model was developed. Total vessel loss and crew injury models were estimated using regression analysis and a data set of commercial fishing vessel accidents. Results indicate that the probability of a total loss is greatest in the case of capsizing. Fires and explosions, together with capsizing accidents, are expected to result in the greatest number of crew fatalities, 3.5 and 3.8 for every 100 such accidents. For every 100 collisions, 2.1 nonfatal crew injuries are expected. The probability of total loss and the expected number of crew fatalities vary inversely with the price of the fish catch. Relevant issues related to fishing vessel safety management and regulation are discussed.
Journal of Safety Research, Summer 2001, Vol.32, No.2, p.209-228. 26 ref.

CIS 02-1428 Whyte P., Doolette D.J., Gorman D.F., Craig D.S.
Positive reform of tuna farm diving in South Australia in response to government intervention
Most of the tuna harvested in South Australia since 1990 involves the use of divers. From 1993 to 1995, 17 divers from this industry were treated for decompression illness (DCI). In response, the State Government introduced corrective strategies. A decrease in the number of divers presenting for treatment was subsequently recorded. Consequently, the hypothesis was tested that the government intervention resulted in a decrease in the incidence of DCI in the industry and an improved clinical outcome of divers with DCI. The incidence of treated DCI in tuna farm divers was estimated from the number of divers with DCI treated and the number of dives undertaken extrapolated from a survey of the industry in 1997-8. General health was measured in the tuna farm diving population by a valid and reliable self-assessment questionnaire. The outcome of the divers treated for DCI was analysed with a modified clinical severity scoring system. Results show that the apparent incidence of treated DCI has effectively decreased in tuna farm divers since the government intervention.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2001, Vol.58, No.2, p.124-128. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 02-713 Thomas T.K., Lincoln J.M., Husberg B.J., Conway G.A.
Is it safe on deck? Fatal and non-fatal workplace injuries among Alaskan commercial fishermen
The occupational fatality in rate in commercial fishing is Alaska is 28 times that of all U.S. workers. Most deaths are attributed to vessels sinking or capsizing. However, many deaths and most non fatal injuries are not related to vessel loss. This paper describes injuries that occur on the dock or on the fishing vessel. Data from fishing fatalities and non fatal injuries between 1991-1998 were analysed using the Alaska Occupational Injury Surveillance System and the Alaska Trauma Registry. There were 60 workplace deaths unrelated to vessel loss. Most were from falls overboard, others from trauma caused by equipment on deck. There were 574 hospitalized injuries, often from falls on deck, entanglement in machinery, or being struck by an object. Further efforts are required to prevent falls overboard and on deck, and to redesign or install safety features on fishing machinery and equipment.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 2001, Vol.40, No.6, p.693-702. 16 ref.


CIS 02-1727 Gout D.
Commercial fishing - A hazardous occupation
"Pêcheur" - un métier à risques [in French]
In France and in Europe, one fisherman in seven is the victim of an occupational accident each year. Mortality rates are four times higher than in the building industry. This collection of articles addresses the issue of safety in commercial fishing. Contents: description of the main tasks carried out on trawlers; commercial fishing statistics in France (production, business volume, employment, vessel fleet); occupational accident statistics (by age, type of navigation, position of the vessel when the accident occurred, vessel length, activities being carried out when the accident occurred, type of accident, location of injury, sea conditions); trends in trawler design; efforts undertaken by a shipbuilder in the area of safety and workshop sound attenuation; French legislation.
Travail et sécurité, Sep. 2000, No.599, p.22-37. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 01-455 Ben-Yami M.
International Labour Office (ILO)
Risks and dangers in small-scale fisheries: An overview
The majority of persons involved in small-scale and artisanal fishing work in the informal sector and therefore do not have access to occupational safety and health services available to other types of workers. This report focusses on the risks and dangers in small-scale and artisanal fisheries. It reviews working conditions, typical risks and dangers, safety approaches in developed and developing countries, accidents associated with the marine environment, navigation and fishing operations, problems associated with boat design and construction as well as other risks and dangers. The influence of fishery management systems and economic factors, wars, pirates and other hostile acts are addressed. All these issues are evaluated and recommendations for action in several areas are made.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, Aug. 2000. ix, 60p. 37 ref.

