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CIS 04-414 Lee K., Lawson R.J., Olenchock S.A., Vallyathan V., Southard R.J., Thorne P.S., Saiki C., Schenker M.B.
Personal exposures to inorganic and organic dust in manual harvest of California citrus and table grapes
The aim of this study was to evaluate the exposure to inorganic and organic dust during manual harvest operations of citrus fruit and table grapes. Personal exposures to inhalable dust and respirable dust were measured five times over the 4-month harvesting season. Dust samples for analysed mineralogy, respirable quartz, endotoxins and microorganisms. Exposures for citrus harvest had geometric means of 39mg/m3 for inhalable dust and 1.14mg/m3 for respirable dust. These exposures were significantly higher than those for table grape operations and exceeded the threshold limit value for inhalable dust and respirable quartz. Considered independently, these exposures may be high enough to cause respiratory health effects. However, exposures for table grape operations were lower than the threshold limit value, except inhalable dust exposure during leaf pulling.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Aug. 2004, Vol.1, No.8, p.505-514. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 04-412 Calvert G.M., Plate D.K., Das R., Rosales R., Shafey O., Thomsen C., Male D., Beckman J., Arvizu E., Lackovic M.
Acute occupational pesticide-related illness in the US, 1998-1999: Surveillance findings from the SENSOR-pesticides program
Survey data for the years 1998 and 1999 from the seven states that conduct acute occupational pesticide-related illness surveillance were collected and analysed. Between 1998 and 1999, 1,009 individuals with acute occupational pesticide-related illness were identified. The mean age of affected workers was 36 years, with a peak in incidence rates among 20-24 year-olds. The overall incidence rate was 1.17 per 100,000 full time equivalents (FTEs). The incidence rate among those employed in agriculture was higher (18.2/100,000 FTEs) compared to those employed in non-agricultural industries (0.53/100,000 FTEs). Most of the illnesses were of low severity (69.7%). Severity was moderate in 29.6% of the cases, and high in four cases (0.4%). Three fatalities were identified. Insecticides were responsible for 49% of all illnesses.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 2004, Vol.45, No.1, p.14-23. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 04-114 Pettit R.F.
Health and Safety Executive
Defining the extent and source of manual handling problems in agricultural and horticultural enterprises
This report presents the outcome of a study into the source and extent of manual handling problems in agricultural and horticultural enterprises. It involved visiting a sample of large and small enterprises in order to identify typical manual handling tasks that occur in the industry. By consulting farmers and growers, it was possible to observe the improvements they have made to reduce the risk of injury from manual handling tasks, to record any concerns that they still have, and to highlight factors that limit further improvement.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2004. vi, 54p. Illus. Price: GBP 15.00. Downloadable version free of charge. [in English]

CIS 04-157 Goldman L., Eskenazi B., Bradman A., Jewell N.P.
Risk behaviors for pesticide exposure among pregnant women living in farmworker households in Salinas, California
Although farm workers and their families are known to be at risk for pesticide exposure, little is known about behaviours that increase their risk. In this study, the frequency of risky behaviours among pregnant farm workers was determined and persons at greatest risk were characterized. Participants were pregnant women residing in the valley of Salinas, California, including 153 farm workers and 248 women not working on farms but residing with farm workers. Habits relating to hand washing, bathing, use of protective clothing, housecleaning, laundering of work clothes, wearing of work clothes and shoes in the home, and eating produce from the fields were examined. Between 25 and 60% of the women demonstrated risky behaviour on each item. Practices of households with pregnant farm workers and non farm workers did not differ. Pregnant farm workers and those living with farm workers need to be educated to reduce potential pesticide exposure.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 2004, Vol.45, No.6, p.491-499. 40 ref.

CIS 04-80 Gomez M.I., Hwang S.A., Lin S., Stark A.D., May J.J., Hallman E.M.
Prevalence and predictors of respiratory symptoms among New York farmers and farm residents
Data from telephone interviews with 1620 New York farmers and farm residents were used to study the prevalence and risk factors of symptoms that could be related to asthma and allergies. The prevalence of wheezing was 18.2%, that of rhinitis and lachrymation was 57.4%. Significant risk factors for wheeze were: cigarette smoking; a systemic reaction to allergy skin testing, immunotherapy or insect sting; reactivity to a pet; having goats; more acreage in corn for silage. Significant risk factors for rhinitis and lachrymation were younger age, having more than a high school education, being a worker on the farm and having done spraying. Wheeze may be indicative of existing or latent asthma, while rhinitis or lachrymation may indicate an increased sensitivity to respirable dusts and chemicals.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 2004, Vol.46, No.1, p.42-54. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 04-98 Hang H.M., Byass P., Svanström L.
Incidence and seasonal variation of injury in rural Vietnam: A community-based survey
The objective of this study was describe seasonal effects on injury incidence at the community level in the Bavi district of northern Viet Nam, a mainly rural area. All non-fatal unintentional injuries which occurred in a sample of 24,776 persons living in 5801 households were recorded during 2000. Four interview surveys per household were also conducted during the year, during which information was collected on accidents having occurred in the preceding quarter. Injury morbidity data were analysed according to sex, age and circumstances of injury. 1917 persons experienced a total of 2079 non-fatal injuries during the period of observation, corresponding to an incidence of 89/1000 person-years. Seasonal variations were found in all types of injury. Overall, the highest incidence rates were observed in July and April, while the lowest monthly rates were found in May and November. Peaks were observed in February and April for traffic injuries, June for work-related injuries, July, August and October for home injuries. Finally, a significantly higher incidence rate was observed in the third quarter (103/1000 person-years).
Safety Science, Oct. 2004, Vol.42, No.8, p.691-701. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 04-113 Waters T.R., Wilkins J.R.
Conference proceedings: Prevention of musculoskeletal disorders for children and adolescents working in agriculture
Proceedings of a conference held in Cincinnati, Ohio, 6-7 May 2002 on research needs regarding prevention of musculoskeletal diseases (MSDs) in children and adolescents working in agriculture. The research areas reviewed at the meeting included: identification of potentially high risk jobs; quantification of the level of risk for jobs performed by children and adolescents in agriculture; development, evaluation, and implementation of surveillance systems for measuring and tracking the magnitude of health effects and risks for children and adolescents working in agriculture; development and evaluation of ergonomic interventions for reducing risk of WMSDs for children and adolescents working in agriculture. It should be noted that the meeting specifically excluded injuries attributed to traumatic events, such as cuts, abrasions, lacerations, and injuries associated with instantaneous events, such as slips, trips, falls, and being struck by objects.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2002, USA, June 2004. x, 42p. Illus. 27 ref. [in English]

