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Agriculture - 1,538 entries found

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CIS 03-665 Virtanen S.V., Notkola V., Luukkonen R., Eskola E., Kurppa K.
Work injuries among Finnish farmers: A national register linkage study 1996- 1997
Farming is one of the most injury-prone occupations in Finland as it is in other countries. The objectives of this study were to describe work injuries of Finnish farmers and to compare occupational injury rates between various subgroups. A cohort of 69,629 full-time farmers and their 11,657 compensated injuries were identified from an insurance company database. Using cohort, population census and farm register data, relative incidence rates were calculated using Poisson regression. Men had higher injury rates than women, except with regard to injuries caused by animals. Dairy and hog farming were the riskiest activities. In dairy farms, injury rates increased with the number of cows. Only half of insured farmers in Finland are full-time farmers, which may have led to an underestimation of risk in Finnish injury statistics.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 2003, Vol.43, No.3, p.314-325. Illus. 28 ref.

CIS 03-752 Luo S., Liu X., Mu S., Tsai S.P., Wen C.P.
Asbestos related diseases from environmental exposure to crocidolite in Da-yao, China. I. Review of exposure and epidemiological data
Scattered patches of crocidolite were found in the surface soil in a rural county of south-western China. In 1983, it was discovered that residents of two villages in the county had hyperendemic pleural plaques and excessive numbers of pleural mesothelioma. This report is based on a review of several clinical and epidemiological studies conducted since 1984, which included a cross sectional medical examination, a clinical and pathological analysis of 46 cases of mesothelioma, and three retrospective cohort mortality studies. Additional information was acquired during interviews of medical specialists from the county hospital. The prevalence of pleural plaque was 20% among farmers over 40 years of age in the cross sectional survey. The average number of mesothelioma cases was 6.6 per year in the 1984-95 period and 22 per year in the 1996-99 period, in a population of 68,000. The annual mortality rate for mesothelioma was 85 per million, 178 per million, and 365 per million for the three cohort studies, respectively.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2003, Vol.60, No.1, p.35-42. 39 ref.

CIS 03-229 Earle-Richardson G., Jenkins P.L., Tucker Slingerland D., Mason C., Miles M., May J.J.
Occupational injury and illness among migrant and seasonal farmworkers in New York State and Pennsylvania, 1997-1999: Pilot study of a new surveillance method
Traditional worksite injury surveillance methods are often ineffective for farms in the north-eastern United States employing seasonal harvest labour. Many are small farms, exempt from mandatory injury reporting. The high proportion of foreign workers and the temporary nature of the work further discourages reporting. Therefore, an alternative migrant health centre-based occupational injury and illness surveillance system was piloted during 1997-1999. Anonymous medical chart data from nine migrant health centres and four regional hospital emergency rooms was collected. There were 516 injury/illness cases over two seasons. Joint/muscle straining (31%), falling (18%), poison ivy contact (10%) and object strikes (8%) were the most common injurious events. The participation rate of health centres was 75%; 130 cases were reported by hospital emergency rooms. Further development of a medical records-based surveillance system should include hospital emergency rooms and focus on identified health centre factors associated with high performance.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 2003, Vol.44, No.1, p.37-45. Illus. 16 ref.


CIS 06-868 Guidelines on occupational safety and health in agriculture
Detailed safety guide to safety and health in agricultural work.
Department of Occupational Safety and Health, Ministry of Human Resources, Aras 2, 3 dan 4, Blok D3, Parcel D, Pusat Pentadbiran Kerajaan Persekutuan, 62502 Putrajaya, Malaysia, 2002. 80p. Illus. [in English]

CIS 05-125 Bitter harvest - Child labour in agriculture
Gor'kij urožaj - Detskij trud v sel'skom hozjajstve [in Russian]
Récolte amère - Le travail des enfants en agriculture [in French]
Cosecha amarga - Trabajo infantil en la agricultura [in Spanish]
250 million children between the ages of 5 and 14 are working worldwide; 80 million are estimated to work in the worst forms of child labour. The large majority of these children are involved in agricultural activities. This booklet describes the hazards faced by these children, as well as recent initiatives to combat child labour in this sector. International legislation and resources on child labour are also included.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2002. 47p. Illus. 33 ref. [in English] [in French] [in Spanish]

CIS 04-580 Kobielski W.
Rehabilitation in the social insurance system of farmers
Rehabilitacja lecznicza w systemie ubezpieczenia społecznego rolników [in Polish]
Review and assessment of the activities of the Polish Agricultural Social Insurance Fund, with emphasis on the establishment and improvement of the rehabilitation system for farmers. The legal rules regulating the activity on prevention and rehabilitation in rural areas are listed. Numerical details concerning the financial effectiveness of the therapeutic rehabilitation of farmers are presented.
Ubezpieczenia w Rolnictwie - Materiały i Studia, 2002, Vol.16, No.4, p.32-38.