CIS 01-446 Gold D., Geater A., Aiyarak S., Wongcharoenyong S., Juengprasert W., Chuchaisangrat B., Samakkaran A.
The indigenous fisherman divers of Thailand: Strengthening knowledge through education and information
A project team addressed occupational health promotion in Thailand in order to improve the health of a group of indigenous fishermen divers. Educational activities were designed and implemented for public health physicians and workers and diving boat chiefs. Workshops for health physicians included differential diagnosis of decompression illness. Workshops for public health workers included physiology, pathophysiology and treatment of decompression illness, as well as the development of informational tools. An awareness-raising workshop was also held for boat chiefs. 10 information data sheets on safe diving were designed and distributed.
Journal of Safety Research, 2000, Vol.31, No.3, p.159-168. 14 ref.

CIS 01-445 Gold D., Geater A., Aiyarak S., Wongcharoenyong S., Juengprasert W., Chuchaisangrat B., Griffin M.
The indigenous fisherman divers of Thailand: Attitudes toward and awareness of hazards
Attitudes toward hazards and awareness of hazards were investigated in a group of 342 indigenous fishermen in Thailand using a questionnaire. Divers were asked to describe and evaluate dangers, and to describe the principal causal factor as well as means of elimination. For the divers, the highest dangers are interruption of the air supply, marine life and decompression sickness. A high percentage (83.6%) felt that pain was part of their job and only 36.9% felt that something could be done to reduce it. 66.6% would give up diving if they could earn as much doing another job.
Journal of Safety Research, 2000, Vol.31, No.1, p.17-28. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 01-444 Gold D., Aiyarak S., Wongcharoenyong S., Geater A., Juengprasert W., Gerth W.A.
The indigenous fisherman divers of Thailand: Diving practices
Diving practices of a group of 342 indigenous fisherman in Thailand were investigated by using a questionnaire and by field observation. Divers have diving patterns that put them at substantial risk of decompression illness. They breathe air from a primitive compressor through approximately 100m of air hose and have long bottom times coupled with short intervals. 46.2% of the divers indicated they would not make a stop during ascent from a long deep dive (40m for 30min). 72.1% exceeded the no-decompression limits set by the US Navy Standard Air Decompression Table.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2000, Vol.6, No.1, p.89-112. Illus. 40 ref.

CIS 01-558 Jensen O.C.
Non-fatal occupational fall and slip injuries among commercial fishermen analyzed by use of the NOMESCO injury registration system
The distribution and the characteristics of 582 occupational injuries among commercial fishermen in Denmark are described by using data from a hospital emergency department for the period 1990-1997. Injuries from falls made up 25% of all injuries; they were the cause of 28% of all contusions, 32% of all fractures, 61% of all sprains and strains, 40% of all injuries to lower extremities and 62% of all injuries to the chest. The proportion of fall injuries in different age groups was U-shaped and constitutes around 40% for men both under 20 years and over 50 years of age, and around 20% for those between these ages. Frequent types of injury mechanisms other than falls and slips were: getting caught (22%), contact with objects or persons (28%), foreign body (9%) and cuts (9%).
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 2000, Vol.37, No.6, p.637-644. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 00-1362 Fishing industry
This leaflet highlights the key statistics on fatal occupational accidents in the fishing industry in Australia, extracted from a study covering the period from 1989 to 1992 (see CIS 00-1363). An average of 89 fatalities were recorded per year per 100,000 workers, a level 16 times higher than for all industries. Data concerning the circumstances of the accident, activity of the victim, place of the accident, type of fish being sought and sea conditions are presented. Additional information is provided on diving deaths and recurring factors (examples of similar combinations of factors leading to deaths). Cases of fatal accidents are presented.
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (NOHSC), GPO Box 58, Sydney NSW 2001, Australia, no date. 4p. Illus.


CIS 02-1515 Safety, Health and Welfare at Work (Fishing Vessels) Regulations, 1999 [Ireland]
These Regulations were introduced under the authority of the Safety, Health and Welfare at Work Act, 1989 (see CIS 02-1504), and they transpose into Irish legislation the provisions of Directive 93/103/EEC (CIS 94-759). They provide for the minimum health and safety requirements applicable to work on fishing vessels, and set out the duties of owners in this regard, including duties related to information, training, instruction and consultation of workers. Schedules: requirements for new and for existing fishing vessels; requirements for life-saving and survival equipment; requirements concerning personal protective equipment.
Government Publications Sale Office, Sun Alliance House, Molesworth Street, Dublin 2, Ireland, 1999. 27p. Price: EUR 6.09. [in English] [in English]

CIS 00-1634 Safety and health in the fishing industry
La sécurité et la santé dans l'industrie de la pêche [in French]
Report prepared by the ILO as the basis for discussions at the 1999 Tripartite Meeting on Safety and Health in the Fishing Industry. Summary: overview of the world fishing industry; safety and health issues; national and regional measures to improve safety and health; ILO and other international standards. In annex: additional information on the situation in some major fishing countries (Canada, Chile, China, Japan, Rep. of Korea, Morocco, Nigeria, Norway, Philippines, Russia, South Africa, UK, USA).
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1999. 100p. Illus.