CIS 04-112
Health and Safety Executive
Fatal injuries in farming, forestry and horticulture 2003-2004
Contents of these statistics on fatal injuries in the agricultural sector (comprised of agriculture, horticulture, forestry and associated industries) in the United Kingdom: summary of fatal injuries having occurred in the agricultural sector from April 2003 to March 2004; summary of reportable fatal injuries in the agricultural sector for the ten year period from 1993-1994 to 2002-2003; summary of non-fatal injuries in the agricultural sector for the ten year period 1993-1994 to 2002-2003; estimated number of accidents having occurred within the agricultural sector during 2003-2004, and their costs; case studies describing some of the key causes of fatal and major accidents in the agricultural sector.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2004. vi, 66p. Illus. [in English]

CIS 03-1765 Grillet J.P., Adjémian A., Bernadac G., Bernon J., Brunner F., Garnier R.
Arsenic exposure in the wine growing industry in ten French departments
This study investigated exposure to arsenic from a fungicide used in French vineyards. First phase compared urinary arsenic excretion of agricultural workers after having performed the application and of a non-exposed control group. In the second phase, which included 35 subjects exposed to arsenic from ten French departments, the increase in urinary arsenic excretion after application was measured. In the first phase, urinary arsenic excretion was significantly higher in applicators than in the control group. The second phase showed a significant increase of arsenic excretion the day after the application. A closed tractor cabin provided a protective effect but efficacy of individual protective equipment could not be demonstrated.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Feb. 2004, Vol.77, No.2, p.130-135. 16 ref.

CIS 03-1662 Mwasanga M.J.
A day in the life of a cane cutter
Occupational safety and health hazards of sugar cane cutting in Zimbabwe are analysed by the author of this article, having performed the task himself. Hazards include dehydration, cuts from sharp tools, foreign objects entering the eyes, inhalation of dust and musculoskeletal injuries resulting from manual handling, bending postures and repetitive movements. Recommendations are made in the areas of ergonomics, work organization, supply of personal protective equipment and of drinking water, and the provision of transport to and from the fields.
On Guard, Mar. 2004, Vol.9, No.1, p.19-21. Illus.

CIS 03-1764 Tarwireyi F.
Knowledge, beliefs and practices of pesticide users in small-scale farms in Mutoko District, Mashonaland, East Zimbabwe
This cross-sectional survey was carried out to assess knowledge levels, beliefs and practices of pesticides users in small-scale farms in a rural district of Zimbabwe. Interviews of 280 pesticides users revealed that most had poor knowledge of the meaning of the colour-coding of pesticide containers. Furthermore, although the users showed a general understanding of the importance of protection, most did not use protective equipment because of their cost. Other factors cited included the difficulty in understanding the language on the labels and the lack of appropriate measuring equipment necessary for ensuring the proper dilution levels.
On Guard, Mar. 2004, Vol.9, No.1, p.11-18. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 03-1941 Chapman L.J., Newenhouse A.C., Meyer R.H., Taveira A.D., Ben-Tzion K., Ehlers J.J., Palermo T.
Evaluation of an intervention to reduce musculoskeletal hazards among fresh market vegetable growers
This intervention was conducted to convince small, fresh market vegetable operations to adopt mesh bags and standard containers, two production practices that aid in crop handling and that are known to improve labour efficiency and reduce the risks of musculoskeletal injuries. The intervention disseminated information about the practices to a list of vegetable growers identified through various sources. They also received a mailed questionnaire before and after the intervention. After the intervention, levels of self-reported adoption increased for both containers and bags. It is concluded that improved information flow to growers may be able to increase the speed with which agricultural practices with better ergonomics are adopted, especially when the practices are more profitable.
Applied Ergonomics, Jan. 2004, Vol.35, No.1, p.57-66. Illus. 26 ref.


CIS 07-120 Decent work in agriculture
Le travail décent dans l'agriculture [in French]
Trabajo decente en la agricultura [in Spanish]
This background paper was prepared for the International Workers' Colloquium on Decent Work in Agriculture held in Geneva, Switzerland, 15-18 September 2003. It is based on work carried out by the ILO and other organizations, and aims to place agriculture at the centre of the framework adopted by the ILO to promote decent work. This document is structured according to the four pillars of decent work: principles and fundamental rights; agricultural workers; employment and wages; social protection and social dialogue. It includes a section on health protection and the hazards of pesticides and other work-related health risks.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2003. v, 83p. Illus. [in English] [in French] [in Spanish]

CIS 06-138 Mills P.K., Yang R.
Prostate cancer risk in California farm workers
A nested case-control study of prostate cancer was conducted within a large cohort of predominantly Hispanic unionized farm workers in California. 222 newly-diagnosed cases of prostate cancer were identified for the years 1988 through 1999, and 1110 age-matched controls were randomly selected from the remainder of the cancer-free cohort. It was found that the risk of prostate cancer was not associated with any particular crop. Increasing duration of union affiliation was associated with decreasing prostate cancer risk. Although risk was not associated with total pounds of pesticides applied in the years and regions where farm workers were employed, risk increased with specific chemicals, including simazine, lindane, and heptachlor, and suggestive increases were observed with dichlorvos and methyl bromide. Farm workers exposed to higher levels of these compounds had an elevated risk of prostate cancer compared to workers with lower levels of exposure.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2003, Vol.45, No.3, p.249-258. 41 ref.