CIS 03-1789 Schenker M.B., Orenstein M.R., Samuels S.J.
Use of protective clothing among California farmers
A telephone survey of 1,947 California farmers recorded information on occupational exposure, health outcomes and use of protective equipment to lessen risk from exposure to dust, sun, noise, pesticides and tractors. More than 93% of respondents reported using personal protection from exposure to pesticides; however, fewer than one third used consistent protection against other hazards. Younger age and male sex were associated with better use of protection from dust, noise, pesticides and tractors, but negatively associated with sun protection. There was no consistent relationship of protective behaviours with cigarette smoking, living on the farm, marital status, or time in non-administrative farmwork. Risk perception was strongly associated with behaviour: farmers concerned about specific health problems were much more likely to use protective equipment.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 2002, Vol.42, No.5, p.455-464. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 03-1663 Lee E., Burnett C.A., Lalich N., Cameron L.L., Sestito J.P.
Proportionate mortality of crop and livestock farmers in the United States, 1984-1993
An analysis of death certificate data from 26 U.S. states for the years 1984-1993 was conducted to test the hypothesis that livestock farmers are more likely to be exposed to a variety of different farming hazards than crop farmers. Cause-specific proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs) were determined using a NIOSH computer program designed to calculate sex and race specific PMRs for various occupations and industries. Among white male (WM) livestock farmers, there was a significantly higher mortality from cancer of the pancreas, prostate and brain, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, multiple myeloma, acute and chronic lymphoid leukaemia and Parkinson's disease. WM crop farmers showed significantly higher mortality risk for cancer of the lip, skin, multiple myeloma and chronic lymphoid leukaemia. Results suggest that livestock farmers might be more exposed to carcinogens than crop farmers.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 2002, Vol.42, No.5, p.410-420. 48 ref.

CIS 03-1902
Health and Safety Executive
LOLER: How the regulations apply to agriculture
This information sheet is aimed at employers, the self-employed and contractors in the agricultural industries to help them understand the requirements of the Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations 1998 (LOLER, CIS 99-1428). Contents: other key legislation for lifting operations; definition of lifting equipment in agriculture; strength and stability; requirements of equipment for lifting people; positioning and installation; marking of lifting equipment; organization of lifting operations; thorough examination; reporting of defects. Update of CIS 00-856.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, May 2002. 4p. 1 ref. [in English]

CIS 03-1901
Health and Safety Executive
Safe use of forage harvesters
This information sheet outlines the main hazards arising from the use of forage harvesters, both trailed and self-propelled, and gives advice on how to use them safely. Contents: main hazards; what to do; what not to do; working near overhead power lines; general instructions; legal aspects. Update of CIS 99-301.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Oct. 2002. 3p. Illus. 1 ref. [in English]

CIS 03-1712
Health and Safety Executive
Keeping cattle in fields with public access
The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 (CIS 02-1507) require that employers and the self-employed assess the risks from their work activities to which employees or others are exposed. This information sheet describes the major potential hazards associated with keeping cattle, including bulls, in fields with public access. Contents: legal aspects; planning and actions to be taken before putting cattle in fields with public access; signs to inform the public when a bull is in the field. Update of CIS 98-181.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, May 2002. 2p. [in English]

CIS 03-1931
Health and Safety Executive
Avoiding ill health at open farms - Advice to teachers
This information sheet provides advice to teachers on how to reduce health risks to children during visits to open farms. The main hazard is a transmission of animal microorganisms to humans; E. coli O157 in particular can cause severe illness in young children. Contents: precautions to be taken before the visit (reading and understanding the advice in the main information sheet aimed at farmers (CIS 01-580), making provisions for the proper supervision of children during the visit); precautions to be taken during and after the visit (preventing children from touching animals, washing of hands, eating arrangements, supervision of children). Reprinted with updated references (replaces the supplement sheet analysed as part of CIS 01-580).
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Sep. 2002. 1p. [in English]

CIS 03-1685
Health and Safety Executive
Fatal injuries in farming, forestry and horticulture 2001-2002
This is a report on the 41 reportable fatal injuries that occurred in the agricultural sector (farming, forestry, horticulture and associated industries) in Great Britain from April 2001 to March 2002. Statistical data are given by region, main activity in the agricultural sector, accident cause, employment status, month of the year and age. Short descriptions of each fatal accident are provided. An analysis of the trend of fatal injuries for the period 1991/92 to 2001/02 and case studies showing what went wrong and how the accident could have been avoided are presented. The report also presents a summary of the non-fatal injuries in the agricultural sector for the same ten-year period and an estimation of the costs of accidents having occurred 2000/2001 in the agricultural sector. Previous report: see CIS 02-249.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, July 2002. vi, 61p. Illus. [in English]

CIS 03-1111
Health and Safety Executive
This leaflet contains information on how to prevent the risk of hearing damage in agriculture. Topics covered: legal requirements; what employers, employees and self-employed have to do regarding noise exposure; harmful noise levels; preventive measures to be taken when working with certain equipment (tractors, chain saws, barn machinery) or animals; different types of ear protection.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, May 2002. 8p. Illus. 6 ref. [in English]