CIS 00-1222 Royal Decree 258/1999, of 12 February, defining the minimum prescriptions to be followed in the area of health protection and medical assistance in favour of sailors [Spain]
Real Decreto 258/1999, de 12 de febrero, por el que se establecen condiciones mínimas sobre la protección de la salud y la asistencia médica de los trabajadores del mar [España] [in Spanish]
This Decree transposes into national legislation the provisions of the Council Directive 92/29/EEC of 31 March 1992, aimed at promoting better medical assistance on board vessels (CIS 94-755).
Boletín Oficial del Estado, 24 Feb. 1999, No.47, p.7614-7680. Illus. [in Spanish]

CIS 00-1363 Work-related fatal injuries as a result of fishing and maritime activities in Australia, 1989 to 1992
This report examined the fatalities from fishing and maritime activities in Australia between 1989 and 1992. 93 deaths were recorded, of which 55 among workers employed in the fishing industry, 36 among workers of other industries and two among volunteers. The most frequent factors leading to the accidents are analysed. They include the capsizing of vessels in rough weather, crew members not wearing a personal floatation device and falling or being dragged overboard after being entangled in ropes or nets, and carbon monoxide entering the divers' air hose. The report highlights certain specific areas of deficiency, in particular in the presence and use of safety equipment, information and safety consciousness, training and qualifications of workers and the training in hazard evaluation of the various tasks undertaken.
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (NOHSC), GPO Box 58, Sydney NSW 2001, Australia, June 1999. viii, 32p. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 00-1024 Lincoln J.M., Conway G.A.
Preventing commercial fishing deaths in Alaska
To evaluate the effectiveness of the United States Commercial Fishing Industry Vessel Safety Act of 1988 (see CIS 00-915) in reducing the high occupational death rate (200/100,000/year in 1991-2) among Alaska's commercial fishermen, a comprehensive surveillance of deaths in commercial fishing was established during 1991 and 1992. Demographic data and data on risk factors and incidents were compiled and analysed for trend. Specific measures tailored to prevent drowning associated with vessels capsizing and sinking in Alaska's commercial fishing industry have been successful. However, these events continue to occur, and place fishermen and rescue personnel at substantial risk. Additional strategies must be identified to reduce the frequency of vessels capsizing and sinking, to enable parallel improvements in the mortality among crab fishermen, and to prevent fishermen falling overboard and drowning.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 1999, Vol.56, No.10, p.691-695. Illus. 18 ref.


CIS 99-1891 Filikowski J., Rzepiak M., Renke W.
Health problems of deep sea fishermen
In 1995-1997, 966 fishermen were subjected to medical examinations and their health state was evaluated. In 78.2% of the fishermen examined, no pathologies were recorded. In 7.7%, defects and impairments not regarded as diseases, with visual defects predominating, were noted. In some of the fishermen examined, diseases coexisted with the defects and impairments. The major health problems of the deep-sea fishermen were: various types of neuroses (8%), arterial hypertension (4.7%), urolithiasis (0.8%) and disorders of the musculoskeletal system. Topics: deep-sea fishing; health hazards; hypertension; long-term study; morbidity; musculoskeletal diseases; neurosis; urinary lithiasis.
Bulletin of the Institute of Maritime and Tropical Medicine in Gdynia, 1998, Vol.XLIX, No.1/4, p.45-51.

CIS 99-1533 Tasende Souto J.M.
Coastal fishing safety
Seguridad en la pesca de bajura [in Spanish]
Safety at work is an essential criterion in the design and building of fishing vessels: visibility from the wheelhouse, fixed devices that facilitate launching of liferafts, in-built rescue material (bengal lights, lifebuoys and all life preservers). Systematic investigation of accidents is necessary, including an analysis of their causes and worker interviews. If grants and subsidies are established by the Administration for the acquisition of rescue material, they should be linked to attendance by fishermen to specific training courses on safety, particularly on the proper use of the acquired material. Skills learned can be maintained by exercises during such times as renovation and service: launching of liferafts, use of extinguishers and flares, etc. The use of safety signalling and visual and acoustic alarms should be generalized. Crews should be properly trained on radio medical assistance in combination with the upkeeping of medicine chests. Topics: coastal fishing; design of equipment; fatalities; legislation; occupational accidents; occupational safety; risk factors; safety and health training; ships; signalling and communications; Spain.
Mapfre seguridad, 4th Quarter 1998, Vol.18, No.72, p.11-21. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 98-1493 Ashford R.U., Sargeant P.D., Lum G.D.
Septic arthritis of the knee caused by Edwardsiella tarda after a catfish puncture wound
Topics: acute poisoning; arthritis; Australia; case study; fishing; injection injuries; pathogenic bacteria.
Medical Journal of Australia, 4 May 1998, Vol.168, p.443-444. 6 ref.