CIS 06-173 McBride D.I., Firth H.M., Herbison G.P.
Noise exposure and hearing loss in agriculture: A survey of farmers and farm workers in the Southland region of New Zealand
This study involved a questionnaire survey and audiometric testing of 586 farmers and farm workers and noise level measurements on 60 farms. Noise levels ranged from 84.8 to 86.8 dB(A) and hearing losses were consistent with this level of exposure. Age, driving tractors without cabs and working with metal were important risk factors. Reported compliance with hearing protection was higher than that actually observed. While the majority of farmers had a moderate risk of hearing loss, a significant minority were at high risk. Elimination and isolation of noise sources are the control methods of choice.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2003, Vol.45, No.12, p.1281-1288. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 06-112 Thompson B., Coronado G.D., Grossman J.E., Puschel K., Solomon C.C., Islas I., Curl C.L., Shirai J.H., Kissel J.C., Fenske R.A.
Pesticide take-home pathway among children of agricultural workers: Study design, methods, and baseline findings
In this article, self-reported pesticide exposure and practices aimed at reducing the amount of pesticide residues taken home were examined among 571 farmworkers. Urine samples from a sub-sample of farmworkers and children and dust samples from households and vehicles were also used to assess pesticide exposure. Overall, 96% of respondents reported exposure to pesticides at work. Many employers did not provide resources for hand washing. Farmworkers' protective practices to keep pesticide residues out of the home were at a low level. In a subset of respondents, pesticides were detected in the urine of children and adults and in house and vehicle dust. The results support the take-home pathway of pesticide exposure and highlight the need for ways to be found to reduce this exposure among farmworkers' children.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2003, Vol.45, No.1, p.42-53. Illus. 63 ref.

CIS 06-105 Lebailly P., Devaux A., Pottier D., De Meo M., Andre V., Baldi I., Severin F, Bernaud J., Durand B., Henry-Amar M., Gauduchon P.
Urine mutagenicity and lymphocyte DNA damage in fruit growers occupationally exposed to the fungicide captan
The objective of this study was to determine haematological parameters, urine mutagenicity (on three Salmonella typhimurium strains), and DNA damage (using the comet assay) in mononuclear leucocytes of farmers before and after a one-day spraying period of pear and apple trees with the fungicide captan in usual conditions. A total of 19 farmers were exposed to captan during the 1998 and the 2000 spraying seasons. It was found that one-day spraying periods with captan and other pesticides does not significantly induce DNA damages in mononuclear leucocytes. In contrast, inefficient protective clothing could correlate with an increase in urine mutagenicity.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2003, Vol.60, No.12, p.910-917. Illus. 39 ref.

CIS 05-703 Gunningham N.
Agricultural machinery safety: Regulating the workplace
The challenge of ensuring OHS in the agricultural sector is substantially different from that in manufacturing, construction or many other traditional areas of concern. The problems are exacerbated when it comes to the hazards of farm machinery, where the rate of injury is particularly high. This article identifies the major deficiencies of the existing Australian legislation and standards, and makes recommendations for a best practice regulatory regime, with a focus on duty holders at the workplace and those who may be endangered by their activities. In particular, it argues that substantial improvements might be achieved through the use of a combination of tools (including information, education and incentives) that are underpinned in each case by regulation.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, June 2003, Vol.19, No.3, p.235-244. 15 ref.

CIS 05-139 Margetic J., Alcóser M., Forastieri V.
Safety and health sheets on hazardous child labour in the growing of: tomatoes, Dominican Republic; broccoli, Guatemala; melons, Honduras; coffee, Costa Rica; flowers, Guatemala
Fichas de seguridad y salud del trabajo infantil peligroso en los cultivos de tomate, Republica Dominicana; brócoli, Guatemala; melón, Honduras; café, Costa Rica; flores, Guatemala [in Spanish]
Folder containing information sheets on hazardous child labour in the agricultural sector in several Caribbean and Central American countries. Contents: child labour in the growing of tomatoes in the Dominican Republic, broccoli and flowers in Guatemala, melons in Honduras and coffee in Costa Rica, together with an overview of the International programme for the elimination of child labour (IPEC).
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2003. Folder containing six information sheets.

CIS 05-106 Sprince N.L., Zwerling C., Lynch C.F., Whitten P.S., Thu K., Gillette P.P., Burmeister L.F., Alavanja M.C.R.
Risk factors for falls among Iowa farmers: A case-control study nested in the agricultural health survey
This case-control study explored risk factors for work-related falls among Iowa farmers. A questionnaire sent to 6,999 farmers in 1998 identified 79 farmers who had reported a fall-related farm injury that required medical advice or treatment in the previous year. Regression analysis was used to assess the possible risk factors for injury among these farmers compared with 473 farmers with no injury in the previous year. There were significant associations between fall-related farm injury and age between 40 and 64 years (odds ratio, OR=2.21), doctor-diagnosed arthritis or rheumatism (OR=2.05), difficulty hearing normal conversation (OR=1.82), and taking medications regularly (OR=1.80). Aging and health impairments, such as arthritis and hearing difficulties, are risk factors for which accommodations and preventive strategies can be devised to prevent fall-related injuries on the farm.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2003, Vol.44, No.3, p.265-272. 48 ref.