CIS 03-768 Martin S.A., Sandler D.P., Harlow S.D., Shore D.L., Rowland A.S., Alavanja M.C.R.
Pesticide use and pesticide-related symptoms among black farmers in the Agricultural Health Study
This study describes agricultural practices and pesticide-related symptoms among North Carolina Afro-American and white farmers participating in the Agricultural Health Study. Self-administered questionnaires were completed by 891 Afro-American and 11,909 white farmers licensed to apply restricted pesticides. The data were subjected to analysis using regression models. Afro-American farmers reported lower lifetime pesticide use, less use of each class of pesticides (such as herbicides, insecticides), less use of high exposure application methods, and fewer pesticide-related symptoms such as headaches, dizziness, skin irritation, chest discomfort and feeling nervous or depressed than did white farmers. Differences between Afro-American and white farmers may also be explained by farm characteristics or economics.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 2002, Vol.41, No.3, p.202-209. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 03-905 Scarlett A.J., Price J.S., Meeks I.R.
Health and Safety Executive
Guard interlocking for self-propelled harvesting machinery
Recent agricultural accident statistics involving self-propelled harvesting machinery and particularly harvester grain storage and discharge systems are reviewed in order to assess potential risks. The feasibility of utilizing guard interlocking safety systems to prevent combine grain tank and other related accidents is investigated, and alternative designs of interlocking systems are considered. An interlocking system based upon human presence detection sensors was considered most suitable for the application, and was subsequently installed upon a representative modern combine harvester. The prototype system was demonstrated and subjected to limited field evaluation, which gave promising results.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. viii, 23p. Illus. 9 ref. Price: GBP 10.00. [in English]

CIS 03-194 Mpofu D., Lockinger L., Bidwell J., McDuffie H.H.
Evaluation of a respiratory health program for farmers and their families
Occupational exposures to organic dusts, gases, welding fumes and agricultural chemicals result in an increased risk of respiratory health problems in farmers, when compared with other workers. The Respiratory Health Program for farmers in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan addresses the difficulties of delivering an occupational health programme to a sparsely-distributed population on the prairies. Under this programme, farmers' pulmonary function and respiratory health by were examined by means of spirometry and questionnaires, respectively. Respiratory function indicators were lower than predicted. It was found that age, years in farming, usual cough, wheezing on most days and nights, bringing up phlegm from the chest, breathlessness and cigarette smoking were associated significantly with pulmonary function results. The Respiratory Health Program (1994 through 2000) was assessed with respect to acceptability, accessibility, appropriateness, continuity, effectiveness and efficiency based on responses by farm families.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2002, Vol.44, No.11, p.1064-1074. Illus. 41 ref.

CIS 03-309 Osorio A.M., Penagos G.H., Miranda J., Lundberg I., McConnell R., Delgado E., Cuadra R., Torres E., Wesseling C., Keifer M., Ahlbom A., Moon J.D., Rosenstock L., Hogstedt C., Mekonnen Y., Agonafir T., Cantor A., Young-Holt B., London L., de Grosbois S., Kisting S., Rother H.A., Mergler D., Goldman L.R., Richter E.D., Terracini B.
International pesticide use
Contents of this special issue on the international use of pesticides: surveillance systems for pesticide intoxications; contact dermatitis from pesticides in banana plantation workers; grip and pinch strength impairment after acute pesticide poisonings; long-term neurobehavioral effects of mild pesticide poisonings; pesticide effects on the respiratory health of farm workers; pesticide-related symptoms of farm workers in rural Honduras; pesticide health consequences of pesticide exposure for women in developing countries; international impact of pesticides on children; carcinogenicity of pesticides.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan.-Mar. 2002, Vol.8, No.1, p.1-75 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 03-155 Sebastian L.P., Tubelonia R.M.
Building a culture of safety and health in the Cordilleras - Report of proceedings #2
Brief summary of the activities undertaken in the course of a programme aimed at building a safety and health culture in rural mountainous regions of the Philippines, as discussed at a training course held in Baguio, Philippines, 1-5 Jan. 2002. These activities included the organization of a five-day occupational safety and health training course, a forum on occupational safety and health in the farming sector with an emphasis on working safely with pesticides, and the visits of two rural municipalities by occupational safety and health staff, during which films of farming hazards were presented and medical examinations of farm workers were carried out.
Department of Labor and Employment, Occupational Safety and Health Center, OSHC Building, North Avenue corner Agham Road, Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines, Apr. 2002. 16p. Illus.