CIS 02-1627 Luong N.A., Cong N.T.
Project INT/95/M10/DAN - Promoting OSH activities in fisheries and construction industries in Vietnam
These reports present the tasks and conclusions of an ILO project aimed at developing occupational safety and health (OSH) activities in fisheries and the construction industry in Vietnam. The project was carried out between 1 November 1996 and 1 November 1997. It involved ILO several field missions, translation of ILO training materials into Vietnamese and the running of several workshops, as well as a six-week mission by a technical expert in fisheries. Action programmes for improving OSH in these two sectors are included.
Vietnam General Confederation of Labour, Hanoi, Vietnam, 1997. 8p.; 12p.; 10p.; 73p.; 79p. Illus. 20 ref. (5 documents).

CIS 00-359 Hughes L.J.
Vessel safety manual
Safety manual developed from experience in the North Pacific and the Bering Sea. Topics addressed include: vessel familiarity; seamanship and its terminology; working conditions; vessel systems; stability; medical emergencies at sea; fire prevention and control; safety equipment and survival procedures; Coast Guard procedures; navigation; watchkeeping; rules of the road; common vessel safety concerns. Intended for shipboard consultation and training, the manual outlines responsibilities and accident causes in an industry known for its special hazards.
North Pacific Fishing Vessel Owners' Association, 1900 West Emerson Street, Suite 101, Fishermen's Terminal, Seattle WA 98119, USA, 4th (revised) ed., May 1997. Binder (iv, 289p.). Illus.

CIS 98-1627 Jaremin B., Kotulak E., Starnawska M.
Comparative study of the death during sea voyages among Polish seamen and deep-sea and boat fishermen
Topics: cardiovascular diseases; coastal fishing; comparative study; deep-sea fishing; drowning; fatalities; fishing; injuries; mortality; occupational accidents; poisoning; Poland; sea transport; suicide.
Bulletin of the Institute of Maritime and Tropical Medicine in Gdynia, 1997, Vol.XLVIII, No.1/4, p.5-22. Illus. 32 ref.

CIS 98-1251 Jaremin B., Kotulak E., Starnawska M., Mroziński W., Wojciechowski E.
Death at sea: Certain factors responsible for occupational hazard in Polish seamen and deep-sea fishermen
Topics: cardiovascular diseases; causes of accidents; deep-sea fishing; fatalities; fishing; frequency rates; mortality; occupational accidents; Poland; sea transport; survey; time of accident.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1997, Vol.10, No.4, p.405-416. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 98-1492 Ross A.G.P., Yuesheng L., Sleigh A.S., Yi L., Williams G.M., Wu W.Z., Xinsong L., Yongkang H., McManus D.P.
Epidemiologic features of Schistosoma japonicum among fishermen and other occupational groups in the Dongting Lake region (Hunan Province) of China
Topics: age-linked differences; China; diarrhoea; epidemiologic study; fishing; frequency rates; hepatomegalia; morbidity; parasitic diseases; schistosomiasis; sex-linked differences.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 1997, Vol.57, No.3, p.302-308. Illus. 35 ref.

CIS 98-168 Commercial fishing fatalities in Alaska - Risk factors and prevention strategies
Topics: Alaska; causes of accidents; fatalities; fishing; occupational accidents; risk factors; statistics; USA.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, Sep. 1997. ix, 24p. Illus. 36 ref.