CIS 05-164 Smit L.A.M., van-Wendel-de-Joode B.N., Heederik D., Peiris-John R.J., van der Hoek W.
Neurological symptoms among Sri Lankan farmers occupationally exposed to acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting insecticides
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of pesticide use on Sri Lankan farmers' health. 260 rice farmers were surveyed in both low and high pesticide exposure periods. A control group of 55 fishermen was recruited from a nearby fishing community. Acetylcholinesterase activity was measured and data on symptoms were collected by means of questionnaires. 24%of surveyed farmers had suffered at least once from acute pesticide poisoning. Farmers showed significantly more inhibition of cholinesterase activity than controls. Acute symptoms indicative for exposure to cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides were associated with farming and a higher degree of cholinesterase suppression (more than 13% inhibition). Integrated pest management training resulted in less insecticide use, and less cholinesterase inhibition. Overall reduction in pesticide use seems the best option to protect farmers from the adverse effects of pesticides.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2003, Vol.44, No.3, p.254-264. Illus. 32 ref.

CIS 05-105 McCurdy S.A., Samuels S.J., Carroll D.J., Beaumont J.J., Morrin L.A.
Agricultural injury in California migrant Hispanic farm workers
A longitudinal study of injury among migrant Hispanic farm workers residing in six Northern California Migrant Family Housing Centers (MHCs) during the 1997 harvest season was conducted. Subjects completed an initial interviewer-administered work-and-health questionnaire and participated in three follow-up surveys. There were 1,201 adult farm workers (participation 85.2%) who completed the initial questionnaire. Of these, 837 (69.7%) completed the follow-up surveys. There were 86 injuries (incidence 9.3/100 full-time equivalent employees). Increased risk for injury occurred among women paid piece-rate (relative risk 4.9). Sprains and strains were most common (31%), followed by lacerations (12%). Overall, the injury experience in this cohort was comparable to that reported in other studies of agricultural workers in the United States.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2003, Vol.44, No.3, p.225-235. 41 ref.

CIS 05-104 Marques S.M.T., da Silva G.P.
Occupation and accidents in agricultural settings in western Santa Catarina, Brazil
Trabalho e acidentes no meio rural do oeste catarinense, Santa Catarina, Brazil [in Portuguese]
The objective of this study was to describe the characteristics of agricultural workers of western Santa Catarina State in Brazil, as well as the incidence of occupational accidents affecting this population. Socio-demographic, occupational and accident data were collected by means of a questionnaire given to 60 agricultural workers. 68.3% of the surveyed workers were married, with heads of family aged 41-60 representing 60%; average schooling was 4 to 8 years; 80% worked more than 40 hours per week; 20% had been victims of an occupational accident.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, 2003, Vol.28, No.107/108, p.101-105. 12 ref.

CIS 05-103 Corrêa I.M., Yamashita R.Y., Ramos H.H., Franco A.V.F.
Profiles of agricultural accidents recorded in the public health agencies of São Paulo in 2000
Perfil dos acidentes rurais em agências do INSS de São Paulo no ano 2000 [in Portuguese]
Statistics of occupational accidents in the agricultural sector in the State of São Paulo in 2000 are analysed. Results are expressed according to the following criteria: characteristics of the victims (sex, age, marital status); task being carried out at the time of the accident; type of accident; accident cause; location of injury; type of injury; accident consequences (absenteeism, hospitalisation). 949 accidents were recorded, most being related to harvesting (41.7%). Hand tools were the main cause of accidents (34.3%) and the most frequent injuries were traumatic injuries or contusions (68.9%). Striking against mechanical parts or objects were the most frequent accident types (43,8%) and the parts of the body most frequently injured were the upper extremities (43.2%).
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, 2003, Vol.28, No.107/108, p.39-57. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 05-154 de Oliveira M.L., Machado Neto J.G.
Work safety in the use of pesticides on citrus trees: Application with an air-assisted sprayer and preparation of the spray formulation in a 2.000-L tank
Segurança no trabalho com agrotóxicos em citros: aplicação com o turbopulverizador e preparo de calda em tanque de 2.000 L [in Portuguese]
The objective of this study was to quantify skin and inhalation exposure of workers while spraying pesticides on lemon trees using a pneumatic sprayer and during the preparation of the formulation in a 2000-litre tank. The study also aimed to determine the parts of the body most exposed and to evaluate protective measures. Results indicate that the most effective protective measures for limiting the exposure of tractor drivers and pesticide sprayers is the use of a "Real" type of cab and the wearing of "AZR" clothing: they lower the exposure by 94.9% and 88.9% respectively compared to exposures in the absence of protection. The parts of the body that were the most exposed during pesticide spraying and the preparation of the formulation were the hands.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, 2003, Vol.28, No.107/108, p.9-17. 16 ref.

CIS 05-153 de Oliveira M.L., Machado Neto J.G
Occupational safety during pesticide spraying of citrus fruits using hand gun sprayers
Segurança no trabalho de aplicação de agrotóxicos com o pulverizador de pistolas em citros [in Portuguese]
The objectives of this study were to quantify the skin and inhalation exposure of workers during the spraying of pesticides on lemon trees using a hand gun sprayer, to evaluate protective measures and to determine the parts of the body that are the most exposed. Both types of personal protective suits tested were found to be effective for limiting the inhalation and skin exposure of the sprayer and the tractor driver, with the "AZR" suit giving the best results (efficiency of 93.1% for the sprayer and 77.8% for the tractor driver compared to exposures without protection). For the sprayer, the most exposed parts of the body were the hands and feet, while for the tractor driver, they were the hands, thighs, legs and feet.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, 2003, Vol.28, No.105/106, p.83-90. 18 ref.