CIS 03-450 Mokdad M.
Anthropometric study of Algerian farmers
An anthropometric study involving 36 body dimensions was carried out in a population of Algerian date-palm farmers. Effects of age were studied, and data of Algerian farmers and farmers from both developed and developing countries were compared. It was found that both stature and weight correlated significantly with many body dimensions. In addition, age was found to affect body height and weight. Moreover, it was found that stature and weight have increased with time: currently, farmers are taller and heavier than farmers of the 1960s. Algerian farmers are also taller and heavier than farmers of many developing countries. However, when compared with the farmers of developed countries, they are shorter and lighter.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, June 2002, Vol.29, No.6, p.331-341. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 03-449 Roquelaure Y., Dano C., Dusolier G., Fanello S., Penneau-Fontbonne D.
Biomechanical strains on the hand-wrist system during grapevine pruning
To evaluate biomechanical strains on the hand-wrist system during grapevine pruning, surface electromyography (SEMG) activity of the right finger flexor muscle and wrist postures were analyzed in six healthy vineyard workers using the same pruning shears. Mean SEMG activity during pruning was high, as was the mean cutting frequency. Approximately 14% of cuts were performed with the wrist in extreme flexion and extension. Numerous cuts required moderate or extreme ulnar deviation. Approximately 18% of cuts required both high muscular activity and extreme deviation of the wrist. Pruning imposes high biomechanical strains on the hand wrist system in view of the repetitiveness of the task. The magnitude of physical exposure during pruning explains the high prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders of the hands among vineyard workers. It is advised to use ergonomic pruning shears to lower force exertion and to reduce the frequency of awkward wrist postures during pruning.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 2002, Vol.75, No.8, p.591-595. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 03-193 Karjalainen A., Martikainen R., Klaukka T.
The risk of asthma among Finnish patients with farmer's lung
Farmers and animal-husbandry workers notified in 1988-1999 for farmer's lung (n=1272) or other occupational diseases (n=5,045) to the Finnish Register of Occupational Diseases were followed until 31 December 2000. Among the patients with farmer's lung, 109 (8.6%) were diagnosed with asthma compared with 202 (4.0%) incident cases of asthma among those in the reference population. The crude relative risk of asthma was 2.1. The age- and occupation-adjusted relative risk of asthma among patients with farmer's lung was 2.5 in men and 1.4 in women. The rate of asthma was especially high during the first two years after notification of farmer's lung.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 2002, Vol.75, No.8, p.587-590. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 03-345
Health and Safety Executive
Pesticide incidents - Report 2001/2002
This report provides information on incidents involving pesticides investigated by the Field Operations Directorate of the UK Health and Safety Executive between April 2001 and March 2002. 167 incidents were reported; 63 of these alleged ill health, while 104 environmental and other complaints did not allege ill health. Trends in the nature of the incidents and types of pesticides used are presented, and seven case studies of specific incidents are summarized.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Oct. 2002. 27p. Illus. 7 ref. [in English]

CIS 03-344 Wheeler W.B.
Pesticides in agriculture and the environment
This publication describes the current status of knowledge and practice in pesticide use and crop protection issues. Contents: effect of three decades of integrated pest management policy in the United States; biological control; risk assessment; environmental fate of pesticides; pesticide residue procedures for agricultural commodities; pest management issues on minor crops; arthropod resistance to pesticides; new technologies for the delivery of pesticides in agriculture; trends in the crop protection industry.
Marcel Dekker Inc., Charron Road, P.O.Box 5005, Monticello, NY 12701-5185, USA, 2002. x, 330p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: USD 150.00 (Amazon US).

CIS 02-1948 Guidance for controlling potential risks to workers exposed to class B biosolids
Bio-solids are organic residues resulting from the treatment of industrial and municipal wastewater. Currently, more than 50% of the bio-solids generated in the United States are recycled to improve and maintain productive soils and stimulate plant growth. Class B bio-solids may contain some pathogens found in sewage (bacteria, viruses, protozoa, helminths). Aimed at employers (essentially, farmers), this booklet provides guidance for controlling risks to workers during storage and land application of class B bio-solids. Topics covered include basic hygiene recommendations, providing appropriate protective clothing and adopting good environmental practices to prevent and minimize exposure.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, July 2002. 7p. 23 ref. [in English]

CIS 02-1812 Arbuckle T.E., Burnett R., Cole D., Teschke K., Dosemeci M., Bancej C., Zhang J.
Predictors of herbicide exposure in farm applicators
The purpose of this study was to identify factors likely to affect exposure to herbicides under actual field conditions and to measure the sensitivity and specificity of self-reported indications of exposure against urinary measures of herbicide exposure. Immediately prior, and subsequent to, the handling of the phenoxy-herbicides 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) or 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) for the first time during the season, 126 pesticide applicators provided pre-exposure spot urine samples and a subsequent consecutive 24h urine sample. At the same time, they completed a questionnaire on handling practices for the first day of pesticide application. It was found that pesticide formulation, use of protective equipment, the type of application equipment, handling practices, and personal hygiene practices were significant as predictors of urinary herbicide levels in the first 24h after application had been initiated.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Aug. 2002, Vol.75, No.6, p.406-414. 28 ref.

CIS 02-1810 Sánchez-Pérez J., Pascual López M., García-Díez A.
Airborne allergic contact dermatitis from olaquindox in a rabbit breeder
A 47-year-old rabbit breeder with no history of atopic dermatitis, psoriasis or drug intake reported that, eight months before, erythematous, scaly and pruritic patches had appeared symmetrically on the backs of his hands and fingers, and on the extensor aspects of his arms. Lesions had temporarily improved after treatment with oral and topical corticosteroids, with recurrence in the same areas on discontinuing therapy. The patient had worked on a rabbit farm for many years in contact with various types of dry food and, more recently; olaquindox powders at 10% in calcium carbonate. He used to powder several grams of olaquindox into the rabbits' water, by hand, to treat enteritis. He used this product irregularly and without wearing protective clothing or gloves. Positive patch tests were obtained to olaquindox 1%, which was negative in 20 control patients. The patient improved after avoidance of olaquindox and no new lesions have been observed at subsequent follow-ups.
Contact Dermatitis, Mar. 2002, Vol.46, No.3, p.185. 6 ref.