CIS 98-144 Hawkes A.P., Roy J., Stacey-Scott N., Joy J.E.A., Bogdan G.
Health and safety issues relating to Maine's fishing industry
Topics: fishing; injuries; Maine; occupation disease relation; occupational accidents; occupational diseases; statistics; USA.
Journal of Agromedicine, 1997, Vol.4, No.3/4, p.223-229. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 97-1556 The marine environment
These eight chapters in a major new survey of OSH examine health and safety issues in offshore operations and on vessels: management of offshore oil and gas installations; risk and emergency preparedness analysis; blowout; mechanization and automation as environmental factors; accidents and accident prevention; divers; safety on vessels; the fishing fleet and fish farming.
In: The Workplace (by Brune D. et al., eds), Scandinavian Science Publisher as, Bakkehaugveien 16, 0873 Oslo, Norway, 1997, Vol.2, p.767-848. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 97-1070 Royal Decree 1216/1997 (18 July) concerning the minimum safety and health requirements for work on board fishing vessels [Spain]
Real Decreto 1216/1997, de 18 de julio, por el que se establecen las disposiciones mínimas de seguridad y salud en el trabajo a bordo de los buques de pesca [España] [in Spanish]
This Decree implements in Spain the provisions of Directive 93/103/EEC (CIS 94-759). Entry into force: 2 months from the date of publication. Contents: aims and definitions; general obligations of owners and workers; minimum safety and health requirements on board ships; equipment and maintenance; obligations concerning the training and information of workers; obligations concerning the training of persons who might be in command of a vessel; consultation and participation of workers; obligation of the Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo to issue a Technical Guide concerning the evaluation and prevention of risks connected with the use of fishing vessels. In annex: minimum safety and health requirements of new fishing vessels (navigability and stability; mechanical and electrical equipment; radio communications; emergency exits; fire detection and protection; ventilation of enclosed workspaces; temperature of workplaces; natural and artificial lighting of workplaces; floors, cabin walls and coverings; doors; passageways and danger zones; layout of workplaces; living spaces; sanitary and welfare facilities; first aid facilities; noise protection); minimum safety and health requirements of existing fishing vessels; minimum requirements relating to lifesaving and survival at sea; personal protective equipment.
Boletín Oficial del Estado, 7 Aug. 1997, No.188, p.24070-24078.


CIS 98-1091 Order No.114 MINAGRA of 8 July 1996 regulating hygiene on board fishing vessels [Côte d'Ivoire]
Arrêté n°114 MINAGRA du 8 juillet 1996 portant réglementation des conditions d'hygiène applicables à bord des navires de pêche [Côte d'Ivoire] [in French]
Topics: conditions of work; Côte d'Ivoire; factory ships; fishing; housekeeping; inspection; law; occupational health survey; occupational hygiene; trawlers.
Journal officiel de la République de Côte d'Ivoire, 1st Aug. 1996, 38th Year, No. 31, p.745-747.

CIS 97-1532 Jensen O.C.
Work related injuries in Danish fishermen
In a questionnaire survey of 625 Danish fishermen the overall rate of nonfatal injury was 20.4 per 100 persons per year. There were no significant differences in injury rates in relation to age. Injury rates were higher on large trawlers. The main work activities associated with injuries included hauling and shooting fishing gear and icing fish. Preventive measures should be implemented in all age groups and in all types of fishing vessels.
Occupational Medicine, Dec. 1996, Vol.46, No.6, p.414-420. 20 ref.

CIS 97-1531 Jensen O.C., et al.
Occupational injuries among fishermen
A sample of 187 medically treated injuries among fishermen was the basis for this study. Nearly half the injuries occurred while shooting or hauling fishing gear. The most common injuries were in the upper extremities (48.7%). Twenty-two percent of the injuries occurred while working with winches ropes and wires and about 30% were caused by falls or slips. Seventy-five percent of accidents occurred on trawlers, where the trawl doors (otter boards) are a special hazard. Medical treatment ashore was delayed for more than 24 hours in 35% of the injuries, showing the need for providing optimal treatment facilities on board. Preventive measures should include technical improvements, safety training courses and efforts to enhance the motivation for safe work. The fishermen's proposals for prevention seem to be most useful and should be used to the full extent.
Bulletin of the Institute of Maritime and Tropical Medicine in Gdynia, 1996, Vol.XLVII, No.1/4, p.11-18. 11 ref.

CIS 97-1530 Jensen O.C.
Mortality in Danish fishermen
This cohort study investigated mortality patterns in Danish commercial fishermen between 1970 and 1985, compared to all economically active men. The population census in 1970 in Denmark was the source of information on individual occupation, age and economic status. Computerized linkage with the Danish Mortality Register gave information about deceased persons' date and cause of death. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for all causes among crew members was 1.50, and was highest in the age group 20-34 years (SMR = 2.09). The increased SMR among fishermen was primarily due to deaths by accident other than road accidents (SMR = 5.76), ischaemic heart disease (SMR = 1.27) and causes without information (SMR = 6.44). The SMR due to bronchitis and emphysema among 35- to 64-year-old crew members was 1.96. Among skippers, the SMR for all causes was 1.12. The study confirms earlier findings of a high mortality among fishermen, especially due to accidents, and a slightly increased risk of dying from cancer, respiratory and cardiovascular diseases.
Bulletin of the Institute of Maritime and Tropical Medicine in Gdynia, 1996, Vol.XLVII, No.1/4, p.5-10. 19 ref.