CIS 04-464 Lange J.H., Mastrangelo G., Fedeli U., Fadda E., Rylander R., Lee E.
Endotoxin exposure and lung cancer mortality by type of farming: Is there a hidden dose-response relationship?
Previous studies have suggested that persons in occupations exposed to endotoxins have a reduced rate of lung and respiratory system cancer. In particular, an earlier investigation found a significantly reduced risk of all sites malignant neoplasms in white male crop and livestock farmers, and black male and female crop farmers. The present study provides data on lung and respiratory system cancers in the same workers. Data were obtained from occupation and industry-coded death certificates collected from 26 US states for the period 1984-1993. Cause, sex and race specific proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs) were calculated using a NIOSH computer program. In each sex and race group, respiratory and lung cancer PMRs were lower than unity. Pooled lung cancer PMR was 0.80 in crop farmers and 0.70 in livestock farmers. These findings, together with those of an earlier study on Californian farmers, suggest a decreasing lung cancer risk with increasing endotoxin exposure, with a possible inverse dose-response relationship.
AAEM - Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 2003, Vol.10, No.2, p.229-232. 32 ref. [in English]

CIS 04-364 Solecki L.
Preliminary evaluation of occupational hearing loss among private farmers
The article presents a preliminary evaluation of occupational hearing loss among farmers in Poland. The study was based on data from 31 randomly-selected family farms carrying out mixed production (plant-animal), possessing 5-40ha of arable land and equipped with the basic mechanical equipment (tractors, agricultural machinery, machines for production of animal fodder, workshop machinery, saws). Polish Standard PN-ISO 1999:2000 was used to evaluate the expected hearing threshold among farmers, expected hearing loss due to noise, as well as risk of hearing impairment for male workers aged 50 and regularly exposed to noise for 30 years of occupational activity. The results of the study showed that the mean expected hearing loss associated with noise is 5.5dB, together with an age-related loss of 14.5dB. 9.4% of the population was estimated to be at risk of noise-induced hearing impairment.
AAEM - Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 2003, Vol.10, No.2, p.211-215. Illus. 22 ref. [in English]

CIS 04-363 Pinzke S.
Changes in working conditions and health among dairy farmers in Southern Sweden: A 14-year follow-up
The objective of this study was to analyse the changes in working conditions and health among dairy farmers in southern Sweden in 2002 compared to the findings of an earlier survey carried out in 1988. The method used was a postal questionnaire. 83% of the male and 90% of the female dairy farmers reported some musculoskeletal symptoms during the 12 months prior to the 2002 questionnaire. This is an increase relative to the farmers in 1988. The most significant changes were an increase of symptoms affecting the shoulder, neck wrists and hands. Apart from the need for technical devices to facilitate the milking operation, further research is needed concerning the dairy farmers' well-being and quality of life, perceived stress and leisure time activities, as well as the relationship between these factors and musculoskeletal symptoms. Strategies for preventive and intervention measures need to consider physical workplace factors as well as personal and lifestyle characteristics.
AAEM - Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 2003, Vol.10, No.2, p.185-195. 34 ref. [in English]

CIS 04-362 Holmberg S., Thelin A., Stiernström E.L., Svärdsudd K.
The impact of physical work exposure on musculoskeletal symptoms among farmers and rural non-farmers: A population-based study
In order to evaluate the impact of physical work exposure on self-reports of musculoskeletal symptoms among Swedish farmers and controls, a cross-sectional, population-based cohort study was carried out. 1331 male farmers and 1130 matched non-farmers were invited to take part a survey in which 76% participated. The analyses were based on 657 matched pairs. Information on the lifetime incidence of musculoskeletal symptoms, work exposure, physical workload and leisure-time physical activity was collected by means of questionnaires and structured interviews. Physical work capacity and muscle strength were measured. It was found that farmers had a significant excess rate of low back and hip symptoms when compared with the controls, and a significantly lower rate of neck and shoulder problems.
AAEM - Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 2003, Vol.10, No.2, p.179-184. 36 ref. [in English]

CIS 04-361 Hoffmann H.J., Iversen M., Brandslund I., Sigsgaard T., Omland Ø., Oxvig C., Holmskov U., Bjermer L., Jensenius J.C., Dahl R.
Plasma C3d levels of young farmers correlate with respirable dust exposure levels during normal work in swine confinement buildings
Work in swine confinement buildings may lead to an inflammatory response and may be associated with increased levels of acute phase proteins. This study compared the inflammatory response of former farm workers who had previously developed respiratory symptoms of wheeze, cough, tightness of the chest during work in swine confinement buildings and had stopped work because of these symptoms, with that of age-matched former farm workers who were known not to have developed such symptoms. Both groups were subjected to an experimental exposure in a swine confinement building for three hours. Complement activation and acute phase proteins were measured in blood samples and broncho-alveolar lavage. Plasma C3d levels correlated significantly with respirable dust. There was complement activation in response to respirable dust, more so among cases than in the control group. It is concluded that acute occupational exposure to organic dust containing endotoxin leads to a weak systemic inflammatory response.
AAEM - Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 2003, Vol.10, No.1, p.53-60. Illus. 48 ref. [in English]