CIS 02-1803 Peiris-John R.J., Ruberu D.K., Wickremasinghe A.R., Smit L.A.M., van der Hoek W.
Effects of occupational exposure to organophosphate pesticides on nerve and muscular function
This study aimed to investigate whether occupational exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides caused neurophysiological abnormalities. 30 farmers who regularly spray OP pesticides and 30 fishermen (controls), living close by, were evaluated during and between cultivation seasons. The farmers had higher erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase levels than the controls during and between cultivation seasons. During the cultivation season, there was a significant reduction in erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase activity in both groups. Significant differences between the farmers and controls were found in sensory conduction velocity and motor conduction velocity between cultivation seasons. Sensory conduction velocity was reduced significantly in farmers and in controls during the cultivation season. Effects of OP poisoning were seen both in farmers and in controls who had no history of spray activities. Evidence of sensory dysfunction after acute exposure and sensory and motor impairment after long-term low-level exposure to OP was observed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2002, Vol.44, No.4, p.352-357. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 02-1669 Kleinerman R.A., Wang Z., Wang L., Metayer C., Zhang S.Z., Brenner A.V., Zhang S.R., Xia Y., Shang B., Lubin J.H.
Lung cancer and indoor exposure to coal and biomass in rural China
Incomplete combustion of coal in homes has been linked with lung cancer in China. This article reports on a lung cancer case-control study in a rural area of China, where many residents live in underground dwellings and burn coal and unprocessed biomass (crop residues, wood, sticks and twigs) for heating and cooking. 846 patients with lung cancer (626 men and 220 women, aged 30 to 75) diagnosed between 1994 and 1998, and 1740 population-based controls were interviewed. The odds ratio for lung cancer associated with coal use compared with that for biomass in the house of longest residence was 1.29, adjusted for smoking and socioeconomic status. The risk for lung cancer increased relative to the percentage of time that coal was used over the past 30 years. The findings suggest that coal may contribute to the risk of lung cancer in this rural area of China.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2002, Vol.44, No.4, p.338-344. 28 ref.

CIS 02-1993 Knowles D.J.
Health and Safety Executive
Risk perception leading to risk taking behaviour amongst farmers in England and Wales
This report details research carried out to investigate risk perception among farmers and risk-taking behaviour admitted to by them, and to draw conclusions on possible initiatives in the future that may be considered by HSE to reduce farm accidents. The information was gathered by means of a postal questionnaire sent to a large sample of farms in England and Wales. Possible future initiatives and interventions are discussed and recommendations are made bearing in mind the likely success of the initiatives. The study concludes with a call for further answers to three questions: why farmers act and behave unsafely even though they know that it is dangerous to do so; how their perceptions can be misplaced so as to leave them exposed to higher risk; how attitudes can be modified and behaviour changed as the result of interventions in order to reduce farm accidents.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. vi, 149p. Illus. Price: GBP 20.00. [in English]

CIS 02-1949 Torén A., Öberg K., Lembke B., Enlund K., Rask-Andersen A.
Tractor-driving hours and their relation to self-reported low-back and hip symptoms
The purpose of this study was to quantify the total and the annual time spent driving tractors among Swedish farmers and its distribution into different work operations, and to investigate the risk of low-back and hip symptoms in relation to tractor-driving within different work operations. The data were collected from a questionnaire sent to all farms of more than 10ha in a Swedish county. The annual tractor-driving time and the percentage distribution within different work operations were calculated for female and male farm workers, the total group and four sub-groups according to the type of activity (crop, dairy, swine or livestock production). The results showed that the mean annual tractor-driving time was 472h. Ploughing was the most time-consuming operation but it had no influence on the risk for low-back or hip pain. Some of the factors relating to tractor driving that influence the risk for low-back and hip symptoms are discussed.
Applied Ergonomics, Mar. 2002, Vol.33, No.2, p.139-146. Illus. 31 ref.

CIS 02-1680 Takahashi T., Ohtsuka Y., Munakata M., Nasuhara Y., Kamachi-Satoh A., Homma Y., Kawakami Y.
Occurrence of farmer's lung disease is relevant to meteorological conditions: A 20-year follow-up field survey analysis
A survey on farmer's lung disease (FLD) in a dairy farming community in the northernmost district of Japan has been in progress since 1978. This article investigates possible correlations between the number of FLD occurrences each year, dairy farming conditions and meteorological data. 34 FLD cases had occurred during the 20-year period. The average number of days below freezing point during the harvest season the year prior to FLD occurrence were significantly smaller than other years (2.1±0.7 days and 4.6±0.7 days, respectively). The average annual sunlight hours in the years preceding FLD occurrence was significantly smaller than those of other years (1457.1±114.0h and 1811.3±97.7h, respectively) and was also significantly smaller for the sunlight hours during a harvest season (821.9± 60.2h and 1023.2±52.7h, respectively). It is concluded that temperature and hours of sunlight are closely associated with FLD occurrence.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 2002, Vol.41, No.6, p.506-513. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 02-1841 Samuel O., St-Laurent L., Dumas P., Langlois E., Gingras G.
Pesticides in greenhouses - Characterization of the exposure of workers and evaluation of re-entry times
Pesticides en milieu serricole - Caractérisation de l'exposition des travailleurs et évaluation des délais de réentrée [in French]
Botanical garden workers are subject to health hazards resulting from their exposure to pesticides in confined spaces such as greenhouses. In this study, the behaviour of foliar residues was evaluated for several representative pesticides between the time of application and of the re-entry of workers in the greenhouses. Skin exposure risks were evaluated by a hand washing method as well as through the use of a fluorescent marker. Workers' total exposure was determined by measuring urinary metabolites excreted over a post-exposure period of 24 hours. Cholinesterase activity variations were measured in cases where organophosphorus insecticides were applied. Results show that workers remain exposed when returning to greenhouses the day after applying pesticides. However, the levels of exposure measured are generally low. Use of gloves would allow to further decrease the level of exposure. Several other preventive measures are proposed.
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, Oct. 2002. [1 vol. ] Illus. 116 ref. [in French]