CIS 97-832 Balanza Galindo S., Burgos Ojeda A.
Occupational accidents in the fishing sector in the region of Murcia
Accidentes laborales en el sector pesquero de la región de Murcia [in Spanish]
Occupational accidents occurring in the fishing sector in the region of Murcia, Spain, for the period 1988-1990 were analyzed. The study involved 3,411 fishermen and the variables investigated were chosen following the official accident notification form. The results are compared with those of similar studies for other sectors and for the fishing sector in other regions of Spain. Tables are included.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, 1996, Vol.43, No.168, p.47-60. 15 ref.


CIS 00-1364 Binkley M.
Risks, dangers, and rewards in the Nova Scotia offshore fishery
Offshore fishing is a very risky industry, and fishermen are more likely to be injured than workers in mining, construction or forestry. This evaluation of fishing in the province of Nova Scotia (Canada) presents the level of risk and the general level of health among workers in the industry. Contents include working conditions, the impact on family life, job satisfaction, wages and non-monetary benefits, risk, stress, safety awareness and preventive measures.
McGill-Queen's University Press, 3430 McTavish Street, Montréal, Québec H3A 1X9, Canada, 1995. 192p. Illus. 190 ref. Index.

CIS 97-1949 Svensson B.G., et al.
Mortality and cancer incidence among Swedish fishermen with a high dietary intake of persistent organochlorine compounds
Two cohorts of Swedish fishermen were established to determine mortality and cancer incidence with different dietary intakes of persistent organochlorine compounds. The incidence of stomach and squamous cell skin cancers and mortality from multiple myelomas among Swedish east coast fishermen were elevated when compared with the general population of the region and with the west coast cohort, while that of colon cancer was lower. It is proposed that east coast fishermen, who are heavy consumers of fatty fish contaminated with organochlorine compounds, have an increased risk of developing stomach and skin cancer, though at the same time they have a decrease in mortality from ischaemic heart disease.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 1995, Vol.21, No.2, p.106-115. 64 ref.

CIS 96-1763 Tryphonas H.
Immunotoxicity of PCBs (Aroclors) in relation to Great Lakes
This study reviews polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Great Lakes basin of North America. Due to their resistance to biodegradation and their lipophilic properties, PCBs bioaccumulate in fish tissues and in fish-eating humans. PCBs are also known to cross the placenta and to be excreted into the mother's milk. Data on PCB-induced immunotoxic effects in humans are scarce, whether exposure is occupational or through the ingestion of contaminated fish. Nevertheless, information derived from the use of experimental animals, including nonhuman primates, indicates that the immune system is a potential target for the toxicity of PCBs. Such studies have used only commercially available PCB mixtures. However, PCBs have the potential of partially antagonizing the effects of other structurally related compounds including the highly toxic dioxins, which are also present in small amounts in the Great Lakes. More research is required on these interactions.
Environmental Health Perspectives, Dec. 1995, Vol.103, Suppl. 9, p.35-46. 97 ref.

CIS 96-197 Törner M., Karlsson R., Sæthre H., Kadefors R.
Analysis of serious occupational accidents in Swedish fishery
The present study analyses causes and effects of severe accidents in the Swedish fishing industry during 1986 and from 1988 to 1990, to serve as a basis for preventive measures at a later stage. Hauling of the trawl stood out as the most accident-prone activity, followed by shooting of the trawl and repair work/dockside work. The most common direct cause of injury was falling. Jamming between part of the ship and the otter boards was a predominant cause of injury, as were pricks and cuts. Getting caught in mechanical equipment, musculo-skeletal overload, or getting caught in the trawl and pulled up on the trawl drum were other important hazards. Hands and wrists were the most exposed body parts followed by lower legs or knees and lower arms or elbows. A predominant primary cause of accidents was motion of the ship. Being engaged in unfamiliar work tasks or working with high levels of noise did not seem to have contributed to a significant degree to accidents. Safety equipment to avoid the accident was usually lacking and must be identified as a serious problem.
Safety Science, Dec. 1995, Vol.21, No.2, p.93-111. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 96-354
Health and Safety Executive
Personal buoyancy equipment on inland and inshore waters
This data sheet concerns the use of personal buoyancy equipment at fish farms, floating cage units, estate fisheries and similar establishments. Contents: causal factors in accidental drowning; legal requirements for hazard evaluation and risk control; selecting, using and maintaining personal buoyancy equipment; operating automatic inflation mechanisms; role of management; worker training; care of equipment (pre-wear checks, inspection and testing, storage).
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1995. 4p. Illus. 5 ref.