CIS 04-360 Heikkonen J., Louhevaara V.
Empowerment in farmers' occupational health services
This study attempted to develop farmers' health and farmers' occupational health services (FOHS) by examining the feasibility of empowered farmers' teams on surveys of Finnish dairy farms. FOHS personnel of the health centre in three municipalities selected three farmer teams consisting of three or four couples for the intervention group. There were 31 farms in the intervention group and 33 similar farms in the comparison group. Site surveys in the intervention group involved FOHS personnel together with the farmer teams, while in the comparison group they involved the FOHS personnel alone. Before and after the surveys, each participating farmer couple responded to questionnaires. The initial survey was carried out in 1998-1999, and the follow-up took place in 2000-2001. During the follow-up, the FOHS personnel identified the changes made after the initial surveys on the farms. Altogether 217 changes were made, half of them to improve ergonomics. There were more changes in the work environment in the intervention group.
AAEM - Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 2003, Vol.10, No.1, p.45-52. Illus. 28 ref. [in English]

CIS 04-413 Machera K., Goumenou M., Kapetanakis E., Kalamarakis A., Glass C.R.
Determination of potential dermal and inhalation operator exposure to malathion in greenhouses with the whole body dosimetry method
This study evaluated the potential dermal and inhalation exposure of operators during the spraying of malathion on greenhouse tomatoes at low and high spraying pressures. Inhalation exposure was monitored using personal air pumps and sampling tubes. For the monitoring of hand exposure, cotton gloves were used in two trials and rubber gloves in a further three. The volumes of spray solution contaminating the body of the operator were 25.37-35.83mL/h in the case of low pressure knapsack applications and 160.76-283.45mL/h in the case of hand lance applications with tractor-generated high pressure. The potential inhalation exposures were estimated at 0.07 and 0.09mL/h in the case of low pressure knapsack applications, based on a ventilation rate of 25L/min. Both potential dermal operator exposure (excluding hands) and potential inhalation exposure were increased approximately sevenfold when the tractor-assisted application pressure was increased from 3 to 18 bar.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Jan. 2003, Vol.47, No.1, p.61-70. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 04-76 Kerr M.J., McCullagh M., Savik K., Dvorak L.A.
Perceived and measured hearing ability in construction laborers and farmers
Construction and farming are characterized by small independently-operated enterprises; few are included in hearing loss prevention programs. This study describes perceived and measured hearing ability among construction labourers and farmers. Audiograms of 147 construction labourers and 150 farmers were statistically compared to their subjective perceived hearing ability. At the 4,000Hz frequency indicative of NIHL, a high percentage of both groups exhibited hearing loss greater than 25dB (53% of labourers and 67% of farmers). However, the relationship between perceived and actual hearing loss was poor, suggesting that systematic audiometric screening should be included in all hearing loss prevention programs.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2003, Vol.44, No.4, p. 431-437. 41 ref.

CIS 03-1767 Trapé-Cardoso M., Bracker A., Grey M., Kaliszewski M., Oncken C., Ohannessian C., Barrera L.V., Gould B.
Shade tobacco and green tobacco sickness in Connecticut
This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of green tobacco sickness (GTS) in farm workers working in shade tobacco fields in Connecticut who presented for clinical care at medical clinics during 2001. Although GTS was not formally clinically diagnosed in any of the patients, it was found that 15% of the diagnoses could be attributed to possible GTS. Using a stricter GTS case definition, the frequency rate decreased to 4%. Nonsmokers were significantly more likely than smokers to report GTS-like symptoms. Isolated symptoms of headache and dizziness were significantly more frequent among nonsmokers than smokers. In conclusion, cases of possible GTS were found in Connecticut shade tobacco workers, with nonsmokers being at greater risk.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2003, Vol.45, No.6, p.656-661. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 03-1688 Alcocer M., Forastieri V.
Working and ambient conditions of child labour in agriculture: Broccoli, Guatemala
Condiciones y medio ambiente del trabajo infantil en la agricultura: Brócoli, Guatemala [in Spanish]
In Guatemala, 90% of the growers employ children for the various tasks required in the growing of broccoli. Children start working at the age of five and are gradually trained to allow them to be assigned to all phases of production. Considering that the work may have an effect on the children's physical and mental health, a study was conducted to determine their working conditions and to highlight the hazards they face. Firstly, the risk profiles of the various steps involved in broccoli production were examined, followed by detailed evaluations of the various hazards to which children are exposed. Finally, recommendations are made for ensuring compliance with the law prohibiting the work of children under the age of 14.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2003. 135p. Illus. 43 ref.

CIS 03-1687 Alcocer M., Forastieri V.
Working and ambient conditions of child labour in agriculture: Coffee, Costa Rica
Condiciones y medio ambiente del trabajo infantil en la agricultura: Café, Costa Rica [in Spanish]
Coffee growing is an important activity for the Costa Rican economy. Both big and small plantations employ workers and their families, including children and adolescents. Considering that the work may have an effect on the children's physical and mental health, a study was conducted to determine their working conditions and to highlight the hazards they face. Firstly, the risk profiles of the various steps involved in coffee growing were examined, followed by detailed evaluations of the various hazards to which children are exposed. Finally, recommendations are made for the progressive elimination of child labour from coffee growing, where all tasks involve risks to their safety and health.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2003. 111p. Illus.

CIS 03-1911 Le Bâcle C.
Current situation with respect to zoonoses: 30th National Symposium of Agricultural Medicine
L'actualité des zoonoses - XXXe symposium national de médecine agricole [in French]
The objective of this symposium on zoonoses held on 25 April 2003 in Tours, France, was to discuss the current situation of known zoonoses and to shed light on emerging pathologies. The wide range of participants included medical practitioners from the farmers' cooperative insurance company, occupational physicians, infectologists, veterinarians and biologists. Topics presented and reviewed in this article include: main zoonoses transmitted by farm animals; main zoonoses transmitted by domestic animals; zoonoses from wild animals; current advances in human medicine; Q fever in France and recent epidemics; psittacosis and poultry farming; toxocariasis among humans.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 2003, No.96, p.459-473.