CIS 02-1809 Nordin R.B., Araki S., Sato H., Yokoyama K., Wan Muda W.A.M.B., Win Kyi D.
Effects of safety behaviours with pesticide use on occurrence of acute symptoms in male and female tobacco-growing Malaysian farmers
The effects of safety behaviours associated with pesticide use on the occurrence of acute symptoms in 395 male and 101 female tobacco-growing farmers in Malaysia were studied. A 15-question checklist on safe pesticide-use behaviours and a 25-question checklist on acute symptoms reported shortly after spraying pesticides were used. Results of stepwise multiple linear regression analysis indicated that no smoking while spraying, good sprayer condition and changing clothes immediately after spraying significantly prevented occurrence of acute symptoms just after pesticide spray in male farmers; in female farmers, only wearing a hat while spraying significantly prevented the symptoms. Safety behaviours in pesticide use in male and female tobacco-growing farmers are discussed in the light of these findings.
Industrial Health, Apr. 2002, Vol.40, No.2, p.182-190. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 02-1571 Greenhouses
Invernaderos [in Spanish]
This guide in the form of check lists of potential hazards in greenhouses and the main corresponding prevention measures is aimed at managers of small enterprises. Contents: workplaces and equipment; electrical hazards; physical hazards; harmful chemicals (in particular pesticides); biological agents; fires and explosions; workplace design; work organization; legislation; risk assessment method.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2002. 55p. Illus. [in Spanish]

CIS 02-1840
Health and Safety Executive
Dermal exposure resulting from liquid contamination
To estimate dermal exposure to pesticides during spraying applications, it is critical to know the fraction of the amount deposited on a worker's clothing that actually reaches the skin. The objective of this project was to evaluate dermal exposure to pesticides by using an articulated mannequin to replicate realistic spraying conditions. Patches were affixed to different locations on the mannequin, and a simulated pesticide formulation was sprayed with the mannequin unclothed and wearing different types of protective clothing. Data from this study can be used for evaluating the protection factor of work clothing.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. vi, 63p. Illus. 31 ref. Price: GBP 25.00.

CIS 02-1916 Kines P.
Construction workers' falls through roofs: Fatal versus serious injuries
This study examined risk factors for fatal versus serious injuries of construction workers' falls through roofs. Ten fatal injury falls were matched against an equal number of serious injury falls, and descriptive analyses were carried out retrospectively of investigation reports. It was found that fatal injuries occurred predominantly in agriculture, in the afternoon, and in the absence of personal protective equipment such as safety nets or lifelines. In contrast, serious injuries occurred mainly in the morning hours, and were likely due to decreased risk perceptions and less safe behaviour, possibly as the result of the greater use of passive personal protective equipment.
Journal of Safety Research, Summer 2002, Vol.33, No.2, p.195-208. 28 ref.

CIS 02-716 Moreno Gómez A.J., Gutiérrez Vivas J.R., Lobato García M.E., Reveriego Fajardo I.M.
Occupational accidents in farming in Extremadura
Siniestralidad agrícola en Extremadura [in Spanish]
This study analyses the causes and consequences of 1272 farm accidents having occurred in the region of Extremadura, Spain. Results are expressed as a function of sex, age and occupation of the victims, day of the week, hour of the day, month and place where the accident occurred, as well as type of injury, location of injury, length of incapacitation and cause. 91% of the accidents involved men; severity was also higher among men than among women. Young and less-experienced workers are at greater risk, as are unqualified workers. Monday is the day of the week where accidents are most frequent. Two peaks are observed during the working day, at noon and around 5 p.m. The average duration of incapacitation is 27.75 days. The most frequent injuries are bruises and crushes (25.86%) and lower extremities are the most frequent location (19.81%).
Prevención, trabajo y salud, 2002, No.17, p.4-15. Illus. 31 ref.

CIS 02-869 Ramwell C.T., Johnson P.D., Boxall A.A.B., Rimmer D.
Health and Safety Executive
Exposure to pesticide residues on agricultural spraying equipment
To assess the longer-term exposure to pesticide deposits that remain on the spraying equipment well after spraying operations have been carried out, a study was carried out at thirteen farms. Swab samples were taken from various parts of the spray equipment. In addition, cotton gloves were used to evaluate possible exposure through hand contact when entering or working in the tractor cab and during contact with the external surface of the spray equipment. There was a wide variation in the quantities of pesticides detected. Highest levels were observed on the boom, nozzles, and, to a lesser extent, the spray tank. Pesticides were detected at higher levels and more frequently on the mudguards compared to the rest of the tractor body. Quantities of pesticides measured on the cotton glove samples were reported as multiples of acceptable daily intakes (ADIs). 17% of the gloves contained levels equivalent to more than one ADI. Sampling inside the farmers' nitrile gloves detected pesticides in all cases, with one pair containing the equivalent of 17 ADIs.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. vi, 50p. Illus. 6 ref. Price: GBP 10.00.