CIS 96-664 Driscoll T.R., Ansari G., Harrison J.E., Frommer M.S., Ruck E.A.
Traumatic work related fatalities in commercial fishermen in Australia
Work-related traumatic fishing fatalities were studied as part of a larger study of all work-related traumatic fatalities in Australia from 1982 to 1984. Data on 47 cases were obtained from inspection of coroners' files. The incidence of fatality of 143/100,000 person-years was 18 times higher than the incidence of fatality for the entire workforce, and considerably higher than that of the mining and agricultural workforces. 68% of decedents drowned and 13% died from physical trauma. Rough weather, non-seaworthy vessels, inadequate use of personal flotation devices and inexperience were associated with many of the fatal incidents. Improved vessel and equipment maintenance, better training of workers, greater use of personal flotation devices and development of improved clothing and personal flotation devices are recommended.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 1994, Vol.51, No.9, p.612-616. 27 ref.

CIS 96-679 Rafnsson V., Gunnarsdóttir H.
Mortality among Icelandic seamen
In all 27,884 Icelandic seamen, both fishermen and sailors of the merchant fleet, who had been members of a pension fund between 1958 and 1986, were followed-up. Most standardized mortality ratios (SMR) were greater than 1: 1.26 for all causes, 1.13 for all malignant neoplasms, 1.80 for liver cancer, 1.19 for stomach cancer, 1.56 for lung cancer, and 1.21 for kidney cancer. The highest SMR was found for unknown causes, 3.16. There was no "healthy worker effect". For most causes of death latency time and mortality were strongly correlated. When analyzing the relation between duration of employment and mortality a correlation was found for all-causes and for stomach cancer; however, this was not statistically significant. The excess of stomach and lung cancer was high but it was not convincingly related to duration of employment and thus a relationship to occupation cannot be confirmed.
International Journal of Epidemiology, Aug. 1994, Vol.23, No.4, p.730-736. 30 ref.

CIS 95-2303 Johnson G.D., Thomas J.S., Riordan C.A.
Job stress, social support and health amongst shrimp fishermen
A survey was carried out among 211 shrimp fishermen and 99 land-based workers in a US Gulf Coast fishing community. The fishermen reported greater exposure to occupational stressors, greater amounts of social support and greater amounts of non-clinical depression and psychosomatic symptoms. A model of the stress process indicated that workers who were exposed to high levels of occupational stress, such as migration and safety factors, experienced higher levels of depression and somatic symptoms. However, no evidence was found of an indirect effect of social support on health outcomes.
Work and Stress, Oct.-Dec. 1994, Vol.8, No.4, p.343-354. 20 ref.

CIS 95-1360 Myers M. L., Klatt M. L.
Proceedings of the National Fishing Industry Safety and Health Workshop
Proceedings of a conference in Anchorage, Alaska (9-11 Oct. 1992), convened by the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Although dealing mainly with hazards and their prevention in the Alaskan fishing industry, the presentation also describes the situation in other regions of the USA and in other polar areas.
Publication Dissemination, DSDTT, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Jan. 1994. xii, 263p. Illus. Bibl. ref.

CIS 95-357 Törner M., Almström C., Karlsson R., Kadefors R.
Working on a moving surface - A biomechanical analysis of musculoskeletal load due to ship motions in combination with work
The working postures of a fisherman on board a Swedish trawler at sea were registered during five different working conditions. Ship motions were also registered. While standing erect, ship motions were mainly counteracted by motions in the lower extremity and lumbar back, thus inducing increased strain in these parts of the body. Holding a load considerably increased the load on most joints, while lifting the load further increased the musculo-skeletal strain. The methodology may help in the design of similar vessels and in the evaluation of motion-damping devices and handling methods.
Ergonomics, Feb. 1994, Vol.37, No.2, p.345-362. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 94-1957 NIOSH Alert - Request for assistance in preventing drownings of commercial fishermen
This NIOSH Alert highlights the risk of drowning among commercial fishermen and emphasizes the need for personal flotation devices (PFDs). While most fatalities are related to vessel casualties, a large number result from falls overboard. A number of case reports of drownings are described and recommendations are made to help prevent falls overboard, to increase the chances of successful rescues from the water and to promote PFD use. Approved PFDs are described.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cininnati, OH 45226, USA, Apr. 1994. 11p. Illus. 7 ref.