CIS 03-1542 Strzelecka B., Zawadzka A.
An adventure in the country: See what threatens you!
Przygoda na wsi: Zobacz co ci zagraża! [in Polish]
This booklet was published by the Polish National Labour Inspectorate as a comic book intended for children. It contains information about hazards inherent in work and play on farms, in particular from animals, machinery, tools, electricity and agricultural chemicals.
Państwowa Inspekcja Pracy Główny Inspektorat Pracy, ul. Krucza 38/42 Warszawa, Poland, [c2003]. 34 p. Illus.

CIS 03-1762 Farahat T.M., Abdelrasoul G.M., Amr M.M., Shebl M.M., Farahat F.M., Anger W.K.
Neurobehavioural effects among workers occupationally exposed to organophosphorous pesticides
In this study, 52 occupationally-exposed male workers involved in applying organophosphorus pesticides to cotton crops were compared with 50 unexposed male controls matched by age, socioeconomic class and years of education. Participants completed a questionnaire on personal, occupational and medical factors. They were subjected to general and neurological clinical examinations, neurobehavioural tests and serological analyses for acetylcholinesterase. After correcting for age and education, the exposed participants exhibited significantly lower performance than controls on six neurobehavioural tests. Longer years of work with pesticides were associated with lower performance on most neurobehavioural tests after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Although serum acetylcholinesterase was significantly lower in the exposed participants, it was not significantly correlated with either neurobehavioural performance or neurological abnormalities.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2003, Vol.60, No.4, p.279-286. Illus. 43 ref.

CIS 03-1761 Koksal N., Hasanoglu H.C., Gokirmak M., Yildirim Z., Gultek A.
Apricot sulfurization: An occupation that induces an asthma-like syndrome in agricultural environments
The aim of this study was to reveal the effects of sulfur dioxide (SO2) exposure on the airways of the workers involved in apricot sulfurization. SO2 levels in air were measured on 15 apricot farms, while the symptom scores of 69 workers were recorded before, during and after SO2 exposure. Physical examination and pulmonary function tests of the workers were also done prior to and after exposure periods. The measured SO2 concentrations ranged between 106.6 and 721.0ppm. Dyspnoea (80%), cough (78%) and eye and nose irritation (83-70%) were the most commonly observed symptoms. The workers had significant decreases in pulmonary functions after SO2 exposure. Decrements in FEV1, FEV1/FVC%, and FEF25-75% showed that the acute effect of SO2 on pulmonary functions of the workers was mostly of the obstructive kind. It is concluded that acute exposure to SO2 induces "asthma-like syndrome" in apricot sulfurization workers.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 2003, Vol.43, No.4, p.447-453. 39 ref.

CIS 03-1657 Spiewak R.
Occupational dermatoses among Polish private farmers, 1991-1999
The aim of this study was to create reliable statistics on occupational dermatoses among self-employed Polish farmers. For all cases of work-related skin diseases diagnosed from 1991 to 1999, compensation records of the Agricultural Social Insurance Fund were analysed for diagnoses, causative factors and health impairment of the skin. Since the introduction of a compensation system for occupational diseases and accidents in Poland in 1991, occupational dermatoses diagnosed among self-employed farmers have increased rapidly. The first case was registered in 1992. Until the end of 1999, there were 101 cases (63 women and 38 men). The incidence rose from 0.006/10,000/year in 1992 to 0.189/10,000/year in 1999. Allergic contact dermatitis was the most common diagnosis (86%), followed by infectious skin diseases (10%), irritant contact dermatitis (3%) and urticaria (2%). The most frequently-identified causative factors were plant dusts (38%), animal allergens (36%), metals (29%), pesticides (18%) and rubber chemicals (15%). The median impairment due to skin disease was 20% (range 2-36%).
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 2003, Vol.43, No.6, p.647-655. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 03-1241
Health and Safety Executive
Fatal injuries in farming, forestry and horticulture 2002-2003
This is a report on the 38 fatal injuries that occurred in the agricultural sector (comprising farming, forestry, horticulture and associated industries) in Great Britain from April 2002 to March 2003. Contents: general statistics; causes and types of fatal injuries; analysis by employment status, month of the year and age of the victim. It also summarizes the reportable fatal injuries in the agricultural sector for the ten year period 1992/1993 to 2001/2002, and the non-fatal injuries, indicating points of interest and trends in fatal accidents involving employees, the self employed and members of the public during this period. Case studies are included showing what went wrong and how the accident could have been avoided. Previous report: see CIS 02-249.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2003. vi, 58p. Illus. [in English]

CIS 03-1404
Health and Safety Executive
Falls from height - Prevention and risk control effectiveness
This report describes a study across various industries into the underlying factors that influence the occurrence and the prevention of falls from heights. Fall from height accidents reported via the Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations (RIDDOR) 1995 (see CIS 95-1930) were analysed for the period 1996/2001. It was found that the construction sector had the highest number of falls, but similar fatality rates were found in construction and agriculture. There were few fatalities due to low falls, but low falls made up around 60% of the overall number of falls, with service activities having the highest number of accidents but the lowest accident rate. The highest rate of low falls occurred in the construction sector.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2003. xx, 269 + 136p. Illus. 47 ref. Price: GBP 50.00. [in English]

CIS 03-1092 Ton T.K., Kawakami T.
Work improvement in neighbourhood development (WIND): training programme on safety, health and working conditions in agriculture
The work improvement in neighbourhood development (WIND) training programme provides practical responses to the specific problems of agricultural safety and health. It applies a participatory and action-oriented training approach designed for rapid and sustainable improvements in the safety, health and working conditions of farmers. This programme has been implemented in Viet Nam with the assistance of the ILO and other organizations. This training manual presents a check-list for defining actions and priorities in various fields: materials storage and handling, workstation design and work tools, machine safety, work environment and control of hazardous agents, welfare facilities and work organization. 42 checkpoints related to these fields are described, mentioning the benefits for the farmer and possible improvements. Photographs showing examples of good organization are also included, together with the corresponding explanations.
Centre for Occupational Health and Environment, Department of Health, Cantho Province, Viet Nam, 2003. vi, 130p. Illus.