CIS 02-945
Health and Safety Executive
Common zoonoses in agriculture
This data sheet describes United Kingdom legal requirements for the control of the risk of zoonoses in humans, and provides guidance on precautions: occupational hygiene practices when working with livestock; use of personal protective equipment; provision of separate washing and eating facilities for farm visitors. Symptoms, treatment and control of some common zoonoses are outlined. Replaces CIS 01-883.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Feb. 2002. 6p. 3 ref.

CIS 02-715 Williams W., Forby-Atkinson L., Purdy S., Gartshore G.
Hearing loss and the farming community
Over recent years, concern has been growing regarding the incidence of hearing loss in rural communities. Anecdotal accounts have always portrayed older farmers as individuals with typical hearing loss characteristics. More recent formal evidence certainly supports this. Recent published statistical data indicate that hearing loss in the rural community is a serious problem for many individuals and their families. Typically, attention has been directed at noise-exposed workers who work in more conventional workplaces, such as factories. However, farm workers have been considered "hard to reach" and, as a consequence, have not experienced traditional hearing loss prevention education programs. Thought needs to be given to more efficient methods of alerting the farming community to noise hazards.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Apr. 2002, Vol.18, No.2, p.181-186. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 02-714 Firth H., Herbison P., McBride D., Feyer A.M.
Low back pain among farmers in Southland, NZ
Low back pain (LBP) is a common condition with a lifetime prevalence of up to 90%. It is also costly to workers' compensation authorities. Farming is an industry with several major risks for LBP, including heavy physical work and long hours spent on tractors and other vehicles. This cross-sectional study aimed to measure the health of farmers in Southland, New Zealand, including the prevalence of LBP and the risk factors. It was found that over half (54.6%) of the farmers had suffered an episode of LBP in the last 12 months, 1.8 times that of the national population. The most common activities (40.4%) at the time of onset were lifting and/or twisting. Those farmers who had some form of psychological disturbance were significantly more likely to report LBP. Further efforts need to be made to prevent LBP among farmers by engineering high risk tasks and increasing awareness of the contributing factors among farmers.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Apr. 2002, Vol.18, No.2, p.167-171. 16 ref.

CIS 01-1804 Scarlett A.J., Price J.S., Stayner R.M.
Health and Safety Executive
Whole-body vibration: Initial evaluation of emissions originating from modern agricultural tractors
This study was conducted to quantify whole-body vibration (WBV) emissions levels found in five modern agricultural tractors when operated in controlled conditions (traversing ISO ride vibration test tracks). Vibration emission levels were found to increase with tractor speed and surface roughness, but were lowered as vehicle size increased. The presence of suspension systems reduced the degree of vibration increase with travel speed. Under standard test conditions, the highest single-axis vibration emission magnitude (for all the tractors tested) was within the range 0.8-1.5m/s2. However, application of the 1.4 multiplication factor (as required by ISO 2631:1997), increased this range to 1.2-2.0m/s2, in excess of the WBV exposure limit value (ELV) proposed by the EU Physical Agents (Vibration) Directive. Further investigation is required to establish linkage between the test track WBV emissions characteristics of given vehicles, and subsequent WBV emissions and driver daily WBV exposures encountered during typical agricultural operations.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. iv, 26p. Illus. 15 ref. Price: GBP 20.00.


CIS 04-547
Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego
Worker's magazine: Accidents linked to pesticides (modules 1 and 2) - Manual harvesting of sugar cane in hilly areas - Manual Harvesting of sugar cane - Work in potteries - Peroxydizable substances - Forestry work - Benzene - Agricultural tractors - Cashew nuts
Revista do trabalhador: Acidentes com agrotóxicos (Módulos 1 e 2) - Corte manual de cana em região amorrada - Corte manual de cana-de-açúcar - Trabalho em olarias - Substâncias peroxidáveis - Trabalhos na atividade florestal - Benzeno - Tratores agrícolas - Castanha de caju [in Portuguese]
These ten tapes are part of a collection entitled "Worker's magazine" published by the Fundacentro covering various occupational safety and health issues related to pesticides and other chemicals, as well as other agriculture and forestry-related activities. Topics covered: accidents due to pesticides (prevention of hazards among users and during production, and interviews of researchers and managers of occupational safety and health institutions, two cassettes); manual harvesting of sugar cane in hilly regions; manual harvesting of sugar cane; work in potteries; peroxydizable substances; forestry work; benzene; tractors used in agriculture; cashew nut industry.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 05409-002, Brazil, no date. 10 videotapes (VHS format), 17min 50sec; 17min 11sec; 13min 42sec; 14min 31sec; 16min 13sec; 12min 46sec; 14min 05sec; 18min 52sec, 13min 20sec; 12min 45sec. Price: BRL 20.00 (each tape).