CIS 96-1704 Tozzi G.A.
Risk factors and health conditions in the fishing industry
Fattori di rischio e condizioni di salute nel lavoro della pesca [in Italian]
For the European Year of Safety, Hygiene and Health at Work 1992 the European Communities considered fishing among their priority sectors. Epidemiological aspects and prevention experiences were therefore studied, confirming that in Italy fishing is a highly hazardous occupation. Risk factors are due to the natural environment (in case of events like shipwrecks, man overboard), to the on-board environment (noise, heavy shift work, dangerous fishing equipment) and also to the lifestyle of the fishermen. Prevention plans ought to consider the prevalence of small enterprises and the presently limited possibilities of preventive action in this sector by safety and health institutions.
Archivio di Scienze del Lavoro, July-Sep. 1993, Vol.9, No.3, p.235-243. 50 ref.

CIS 95-2091 Pennarola R., Castiello C., Pennarola E.
Investigation of occupational accidents in the fishing industry of the Salerno coastal region
Indagine sull'infortunio sul lavoro nell'attività della pesca nel Salernitano [in Italian]
Rivista di medicina del lavoro ed igiene industriale, 1993, Vol.17, p.47-55. Illus. 10 ref. ###

CIS 94-1944 Schnitzer P.G., Landen D.D., Russell J.C.
Occupational injury deaths in Alaska's fishing industry, 1980 through 1988
Studies from other countries have identified fishing as a hazardous industry, but little is known about occupational injury mortality related to fishing in the United States. Alaska was chosen for this study because approximately 45,000 people annually participate in Alaska's fishing industry and fishing is thought to be a major contributor to occupational injury mortality in the state. Work-related injury deaths in Alaska's fishing industry were identified by means of death certificates and US Coast Guard mortality data. Fatality rates were calculated by using average annual fishing industry employment estimates. For the years 1980 through 1988 a total of 278 fishing-related deaths were identified. The number of fatalities varied by year, with no consistent increasing or decreasing trend. The five-year average annual fishing-related fatality rate was 414.6 per 100,000 fishermen. The majority of those who died were Caucasian men who drowned while fishing.
American Journal of Public Health, May 1993, Vol.83, No.5, p.685-688. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 94-836 S.O.S. fisheries
SOS pesca [in Italian]
Survey of safety and health problems in the Italian fisheries industry. All aspects of safety are covered, both through images of day-to-day fishing operations and through interviews with people involved: fishermen, owners, inspection organization representatives. Some hazards covered: shipwrecks; falling overboard; noise; tiring work rhythms; dangerous equipment; unhealthy or stressful lifestyle connected with the work (smoking, food habits, work in isolation). The fragmentation of the industry (many small firms) makes control particularly difficult.
Archivio Audiovisivo del Movimento Operaio e Democratico, Via F.S. Sprovieri, 14, 00152 Roma, Italy, 1993. Videotape (Beta, PAL). Length: 40min.

CIS 94-759 Council Directive 93/103/EC of 23 November 1993 concerning the minimum safety and health requirements for work on board fishing vessels [European Communities]
Directive 93/103/CE du Conseil, du 23 novembre 1993, concernant les prescriptions minimales de sécurité et de santé au travail à bord des navires de pêche [Communautés européennes] [in French]
This directive states the rules that the Member States should implement as a minimum concerning safety and health requirements to work on board fishing vessels. The requirements are mainly related to the obligatory equipment and design of the vessels. Appropriate standards of hygiene, information and training of workers are also part of the provisions. There are different sets of requirements for new and existing fishing vessels. Detailed requirements are listed in an annex.
Official Journal of the European Communities - Journal officiel des Communautés européennes, 13 Dec. 1993, Vol.36, No.L.307, p.1-17.

CIS 94-495
Commission of the European Communities
Health and safety training in the fishing industry
La formation à la sécurité et à la santé dans le secteur de la pêche [in French]
Contents of this guide: working conditions on board a fishing vessel and accident statistics; socio-economic characteristics of the sector; safety, health and hygiene at the workplace; examples of accidents and fault-tree analysis; minimum checklist; preparation of gear for bottom trawling; shooting and hauling fish gear; preparation of fish, stowage and unloading; working with machinery; electrical and welding tasks; maintenance tasks; personal protective equipment; galley tasks; signals and alarms; firefighting, abandon-ship and man-overboard manoeuvres; medical consultation by radio.
Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 1993. 66p. Illus. 4 ref.

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