CIS 03-1318
Health and Safety Executive
Pesticide incidents - Report 1 April 2002 - 31 March 2003
This report provides information on incidents involving pesticides investigated by the Field Operations Directorate of the UK Health and Safety Executive between 1 April 2002 and 31 March 2003. 215 incidents were reported; 60 complaints alleged ill health, while 155 involved other issues to do with pesticide use. Compared to 2001/2002, there is an increase of 48 incidents; there was also an increase of 9% compared to the average of the previous ten years . Trends in the nature of the incidents and types of pesticides used are presented, and five case studies of specific incidents are summarized.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Oct. 2003. 27p. Illus. 9 ref. [in English]

CIS 03-1215 Hjort C., Højmose P., Sherson D.
A model for safety and health promotion among Danish farmers
This article describes an ongoing participatory project aimed at preventing accidents in the agricultural sector in a region of Denmark. The main principles were local involvement in designing the project, multifacetted activities for defined target-groups and the recognition of specific occupational skills. This multilevel approach involved groups and organizations including farmers, farmers' spouses, agricultural advisors, agricultural school teachers, employees and part-time farm workers. Activities included discussion meetings, information meetings in larger and smaller groups, and the designing of educational safety material. The project is a managed from "bottom-up" with a small budget and little centrally-organized activities. Evaluations are undertaken throughout the project period. If this concept can be implemented in Denmark, it may well be useful in other developed and developing countries.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2003, Vol.9, No.1, p.93-100. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 03-1214 Tedders S.H., Jobin T.L., Vogel R.L., Dever G.E.A.
Estimated risk of death among employees in agriculture and agriculture-related industries in Georgia, 1985-1994
The purpose of this study was to compare the risk of death among white and black farmers to non-farmers in Georgia. Mortality data for farming and agricultural operations stratified by age and aggregated by race were retrieved from the Georgia Office of Vital Statistics for the years 1985-1994. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for all causes of death. Among white farmers, the risk of death was significantly high for tuberculosis (OR 1.64), fires (OR 1.60) and accidental drowning (OR 1.52). The leading causes of death among black farmers was accidental drowning (OR 1.53), cerebrovascular disease (OR 1.27) and ischaemic heart disease (OR 1.21). Causes of death reported to be significantly low were also investigated. The trends observed in this study appear to be similar to those observed at the national level.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2003, Vol.9, No.1, p.27-38. 24 ref.

CIS 03-684 Jones L.M.
Health and Safety Executive
Farm child UK - Part I: A report on the nature and incidence of accidents and zoonoses to children under sixteen years on farms and in the countryside - Part II: A literature review of the nature and incidence of accidents and zoonoses affecting children as farm residents and also users of the countryside
This report presents the findings from a prospective quantitative and qualitative study conducted by collecting data on accidents and zoonoses to children under the age of 16 on farms and in the countryside over a 16-month period through primary care networks. General practitioners were selected from defined regions to collect data on farm accidents and zoonoses seen in children in primary care. The data were analysed to identify the nature and numbers of accidents and illness occurring in children. A typology of high risk situations for childhood accidents and zoonoses connected with the countryside and agriculture is presented and commented in light of the findings from available literature.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2003. xii, 169p. Illus. 211 ref. Price: GBP 30.00. [in English]

CIS 03-770 Fleming L.E., Gómez-Marín O., Zheng D., Ma F., Lee D.
National health interview survey mortality among US farmers and pesticide applicators
In this study of the mortality of pesticide-exposed workers, Cox regression analyses were performed on mortality-linked 1986-1994 National Health Interview Survey data. 9471 farmers and pesticide applicators with 571 deaths were compared to 438,228 other US workers with 11,992 deaths. It was found that age-adjusted risk of accidental death, as well as cancers of the nervous and lymphatic/haematopoietic systems, were significantly elevated in male and female pesticide-exposed workers. However, these pesticide-exposed workers were not at an increased risk of all cancers, possibly due to exposure to estrogen analogue compounds.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 2003, Vol.43, No.2, p.227-233. 50 ref.

CIS 03-665 Virtanen S.V., Notkola V., Luukkonen R., Eskola E., Kurppa K.
Work injuries among Finnish farmers: A national register linkage study 1996- 1997
Farming is one of the most injury-prone occupations in Finland as it is in other countries. The objectives of this study were to describe work injuries of Finnish farmers and to compare occupational injury rates between various subgroups. A cohort of 69,629 full-time farmers and their 11,657 compensated injuries were identified from an insurance company database. Using cohort, population census and farm register data, relative incidence rates were calculated using Poisson regression. Men had higher injury rates than women, except with regard to injuries caused by animals. Dairy and hog farming were the riskiest activities. In dairy farms, injury rates increased with the number of cows. Only half of insured farmers in Finland are full-time farmers, which may have led to an underestimation of risk in Finnish injury statistics.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 2003, Vol.43, No.3, p.314-325. Illus. 28 ref.

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