CIS 03-1659 Rodríguez Gutiérrez C.
Evaluation of the work capacity of gardeners
Valoración de la capacidad laboral en jardinería [in Spanish]
To evaluate the working capacity of gardeners, one must have an understanding of the various tasks they have to perform, the risk factors of this occupation and the diseases which can cause limitations in the ability to work. This study examines the activities of gardeners and the limitations of working capacity due to the most important and most frequent diseases found in the general working population. Contents: description of tasks and risk factors; work capacity profile for the job of gardener; description of diseases and the limitations which they cause (rheumatoid arthritis; rheumatoid spondylitis; bronchial asthma; pulmonary arterial hypertension; cardiac insufficiency; vascular diseases; ulcerative colitis; chronic hepatitis; epilepsy; multiple sclerosis; mental disorders; visual disorders; hearing and speech disorders; leukaemia; diabetes; psoriasis; allergic contact dermatitis; breast and lung cancer; lupus erythematosus).
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, 2001, Vol.XLVIII, No.188-189, p.87-100. 6 ref.

CIS 03-685 Adekoya N., Pratt S.G.
Fatal unintentional farm injuries among persons less than 20 years of age in the United States: Geographic profiles
More than two million youth below 20 years of age are potentially exposed to safety hazards on farms each year in the United States, either as farm residents, farm family workers, hired workers, children of migrant or seasonal workers, or farm visitors. Youth on farms may be exposed to a wide range of hazards, including machinery, electric current, firearms, bodies of water, grain storage facilities and livestock. As a place of work and a place of residence, farms present unique challenges to injury prevention. This document presents data by state, region, age group, sex and cause for all youth fatalities on U.S. farms between 1982 and 1996. These data indicate that nearly 2,200 youth were fatally injured on farms during this 15-year period, and that the leading causes of death varied considerably across geographical areas.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, July 2001. xvii, 47p. Illus. 24 ref. [in English]

CIS 03-359
Health and Safety Executive
Controlling grain dust on farms
This information note examines the processes which give rise to grain dust in agriculture and provides guidance on how the dust can be controlled. Topics covered: processes giving rise to grain dust; assessing the in various work environments; action plans to control grain dust; personal protective equipment; legal requirements for dust exposure (10mg/m3 averaged over 8 hours); health surveillance. A table provides levels of dust in the operator's breathing zone for various procedures, as measured in a recent study.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, rev.ed., Aug. 2001. 3p. 4 ref. [in English]

CIS 02-1811 Mołocznik A., Zagórski J.
Exposure of farmers to dust on private farms of various production profiles
The objective of this study was to analyse exposure to dust on 10 Polish farms. It was found that mean weighted monthly concentrations of total dust ranged within 1.2-33.9mg/m3, and those of respirable dust from 0.3-4.0mg/m3, the highest values being observed in August and September. Farmers' exposure to total dust (7.7-21.9mg/m3) remained above the occupational exposure limit (4.0mg/m3). In the case of respirable dust, the results obtained showed allowable conditions. The highest level of exposure was noted on potato farms, followed by traditional farms carrying out mixed production, while the lowest level of exposure was observed on farms engaged in dairy cattle breeding.
AAEM - Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 2001, Vol.8, No.2, p.151-161. Illus. 35 ref. [in English]

CIS 02-1681 Farruggia E., Bellia M.
Occupational allergic asthma in greenhouse cultivation: Description of a clinical case
Asma occupazionale allergica in colture protette. Descrizione di un caso clinico [in Italian]
Case of occupational allergic asthma observed in a greenhouse worker. Colonies of Aspergillus niger were identified on the plants cultivated in the greenhouse, and the mould proved to be the aetiologic agent responsible of the asthma. Allergy tests were conducted for the diagnostic procedure.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 2001, Vol.92, No.3, p.203-205. 11 ref.

CIS 02-1726 Zahm S.H., Blair A.
Feasibility of epidemiologic research on migrant and seasonal farmworkers
This special issue contains 15 reports of pilot projects from the Farmworker Epidemiology Research Group, designed to assess the feasibility of conducting epidemiological studies on migrant and seasonal farmworkers. Funded by the National Cancer Institute and the Migrant Health Program, this work began after a review in 1993 found that despite concerns about exposure to potentially carcinogenic pesticides, there were few studies on cancer among farmworkers. It was believed that reasons for this lack of data included the difficulties of conducting epidemiological studies on a highly-mobile population, often with little education or understanding of English and with lengthy, complex job histories. The projects reported address issues of questionnaire design, assessment of pesticide exposures, tracing, evaluating cancer incidence and mortality, and establishing a cohort of farmworkers for future follow-up.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 2001, Vol.40, No.5, p.487-618 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 02-1808 Ngowi A.V.F., Maeda D.N., Partanen T.J.
Assessment of the ability of health care providers to treat and prevent adverse health effects of pesticides in agricultural areas of Tanzania
A survey of Tanzanian health care providers in agricultural areas was undertaken in 1991-1994 to assess their knowledge of toxic effects of pesticides in order to develop effective strategies for reducing pesticide poisoning. Interviews were conducted with 104 physicians, clinical officers and nurses at health care facilities in the coffee and cotton growing areas. 80% of respondents reported to have seen one and 9% two or more cases of pesticide poisoning in the preceding three months. The respiratory tract was the major route for pesticide to enter the human body; this was followed by gastrointestinal tract, skin, and eyes. Only one of the respondents could identify the groups of pesticides mostly used in the study areas. The survey indicated that training of hospital staff in toxicity of pesticide exposure is an important task and a prerequisite for efficient recognition, diagnosis and treatment of pesticide poisoning cases in Tanzania.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2001, Vol.14, No.4, p.349-356. 21 ref.

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